d C
R
s s
e
=
s
L
dt
99 . 0 =
1 1
0
0
+
+
=
P
P
a
s
RT a =
0
Model for the flow through the valve
Blair presents a unique empirical approach for the design and dimensioning of the valving and the ducting of a high
performance, naturally aspirated, spark ignition automotive engine so as to attain the required performance levels at a given
engine speed.
The fundamental geometry of the cylinder head
The cylinder head of a four stroke engine contains intake and exhaust poppet valves which link the cylinder to its manifold. This
is shown in fig.A. The number of intake and exhaust valves is n
iv
and n
ev
respectively.
The port area at each of these valves is A
ip
and A
ep
, respectively. The valves are connected to intake and exhaust manifold
apertures of area A
im
and A
em
, respectively. This gives rise to the concept of pipe (manifold) to port area ratio C
mp
, which are
defined as follows:
C
imp
=A
im
/n
iv
x A
ip
=A
im
/A
ipt
C
emp
=A
em
/n
ev
x A
ep
=A
em
/A
ept
8 6
7 10 1547 . 4 10 457 . 7 T
+ =
12
10 4793 . 7
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 23492163
Volume 1 Issue 7 (August 2014) http://ijirae.com
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014, IJIRAE All Rights Reserved Page  152
Fig. A The pipe to port area ratio for a 4 stroke engine
According to Blair[10] these manifolds to port area ratios are critical for the performance of an engine. For this area ratio, as
either an expansion or a contraction, controls the amplitude of any pressure wave created within the ducting by the cylinder state
conditions, as the strength of any such unsteady gas flow tuning is a function of its pressure.
The throat or minimum port aperture area at any valving, A
pt
, is shown in fig.B. Inflow or outflow at any valve passes through
the valve curtain areas which are side areas of a frustum of a cone. However, at the highest valve lifts the minimum flow area
may become that at the inner port where the diameter is dip.
The valve curtain area, A
t
, for this particular geometry is often simplistically, and quite incorrectly, expressed as the side surface
area of a cylinder of diameter d
is
and height L as,
A
t
= d
is
L
Fig. B Valve curtain areas at low and high valve lifts
It is vital to calculate correctly the geometrical throat area of the restriction A
t
. In fig.B, the valve curtain area at the throat, when
the valve lift is L,is that which is represented by the frustrum of a cone defined by the side length dimension x, the valve seat
angle, , the inner or outer seat diameters, i.e. d
is
and d
os
, and the radius, r, which depends on the amount of valve lift L. The
side surface area of a frustum of a cone, i.e. A
s
, is,
A
s
= [(d
major
+d
minor
)/2] *x
Where x is the sloping side and d
minor
and d
major
are its top and bottom diameters. This area A
s
is the maximum geometrical gas
flow area through the seat of any one valve for flow to, or from, the port where that area is A
ipt
or A
ept.
The dimension x through which the gas flows has two values which are shown in fig.B. On the left, the lift is sufficiently small
that the value x is at right angle to the valve seat and, on the right, the valve lift has lifted beyond a lift limit L
lim
where the value
x is no longer normal to the valve seat at angle . By simple geometry, this limiting value of lift is given by,
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 23492163
Volume 1 Issue 7 (August 2014) http://ijirae.com
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014, IJIRAE All Rights Reserved Page  153
L
lim
=(d
os
 d
is
)/2sincos
=(d
os
 d
is
)/sin2
For the first stage of poppet valve lift
Where, L L
lim
Then the valve curtain area A
t
is given from the value of x as,
X = Lcos
r =d
is
/2 + xsin
in which case,
A
t
= Lcos(d
is
+Lsincos)
For the second stage of poppet valve lift where, L>L
lim
Then the valve curtain area A
t
is given from the value of x as,
X ={{L[(d
os
d
is
)/2 ]tan}
2
+[(d
os
d
is
)/2]
2
}
1/2
Whence,
2
2
2
tan
2 2

.

\

+ 
.

\


.

\
 +
=
is os is os is os
t
d d d d
L
d d
A
If the seat angle is 45, which is conventional, then tan is unity and the above equation simplifies somewhat.
Model for heat transfer
For considering heat transfer, Woschnis[20] equation was used by Shashikantha[24], which is based on the similarity law of
steady turbulent heat transfer.
The formula is,
hc=0.820 D
0.2
p
0.8
w
mv
0.8
T
0.53
(kw/m
2
K).
According to Patterson [12], of the several expressions in the literature, two are of special interest. Nusselt [25] was among the
first to formulate an expression for the heat transfer coefficient in an I.C.Engine. His expression based on experimental
observation, included radiation as well as convective effects, & it is;
hc=0.99 (P
2
T)
1/3
(1+1.24w) +0.362 [ {(T/100)
4
 (T
w
/ 100)
4
} / {TT
w
}]
Where h in kcal/ m
2
hrK.
According to Anand[22] the expression for the heat transfer coefficient in an I. C. Engine is expressed as
(
(

.

\


.

\

+

.

\

=
4 4
7 . 0
100 100
Re
w
c
T T
T T
C
B
a h
w
This expression is widely used for I. C. Engines. Many books on I. C. engines have referred this expression and we have also
selected the same reference.
Model for Specific properties
According to Blair, enthalpy, internal energy and specific heat at constant pressure are the function of temperature. They are
controlled by the simple formula.
h =K
0
+K
1
T +2*K
2
*T
2
+3*K
3
*T
3
KJ /kgK.
k Kg
KJ
T K T K K C
p
+ + =
2
3 2 1
3 2
3
3
2
2 1 0
3 2 ) ( T K T K T R K K U + + + =
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 23492163
Volume 1 Issue 7 (August 2014) http://ijirae.com
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014, IJIRAE All Rights Reserved Page  154
The differential form can be derived by simply differentiation of the equation with respect to temperature. The differential form
is given below.
Model for Coefficient of discharge
A fundamental experimental study was conducted by Blair[10] to visualize the effect of size of the engine ducting on the
discharge coefficient of the cylinder porting aperture. It was found to have no significant influence. The general applicability of
this conclusion in design and simulation study is debated. A study of the discharge coefficients of restrictions or throttles within
engine ducting was carried out and the ensuing map was determined to be significantly dissimilar in profile to that of all
published data on engine porting or valving.
Cd =23.543 +60.686 P 51.04 P
2
+14.387P
3
( 1 <P <1.4 )
Cd =0.838 ( P >=1.4 )
Where P =pressure ratio.
With the all the properties of hydrogen, we must know the practical aspect while dealing with the hydrogen. This aspect has been
described in detail further in this chapter.
For using hydrogen, we must know the different criteria for dealing with hydrogen. Further in this chapter, we will see the
production, storage and transportation of hydrogen.
Model for cylinder volume
The figure shows the schematic diagram of the pistoncylinder arrangement of I. C. engines. The volume of the cylinder is
changing continuously with the crank rotation. The volume inside the cylinder can be calculated from
the geometry and the generalized equation derived by Blair is given below. The differential of volume
and the piston speed can be calculated as below.
Model of Wall temperature
The temperature of wall can be found from the empirical formulas suggested by authors As given below.
T
wall
=(423  0.388 * )
STARTING OF EXPANSION PROCESS
In four stroke combustion engine expansion process is of fundamental importance and requires great understanding of the micro
processes taking place. An effort is made to analyze the expansion process and evaluated the properties of the mixture so as to
compare the variations of properties at each stage. In expansion process, the mass combustion during the previous process of
combustion is enclosed in the volume of the cylinders. This burnt charge mixture is to be expanded by action of the piston
moving from the inner dead center to the outer dead center. Work is done by the system in the expansion.
As a result of work done by the mixture the internal energy of the mixture is decreased. The pressure and temperature of the
mixture decrease slowly at first, than steadily due to the progressive work of expansion the mixture. Consequently the specific
heat capacity of the mixture also decreases due to the temperature change.
2
3 2 1
9 4 T K T K R K
dT
dU
c
+ + =
( ) ( 
sin
4
2 2 2 2
r l r l B V V
c
+ + =
) cos r
(
(
2 2 2
2
2
sin
2
2 sin
sin
4
r l
r
r
B
d
dV
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 23492163
Volume 1 Issue 7 (August 2014) http://ijirae.com
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014, IJIRAE All Rights Reserved Page  155
 Homogeneity: It is assumed that the charged is mixed homogenously with the residual gases like water vapor and other
constituents.
 Range: The process of effective expansion starts at 364 of crank rotation and completes at 492 of crank angle. The
beginning of expansion is governed by the establishment of the pressure in the cylinder, which occurs at 362 of crank
angle. The end of expansion is governed by the completion of effective combustion.
SIMULATION OF EXPANSION PROCESS
The approach is very simple suggested by Richard stone. It is merely the some modification of first law of thermodynamics. As
we all know that first law of thermodynamics is
dQ =dU +dW
Now in the compression process, there will be no mass change nor do the heat generation involve. Thus in the compression
process, the heat transfer will be only the heat loss from the walls. The heat loss from the wall can be found from the simple
equation given below.
dQ =hc * A * (T
4
Tw
4
)
Here the A i.e. the area term can be found from the simple geometry. The heat transfer coefficient can be found from the
approaches suggested in the literature review. We have in our case have taken the equation given by Anand. The reason behind
the selection is that many books on simulation on I. C. Engines have suggested it to use.
The temperature of the wall can be found from the equation given by Dr. S. A. Channiwala. The equations are given in the
literature review. It is the equation of crank rotation. Thus the dQ term is only the function of temperature.Now the second
term is dU i.e. the internal energy difference. Now as it is mentioned earlier, the internal energy is the function of temperature
only.Now the the last term is the work done term expressed as below
( ) 1 2
2
1 2
V V
P P
dW 
.

\
 +
=
Now as we all know that the pressure is the function of temperature and volume. we know the volume of the cylinder at the
each degree of crank rotations. Thus the only unknown variable is the temperature.Thus the all term in the first law of
thermodynamic can be expressed in the two basic variable i.e. temperature and volume. And as we know the volume at each
degree of the crank rotation, we left with the only variable and that is temperature. Now to find the temperature from the
modified equation it is almost impossible to express in single side variable. Thus to find the temperature we used bisection
method to find the root of the equation.
Now we have to consider real gas equation. There are many real gas equations but one which fits in our temperature
range is Redlich Kwong real gas equation. This is given by,
( ) b V V T
a
b V
RT
P
m m m
+
=
But as we have to consider the differential approach, the differential form of the same equation is,
( ) ( ) ( ) 2
2
1
1
1
1
1 1
C
d
dT
T
C
d
dV
V
C
d
dm
m d
dp
p
+ =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2
3
2 2 2 2
2
3
2
1
b m M V mb VM ma mb VM VM T R m
mb VM mb VM am mb VM M V T R
C

.

\

+ +
+ 
.

\

+
=
( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )




.

\


.

\


.

\

+
+ + +
=
2 2 2 2 2
2
3
2 2 2
2
3
2
2
b m M V mb VM a m mb VM VM T R m
mb VM mb VM a m mb VM mb VM VM T R
C
Thus we are able to find pressure and temperature. These values will be again put in to the starting of the loop and after the
iterative method we will get the pressure and temperature. The whole loop is to work over whole cycle.
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 23492163
Volume 1 Issue 7 (August 2014) http://ijirae.com
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014, IJIRAE All Rights Reserved Page  156
STARTING OF EXHAUST PROCESS
At the starting of exhaust process we will assume that at the end of expansion process. These assumptions are commonly used in
the most of the automobile books. Also the error involved in these assumptions will be nullified due to the iterations of whole
cycle. Thus we know the condition outside and inside the cylinder. So we are able to start the simulation.
First Valve lift of Exhaust valves are measured at every 5 of interval, with the help of Dial gauge and angle measurement
device(procircle).These data are interpolated at every 2 crank interval using MATLAB for simulation.
VALVE LIFT
0
2
4
6
8
10
4
9
4
5
1
8
5
4
2
5
6
6
5
9
0
6
1
4
6
3
8
6
6
2
6
8
6
7
1
0
DEGREE
m
m
SIMULATION OF THE EXHAUST PROCESS
During the flow due to friction the pressure drop occurs. The pressure drop due to friction can be calculated from the method
described in previous title. So gas will flow from intake valve to cylinder. First the exhaust gas will discharge from the cylinder
than the fresh charge will enter the cylinder. The volume of cylinder can be calculated by formula given below. The dV/d
can also be getting from below equation. ( ) ( )  
cos sin
4
2 2 2 2
r r l r l B V V
c
+ + =
(
(
2 2 2
2
2
sin
2
2 sin
sin
4
r l
r
r
B
d
dV
Mass calculation
Now In general, AV m =
Now we can calculate the density and the speed from the pressure wave theory given by Blair. According to
him,
5
2 02
G
Xs =
( )
2 2 02
5
r i
X X a G V =
So we have,
dt
V A
d
dm
valve
=
The different terms are given below.
Pi1 =pressure at inlet.
Pi2 =pressure at outlet.
A1 =inlet area.
A2 =outlet area.
Ar =A2 / A1.
T1 =inlet temperature.
T2 =outlet temperature.
2
1
17
= G ,
1
2
5
G
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 23492163
Volume 1 Issue 7 (August 2014) http://ijirae.com
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014, IJIRAE All Rights Reserved Page  157
17
0
1
1
G
P
Pi
Xi


.

\

= ,
17
0
2
2
G
P
Pi
Xi


.

\

=
 
Ar
Ar Xi Xi Ar
Xr
+
+
=
1
2 1
2 1
1
 
Ar
Ar Xi Xi
Xr
+
=
1
1 2
2 1
2
Xs =Xi +Xr 1.
2
1
1
01
Xs
T
T = ,
2
2
2
02
Xs
T
T =
02 02
RT a = ,
02
0
02
RT
P
=
Temperature and pressure variations
So, now we know the mass entered and left from the cylinder. Now we have to consider real gas equation. There are
many real gas equations but one which fits in our temperature range is Redlich Kwong real gas equation. This is given
by,
( ) b V V T
a
b V
RT
P
m m m
+
=
But as we have to consider the differential approach, the differential form of the same equation is,
( ) ( ) ( ) 2
2
1
1
1
1
1 1
C
d
dT
T
C
d
dV
V
C
d
dm
m d
dp
p
+ =
Where,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2
3
2 2 2 2
2
3
2
1
b m M V mb VM ma mb VM VM T R m
mb VM mb VM am mb VM M V T R
C

.

\

+ +
+ 
.

\

+
=
( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )




.

\


.

\


.

\

+
+ + +
=
2 2 2 2 2
2
3
2 2 2
2
3
2
2
b m M V mb VM a m mb VM VM T R m
mb VM mb VM a m mb VM mb VM VM T R
C
Temperature can be calculated by energy conservation method, i.e. by
equation below.
( ) ( )
new cyl in
cyl cyl cyl in in in
Cp M M
Cp M T Cp M T
T
d
+
+
=
+
) (
1000
6 . 128
m sl
C
BS
P
dp = ,
2
377 . 0
10
b
Sn
dp
pt
=
The new value of Cp will be the function of new T. Thus this equation will be in iteration. Thus we are able to calculate new
temperature so from the differential equation we will get the new pressure. Now the gasses have to move the piston and the
pressure on rear side of the piston is atmospheric. So the movement of the piston will be on the cost of pressure. The pressure
drop according to Ganeshan is given by,
( )

.

\

+ =
100
394 . 0
33 . 1
2
182 . 0 0888 . 0 42 . 0
Vp
atm
rc rc
B
L
P P dP
This temperature and pressure will be again put into the equation to
do the iteration. The whole loop will continue up to the whole exhaust process. Thus we will get the pressure and
temperature at the end of the exhaust process. Also mass of burnt gases leaving will be known. The result that we got has
been plotted on graph.
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 23492163
Volume 1 Issue 7 (August 2014) http://ijirae.com
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014, IJIRAE All Rights Reserved Page  158
RESULTS & DISCUSSION OF THE MODEL
Results of the Expansion Process
PRESSURE
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
3
6
4
3
8
0
3
9
6
4
1
2
4
2
8
4
4
4
4
6
0
4
7
6
4
9
2
DEGREE
B
A
R
TEMPERATURE
0
250
500
750
1000
1250
1500
3
6
4
3
8
0
3
9
6
4
1
2
4
2
8
4
4
4
4
6
0
4
7
6
4
9
2
DEGREE
K
E
L
V
IN
VOLUME
0
0.0001
0.0002
0.0003
3
6
6
3
8
4
4
0
2
4
2
0
4
3
8
4
5
6
4
7
4
4
9
2
DEGREE
m
m
3
Above Graphs show the trend of cylinder pressure variation with increasing crank angle. Combustion products with very high
temperature gets expanded due to increase in cylinder volume, which in turn reduce the pressure inside the cylinder drastically.
At the end of combustion process the pressure inside the cylinder is 35.023 bar. Pressure falls to 6.22 bar. This gives higher
energy extraction. The T curve shows that the temperature continues to decrease with increasing crank angle. Temperature
reaches to 1883.2382 K at the end of expansion process from 2616.5024 K at the conclusion of effective combustion process. It
is observed from the calculation that the value of convective heat transfer coefficient is 1710.58 W/m
2
K, which is much higher
compare to the value of 374.2725 W/m
2
K of compression process. This is obviously because of the effect of heat addition, which
enhances the temperature level of gas which is responsible for such a high value of heat transfer coefficient.
Results of the Exhaust Process
P R E SSU R E
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1.25
1.5
1.75
2
4
9
4
5
1
2
5
3
0
5
4
8
5
6
6
5
8
4
6
0
2
6
2
0
6
3
8
6
5
6
6
7
4
6
9
2
7
1
0
D E GR E E
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 23492163
Volume 1 Issue 7 (August 2014) http://ijirae.com
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014, IJIRAE All Rights Reserved Page  159
T E M P E R A T U R E
500
550
600
650
700
4
9
4
5
2
2
5
5
0
5
7
8
6
0
6
6
3
4
6
6
2
6
9
0
D E GR E E
VOLUME
0
0.00005
0.0001
0.00015
0.0002
0.00025
0.0003
4
9
4
5
1
8
5
4
2
5
6
6
5
9
0
6
1
4
6
3
8
6
6
2
6
8
6
7
1
0
DEGREE
m
m
3
CUMULATIVE MASS
0. 00E+00
2. 00E05
4. 00E05
6. 00E05
8. 00E05
1. 00E04
4
9
4
5
2
0
5
4
6
5
7
2
5
9
8
6
2
4
6
5
0
6
7
6
7
0
2
DEGREE
K
G
MASS GOING OUT
0. 00E+00
2. 50E07
5. 00E07
7. 50E07
1. 00E06
1. 25E06
1. 50E06
4
9
4
5
1
8
5
4
2
5
6
6
5
9
0
6
1
4
6
3
8
6
6
2
6
8
6
7
1
0
DEGREE
K
G
VALVE LIFT
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
4
9
4
5
1
4
5
3
4
5
5
4
5
7
4
5
9
4
6
1
4
6
3
4
6
5
4
6
7
4
6
9
4
7
1
4
DEGREE
m
m
Above Graphs give the experimentally measured value of valve lift at different crank angle. By comparing, it is clear that the
maximum valve lift of exhaust valve is less compared to maximum valve lift of inlet valve. Higher valve lift of inlet valve gives
higher volumetric efficiency especially at high speed. Fig.4.15 represents the valve flow areas obtained by Heywood[22] and
Gordans[2] approach. As Gordans[2] approach does not take stem area in the consideration, at higher valve lifts, effective flow
area is equal to the port area. The P curve shows that there is rapid fall in cylinder pressure. It falls to 1.0762 bar at 640 crank
angle. This happens because burned mass is forced to leave the cylinder space due to very high pressure differential. After 660
crank angle slow pressure building inside the cylinder is observed due to throttling effect.
The temperature obviously will reduce with high temperature burned mass leaving to the atmosphere with increasing crank
angle. It is observed from the T curve that, like pressure, there is not any rise of temperature during the later stage of exhaust
process. At the end of exhaust process, i.e at 720 crank angle temperature reaches to 406.4757 K. The value of pressure and
temperature obtained at the end of exhaust process is to be substituted again in the initial assumption of the analysis of the
suction process and the whole calculation needs to be repeated till the required accuracy is achieved.
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 23492163
Volume 1 Issue 7 (August 2014) http://ijirae.com
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014, IJIRAE All Rights Reserved Page  160
CONCLUSION
A graph shows the trend of cylinder pressure variation with increasing crank angle. Combustion products with very high
temperature get expanded due to increase in cylinder volume, which in turn reduce the pressure inside the cylinder drastically. At
the end of combustion process the pressure inside the cylinder is 35.023 bar. Pressure falls to 6.22 bar at 484 crank angle. This
gives higher energy extraction.
The T curve shows that the temperature continues to decrease with increasing crank angle. Temperature reaches to 1883.2382
K at the end of expansion process from 2616.5024 K at the conclusion of effective combustion process.
It is observed from the calculation that the value of convective heat transfer coefficient is much higher compare to the value of
compression process. This is obviously because of the effect of heat addition, which enhances the temperature level of gas which
is responsible for such a high value of heat transfer coefficient.
Graph gives the experimentally measured value of valve lift at different crank angle. By comparing, it is clear that the maximum
valve lift of exhaust valve is less compared to maximum valve lift of inlet valve. Higher valve lift of inlet valve gives higher
volumetric efficiency especially at high speed.
The P curve shows that there is rapid fall in cylinder pressure. It falls to 1.0762 bar at 640 crank angle. This happens because
burned mass is forced to leave the cylinder space due to very high pressure differential. After 660 crank angle slow pressure
building inside the cylinder is observed due to throttling effect.
The temperature obviously will reduce with high temperature burned mass leaving to the atmosphere with increasing crank
angle. It is observed from the T curve that, like pressure, there is not any rise of temperature during the later stage of exhaust
process. At the end of exhaust process, i.e at 720 crank angle temperature reaches to 406.4757 K. The value of pressure and
temperature obtained at the end of exhaust process is to be substituted again in the initial assumption of the analysis of the
suction process and the whole calculation needs to be repeated till the required accuracy is achieved.
REFERNCES
1. Billings R.E.& Lynchr.E. History Of Hydrogen Fuelled Internal Combustion Engines, Billing Research Publication No.
73001, 1973
2. Ennen R.A. & Cambell W.H. Hydrogen: Commertial fuel for I.C.Engine and other purpose, J ournal of Institute of fuel
(London), Vol. 6,No. 29, pp. 227290,1933
3. King R.O., Hayes S.V., Allan A.B., Anderson R.W.P. & Walker The Hydrogen Engine: Combustion knock and related flame
velocity, Trans. Engg. Inst. Of Canada,Vol. 2, pp. 442454, 1957
4. Channiwala S.A. Dissertation Report On Hydrogen As IC Engine Fuel, M.Tech. Thesis, Submitted IIT Bombay, 1980
5. Carl A., Kukkonen & Mordecai Shelef " Hydrogen as an Alternative Automative Fuel: 1993 Update," SAE Paper N. 940766
6. J .B.Heywood Fundamental Of Internal Combustion Engine Macgraw Hill International Edition, Volume I, 1986
7. Benson Ronald S Thermodynamics and Gas Dynamics of Internal Combustion Engine, Oxford University Press Vol. II
1986
8. Ganeshan V. Computer Simulation of S.I.Engine Process, Mcgrow Hill Book Company Hyderabad, 1988
9. Ramos, J .I., Internal combustion engine modeling, Hemisphere publishing corporation, 1989
10. Blair, G. P., Design and simulation of fourstroke engines, SAE Publication, 1999.
11. Benson, R. S., Garg, R. D. and Wallatt, D., A numerical solution of unsteady flow problems, Int. J . Mech. Sci., vol. 6, No.
1, 1964.
12. Patterson, D. J ., A comprehensive cycle analysis and digital computer simulation for spark ignited engines, Ph.D. Thesis,
submitted at University of Michigan, 1962.
13. Winterbone, D. E. and Pearson, R. J., Design techniques for engine manifolds, Wave action methods for an I.C. engines,
professional Engineering Publishing Ltd., 1999.
14. Witerbone, D. E. and Zhao, Y., Numerical simulation of intake and exhaust flows in a high speed multicylinder petrol
engine using the LaxWendroff method, I Mech E, C 430/038, 1991.
15. Bingham, J . F. and Blair, G. P., an improved branched pipe model for multicylinder automotive engine calculations, Proc.
I. Mech. E., vol. 199, No. D1, 1985.
16. Flamang, P. and Sierenes, R., Experimental and theoretical analysis of the flow in exhaust pipe junctions, I. Mech. E., C
382/082, 1989.
17. Haller, D., The application of a graphical method to dynamic problems in gases, Sulzer Technical Review, vol. 27, No. 1,
1945.
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 23492163
Volume 1 Issue 7 (August 2014) http://ijirae.com
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014, IJIRAE All Rights Reserved Page  161
18. J enny, E., Unidimensional transient flow with consideration of friction, heat transfer and change of section, The Brown
Bovery Review, Nov. 1950
19. Lumley, J . L., Engines, An Introduction, Cambridge University press, 1999.
20. Woschni, G., A universally applicable equation for the instantaneous heat transfer coefficient in the Internal combustion
engine, SAE 670931, 1967.
21. Nusselt, W., VDIForsch., 1923.
22. Anand, W. J . D., Heat transfer in the cylinders of reciprocating Internal combustion engines, Proc. I. Mech. E., vol. 177,
1963.
23. ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals, SI edition. , 1993
24. Shashikantha, Klose, W. and Parikh, P. P., Producergas engine and dedicated Natural gas engineComputer simulation for
performance optimization, SAE, 1998
25. Nusselt, W., VDIForsch., 1923.
Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.
Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbitpenerbit terkemuka.
Batalkan kapan saja.