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We looked at life processes involved in the maintenance
functions in living organisms. There !e had started !ith a
notion !e all have that if !e see something moving it is
alive. "ome of these movements are in fact the result of
gro!th as in plants. A seed germinates and gro!s and !e
can see that the seedling moves over the course of a fe!
da#s it pushes soil aside and comes out. $ut if its gro!th
!ere to %e stopped these movements !ould not happen.
"ome movements as in man# animals and some plants
are not connected !ith gro!th. A cat running children
pla#ing on s!ings %uffaloes che!ing cud & these are not
movements caused %# gro!th.
We think of movement as a response to a change in the
environment of the organism. The cat ma# %e running
%ecause it has seen a mouse. Not onl# that !e also think
of movement as an attempt %# living organisms to use
changes in their environment to their advantage. 'lants
gro! out into the sunshine. Children tr# to get pleasure
and fun out of s!inging. $uffaloes che! cud to help %reak
up tough food so as to %e a%le to digest it %etter. When
%right light is focussed on our e#es or !hen !e touch a hot
o%(ect !e detect the change and respond to it !ith
movement in order to protect ourselves.
If !e think a %it more a%out this it %ecomes apparent that
all this movement in response to the environment is
carefull# controlled. )ach kind of a change in the
environment evokes an appropriate movement in response.
When !e !ant to talk to our friends in class !e !hisper
rather than shouting loudl#. Clearl# the movement to %e
made depends on the event that is triggering it. Therefore
such controlled movement must %e connected to the
recognition of various events in the environment follo!ed
%# onl# the correct movement in response. In other !ords
living organisms must use s#stems providing control and
coordination. In keeping !ith the general principles of
%od# organisation in multicellular organisms specialised
tissues are used to provide these control and coordination
activities. Animals*Nervous "#stem
In animals such control and coordination are provided %#
nervous and muscular tissues. Touching a hot o%(ect is an
urgent and dangerous situation for us. We need to detect it
and respond to it. +o! do !e detect that !e are touching a
hot o%(ect, All information from our environment is
detected %# the specialised tips of some nerve cells. These
receptors are usuall# located in our sense organs such as
the inner ear the nose the tongue and so on. "o gustator#
receptors !ill detect taste !hile olfactor# receptors !ill
detect smell.
Figure 7.1 (a) Structure of neuron, (b) Neuromuscular
This information ac-uired at the end of the dendritic tip of
a nerve cell ./ig. 0.1 2a34 sets off a chemical reaction that
creates an electrical impulse. This impulse travels from the
dendrite to the cell %od# and then along the a5on to its
end. At the end of the a5on the electrical impulse sets off
the release of some chemicals. These chemicals cross the
gap or s#napse and start a similar electrical impulse in a
dendrite of the ne5t neuron. This is a general scheme of
ho! nervous impulses travel in the %od#. A similar
s#napse finall# allo!s deliver# of such impulses from
neurons to other cells such as muscles cells or gland ./ig.
0.1 2%34.
It is thus no surprise that nervous tissue is made up of an
organised net!ork of nerve cells or neurons and is
specialised for conducting information via electrical
impulses from one part of the %od# to another.
Look at /ig. 0.1 2a3 and identif# the parts of a neuron 2i3
!here information is ac-uired 2ii3 through !hich
information travels as an electrical impulse and 2iii3
!here this impulse must %e converted into a chemical
signal for on!ard transmission.
What happens in Refle5 Actions,
6Refle57 is a !ord !e use ver# commonl# !hen !e talk
a%out some sudden action in response to something in the
environment. We sa# 6I (umped out of the !a# of the %us
refle5l#7 or 6I pulled m# hand %ack from the flame
refle5l#7 or 6I !as so hungr# m# mouth started !atering
refle5l#7. What e5actl# do !e mean, A common idea in all
such e5amples is that !e do something !ithout thinking
a%out it or !ithout feeling in control of our reactions. 8et
these are situations !here !e are responding !ith some
action to changes in our environment.
Let us consider this further. Take one of our e5amples.
Touching a flame is an urgent and dangerous situation for
us or in fact for an# animal9 +o! !ould !e respond to
this, One seemingl# simple !a# is to think consciousl#
a%out the pain and the possi%ilit# of getting %urnt and
therefore move our hand. An important -uestion then is
ho! long !ill it take us to think all this, The ans!er
depends on ho! !e think. If nerve impulses are sent
around the !a# !e have talked a%out earlier then thinking
is also likel# to involve the creation of such impulses.
Thinking is a comple5 activit# so it is %ound to involve a
complicated interaction of man# nerve impulses from
man# neurons.
If this is the case it is no surprise that the thinking tissue
in our %od# consists of dense net!orks of intricatel#
arranged neurons. It sits in the for!ard end of the skull
and receives signals from all over the %od# !hich it thinks
a%out %efore responding to them. O%viousl# in order to
receive these signals this thinking part of the %rain in the
skull must %e connected to nerves coming from various
parts of the %od#. "imilarl# if this part of the %rain is to
instruct muscles to move nerves must carr# this signal
%ack to different parts of the %od#. If all of this is to %e
done !hen !e touch a hot o%(ect it ma# take enough time
for us to get %urnt9
+o! does the design of the %od# solve this pro%lem,
Rather than having to think a%out the sensation of heat if
the nerves that detect heat !ere to %e connected to the
nerves that move muscles in a simpler !a# the process of
detecting the signal or the input and responding to it %# an
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output action might %e completed -uickl#. "uch a
connection is commonl# called a refle5 arc 2/ig. 0.:3.
Where should such refle5 arc connections %e made
%et!een the input nerve and the output nerve, The %est
place of course !ould %e at the point !here the# first
meet each other. Nerves from all over the %od# meet in a
%undle in the spinal cord on their !a# to the %rain. Refle5
arcs are formed in this spinal cord itself although the
information input also goes on to reach the %rain.
Figure 7.2 Reflex arc
Of course refle5 arcs have evolved in animals %ecause the
thinking process of the %rain is not fast enough. In fact
man# animals have ver# little or none of the comple5
neuron net!ork needed for thinking. "o it is -uite likel#
that refle5 arcs have evolved as efficient !a#s of
functioning in the a%sence of true thought processes.
+o!ever even after comple5 neuron net!orks have come
into e5istence refle5 arcs continue to %e more efficient for
-uick responses.
+uman $rain
Is refle5 action the onl# function of the spinal cord,
O%viousl# not since !e kno! that !e are thinking %eings.
"pinal cord is made up of nerves !hich suppl#
information to think a%out. Thinking involves more
comple5 mechanisms and neural connections. These are
concentrated in the %rain !hich is the main coordinating
centre of the %od#. The %rain and spinal cord constitute the
central nervous s#stem. The# receive information from all
parts of the %od# and integrate it.
We also think a%out our actions. Writing talking moving
a chair clapping at the end of a programme are e5amples
of voluntar# actions !hich are %ased on deciding !hat to
do ne5t. "o the %rain also has to send messages to
muscles. This is the second !a# in !hich the nervous
s#stem communicates !ith the muscles. The
communication %et!een the central nervous s#stem and
the other parts of the %od# is facilitated %# the peripheral
nervous s#stem consisting of cranial nerves arising from
the %rain and spinal nerves arising from the spinal cord.
The %rain thus allo!s us to think and take actions %ased on
that thinking. As #ou !ill e5pect this is accomplished
through a comple5 design !ith different parts of the %rain
responsi%le for integrating different inputs and outputs.
The %rain has three such ma(or parts or regions namel#
the fore*%rain mid*%rain and hind*%rain.
The fore*%rain is the main thinking part of the %rain. It has
regions !hich receive sensor# impulses from various
receptors. "eparate areas of the fore*%rain are specialised
for hearing smell sight and so on. There are separate
areas of association !here this sensor# information is
interpreted %# putting it together !ith information from
other receptors as !ell as !ith information that is alread#
stored in the %rain. $ased on all this a decision is made
a%out ho! to respond and the information is passed on to
the motor areas !hich control the movement of voluntar#
muscles for e5ample our leg muscles. +o!ever certain
sensations are distinct from seeing or hearing for
e5ample ho! do !e kno! that !e have eaten enough,
The sensation of feeling full is %ecause of a centre
associated !ith hunger !hich is in a separate part of the
Figure 7.2 Human brain
Let us look at the other use of the !ord 6refle57 that !e
have talked a%out in the introduction. Our mouth !aters
!hen !e see food !e like !ithout our meaning to. Our
hearts %eat !ithout our thinking a%out it. In fact !e
cannot control these actions easil# %# thinking a%out them
even if !e !anted to. Do !e have to think a%out or
remem%er to %reathe or digest food, "o in %et!een the
simple refle5 actions like change in the si;e of the pupil
and the thought out actions such as moving a chair there
is another set of muscle movements over !hich !e do not
have an# thinking control. <an# of these involuntar#
actions are controlled %# the mid*%rain and hind*%rain. All
these involuntar# actions including %lood pressure
salivation and vomiting are controlled %# the medulla in
the hind*%rain.
Think a%out activities like !alking in a straight line riding
a %ic#cle picking up a pencil. These are possi%le due to a
part of the hind*%rain called the cere%ellum. It is
responsi%le for precision of voluntar# actions and
maintaining the posture and %alance of the %od#. Imagine
!hat !ould happen if each of these events failed to take
place if !e !ere not thinking a%out it.
+o! are these Tissues protected,
A delicate organ like the %rain !hich is so important for a
variet# of activities needs to %e carefull# protected. /or
this the %od# is designed so that the %rain sits inside a
%on# %o5. Inside the %o5 the %rain is contained in a fluid*
filled %alloon !hich provides further shock a%sorption. If
#ou run #our hand do!n the middle of #our %ack #ou !ill
feel a hard %ump# structure. This is the verte%ral column
or %ack%one !hich protects the spinal cord.
+o! does the Nervous Tissue cause Action,
"o far !e have %een talking a%out nervous tissue and
ho! it collects information sends it around the %od#
processes information makes decisions %ased on
information and conve#s decisions to muscles for action.
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In other !ords !hen the action or movement is to %e
performed muscle tissue !ill do the final (o%. +o! do
animal muscles move, When a nerve impulse reaches the
muscle the muscle fi%re must move. +o! does a muscle
cell move, The simplest notion of movement at the
cellular level is that muscle cells !ill move %# changing
their shape so that the# shorten. "o the ne5t -uestion is
ho! do muscle cells change their shape, The ans!er must
lie in the chemistr# of cellular components. <uscle cells
have special proteins that change %oth their shape and
their arrangement in the cell in response to nervous
electrical impulses. When this happens ne! arrangements
of these proteins give the muscle cells a shorter form.
Coordination in 'lants
Animals have a nervous s#stem for controlling and
coordinating the activities of the %od#. $ut plants have
neither a nervous s#stem nor muscles. "o ho! do the#
respond to stimuli, When !e touch the leaves of a chhui*
mui 2the 6sensitive7 or 6touch*me*not7 plant of the <imosa
famil#3 the# %egin to fold up and droop. When a seed
germinates the root goes do!n the stem comes up into
the air. What happens, /irstl# the leaves of the sensitive
plant move ver# -uickl# in response to touch.
There is no gro!th involved in this movement. On the
other hand the directional movement of a seedling is
caused %# gro!th. If it is prevented from gro!ing it !ill
not sho! an# movement. "o plants sho! t!o different
t#pes of movement & one dependent on gro!th and the
other independent of gro!th.
<ovement Due to =ro!th
"ome plants like the pea plant clim% up other plants or
fences %# means of tendrils. These tendrils are sensitive to
touch. When the# come in contact !ith an# support the
part of the tendril in contact !ith the o%(ect does not gro!
as rapidl# as the part of the tendril a!a# from the o%(ect.
This causes the tendril to circle around the o%(ect and thus
cling to it. <ore commonl# plants respond to stimuli
slo!l# %# gro!ing in a particular direction. $ecause this
gro!th is directional it appears as if the plant is moving.
Let us understand this t#pe of movement !ith the help of
an e5ample.
Figure 7.5 Resonse of t!e lant to t!e "irection of lig!t
Figure 7.# $lant s!o%ing geotroism
)nvironmental triggers such as light or gravit# !ill
change the directions that plant parts gro! in. These
directional or tropic movements can %e either to!ards the
stimulus or a!a# from it. "o in t!o different kinds of
phototropic movement shoots respond %# %ending
to!ards light !hile roots respond %# %ending a!a# from
'lants sho! tropism in response to other stimuli as !ell.
The roots of a plant al!a#s gro! do!n!ards !hile the
shoots usuall# gro! up!ards and a!a# from the earth.
This up!ard and do!n!ard gro!th of shoots and roots
respectivel# in response to the pull of earth or gravit# is
o%viousl# geotropism 2/ig. 0.>3. If 6h#dro7 means !ater
and 6chemo7 refers to chemicals !hat !ould
6h#drotropism7 and 6chemotropism7 mean, Can !e think
of e5amples of these kinds of directional gro!th
movements, One e5ample of chemotropism is the gro!th
of pollen tu%es to!ards ovules a%out !hich !e !ill learn
more !hen !e e5amine the reproductive processes of
living organisms.
Let us no! once again think a%out ho! information is
communicated in the %odies of multicellular organisms.
The movement of the sensitive plant in response to touch
is ver# -uick. The movement of sunflo!ers in response to
da# or night on the other hand is -uite slo!. =ro!th*
related movement of plants !ill %e even slo!er.
)ven in animal %odies there are carefull# controlled
directions to gro!th. Our arms and fingers gro! in certain
directions not hapha;ardl#. "o controlled movements can
%e either slo! or fast. If fast responses to stimuli are to %e
made information transfer must happen ver# -uickl#. /or
this the medium of transmission must %e a%le to move
)lectrical impulses are an e5cellent means for this. $ut
there are limitations to the use of electrical impulses.
/irstl# the# !ill reach onl# those cells that are connected
%# nervous tissue not each and ever# cell in the animal
%od#. "econdl# once an electrical impulse is generated in
a cell and transmitted the cell !ill take some time to reset
its mechanisms %efore it can generate and transmit a ne!
impulse. In other !ords cells cannot continuall# create
and transmit electrical impulses. It is thus no !onder that
most multicellular organisms use another means of
communication %et!een cells namel# chemical
If instead of generating an electrical impulse stimulated
cells release a chemical compound this compound !ould
diffuse all around the original cell. If other cells around
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have the means to detect this compound using special
molecules on their surfaces then the# !ould %e a%le to
recognise information and even transmit it. This !ill %e
slo!er of course %ut it can potentiall# reach all cells of
the %od# regardless of nervous connections and it can %e
done steadil# and persistentl#. These compounds or
hormones used %# multicellular organisms for control and
coordination sho! a great deal of diversit# as !e !ould
e5pect. Different plant hormones help to coordinate
gro!th development and responses to the environment.
The# are s#nthesised at places a!a# from !here the# act
and simpl# diffuse to the area of action.
Let us take an e5ample that !e have !orked !ith earlier.
When gro!ing plants detect light a hormone called au5in
s#nthesised at the shoot tip helps the cells to gro! longer.
When light is coming from one side of the plant au5in
diffuses to!ards the shad# side of the shoot. This
concentration of au5in stimulates the cells to gro! longer
on the side of the shoot !hich is a!a# from light. Thus
the plant appears to %end to!ards light.
Another e5ample of plant hormones are gi%%erellins
!hich like au5ins help in the gro!th of the stem.
C#tokinins promote cell division and it is natural then that
the# are present in greater concentration in areas of rapid
cell division such as in fruits and seeds. These are
e5amples of plant hormones that help in promoting
gro!th. $ut plants also need signals to stop gro!ing.
A%scisic acid is one e5ample of a hormone !hich inhi%its
gro!th. Its effects include !ilting of leaves.
+ormones in Animals
+o! are such chemical or hormonal means of
information transmission used in animals, What do some
animals for instance s-uirrels e5perience !hen the# are
in a scar# situation, Their %odies have to prepare for either
fighting or running a!a#. $oth are ver# complicated
activities that !ill use a great deal of energ# in controlled
!a#s. <an# different tissue t#pes !ill %e used and their
activities integrated together in these actions. +o!ever
the t!o alternate activities fighting or running are also
-uite different9 "o here is a situation in !hich some
common preparations can %e usefull# made in the %od#.
These preparations should ideall# make it easier to do
either activit# in the near future. +o! !ould this %e
If the %od# design in the s-uirrel relied onl# on electrical
impulses via nerve cells the range of tissues instructed to
prepare for the coming activit# !ould %e limited. On the
other hand if a chemical signal !ere to %e sent as !ell it
!ould reach all cells of the %od# and provide the
!ideranging changes needed. This is done in man#
animals including human %eings using a hormone called
adrenaline that is secreted from the adrenal glands. Look
at /ig. 0.0 to locate these glands.
Adrenaline is secreted directl# into the %lood and carried
to different parts of the %od#. The target organs or the
specific tissues on !hich it acts include the heart. As a
result the heart %eats faster resulting in suppl# of more
o5#gen to our muscles. The %lood to the digestive s#stem
and skin is reduced due to contraction of muscles around
small arteries in these organs. This diverts the %lood to our
skeletal muscles. The %reathing rate also increases %ecause
of the contractions of the diaphragm and the ri% muscles.
All these responses together ena%le the animal %od# to %e
read# to deal !ith the situation. "uch animal hormones are
part of the endocrine s#stem !hich constitutes a second
!a# of control and coordination in our %od#.
Remem%er that plants have hormones that control their
directional gro!th. What functions do animal hormones
perform, On the face of it !e cannot imagine their role in
directional gro!th. We have never seen an animal gro!ing
more in one direction or the other depending on light or
gravit#9 $ut if !e think a%out it a %it more it !ill %ecome
evident that even in animal %odies gro!th happens in
carefull# controlled places. 'lants !ill gro! leaves in
man# places on the plant %od# for e5ample. $ut !e do not
gro! fingers on our faces. The design of the %od# is
carefull# maintained even during the gro!th of children.
Figure 7.7 &n"ocrine glan"s in !uman beings (a) male,
(b) female
Let us e5amine some e5amples to understand ho!
hormones help in coordinated gro!th. We have all seen
salt packets !hich sa# 6iodised salt7 or 6enriched !ith
iodine7. Wh# is it important for us to have iodised salt in
our diet, Iodine is necessar# for the th#roid gland to make
th#ro5in hormone. Th#ro5in regulates car%oh#drate
protein and fat meta%olism in the %od# so as to provide the
%est %alance for gro!th. Iodine is essential for the
s#nthesis of th#ro5in. In case iodine is deficient in our
diet there is a possi%ilit# that !e might suffer from goitre.
One of the s#mptoms in this disease is a s!ollen neck.
"ometimes !e come across people !ho are either ver#
short 2d!arfs3 or e5tremel# tall 2giants3. +ave #ou ever
!ondered ho! this happens, =ro!th hormone is one of
the hormones secreted %# the pituitar#. As its name
indicates gro!th hormone regulates gro!th and
development of the %od#. If there is a deficienc# of this
hormone in childhood it leads to d!arfism.
We must have noticed man# dramatic changes in #our
appearance as !ell as that of #our friends as #ou
approached 1?&1: #ears of age. These changes associated
!ith pu%ert# are %ecause of the secretion of testosterone in
males and oestrogen in females.
Do #ou kno! an#one in #our famil# or friends !ho has
%een advised %# the doctor to take less sugar in their diet
%ecause the# are suffering from dia%etes, As a treatment
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the# might %e taking in(ections of insulin. This is a
hormone !hich is produced %# the pancreas and helps in
regulating %lood sugar levels. If it is not secreted in proper
amounts the sugar level in the %lood rises causing man#
harmful effects.
If it is so important that hormones should %e secreted in
precise -uantities !e need a mechanism through !hich
this is done. The timing and amount of hormone released
are regulated %# feed%ack mechanisms. /or e5ample if the
sugar levels in %lood rise the# are detected %# the cells of
the pancreas !hich respond %# producing more insulin. As
the %lood sugar level falls insulin secretion is reduced.
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Control and Coordination
@1A The plant hormone !hich is essential for cell division
2a3 )th#lene
2%3 Au5in
2c3 =i%%erellin
2d3 C#tokinin
Ans!erA 2d3 C#tokinin
@:A The activities of the internal organs are controlled %#
2a3 Central Nervous "#stem
2%3 'eripheral Nervous "#stem
2c3 Autonomic Nervous "#stem
2d3 None of these
Ans!erA 2a3 Central Nervous "#stem
@BA The seat of intelligence and voluntar# action in the
%rain is
2a3 Diencephalon
2%3 Cere%rum
2c3 Cere%ellum
2d3 <edulla O%longata
Ans!erA 2%3 Cere%rum
@CA The gap %et!een t!o neurons is kno!n as DDD.
2a3 s#napse
2%3 s#nopsis
2c3 impulse
2d3 s#naptic node
Ans!erA 2a3 s#napse
@EA Which of the follo!ing is a plant hormone,
2a3 Th#ro5in
2%3 C#tokinin
2c3 Insulin
2d3 Oestrogen
Ans!erA 2%3 C#tokinin
@>A Tropic movements are
2a3 in response to light
2%3 in response to gravit#
2c3 uni*directional
2d3 non*directional
Ans!erA 2c3 uni*directional
@0A Artifical ripening of fruit is carried out %#
2a3 Au5ins
2%3 )th#lene
2c3 A%scisic acid 2A$A3
2d3 =i%%erellins
Ans!erA 2%3 )th#lene
@FA 'art of %rain that controls respiration heart%eat and
peristalsis is DDDD.
2a3 Cere%rum
2%3 Cere%ellum
2c3 'ons
2d3 <edulla
Ans!erA 2d3 <edulla
@GA The %rain is responsi%le for
2a3 thinking.
2%3 regulating the heart %eat.
2c3 %alancing the %od#.
2d3 all of the a%ove.
Ans!erA 2d3 All of the a%ove.
@1?A Which of the follo!ing hormone is released %#
2a3 Insulin
2%3 Th#ro5in
2c3 Tr#psin
2d3 'epsin
Ans!erA 2%3 Th#ro5in
@11A Which %od# organ is surrounded %# meninges,
2a3 +eart and Lungs
2%3 $rain H +eart
2c3 $rain and "pinal Cord
2d3 "pinal Cord and Lungs
Ans!erA 2c3 $rain and "pinal Cord
@1:A 'art of %rain that controls muscular co*ordination is
2a3 Cere%rum
2%3 Cere%ellum
2c3 'ons
2d3 <edulla
Ans!erA 2%3 Cere%ellum
@1BA =ro!th of the stem is controlled %#
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2a3 gi%%erellin
2%3 au5in
2c3 a%scisic acid
2d3 c#tokinin
Ans!erA 2a3 gi%%erellin
@1CA Wilting of leaves is caused %# !hich hormone,
2a3 gi%%erellin
2%3 au5in
2c3 a%scisic acid
2d3 c#tokinin
Ans!erA 2c3 a%scisic acid
@1EA Which of the follo!ing hormones contains iodine,
2a3 adrenaline
2%3 testosterone
2c3 th#ro5ine
2d3 insulin
Ans!erA 2c3 th#ro5ine
@1>A Which part of %rain controls the posture and %alance
of the %od#,
2a3 Cere%rum
2%3 Cere%ellum
2c3 'ons
2d3 <edulla
Ans!erA 2%3 Cere%ellum
@10A What is the difference %et!een a refle5 action and
Refle5 Action Walking
A refle5 action is an
automatic and rapid
2spontaneous3 response to a
Walking is a voluntar#
It is a spontaneous reaction.
"pinal cord is involved in it.
It is a conscious and
deli%erate action i.e. it is
done after a thought is
processed %# the %rain.
It does not involve an# kind
of thinking or feeling to
control the reaction.
It is the voluntar# action
that !e have ac-uired
through learning
"pinal cord is directl#
involved in it.
It is directl# controlled %#
hind*%rain 2cere%ellum3.
When a %right light is
focussed on #our e#es !e
immediatel# close it a knee*
(erk are e5amples of refle5
)5amplesA Walking in a
straight line riding a
%ic#cle picking up a
pencil 2Ioluntar# actions
and precision control3
@1FA Wh# is a s#stem of control and coordination
essential in living organisms,
Ans!erA /ollo!ing are the reasonsA
Increase the chances of survival %# responding to stimuli.
Different %od# parts function as a single unit
To maintain homeostasis.
@1GA /ill in the %lanks.
2a3 DDDDD is the is the structural and functional unit of the
nervous s#stem.
2%3 An automatic response to a stimulus !hich is not
controlled %# the %rain is called DDDDDD.
2c3 Chemical messengers !hich control and coordinate in
plants and animals are called DDDDD.
2d3 The movement of a plant part in the direction of light
is called DDDD.
2e3 DDDDDDDD is the movement of plant part in response to
the availa%ilit# of !ater.
2f3 DDDDDDDD is the movement of plant part in response to
the pull of earth7s gravit#
2g3 The movement of plant part in response to certain
chemicals is called DDDDDD.
2h3 DDDDDDDDD is the refle5 centre of the %rain.
2i3 DDDDDDDDDD is a structure associated !ith %oth nervous
s#stem and endocrine s#stem.
2a3 Neuron or Nerve cell
2%3 Refle5 Action
2c3 +ormones
2d3 'hototropism
2e3 +#drotropism
2f3 =eotropism
2g3 Chemotropism
2h3 <edulla O%longata
2i3 +#pothalmus
@:?A What happens at the s#napse %et!een t!o neurons,
Ans!erA "#napse is a ver# small gap %et!een the last
portion of a5on of one neuron and the dendron of the other
neuron. It acts as a one !a# valve to transmit impulses.
This is one directional flo! of impulses %ecause the
chemicals are produced onl# on one side of the neuron i.e.
the a5on7s side. Iia a5on the impulses travel across the
s#napse to the dendron of the other neuron.
In toto s#napse performs the follo!ing tasksA
It allo!s the information to pass from one neuron to
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It ensures the passage of nerve impulse in one direction
It helps in information processing %# com%ining the
effects of all impulses received.
Watch the #ou tu%e video e5plaining !hat is the "#napse
structure and ho! it functions.
@:1A Which part of the %rain maintains posture and
e-uili%rium of the %od#,
Ans!erA Cere%ellum.
@::A +o! do !e detect the smell of an agar%atti 2incense
Ans!erA The fore*%rain is the main thinking part of the
%rain. It has regions !hich receive sensor# impulses from
various receptors. "eparate areas of the fore*%rain are
specialised for hearing smell sight and so on.
Olfactoreceptors 2present in nose3 send the information
a%out the smell of incense stick to fore*%rain. The for*
%rain interprets it along !ith !ith information received
from other receptors as !ell as !ith information that is
alread# stored in the %rain.
@:BA List the functions performed %# Cere%rum.
Ans!erA The cere%rum performs the follo!ing functionsA
It governs our mental a%ilities like thinking reasoning
learning memorising etc.
It controls our feelings emotions and speech.
It controls all involuntar# functions.
@:CA Which is the largest and most prominent part of the
Ans!erA Cere%rum
Three regions of $rain
@:EA What are the functions of cere%ellum,
<aintains e-uili%rium or %alance of the %od#.
Coordinates muscular movement.
Controls posture of the %od#.
@:>A +o! %rain is protected inside a human %od#,
Ans!erA $rain is protected %# a %on# %o5 called cranium
!ithin !hich are present B la#ers of fluid*filled 2called
cere%rospinal fluid3 mem%ranes 2called meninges3 for
a%sor%ing shock and %uo#anc#.
@:0A What is the role of the %rain in refle5 action,
Ans!erA $rain has no role to pla# in creation of refle5
action response. Instead spinal cord is the control centre of
a refle5 action. In fact %rain %ecomes a!are after the
refle5 arc has %een formed.
@:FA What do #ou mean %# refle5 action, =ive e5amples
of refle5 actions,
Ans!erA It is defined as fast unconscious immediate
automatic and involuntar# response of the %od# 2through
effectors3 to a stimulus. It is monitored through spinal
)5amples of refle5 actionsA
Closing e#es !hen %right light falls on the e#es.
Withdra! +ands !hen pricked %# a pin.
Choking stimulates cough refle5
Withdra! hand or leg !hen it touches an hot o%(ect.
Women knitting a s!eater !hile !atching TI
2conditioned refle53.
@:GA What are the different t#pes of refle5es,
Ans!erA There are t!o t#pes of refle5esA
Knconditioned refle5es
Conditioned refle5es
Knconditioned or Knconditional refle5es are those !hich
are inherited. Our %rain does not learn these refle5es. ).g.
!hen !e touch a hot plate !e immediatel# moves a!a#
our hand.
Conditioned refle5es are those !hich our %rain has learned
%# repeating the action num%er of times. e.g. a t#pist is
t#ping a letter !ithout looking at the t#pe!riter ke#s.
@B?A What is refle5 arc,
Ans!erA The structural and functional unit that carries our
refle5 action is called a refle5 arc. It consists ofA
A receptor
sensor# nerve 2afferent3
"pinal Cord and Inter*neuron
motor nerve 2efferent3
@B1A What are plant hormones,
Ans!erA 'lant hormones or ph#tohormones are naturall#*
occurring organic su%stances used as chemical
coordinators in plants. These are s#nthesi;ed in one part of
the plant %od# 2in minute -uantities3 and are translocated
to other parts !hen re-uired.
The five ma(or t#pes of ph#tohormones areA
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au5insA promote cell division %ending of shoot to!ards
the source of light.
gi%%erellinsA stimulate stem elongation.
c#tokininsA promote cell division.
a%scisic acidA inhi%it gro!th closing of stomata seed
eth#lene2 gas hormone3A promotes fruit ripening and
@B:A Who coined the term ph#tohormones,
Ans!erA Thimann in 1GCF.
@BBA +o! is the movement of leaves of the sensitive plant
different from the movement of a shoot to!ards light,
Ans!erA The movement of leaves of the sensitive plant
2e.g. <imosa pudica or touch*me*not3 occurs in response
to touch or contact stimuli. It is a gro!th independent
movement 2nastic movement3.
The movement of shoot to!ards light is called photo*
tropism. This t#pe of movement is directional and is
gro!th dependent.
@BCA Write differences %et!een nastic and tropic
"no. Nastic <ovements
1. =ro!th
:.Time of
Immediate "lo!
B. Response to
non*directional directional
C. Reason for
change in turgor cell division
E. Alternate
nastics tropism
>. )5amples
folding of leaves of
opening and closing
of stomata
@BEA What !ill happen !hen plant is e5posed to
unidirectional light,
Ans!erA "tem %ends to!ards unidirectional flo! of light.
It is called phototropism.
@B>2C$") :??G3A What is chemotropism,
Ans!erA Directional movement of a plantL or its part in
response to chemicals is called chemotropism. e.g. gro!th
of the pollen tu%e to!ards the ovule is a chemotropic
movement due to !hich fertili;ation of flo!er takers
@B0A =ive e5amples of geotropism.
Roots move in the direction of gravit# 2positive Mve
"hoots move 2up3 against direction of gravit# 2negative *v
@BFA Wh# do mammals like humans need an endocrinal
@A What are the limitations of nervous s#stem in human
%od#, +o! it is overcome,
Ans!erA Nervous s#stem in human %od# !orks or
communicates using nerve impulses !hich are form of
electrical impulses. )lectrical impulses are an e5cellent
means of communication in human %od# %ut the# have
follo!ing limitationsA
The# reach onl# those cells that are connected %# nervous
tissue not each and ever# cell
in the animal %od#.
Cells cannot continuall# create and transmit electrical
impulses. once an electrical impulse is generated in a cell
and transmitted the cell !ill take some time to reset its
mechanisms %efore it can generate and transmit a ne!
Due to a%ove said limitations most multicellular organisms
use another means of communication %et!een cells
namel# chemical communication i.e. hormone or
endocrine s#stem. It is slo!er than nerve cells %ut
potentiall# reach all cells of the %od#.
@BG2NC)RT3A +o! does chemical coordination take place
in animals,
Ans!erA +ormones act as chemical coordinators in
animals. +ormone is the chemical messenger that
regulates the ph#siological processes in living organisms.
It is secreted %# ductless glands into %lood stream and
reach their target site.
@C?A Who coined the term hormone,
Ans!erA $a#liss and "tarling. $oth of discovered the
peptide hormone called secretin in human intestine.
@C12C$") :?1?3A What !ill happen if intake of iodine in
our diet is lo!,
@A Wh# is the use of iodised salt advised,
Ans!erA It is advised to used iodised salt to prevent goitre
2enlargement of the th#roid gland3. Iodine is re-uired for
the proper functioning of th#roid. Iodine stimulates the
th#roid gland to produce th#ro5in hormone. This hormone
regulates car%oh#drate fat and protein meta%olism in our
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@C:2C$") :?1?3A Name the hormone secreted %# an
endocrine gland during emergenc#, Name the gland
!hich secretes this hormone.
Ans!erA Adrenaline hormone is secreted %# the adrenal
glands. It helps to regulate heart %eat %lood pressure
meta%olism in the times of stress or emergenc# to cope up
!ith the situation.
@CBA +o! does adrenaline affects heart during
@2NC)RT3A +o! does our %od# respond !hen adrenaline
is secreted into the %lood,
Ans!erA During emergenc# situations adrenaline
hormone is released to %lood stream in large -uantities. It
increases the heart%eat and hence supplies more o5#gen to
the muscles. The increase in %reathing rate also increases
due to contractions of diaphragm and ri% muscles. It raises
the %lood pressure and thus ena%le the %od# to cope up
!ith an# stress or emergenc#.
@CC2C$") :?1?3A Which hormone is in(ected to a dia%etic
patient and !h#,
@2NC)RT3A Wh# are some patients of dia%etes treated %#
giving in(ections of insulin,
Ans!erA Dia%etes is a condition in !hich sugar level in
%lood is ver# high. Insulin hormone is released %#
pancreas glands !hich regulates the %lood sugar level. In
dia%etic patients pancreas has stopped releasing insulin
hormone. If it is not secreted in proper amounts the sugar
level in the %lood rises causing man# harmful effects. Due
to this reason dia%etic patients are treated %# giving
in(ections of insulin.
@CE 2C$") :?1?3A +o! does our %od# maintain %lood
sugar level,
Ans!erA The timing and amount of hormone released are
regulated %# feed%ack mechanisms. When the sugar levels
in %lood rise the# are detected %# the cells of the pancreas
!hich respond %# producing more insulin. As the %lood
sugar level falls insulin secretion is reduced.
@C>A Where adrenal glands are located,
Ans!erA Adrenal glands are like caps (ust a%ove the
@C0A What is h#pergl#cemia,
Ans!erA +#pergl#cemia refers to high sugar level in
%lood. In general dia%etic patients has h#pergl#cemia due
to insufficient release of insulin hormone.
@CFA Where th#roid gland is located,
Ans!erA Th#roid gland is situated in front of the neck
%elo! lar#n5.
@CGA Which endocrine gland is called master gland, Wh#,
Ans!erA 'ituitar# gland 2pea shape present in mid*%rain3
is considered as master endocrine gland. It is said so
%ecause it controls almost all other endocrine glands.
@E?A Wh# is pancreas a dual gland,
Ans!erA 'ancreas is a dual gland %ecause it acts as %oth
endocrine and e5ocrine gland. As endocrine it secretes
hormones like insulin glucagen. As an e5ocrine glands it
releases en;#mes like tr#psin l#pase am#lase etc.
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