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First Semester AP Chemistry Study Guide

Chapter 1:
Pure substance:
o Element
Charcoal, electrical wiring, jewelry, and water pipes
o Compound
More than one element
Mitures:
o !omogeneous"uni#orm composition throughout
Soda, seawater, brass
o !eterogeneous"non$uni#orm composition
%oc&s, salad dressing
'ypes o# separation:
o For solids and li(uids: distillation )homogeneous* and #iltration
)heterogeneous*
o For gas$li(uid miture: chromatography
+ntensi,e Properties )independent o# ,olume* o# substances
o Chemical properties: obser,ed when substance ta&es part in chemical
reaction )change in identity*
Mercury )++* oide decomposes to mercury and oygen at -..
degrees Celsius
/urning o# wood"gi,es o## heat
%usting o# steel
0igestion o# #ood
Growth o# grass
o Physical properties: obser,ed without changing identity
/oiling point, melting point, solubility, density, colors
Solubility
o /elow the cur,e, unsaturated
o Abo,e )not all dissol,ed* or on the cur,e, saturated
o Abo,e the cur,e )all dissol,ed*, supersaturated
Chapter 2:
1ohn 0alton2s Atomic 'heory:
o Atom is the smallest particle
o An element is composed o# tiny particles called atoms
o Atoms can mo,e #rom substances buy cannot be destroyed or changed into
another element
o Compounds are #ormed when two or more elements join together
1313 'hompson: #ound electrons
%uther#ord: protons and nucleus
o Gold #oil eperiment
Solubility
4aming acid
+# ha,e oygen: $ate to 5ic, $ite to 5ous
+# no oygen: hydro$66$ic
Chapter 3: Look over problem 92 (the sugar and cocaine problem) if you ant! "t
covers most of the concepts!
Chapter #:
Precipitate )#ormation o# a solid*: $% &'()* &%L(+"L"'* ,(L-&.
4et ionic e(uations:
o Ecludes spectator ions
o 'he atoms and the charge must balance in the end
Acid base reactions:
o Strong acids and bases mostly dissociate
o 7ea& acids and bases don2t go to completion
o Strong acids and bases )neutrali8ation*:
!9 9 :!$ !;:
o 7ea& acid and strong base:
7hen a strong base such as 4a:! is added to a solution o# a wea&
acid, !/, there are two steps that occur3
!/ dissociates to e(uilibrium and #orms !9 and /$
'he :!$ )#rom the strong base* reacts with the !9 to #orm water3
Add the two e(uations and you get:
/+ 0 %/1 +1 0 /2%
o Strong acids )!Cl* and wea& base )4!<*:
'he wea& base )4!<* gains !9 #rom !;: )sol,ent* to #orm 4!=9
and :!$
'he :!$ #rom !;: reacts with the !9 #rom !Cl to #rom !;:3
Add the two e(uations and you get:
/0 0 2/3 2/#0
'itrations: 0etermines the point at which reaction is complete )e(ui,alence
point*> usually a color change is witnessed with an acid$base indicator
:idation$reduction reactions:
o Assign oidation numbers and write hal# reactions
o /alance non$! and non$:
o /alance : by adding !;:
o /alance ! by adding !9
o /alance e$
o Multiply so e$ cancel, electrons gained e(uals to electrons lost
o Add the two e(uations together
o +# this happens in a base reaction: add :!$ to cancel !9
o &hort hand
Assign oidation numbers and see which compound?element
gained?lost e$
Ma&e sure the gained?lost e$ are the same by multiplying
Ma&e sure to also multiply the corresponding compounds?elements
Chapter 3
456n,' (ideal gas la)
o @olume is directly proportional to amount and temperature3
o @olume is in,ersely proportional to pressure3
0alton2s Aaw o# Partial Pressures
o P B Mole #ractionC 'otal pressure
o 'otal Pressure B PD 9 P; 9 P<6
Einetic 'heory o# Gases: All gases beha,e similarly in particle motion )based on
the idea that all gases beha,e similarly as #ar as particle motion is concerned*
Molecular Model )#or ideal gases*:
o Gases are mostly empty space> negligibly small
o Gas molecules are in constant, chaotic motion> changing ,elocities
o Collisions are elastic> no attraction #orces )+MF2s*
o Gas pressures is caused by collisions o# molecules with the walls o# the
container> pressure increases with more collisions
'o #ind a,erage translational motion )&inetic energy*
o E B )<%'*?);4*
%B 3.F;.-
'B temp3
4B A,ogadro2s number
o Molecules o# di##erent gases must ha,e same &inetic energy at same
temperature )it doesn2t matter what type o# gas, it depends on the
temperature*
'o #ind a,erage speed )not in re#erence sheetC*:
o u= )<%'?MM*G)D?;*
F3<D= 1?molCE
MM is &g per mole
o A,erage speed is directly proportional to the s(uare root o# the absolute
temperature
o %ne gas7 to different temperatures:
)H;?HD* B )';?'D*G)D?;*
'emperature goes up, speed goes up
o 'o gases7 one temperature:
)HD?H;* B )MM;?MMD*G)D?;*
Mass goes up, speed goes down
E##usion )don2t con#use with di##usion*:
o Flow o# gas molecules at low pressures through tiny pores
o 0epends on pressure and speed o# particles
o 'o calculate speed #or two di##erent gases with constant pressure and
temperature )Graham2s Aaw*:
)%ate o# e##usion o# /?%ate o# e##usion o# A* B )MM;?MMD*G)D?;*
Aight molecules e##use more rapidly
0istribution o# Molecular Speeds:
o +n a gas sample at any instant, gas molecules are mo,ing at a ,ariety o#
speeds3
%eal Gases:
o Molecules o# real gases ha,e some attraction when they collide, so they2re
not totally inelastic3 )'his occurs at high temperatures and low
temperatures3*
o @anderwaal2s E(uation: IP 9 a)n?,*G;J C I@ 5 nbJ B n%'
KaL is related to the strength o# the +MF2s
KbL is related to the si8e o# the molecules
Chapter 8
M C @ B C )wa,elengthC#re(uency B speed o# light );3NNFCD.GF*
EB h, B h)C? M* )h is Planc&2s constant, -3-<CD.G$<=*
%elating
#re(uency o#
light emitted
to the
(uantum
numbers
)energy
le,els*:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
@B )%!?h*ID?)nlow*G; 5 D?)nhigh*G;J
%! B ;3DF.CD.G$DF 1
/ohr2s Model o# the !ydrogen Atom:
o Electrons in the ground state get ecited and mo,e up to speci#ic energy
le,el3
o 7hen the go bac& to the ground state, they emit energy3 )See e(uation
abo,e*
Ouantum Mechanical Model:
o Electrons act as wa,elength o# light
o Pou can2t speci#y the precise position o# an electron at one point in time3
Energy le,els: D$Q )'heoretically in#inite*
Suble,els: s p d #
:rbitals: D < R Q
'otal electrons: ; - D. D=

Electron con#iguration
o Eceptions
Cr: IArJ =sGD <dGR
Cu: IArJ =sGD <dGD.
Same goes #or other elements in the same group as the two abo,e
@alence electrons: electrons on highest energy le,el
o Co: IArJ =sG; <dGQ )two ,alence electrons"the =sG;*
!und2s %ule"#ill up all the orbitals up once be#ore doubling up and the two
electrons spin oppositely
0iamagnetic )happens #or the noble gases*:
o All electrons are in pairs
o Creates a magnetic #ield and repels other magnetic #ield
Panamagnetic
o 4ot all electrons are paired
o Attracted to a magnetic #ield
Ouantum numbers )the address #or the electron*:
o D
st
(uantum number: n
Energy le,el nB D, ;, <, =6
o ;
nd
(uantum number: l
Suble,els: s, p, d, #6 ., D, ;, <
o <
rd
(uantum number: ml
Speci#ic orbital: mlB 9l6 .6 $l
+# l is D: mlB D, ., $D )p suble,el with three orbitals*
o =
th
(uantum number: ms
Spin )9D?; or $D?;*
Pauli eclusion principal:
o 4o two electrons in the same atom can ha,e the same set o# (uantum
numbers
Periodic 'rends
o Shielding"bloc&s the positi,e charge o# the nucleus
o E##ecti,e nuclear charge"the charge #elt by the outer most electron
o Atomic %adius:
0ecreases across period, le#t to right
7ith more protons, the atoms to the right ha,e a higher
e##ecti,e nuclear charge, thus pulling the electrons closer to
the nucleus
+ncreases down the group
A,erage distance o# the outer electron #rom the nucleus
increases )more shielding*
o +onic radius
Cations are smaller than the atom
Ecess o# protons in the ion draws the outer electron closer
to the nucleus
Anions are bigger than the atom
Etra electron on the ,alence le,el adds to the repulsion
o +oni8ation energy: how di##icult to remo,e an electron
+ncreases across the period )le#t to right*
0ecrease down the period
+n,erse correlation with the atomic radius
Smaller the atom, more tightly the electrons will be held to
the nucleus, the more energy needed to the outer most
electrons
o Eceptions:
/oron has less ioni8ation energy than /eryllium )e,en though /e
is to /2s le#t*
/2s ,alence electron is on is on ;p, while /e2s ,alance electrons
are on ;s3 +t ta&es less energy to remo,e an electron #rom a higher
energy le,el3
o Electronegati,ity: 'he ability o# an atom to attract electrons to #orm a
co,alent bond> greater the electronegati,ity number, the greater attraction
#or electrons
+ncreases across the period
0ecreases down the group
Chapter 9
Co,alent bonds
o Polar: electrons not shared e(ually
o 4onpolar: electrons shared e(ually
'hings ; < = R )loose
electrons in the
plains #irst*
- )loose
electrons in the
ael #irst*
All atoms Ainear )no
angle*
'rigonal
planar )D;.*
'etrahedral
)D.N3R*
'riangular
bipyramid )N.,
D;., DF.*
:ctahedral )N.,
DF.*
:ne lone pair $$$ /ent )DDQ3R* 'rigonal
pyramid
)D.Q*
See$Saw
)N., D;., DF.*
S(uare
Pyramidal )N.,
DF.*
'wo lone pairs $$$ $$$ /ent )D.=3R* '$Shaped )N.,
DF.*
S(uare Planar
)N., DF.*
'hree lone pairs $$$ $$$ $$$ Ainear )DF.* $$$
Eceptions to the octet rule:
o ! );*, /e )=*, / )-*
o %esonance: 7hen a double or triple bond can be put in more than one
place
o :dd electron eception
o Epanded octets )nonpolar i# electrons e,en out in the plane?ael*
Formal charge e(uation )to decide between multiple structures*
o F3C3 )o# an atom* B S o# ,alence e$ $ )unshared e$ 9 T shared e$*
o Pou want the F3C3 as close to . as possible
Molecular Polarity
o +s there symmetryU
+# there is a lone pair o# electrons, it2s not symmetrical, and it2s
polar3 'he electrons are 4:' e(ually distributed3
o Are the atoms around the center di##erentU
+# yes, it2s polar3
Sigma bond: KsingleL bond, #ormed by two hybridi8ed orbitals o,erlapping )in all
bonds*
Pi bond: 4ot hybridi8ed, associated with multiple bonds
o 0ouble bonds: one sigma and one pi
o 'riple bonds: one sigma and two pi
For promotion: only count attached bonds
For hybridi8ation: only ! doesn2t hybridi8e, count lone pairs o# electrons and
attached bonds
Chapter :
Energy"the ability to do wor& and trans#er heat
7or&"#orceCdistance )7*
o 9w: wor& is done to the system
o 5w: wor& is done by the system
ln
)p*
D?' )E*
!eat"trans#er o# energy that results in a temperature change )(*
o 9(: endothermic
o 5(: eothermic
!eat #low at constant pressure
o (p B V! )enthalpy*
o Changes in temperature: mCcC Vt 1
0on2t account #or mass
o Change in state: V!C B nC V#usion ? V,ap3 E1
Free8ing: ta&ing away energy #rom the system
Melting: putting energy into the system
o ( gained is e(ual to 5( lost
Enthalpy
o Sum o# the products 5 sum o# the reactants B V! o# #ormation
o Elements don2t count
o +# !products less than !reactants, then it2s eothermic )negati,e V!*
o +# !products is greater than !reactants, it2s endothermic )positi,e V!*
%ules o# 'hermochemistry
o 'he magnitude o# V! is proportional to the amount o# reactant or product3
o V! #or a reaction is e(ual in magnitude but opposite in sign #or the re,erse
reaction3
o 'he ,alue o# V! #or a reaction is same whether it occurs in one step or in a
series o# steps3 )!ess2s Aaw*
/ond enthalpy
o /rea&ing bonds: re(uires energy )positi,e> going into the system*
o Forming bonds: gi,es o## energy )negati,e> coming out o# the system*
V! B VE 9 Vng%'
0lsj ,
o V! B VE $ w
o 7 B $ Vngas%'
Chapter 9
@apori8ation:
o +n an open container, all li(uids are gone
o +n a closed container, dynamic e(uilibrium happens )ideal gas law*
@apor pressure: the pressure eerted by the ,apor o,er the li(uid when they are at
e(uilibrium remains constant at a particular temperature
o 7hen both li(uid and ,apor are present, it2s independent o#
,olume o# the container
@apor pressure ,s3 temperature:
o ln )o# p* B $)V!,ap?%'* 9 b
%B F3<D= 1?molCE
o Clausius$Clapeyron e(uation
ln)P;* $ ln)PD* B $0!,ap?% C )D?';$ D?'D*
/oiling point: the temperature at which its ,apor pressure is e(ual to the pressure
o# the surroundings
o 4ormal boiling point: pressure is D atm
o At a higher altitude there2s lower pressure, so there2s a lower boiling point
)ta&es longer to coo& #ood*
Critical temperature?pressure:
o 'emperature at which no amount o# pressure can ma&e the substance a
li(uid
o Pressure that must be applied to cause condensation at critical temperature
o 7hen a substance is abo,e critical temperature?pressure, the substance is
called a supercritical #luid
Phase diagrams
o 'riple point: all three states eists
o More area #or solid on graph B solid more dense than li(uid phase
o More area #or li(uid on graph B li(uid is more dense than solid phase
)water*
o +ncrease in pressure #a,ors #ormation o# the more dense phase
Melting?Free8ing point: temperature at which the solid and li(uid phases are at
e(uilibrium
Molecular Solids
o 4onconductors o# electricity e,e when dissol,ed in water
Eceptions polar molecule !Cl
o +nsoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar sol,ents
o Aow melting and boiling points
7ea& intermolecular #orces are wea&
Strong intra$bonds )co,alent bonds*63stay together
+MF )all wea& compared to the intramolecular #orce )co,alent bonds* in
molecules*
o 0ispersion: momentary dipoles )in all M:AECHAA% substances*
7hen molar mass are stronger, the dispersion #orces are stronger3
/ecause o# the stronger dispersion #orces, the boiling point
increases
o 0ipole$0ipole: polar molecules, attraction
Still e##ects molecules in the li(uid state> only in gases does it not
ha,e an a##ect
Adjacent molecules line up so positi,e as close as possible to
negati,e side
o !$/ond
! to 4,:,F )small distance B strong #orces*
4ot based on molar mass but the large di##erence in
electronegati,ity
:ther types o# solids )p3 ;==*:
o Amorphous solids )no shape*
E: glass
o 4etwor& co,alent solid
All atoms joined together by continuous co,alent bonds, one big
molecule
E: diamond, graphite )layers o# co,alent bonded carbon
joined together by dispersion*
o !igh melting point
o +nsoluble
o Poor electricity conductors
o +onic solids )wea&er than co,alent bonds but stronger than +MFs*
Cations and anions
4on,olatile )doesn2t e,aporate (uic&ly*, high melting point
0oesn2t conduct electricity because the charged ions are
#ied
Eionic strength B )&CO9CO$*?d
& B constant
O B charges
d B distance between ion centers
!igher charges and smaller distances )smaller atoms*
means stronger strength
o Metallic solids
KElectron seaL model )the electrons doesn2t belong to a certain
metal atom*
!igh conducti,ity
0uctility and malleability
Auster, re#lects light
+nsoluble, ecept in li(uid mercury )called amalgams*
Crystal structures
!$bond 0ipole$dipole 0ispersion
S, A, G
S, A, G
S, A, G
o Metals: when solids #orms, atoms are arranged in patterns3 'he smallest
pattern is the unit cell3
o W pac&ing e##iciency B @atoms?@total CD..
Assume the side o# the unit cell is one3 =
Simple cube Face$centered cube /ody$centered cube
D atom = atoms ; atoms
sB;r s);*GD?;B=r s)<*GD?;B=r