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- CFD Exam Paper
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- Fully Developed Turbulent Flow In Straight Rectangular Ducts
- 2000 Modelling Particulate Flows
- Tutorial on 2d Hybrid Meshing in ICEM CFD for 2d Airfoil
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- 131412-130502-FFO
- Poinsot and Veynante - 2005 - Theoretical and numerical combustion.pdf
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- Hydraulic Effects of Drill-String Tool Joint and Rotation on Annular Flow Profile and Frictional Pressure Loss Using ANSYS-CFX - Lek Chun Hou
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- Experimental Analysis of Pressure Drop in CTU
- F Imping Jet 2011

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Momtchil Petkov

Mario Roman

U n i v e r s i t y o f C o n n e c t i c u t

Me c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g

D e p a r t m e n t

A d v i s o r : P r o f e s s o r B a r b e r

2 | P a g e

Table of Contents

Abstract. 3

Nomenclature. 3

I. Introduction... 4

II. CFD Analysis Roadmap... 4

III. Theory..... 7

IV. Module ExampleLaminar Flow Past a Cylindrical Pipe 18

V. Summary of Tutorials... 27

VI. Conclusion ... 43

VII. References. 44

VIII. Appendices - Modules

A--Laminar Pipe Flow.

B--Turbulent Pipe Flow...

C--Laminar Flow Over Flat Plate (Geometry and Mesh)

D--Laminar Flow Over Flat Plate

E--Nozzle Tutorial ..

F--Jets: Turbulent Flow...

GExternal Turbulent Compressible and Incompressible Flow across an airfoil. `

HTurbulent Incompressible Flow across a Periodic Airfoil

IDiscrete Phase Modeling: Particle Injection into a Pipe

3 | P a g e

Abstract

ANSYS FLUENT, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is very difficult to use

especially for new users. To help with this, tutorials have been created to be able to guide users

in the use of ANSYS FLUENT. They were created to mimic a classroom-like structure, where

the fundamentals are learned first. The creation of fundamental tutorials will allow users to have

projects where they will utilize the learning modules as references to guide them in more

complicated projects. Through the use of FLUENT and several validation efforts, which are

referenced from scholarly sources, the user will be able to validate the accuracy of their results.

In addition, with the help of the provided learning modules, the user will be able to create a

roadmap to achieve competence to solve more complicated problems.

Nomenclature

A Area

Coefficient of Lift

Coefficient of Drag

Coefficient of Pressure

D Diameter

Gravity

-Turbulence model to simulate and read turbulent flow

M Mach number

P Pressure

Re Reynolds number

Centerline Velocity

Fluid velocity

u Friction velocity

Max. Velocity

V Velocity

Inlet Velocity

Yp Distance to the wall from center of pipe

Density

Shear Stress

Dynamic viscosity

4 | P a g e

I. Introduction

One of the biggest challenges in the engineering industry is being able to come up with efficient

and optimal designs for new products. One of the strongest tools offered is FLUENT. FLUENT

is a very useful program recently acquired by ANSYS. It has the capability to model fluid flow

past objects with the ability to design, test, and analyze results all under one program. Although

it is a strong tool for engineering, it is also very difficult to use. For this reason, tutorials have

been created to teach FLUENT with the hope that these tutorials will serve as a fundamental tool

in teaching and as references for future senior design projects. The way the tutorials are set up

are by creating and analyzing basic flow fields and then to ensure the accuracy of each test case

it is then validated against a scholarly reference.

The structure of the tutorials is to first reproduce the fundamentals learned in a Fluid Mechanics

and Thermo Dynamics courses. One of the first scenarios learned in fluid mechanics is the flow

through a cylindrical pipe. The tutorials created follow very closely to how a fluid mechanics

course would be taught. For this reason, the first tutorial is the laminar flow of fluid through a

cylindrical pipe. The next tutorial is turbulent flow of fluid through a cylindrical pipe. By doing

the turbulent case, it will allow the user to see the difference between laminar and turbulent

flows and to gain some insight as to why different methods of analyzing structures in FLUENT

are necessary.

The next created learning module is to analyze flow over a flat plate. Analyzing the flow over a

flat plate is very important because it will give the user a more in-depth look as to what happens

when flow passes over an object. In addition, other tutorials such as a turbulent flow past a

nozzle, turbulent jet flow, turbulent compressible and incompressible flow past an airfoil,

turbulent incompressible flow past a periodic airfoil, and a discrete phase modeling tutorials are

created to be able to serve as fundamental tutorials so that the user may then use them as

precursors to analyzing more complicated problems.

In addition, one of the most important parts in creating the tutorials is the need for validation.

Validation is extremely important when analyzing solutions, because it is the only way to ensure

the accuracy of the results obtained in FLUENT. Validation is made by comparing results from

FLUENT to theoretical and experimental data from scholarly sources.

II. CFD Analysis Roadmap

The importance of the created learning tutorials is to guide users into ANSYS FLUENT and

provide them with a friendly introduction to the CFD software. For this reason fundamental

learning modules have been created which are: laminar and turbulent fluid flow through a

cylindrical pipe, laminar fluid flow over a flat plate, turbulent flow through a nozzle, turbulent jet

flow, turbulent compressible and incompressible flow past an airfoil, turbulent incompressible

flow past a periodic airfoil and discrete phase modeling. So why were these specific modules

chosen and created?

The purpose for these tutorials is to lead a new user through options of increasing difficulty.

The laminar pipe flow tutorial helped to introduce the icons and tools that ANSYS has to

5 | P a g e

offer. By having the user work with this very simple tutorial, they could familiarize

themselves with where certain icons are and where certain tools are located. Once the user

has completed this tutorial then the next tutorial added increased in complexity. The reason

for this method is to be able to instill confidence in the user to make them feel confident in

doing simple cases and build up to more complicated ones.

After each of the simple cases is run, the user has to validate each result. By validating ones

results the user is ensured they have created an accurate simulation. For instance, if a first

time user has to analyze an airfoil, they should not start by designing an airfoil. Although

they might obtain results, how would they know if the results are accurate? For this reason,

the user would first figure out how flow develops through a pipe.

The user would take the laminar tutorial and figure out how to model fluid flow and then be

able to validate it. Next, since the airfoil is close to flow over an isolated surface, they would

then want to analyze the flat plate flow tutorial. Again the user should then have to validate

these results.

Next, since the airfoil is going to have a specific set of coordinates, the user could then want

to use the Nozzle tutorial, which explains how to import coordinates in order to create an

object. Now the user is ready to create an airfoil and analyze it. The user now knows how to

model flow and initialize a solution (laminar tutorial), they also know how to model flow

over an isolated surface (flat plate tutorial) and they know how to import coordinates into

FLUENT (nozzle tutorial). Since they have all the information needed to create an accurate

airfoil, they user can now apply the previous knowledge to analyze a complicated geometry.

From here the user is a step closer to creating an accurate airfoil and of course like all the

other tutorials the user needs to validate the results. Refer to Fig.1 for a visual representation

of the mentioned roadmap.

Fig.1Example of a Roadmap

Another example of a roadmap is for analyzing the flow through a guide vane. First the

novice user will want to be able to model fluid flow so they would begin with a laminar

tutorial. Once they have learned the icons and what each tool does, then they would want to

analyze turbulent flow. They would then refer to the turbulent flow through a pipe and figure

out how to apply biasing and what models to use to analyze turbulence (See appendix B).

The user will then want to again create a 2D airfoil which would give them the knowledge to

analyze how to fluid passes an isolated surface. Once they have validated this they can then

6 | P a g e

move to a 3D airfoil and again validate it. Then they would want create a 2d cascade,

validate it, and lastly create a 3D cascade and validate it. Now the user has the necessary

information and knowledge to create a guide vane and have the confidence to know that it is

accurate. Refer to Fig.2 for a visual representation of the described roadmap.

Fig.2Example of a Guide Vane Roadmap

The creation of a roadmap is of crucial importance in order to be able to build the

knowledge on how to create and analyze complicated geometry. Before wanting to analyze any

complicated geometry, the user should make a roadmap of their own so that they can build

confidence in how they will figure out the problem and make sure it will be accurate. Like

mentioned before the user can create any geometry they want and can get results but how will

they know if it is accurate? The only way of knowing this is by simplifying the complicated

object into several steps (the roadmap) and work part by part in order to have accurate analytical

data for their object. Sometimes validation for complex problems is not readily available. If

however a roadmap is correctly followed then the need for validation for the specific complex

problem in question while needed is not as crucial.

III. Theory

ANSYS FLUENT is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software that allows users to

simulate flow problems of ranging complexity. It contains broad physical modeling capabilities

needed to model flow, turbulence, heat transfer, and reactions over objects designed by the user.

Thousands of companies around the world benefit from the use of CFD software as a main part

of their design phases in their product development. It uses the finite-volume method to solve the

7 | P a g e

governing Navier-Stokes equations for a fluid which are derived from the conservation mass

equation (1), the conservation of momentum (2) and the conservation of energy (3) equations [6].

) (1)

(2)

(3)

The difficulty arises from the fact that the conservation of mass, momentum and energy are

coupled and non-linear set of differential equations making them practically impossible to solve

analytically for practical engineering problems. Hence CFD software such as FLUENT is

utilized to provide very reasonable approximation upon solving the specified governing

equations [2].

Additionally, FLUENT also allows the users to model a range of flows such as incompressible or

compressible, inviscid or viscous, laminar or turbulent flow. The advanced solver technology

that FLUENT has, provides fast and accurate results through flexible moving and deforming

meshes to be able to create optimal designs. Ultimately, FLUENT allows engineers to design,

create and analyze a configuration all under one program.

In order to model the object that a user wants to work with, its geometry and mesh must be first

created in ANSYS Workbench. Another option is to import the geometry and mesh from

Computer Aided Design (CAD) software packages such as Unigraphics, ProE or others. In

Workbench, the user creates the object he or she wishes to analyze and Workbench guides the

user through very complex metaphysics for fluid flow with drag and drop simplicity. Once the

geometry has been created, the user can take advantage of several meshing options that

Workbench provides. The user can implement the meshing in the specimen to analyze the

structure as they try to analyze fluid flow past/through their object. As seen in Fig.3 below that

is a mesh for a jet.

Fig.3 Mesh for flow through a jet

A few different ways of modeling and analyzing fluid flow are through turbulence modeling, k-,

and Y+. Turbulence modeling is used to model turbulent flow. Turbulent flows are characterized

by large, nearly random fluctuations in velocity and pressure in both space and time. These

fluctuations arise from instabilities that eventually are dissipated (into heat) by the action of

viscosity. Turbulent flows occur in the opposite limit of high Reynolds numbers. The two

approaches to solving the flow equations for turbulent flow flied can be roughly divided into two

8 | P a g e

classes, direct numerical simulations and k- [2]. Direct numerical simulation numerically

integrates the Navier-Stokes equations, resolving all of the spatial and temporal fluctuations

without resorting to modeling. k-, models Reynolds stress in two turbulent parameters, the

turbulent kinetic energy (k) and the turbulent energy dissipation rate defined below by

Equations 4 and 5 respectively.

) (4)

(

(5)

The next type of modeling is known as y+. Y+ is a mesh-dependent dimensionless

distance that quantifies to what degree the wall layer is resolved. Y+ plus is a non-dimensional

parameter defined by Eq. [6] [10].

(6)

where u=

Workbench offers several meshing options, one being structured meshing. In structured meshing

the user decides how many user defined shapes they want placed over the object they are

analyzing. An example is seen in Fig.4. Structured meshing consists of tetrahedrons and exhibits

a clearly pronounced pattern.

Fig.4 Structured mesh for a pipe

The mesh interior to a pipe shown is 100 by 5, meaning 100 elements in the horizontal directions

and 5 elements in the vertical direction. Which is an example of structured mesh, however as the

geometries increase in complexity it is necessary to adjust the meshing accordingly. However,

when dealing with other cases such as flow across an airfoil, it is important to use a different

mesh structure. One such structure is a structured O- grid around the airfoil. Because of the

existence of the layers around the airfoil, it can be ensured the flow gradients are properly

captured.

9 | P a g e

Fig.5 O grid around an airfoil

Referring to the airfoil grid in Fig. 5 it should be noted that FLUENT obtains a solution such that

the mass, momentum, energy and other quantities are conserved for each cell. The code of the

CFD software solves directly the values of the flow variables at the cell centers and the values at

other locations are appropriately interpolated [2]. In other cases, where there is no complicated

geometry, but rather there is more flow gradients occurring around a certain area, the user can

apply a bias. Applying a bias means concentrating the mesh around a certain area. For example,

in the turbulent flow past a cylindrical pipe tutorial a bias is applied because as previously

learned when dealing with turbulent cases, there are large gradients near the wall requiring the

mesh generated as seen in Fig 6.

Fig.6 Bias Mesh for a turbulent flow

In this bias mesh the farther away from the wall, the meshes seem to go back into the same

structured mesh seen before. It is important to mention that at the bottom of this mesh it

represents the centerline because since cylinders are radially symmetric were only showing the

top part of the radius. It is expected for the flow to be less turbulent near the centerline and for

that reason the mesh is less biased.

10 | P a g e

Finally, once the test object has been drawn and meshed in Workbench, FLUENT then allows

the user to analyze it in different flow parameters. Another modeling capability FLUENT is

capable of using is enhanced wall treatment. When the user chooses to use enhanced wall

treatment, they can use this especially for turbulent cases using the k-epsilon model because it

analyzes the object closer near the wall region. The initial and boundary conditions can be

specified in FLUENT and upon initializing the problem; it can be checked for convergence. If

the convergence is not achieved accurate results will not be obtained. Finally, FLUENT provides

a wide variety of parameters that can be plotted and analyzed.

The topic of convergence requires further explanation in order for a better understanding to be

achieved of the underlying steps, undertaken by FLUENT and other CFD packages, necessary to

derive a solution. It has already been mentioned that the FLUENT code utilizes the finite-volume

method to solve the governing differential equations to obtain a solution for a particulate

problem. For simplicity purposes let us consider the finite-difference method which is in 1D. If

the grid has equally-spaced points with being the spacing between successive points, the

truncation error is O (). As a result as the number of grid points is increased, and the spacing

between successive points is reduced, the error in the numerical solution would decrease.

Therefore the obtained numerical solution will closely agree to the exact solution [2]. In

FLUENT during the obtainment of convergence the governing equations are solved for a

predetermined by the user number of times (iterations). Specifically the magnitude of the average

of particulate variable is computed as illustrated in Eq. [7] [2].

(7)

where R is the residual, N is the number of iterations to be performed, u indicates a particulate

variable to be computed, and the subscript g indicates a guessed value.

Laminar and Turbulent Flow into a Pipe:

While FLUENT is a very powerful tool in obtaining solutions to a wide range of fluid flow

problems, the results obtained should be carefully validated with known theory or empirical data

to make sure they are accurate. For example, in the case of a laminar flow through a pipe, the

obtained results for the velocity profile can be compared with the theoretical data. For a steady

state (fluid properties are not changing with respect to time) laminar flow in circular tubes the

Navier-Stokes upon making the necessary assumptions can be solved to obtain a theoretical

solution to the velocity profile. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in Cartesian

coordinates are shown in Eqs. [8-10] [6].

x-direction: (

) (8)

y-direction: (

) (9)

z-direction: (

) (10)

The parabolic velocity profile for steady laminar flow in a cylindrical pipe is provided in Eq. [

11]. It should be noted the obtained equation is a result of solving the Navier-Stokes equations in

cylindrical coordinates.

11 | P a g e

(11)

(12)

In the case of turbulent flow past a cylinder a comparison can be established by using

Nikuradses empirical correlation. In the case of turbulence one can rely only on empirical

correlations because of the randomness associated with turbulent flow. Depending on how

accurate the experimental results correlate to the theoretical or empirical ones, one can decide

whether or not the mesh used needs improvement or whether or not the initial conditions or the

boundary ones specified in FLUENT need enhancement.

The reason why there is such a high dependency on empirical data is due to the randomness

associated with turbulence. In turbulence there is no exact equation, all solutions are empirical

data points. An example of this is the equation for skin friction for turbulence which is

(13)

The main reason that it is an empirical equation, it has a few limiting conditions. Some of those

limiting conditions are that it has to be only for smooth pipes and it is only useful for Reynolds

number less than 100,000.

Also, another very important one is Nikuradses empirical correlation for turbulent flow which is

given by Eq. [14] [6].

(14)

where n, the power-law exponent varies with respect to the Reynolds number. Turbulent cases

are very difficult to analyze because there is no exact answer, however the Moody diagram [6;

Pg 412-413 Fundamentals of fluid Mechanics 6

th

ed.] in which the coefficient of friction with

respect to the Reynolds number is displayed, serves as a reference as to what the solutions should

appear to be. The Moody diagram is based off of

(15)

where the results are obtained from numerous set of experiments plotted on the Moody diagram

12 | P a g e

Fig.7 Moody diagram

Flow over a Flat Plate

Another case which is very important is the flow over a flat plate. This tutorial is very important

because it will help simulate how flow develops over a flat plate. For this tutorial, a Re of

(16)

is critical because above this value the flow is turbulent and flow under this value is laminar.

Provided a sufficiently long flat plate eventually turbulent flow will be encountered since the

value of the Reynolds number is related to the length of the plate. The length of the flat plate in

the created learning module (Appendix C and D) is of length 1 meter and the viscosity, density

and inlet velocity are chosen such that the maximum Reynolds number reached is 10,000 which

is well within the laminar flow range.

Fig.8 Flow Distribution past a flat plate [13]

In the laminar layer, the fluid flow is highly ordered and is possible to identify streamlines along

which fluid particles move. This fluid continues until it hits a transition zone, which is where a

conversion from laminar to turbulent conditions occurs. After it passes this region, it reaches

turbulent flow which is where random motion is relatively high. Solution for the velocity profile

for a laminar flow over a flat plate has been done by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The Navier-

Stokes equation can be simplified for boundary layer flow analysis. It can be assumed that the boundary

layer is thin and the fluid flow is primarily parallel to the plate. Hence:

13 | P a g e

(17)

(18)

H. Blasius, one of Prandtls students was able to solve those equations for flat plate parallel to the flow

[8]. By introducing the dimensionless parameter (the similarity variable) the partial differential

equations are reduced to an ordinary differential equation.

(19)

where U is the inlet velocity, and is the kinematic viscosity,

.

The convenience of validating the boundary layer velocity profile in terms of the similarity variable is that

the boundary layer velocity profiles (which depends both on x and y) at any point along the plate will

overlap one another and can be analyzed versus the empirical Blasius correlation.

Flow Through a Convergent-Divergent Nozzle

Another tutorial created is for flow through a convergent-divergent nozzle. The channel is

supplied with a flow at high pressure and exhausts into lower pressure at the outlet. An example

is seen in Fig. 9.

Fig. 9 Convergent Divergent nozzles

In addition, from the figure, A[x] is the local cross-sectional area, u[x] the local axial velocity

and p[x] the local static pressure. To analyze how the flow passes through a nozzle, the user can

do it by imposing restrictions on the geometry or on the character of the flow. It can then be

compared to quasi-1D theory which assumes that the nozzle is slender. FLUENT can be used to

analyze flow, which is what the nozzle learning module demonstrates.

Quasi -1D flow is one where the properties across each cross section are assumed uniform.

Changes in flow properties in the x-direction are brought about by area change of the duct. In

order to assume this, another assumption that has to be made, the assumption is that the nozzle

geometry is long and thin. Additionally, it neglects viscous effects on the flow field, and

maximum velocity occurs at the minimum area which is called the throat. The dependence of

the axial velocity and static pressure is due to the area variation, and its a function of whether

the flow is subsonic or supersonic which is given by Eq. [10].

14 | P a g e

(20)

For isentropic flows, the following relations Eqs. [11-13] govern the variation of Mach number,

static pressure and static temperature with nozzle area.

(21)

(22)

) ( {

)]

(23)

Fig. 10 Back pressure effects on Mach & Pressure for a nozzle

The static pressure distributions in the Fig 8 illustrate the dependence of the distribution on the

exit or back pressure for a given A[x] nozzle contour.

Flow Over an Isolated Airfoil

Airfoils operate upon theories of lift and drag. Consider a typical symmetric airfoil as illustrated

in Fig.11.

Fig.11

c=1m

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represents the free stream Mach number, is the angle of attack and c represents the chord

length of the airfoil. The airfoil experiences a net force due to the fluid acting on the object. The

Drag Force, D, acts in the direction of the free stream while the Lift Force, L, is normal to the

free stream. Airfoils are designed to generate lift. However for objects such as cars it is desired

to reduce the lift since the lift on a car reduces the contact force between the wheels and the

ground. Typically the lift and drag are given in terms of the Coefficient of Lift and the

Coefficient of Drag which are dimensionless forms of the Lift and Drag forces.

(24)

(25)

Most of the airfoil lift is a result of the surface pressure distribution which is consistent with

Bernoullis equation analysis [6].

(26)

The effect of stall in airfoils must be avoided because loss of control and stability issues arise

from it. The stall can visually be inspected on the upper surface in Fig.12 where a transition from

high velocity to low velocity can be observed.

Fig.12--Turbulent Compressible Flow Across an Airfoil, M=0.8, Re=

,

;Velocity Contours

The theoretical value for the coefficient of lift depends on the angle of attack and is provided by

Eq. [27]:

(27)

where is in radians.

16 | P a g e

0.01745 rad

The coefficient of pressure is an important dimensionless parameter used for data validation

specifically for the velocity profile [6]. Since due to no-slip condition meaning the velocity on

the solid boundary on the airfoil relative to the boundary is zero, pressure data obtained in

FLUENT is meaningful to analyze and validate in Excel. In Theory of Wing Sections by Abbott

and Doenhoff [11] data is provided for various airfoil models assuming the flow is turbulent

incompressible with zero degree angle of attack.

(28)

where

is the

density being

and

Discrete Phase Modeling [DPM] of Particle in Pipe Flow

ANSYS FLUENT can output the trajectory of a discrete phase particle and that case is

showcased in Appendix I. Specifically, the force balance on the particle is integrated under

Lagrangian reference frame considerations. Recall flow can be analyzed either by Eulerian or

Lagrangian considerations. In the Eulerian representation fluid motion is given by completely

describing the necessary properties such as pressure, density, velocity and others. Flow

information is obtained at fixed points in space as fluid flows through those points. The

Lagrangian method is characterized by following individual fluid particles as they move [6].

The force balance of the particle for the x-direction is provided in Eq. [29].

(29)

where

per unit particle mass, u is the fluid phase velocity and

(30)

where is the fluids molecular viscosity, is the fluid density,

Re is the relative Reynolds number provided by Eq. [31] and

(31)

The additional acceleration term

circumstances. When a force is required to accelerate the fluid surrounding the particle, or the

virtual mass force as it is referred, is taken under consideration, the acceleration term takes the

form of Eq. [32].

(32)

17 | P a g e

Equation X is of particulate importance when the fluid density is greater than the density of the

particle. Due to the pressure gradient an additional force must be considered and the acceleration

term takes the form of Eq. [33] [12].

(33)

IV. Module ExampleLaminar Flow Past a Cylindrical Pipe

The major steps taken into the creation of the learning module are outlined and explained. While

the focus is on the laminar pipe flow module it needs to be noted the exact same approach is

undertaken for the other learning modules. The goal of the section is for the user to become more

acquainted with the flow of the tutorial and if more details are desired, the user can consult with

the provided AppendixesAppendix A for the particular laminar pipe flow module. Hence the

actual step-by-step procedures are explained in much more detail in the Appendices.

The Laminar Pipe Flow Learning Module has seven distinct components.

1. Problem Statement

2. Geometry Creation and Mesh Creation

a. Actual geometry creation of the pipe and the corresponding mesh creation for it are

done here

3. Problem Setup

a. The specific values and important selections that need to be made in ANSYS

FLUENT prior to obtaining convergence and getting results

4. Solution

a. The user learns the important steps that need to be taken in order to obtain

convergence for the problem.

5. Results section

a. Contains the obtainment of various plots such as the velocity and pressure profile,

skin friction coefficient and their manipulations

b. Visual representation of the velocity profile along the pipe in the form of velocity

vectors is also included in the section

6. Validation section

a. This section provides the necessary information of how meaningful validation can be

performed in order for the user to make sure the obtained data is meaningful.

b.

Fig. 13 Geometry of Pipe

D=0.2m

L=8m

Center Line

18 | P a g e

Laminar Pipe flow modeling

(1) Problem Statement:

The user learns the basics of the problem at hand as well as important given information

in the Problem Statement section. The given parameters are-- =

;

=

Based on the given information, the Reynolds number can be computed to determine whether or

not the problem as stated is laminar, transitional or turbulent. Recall that for flow in a round pipe,

the flow is laminar if the Reynolds number is less than approximately 2100; the flow is

transitional if the Reynolds number is between 2100 and 4000 and it is fully turbulent if Re is

greater than 4000. Based on the given parameters the flow that is to be analyzed is laminar.

= 100 (34)

(2) Geometry Creation:

The user is introduced to the basics of ANSYS Workbench--specifically how to create a sketch

of the problem and then how to obtain a surface from the made sketch. Since a 2d model is

created it can be assumed the shape of the pipe is rectangular. Furthermore the problem is

assumed as axisymmetric hence only the upper portion of the pipes diameter is to be taken

under consideration. The learnt basics then can be applied in the geometry creation for more

complicated problems such as when turbulent pipe flow, flow past a flat plate and others are

analyzed.

Fig.142d pipe sketched and made into a surface in ANSYS Workbench.

(3) Mesh Creation:

The mesh is created in ANSYS Workbench as well. In the Mesh Creation section it is

explained to how to create a structured meshthe grid exhibits clearly pronounced shape with

tetrahedral shaped elements. Structured mesh is recommended for problems of such basic

geometry. It is specifically explained to how size individual edges of the geometry as well as

how to ensure elements on opposite ends correspond to each othermapped face meshing. In

Meshing specific zones of the geometry are named. Those zones will later be further specified in

ANSYS FLUENT. The learned techniques are a very important starting point in ensuring the

user will be able to handle more complicated problems.

Fig.15Structured Grid

Inlet

Outlet

Wall

Axis

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(4) Problem Setup:

Careful consideration must be exercised upon entering specific information in ANSYS

FLUENT as it relates an axis symmetric pipe flow. It is recommended a top-bottom approach is

utilized in order not to miss anything. First the mesh must be checked for errors and the

dimensions must be verified. The problem must be set as axisymmetric. Then the model must be

specified as laminar. The given initial information as it relates to the density and viscosity must

be entered in the material properties. Next, the Boundary Conditions must be specified. The user

must first make sure the zones named in Workbench are of the proper type. The inlet zone must

be of velocity-inlet type, outletpressure-outlet type, wallwall type and finally axisaxis

type. The next step is to input the relevant given information in the specific boundariesthe inlet

velocity given as 1 m/s should be entered in the velocity-inlet boundary. The reference value

must be specified at the inlet (ref. Fig.3) in order to be able to obtain certain data such as the skin

friction coefficient.

(5) Solution:

The importance of obtaining convergence is stressed in the solution section. If

convergence is not obtained, it will be impossible to obtain any results. However first the

problem must be initialized to take into an account initially specified parametersusually the

given parameters specified at the inlet. Upon obtaining convergence the governing equations are

solved by FLUENT. They are the conservation of mass, momentum and energyEqs.[2-4].

However since temperature effects are of no concern and neither is the fluid flow taken as

compressible in the particular analysis of laminar pipe flow, the energy equation is not solved.

The convergence residuals are a measure of how well the solution obtained satisfies the discrete

form of the governing equations. As can be seen in Fig. 16, convergence is obtained as those

residuals after certain number of iterations.

Fig. 16--Laminar Pipe Flow Convergence History

(6) Results:

In Results section, the user becomes familiar with various ways of creating XY Plots of

the obtained data as well as methods of manipulating plots to make them more useful. The color

and shape of the curves can be changed and scaling of the axis can be changed. Plots of skin

20 | P a g e

friction, static pressure and velocity profile are created and the user also learns how to save them

so they can be later opened in Excel to perform data validation. Figs. 17-18 show how by

manipulating a plot, it can be more visually appealing or easier to interpret.

Fig. 17 Velocity Profile XY Plot before Manipulation

Fig. 18-- Velocity Profile XY Plot after Manipulation

These graphs are the graphs that ANSYS has the ability to show however, for closer analyzing to

upload the values to excel it is very simple.

Uploading to Excel

1. Select plot, here you figure out what you would like to plot whether velocity pressure etc.

2. In the Plot box on the left side, there is a radio button which says write to file, select that

button

3. Save it as choosename.xls

4. Open this file in Excel and when prompted if Excel should up load the file select yes and

then finish.

21 | P a g e

In the Results section it is also explained how to obtain the velocity vectors to observe the

parabolic velocity profile along the pipe. Techniques of adjusting the scale, significant figures

and location of the color map are introduced. It is introduced how to mirror the plane to get a

complete grasp of the velocity profile (recall the problem is analyzed as axisymmetric)Fig. 19.

The user learns how to scale the rectangular shape, representing the pipe in 2d in order for the

whole shape to visible on the screen making the velocity vectors easier to distinguishFig. 20.

Having learned the mentioned techniques the user can then proceed to obtain different visual

representations.

Fig.19Plane is mirror for the full parabolic profile to be seen.

Fig.20Through Scaling the Whole Shape is Visible

Validation:

The data validation is explained in significant detail in order to ensure the user can apply the

learnt knowledge to other fluid flow problems. However validation does not stop there. As

engineers one should always ask himself whether the obtained data is correct. Computational

22 | P a g e

Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software like ANSYS FLUENT is not a magic box. One cannot rely

that the data being outputted is correct. The data will be only as meaningful as the parameters

specified and models and options selected. Hence the user must not only be knowledgeable of

how to use the CFD client properly, but depending on the actual flow problem a significant

knowledge of fluid mechanics is required as well.

First in the validation process it is explained how the written to file XY Plots can be opened in

Excel for further manipulation. As part of the post-processing process the initial mesh is

enhanced in Workbench in order to investigate how increasing the number of elements will

impact the accuracy of the solution. Validation in Excel is performed using dimensional analysis,

meaning both the experimental data and the theoretical validation will be manipulated so that one

will not need to rely on dimension to perform the analysis. It must be noted that while for the

laminar pipe flow it can be relied on theoretical validation as it relates to entry-length (5),

velocity profile (6), skin friction (7, 8) and static pressure drop (9) in other cases empirical

correlation (extensive experiments performed by others such as Nikuradse or Blasius empirical

correlations) may be the only means of obtaining validation. Empirical validation is illustrated in

the turbulent pipe flow and laminar flow past a flat plate learning modules.

Axial Distance

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

S

k

i

n

F

r

i

c

t

i

o

n

C

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

,

C

f

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

Fluent 100 x 5

Fluent 100 x 10

Theoretical

Fig. 21--Skin Friction vs. Pipe length along the wall, dimensionless

Dimensional analysis is convenient and preferred because one need not depend on unit

limitations and validation can be performed for pipes of various dimensions if need be. Figure 21

represents validation performed for the skin friction coefficient. Correlation for the entry length

is displayed in Figs. 22-24, which illustrate the velocity profile validation along the radius of the

pipe. Figure 25 provides validation for the static pressure drop from the inlet to the outlet of the

pipe. Finally, Fig. 26 investigates the case where two different materials are chosenair and oil.

If the Reynolds number is kept the same but the inlet velocity is manipulated to obtain equal

Reynolds number for the two materials, then the data in dimensional form should exactly match.

The statement is proven for the velocity profile in Fig. 26.

23 | P a g e

Axial Distance, x/L

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

C

e

n

t

e

r

l

i

n

e

V

e

l

o

c

i

t

y

,

u

/

u

m

a

x

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

Fluent 100 x 5

Fluent 100 x 10

Empirical

Fig. 22 --Centerline Velocity in Axial Direction, Dimensionless

Velocity, u/ucl

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

R

a

d

i

a

l

L

o

c

a

t

i

o

n

,

r

/

R

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Fluent 100 x 5

Fluent 100 x 10

Poiseuille

Fig. 23 --Dimensionless F.D Velocity Profile in Radial Direction

24 | P a g e

Velocity, u/ucl

0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00

R

a

d

i

a

l

L

o

c

a

t

i

o

n

,

r

/

R

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

Fluent 100 x 5

Fluent 100 x 10

Poiseuille

Fig. 24 -Dimensionless F.D Velocity profile in Radial Direction

Axial Distance, x/L

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

S

t

a

t

i

c

P

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

,

p

/

p

1

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Fluent 100 x 5

Fluent 100 x 10

Theoretical

Fig. 25 --Static Pressure Drop vs. Axial length, Dimensionless

25 | P a g e

X Data

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Y

D

a

t

a

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Air Fluent 100 x 10

Oil Fluent 100 x 10

Poiseuille

Fig. 26 --Fully Developed Pipe Velocity Profile for Air and Oil, Re=1369

While basic in nature the laminar pipe flow module is crucial in illustrating the basics that first

must be learned in order to be able to create, mesh, setup, solve and most importantly validate

data obtained for more complicated problems. Other learning modules of increasing difficulty,

included in the Appendices, are turbulent pipe flow, laminar flow past a flat plate,

turbulent flow past a nozzle, analysis of turbulent jets, turbulent compressible and

incompressible flow past an airfoil, turbulent incompressible flow across a periodic airfoil

and discrete phase modelingparticle injection into a pipe. Each of those learning modules

teaches the user something new and by incorporating and applying the learned knowledge from

all tutorials, the user should be able to solve complex problems more efficiently.

V. Summary of Available Learning Modules

C. Turbulent Pipe Flow Case

The turbulent case, similar to the laminar case, is started the same way all the way up to the

meshing. All the previous steps such as centering and building the sketch are done in the same

way. However, when it comes to the mesh it is very different. From Fluid Mechanics, it is known

that turbulence will be most significant near the wall. For that reason biased meshing is then

applied. The reason for this biased meshing is so that there is more mesh (smaller x) where the

flow gradients are large. In addition, turbulence model is turned on because this is another

feature that FLUENT has to evaluate.

26 | P a g e

Fig.27 Biased Mesh for Turbulent Pipe Flow

After creating the sketch and specifying the bias, both done in Workbench, the mesh size is then

specified; the first one that is tried is 100X30 Grid (100 element divisions in the axial direction

and 30 element divisions in the radial direction). The second grid choice is 100X54 Grid.

Similarly to the laminar pipe flow tutorial, the relevant initial and boundary conditions are

specified in FLUENT. Then the problem is initialized and checked for convergence. One of the

graphs that are analyzed is for the Y+ values with respect to the pipes length, where the graph

represents the Y+ values comparison for the k- model for the two created meshesFig.28.

Since Y+ is a dimensionless quantity there is no need to manipulate the column any further.

However the x-axis values are computed by dividing each value in the column for the axial pipe

distance by the total length of the pipein this specific case, 8 meters. It can be seen that as the

mesh is refined the Y+ values are getting closer to one signaling the 100X54 is the better mesh

choice. Results however in fig.29 show little difference. Recall that the dimensionless parameter

Y+ has been defined in the theory section.

Axial Distance, x/L

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Y

+

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

EWT 100 x 54

EWT 100 x 30

Fig. 28Y+ values for Turbulent Pipe Flow with Re=10,000

27 | P a g e

Lastly, like the laminar tutorial, validation is very important. One of the validation methods used

to analyze the obtained experimental results is the Nikuradse fully develop velocity profile for

smooth pipes. In dimensionless form, the Nikuradse equation is plotted and then analyzedFig.

29. It is very important to mention however that this is empirical correlation due to the flow

being turbulent thus exhibiting unique and random behavior. The relevant Nikuradse empirical

correlation theory has been explained in the theory section. One reason for the mismatch may be

the simulation pipe length is not long enough to get a fully developed profile.

Axial Velocity, u/ucl

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

R

a

d

i

a

l

D

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

,

r

/

R

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

EWT 100 x 54

EWT 100 x 30

Nikuradse, n=6

Nikuradse, n=7

Fig. 29--Normalized Axial Velocity Profile

D. Laminar Flow over a Flat Plate Case

The tutorial modeling laminar flow over a flat plate will express results as a is function of the

Reynolds number which varies with the distance along the plate,

until the Reynolds number reaches 500,000. The geometry of the problem is created in the same

manner as with the laminar pipe flow. Like the turbulent pipe flow case, bias is needed in order

to obtain more accurate results in the areas of biggest flow gradients, even though the flow is

laminar. For the flat plate that is near the wallthe bottom horizontal edge (recall in the

turbulent pipe flow case the bias is used to obtain more meshing towards the upper horizontal

edge).

Fig.19

Symmetry

Wall

Outlet Inlet

Width,w

Length,L

Air

28 | P a g e

The key thing is to define the various surfaces properly in FLUENT. The inlet is Velocity inlet;

the outlet is a Pressure Outlet; the named wall zone in Workbench should be by default specified

as a type Wall in FLUENT. Finally the Symmetry zone should be specified as type symmetry.

After the boundary conditions are specified and convergence is obtained after initialization of the

problem (see Appendix D) the obtained data is validated in order to make sure it makes sense.

The validation comparisons are for the skin friction coefficient and the velocity profile.

The steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations which are solved to yield the obtained data

can be simplified for boundary layer flow analysis. It can be assumed that the boundary layer is

thin and the fluid flow is primarily parallel to the plate. Hence for 2D incompressible flow

(35)

(36)

H. Blasius, one of Prandtls students, was able to solve those equations for flat plate parallel to

the flow. By introducing the dimensionless similarity parameter , the partial differential

equations can be reduced to a single ordinary differential equation in terms of the independent

variable .

(37)

where U is the inlet velocity and is the kinematic viscosity,

The convenience of validating the boundary layer velocity profile in terms of the similarity

variable is that the boundary layer velocity profile (which depends both on x and y) at any point

along the plate will overlap one another and can be analyzed versus the Blasius solution.

Fluent, Laminar, 50 x 60 Grid

Velocity, u/U

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

S

i

m

i

l

a

r

i

t

y

V

a

r

i

a

b

l

e

,

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Blasius

Fluent, x/L=0.6

Fluent, x/L=0.8

Fluent, x/L=1.0

Fig. 31 --Boundary Layer profile for Flow over Flat Plate

29 | P a g e

The validation performed for the skin friction coefficient (Fanning friction) can be seen to

correlate accurately against the Blasius numerical solution data. The Blasius prediction is

specified by Eq. [38].

(38)

Axial Distance, x/L

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

S

k

i

n

F

r

i

c

t

i

o

n

C

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

,

C

f

x

R

e

x

1

/

2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Fluent, Re=10,000

Blasius

Fig. 32 Centerline skin friction coefficient

It needs to be emphasized bias towards the wall surface is to be used otherwise the results will

not be accurate. As it can be seen the most accurate results are yielded upon using structured

biased towards the wall tetrahedral meshsee Fig. 33.

Axial Velocity, u/U

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

V

e

r

t

i

c

a

l

D

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

,

y

/

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

60 x 50 Unstructured Mesh

60 x 50 Far Field Bias

60 x 200

Blasius

Fig. 33 --Velocity profile comparison for different Mesh Types

30 | P a g e

E. Turbulent Flow Past a Nozzle Case

The nozzle case is another fundamental case for learning FLUENT. Unlike the previous tutorials.

Specifically an already created mesh (done in FlowLab) is imported into FLUENT. An

additional part of this specific learning module is in-depth description of how a similar nozzle

would be created and meshed in Workbench. Specifically the user learns how to import

coordinates, specified in Excel, to form curves. By importing an already created mesh file into

FLUENT, time is saved and more focus can be placed on the problem setup and its validation.

This is shown in more detail in Appendix E.

Fig.34--Nozzle sketch

The user must possess knowledge in Turbo Machinery and Fluid Mechanics, not only to properly

setup the boundary conditions, but also to correctly validate the problem. Specifically the

turbulent flow past a nozzle module is validated against the 1D Quasi model already described in

the theory section.

Fig.35--Mesh for Nozzle

31 | P a g e

In order to validate the FLUENT results, they are validated against data provided by Professor

Barber, a professor of Turbo Machinery at the University of Connecticut. They can be seen in the

tutorial in Appendix and they correlate very well.

Fig. 36--Mach number vs. Position

Fig. 37--Mach number vs. Position from other tests (cited at the reference page)

F. Turbulent Jet Flow

For the turbulent jet flow, this problem is set up like the laminar and turbulent pipe flow cases.

However when the design of this is done, first a pipe is created. The flow exits (jets) from the

Inviscid Results Pe/Pi=0.75

X

0 2 4 6 8 10

M

a

c

h

N

u

m

b

e

r

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Maxis

Mwall

Maxis-visc

32 | P a g e

pipe into a large domain. It is expected that the flow gradients will be the greatest and spreads

out into the area and the flow gradients decrease. When conducting this tutorial, it was very

important to take into account the turbulent pipe flow tutorial because it allowed the user to

know where to make the mesh more biased.

Fig. 38--Mesh for jet

Fig. 39 Boundaries

In addition, it allows the user to be able to implement the pressure outlet boundaries. See Fig. 39

for the boundary conditions. However, unlike the turbulent case using simply the k- model to

analyze this flow will not be enough to achieve correct results. The k- model is used more for

flow analyzing what happens near a wall however, it is needed to analyze what happens near the

centerline and for this reason the amount of reversed flow allowed must be reduced. For that

reason, specified intensity and viscosity ratio is used. By applying this, the flow is then able to

reach the other side and can then be analyzed completely across the centerline as opposed to

analyzing data closer to the wall.

33 | P a g e

Fig. 40 Axial Velocity for jet

When validating this, the velocity across the centerline has to increase in the orifice and

then decrease in a linear manner. (To see the validation refer to Appendix F)

G. External Turbulent Compressible and Incompressible Flow across an Airfoil

This learning module, discussed in detail in Appendix G, showcases the flexibility of ANSYS

FLUENT by importing into the CFD software an already created geometry and meshFig. 41.

By doing so, the time saved can be spent in ensuring the problem is setup properly in FLUENT

and that correct results are obtained by validating the obtained data against theoretical

correlation. The used mesh, Fig. 41, defines the area around the airfoil as pressure far field. To

be able to use a boundary condition of pressure far field, the flow must be considered

compressible. The density of the material chosen must be that for ideal gas conditions and the

energy equation (the governing conservation of energy will be solved during the convergence

process in FLUENT) must be turned on as well. The pressure far field boundary condition is fine

for the first case considered in this moduleexternal turbulent compressible flow over a

NACA0012 airfoil. The Mach number for that case is 0.8. However while the second case

considered, external turbulent incompressible flow over the same airfoil, can be setup exactly

like the compressible case only lowering the Mach number to 0.2. More accurate results can be

obtained if instead of using pressure far field boundary condition with the energy equation on,

velocity inlet and pressure outlet conditions with the energy equation off are utilized. One can

recall that in general compressibility effects cannot be ignored for Mach numbers greater than

0.3. This module explains how to separate the pressure far field into two zones to be defined as

velocity inlet and pressure outlet.Fig. 42. The module also describes how to obtain

convergence for both the compressible and incompressible cases.

34 | P a g e

Fig. 41 Boundary condition definitions compressible airfoil case

Fig. 42 Boundary condition definitions compressible airfoil case

It is also explained how the user can determine the specific designation of the airfoil model. In

the case considered, a NACA 0012 is analyzed. The velocity magnitude along the airfoil is zero

because of the no-slip condition. Specific focus is placed on the validation aspect of the case.

The coefficient of lift is validated against theoretical data as given by theory of liftEq. [39].

(39)

35 | P a g e

where

is the lift coefficient, is the angle of attack in radians. The lift coefficient is validated

for various angles of attack for both the turbulent compressible and the turbulent incompressible

cases. Fig.43 shows a comparison of results for the compressible and incompressible cases. The

incompressible simulation strongly agrees with the theoretical model, which makes sense since

the theory of lift correlation is valid for incompressible inviscid flows. For the compressible

case, the agreement is only good for angles of attack less than 4 degrees.

Angle of Attack,

0 5 10 15 20 25

L

i

f

t

C

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

,

C

L

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Theory

M=0.2, Incomp., Turb., Re=4.76

+6

M=0.8, Comp., Turb., Re=19.04

+6

Stall

Fig. 43 Coefficient of Lift Validation for Turb. Compr. And Incompr. Cases

Angle of Attack,

-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

L

i

f

t

t

o

D

r

a

g

R

a

t

i

o

,

C

L

/

C

D

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

Turb. Icompr. Flow, Energy Off

Fig. 44 Determination of Most Optimum Angle of Attack

36 | P a g e

The module also explains how to determine the optimum angle of attack which corresponds to

the largest Lift to Drag Coefficient ratioFig. 44. In Fig. 45, one can see the velocity contours

on the upper surface, a supersonic region [red] is formed and ends in a shock. The shock induces

a region of separation or stall [blue]. The region of separation is less visible in the contours of

static pressure, Fig.G30, where static pressure is approximately constant through a region of

separation. For an incompressible flow, the region of separation / stall does not occur until angles

of attack near 18 degrees.

Fig.45 Velocity Magnitude Contours [m/s], =10 degs., Turbulent Compr. Case

Furthermore, validation is obtained for the velocity profile utilizing the equation for the

Coefficient of Pressure and data for the static pressure from FLUENT. If the specific NACA

model of an airfoil is known, validation of the solution can be performed by considering the

velocity at different locations along the surface. The theoretical surface velocity can be obtained

from Abbott and Von Doenhoffs Theory of Wing Sections [11]. The computational surface

velocity has to be zero from the imposed no-slip condition. However, one can apply Eq. [40] to

extract a surface velocity from the surface static pressure. The infinity subscript indicates ref.

value and the s subscriptstatic value.

(40)

37 | P a g e

NACA0012, =0

Axial Position, x/c

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

S

u

r

f

a

c

e

V

e

l

o

c

i

t

y

,

[

u

/

U

]

2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

Abbott & Von Doenhoff

Incomp., Turb., No Energy

Incomp., Turb. Energy

Fig. 46

H. Turbulent Incompressible Flow across a Planar [2D] Cascade of Airfoils

This (Appendix H) demonstrates how turbulent incompressible flow past a cascade of laterally

periodic NACA 0012 airfoils can be modeled in FLUENT. It is shown in detail how the

geometry and mesh for a periodic case can be created in Workbench. In the periodic case, the

focus is placed only on one of the blades in a rotor or turbine and the boundary surrounding the

airfoil reflects that. New tools in geometry creation in Workbench are introduced such as [1]

Boolean subtraction to subtract the airfoil walls from the surrounding boundary, [2] vertex

blending to make sure the trailing edge of the airfoil is smooth in order to obtain better mesh for

the case and [3] othersFig. 47. This module explains how to properly mesh the wake region

after the airfoil. Also it is demonstrated how to obtain an O-type grid around the airfoil by

utilizing inflation. Better results are obtained by employing an O-type grid because the flow

gradients will be analyzed better during the solution process in FLUENT.

38 | P a g e

Fig. 47

Fig. 48

Fig. 49

The procedure of obtaining convergence for the turbulent incompressible case of Appendix G is

used to obtain results for the periodic case. The difference is that the user must manually define

the periodic boundary condition in FLUENT by typing specific commands in the command

prompt and the module specifically explains the appropriate steps. The velocity contours for an

angle of attack of 4 degrees can be seen in Fig. 50.

39 | P a g e

Fig. 50

I. Discrete Phase ModelingParticle Injection into 3-D Turbulent Pipe Flow

Senior Design Group 18 working for Alstom has provided the needed Workbench project for the

learning module in question. The Workbench project includes not only the geometry and mesh

creation for the case but the FLUENT problem setup, solution and results. The learning module

(Appendix I) demonstrates in depth how the user can create the geometry for the pipe by

utilizing the Sweep Feature in Workbench. Two sketches are created one in the XY plane

outlining the line shape of the pipe. The second sketch is in the YZ Plane and includes the

diameter of the pipe. The circle is then swept along the line to create a 3D pipe.

Fig. 51

40 | P a g e

Fig. 52

Fig. 53

To obtain the mesh for the problem inflation is utilized in Workbench. As the geometry the

whole body is selected and as the boundary the three faces making the pipethe horizontal, the

bend and the vertical portions. When inflation is specified in 3D, the body of the geometry and

the faces of the boundaries are selected. For a 2D inflation, as done for the turbulent

incompressible flow across a periodic airfoil (Appendix H), the face of the geometry and the

edges of the boundaries are specified.

Fig. 54

The real focus of the learning module is to demonstrate how to specify material to be injected

into the pipe. Specifically the Discrete Phase Model interface is manipulated in which injections

can be created starting from a specified zone, inlet in the particulate case. Additionally the

velocity, temperature, diameter, and other parameters of the injection can be entered. Once

41 | P a g e

proper convergence is obtain in similar manner as outlined in other learning modules the

particles residence time can be trackedFig. 55.

Fig. 55a

Fig. 55b

VI. Conclusion

Conclusively, what is seen constantly over and over regardless of what type of problem or design

the user is working with is a consistency in working with geometry, meshing, and validation. In

geometry phase, it is important to recall that the user can design the geometry in ANSYS

Workbench. However the software is flexible enough that the geometry can be created in

Unigraphics, ProE or other Computer-Aided (CAD) software packages and the exported into

Workbench. Again a rough sketch can first be generated and then the user can go in the editing

42 | P a g e

window and put the dimensions he or she chooses. Additionally, the user is not only limited to

that, the user may also create already primitive designs. This means the user can select basic

shapes in Workbench that have already been done like boxes, pipes, etc. These shapes can save

the user a lot of time if they are just analyzing certain flow over feasible objects. However, if the

user needs a different design that was possibly done on another CAD package, the user has the

option of importing the design and then being able to work with it.

The next very important part once the geometry is determined, is meshing. Again recall that the

user can have structured, unstructured, and bias types of meshing. The structured meshing works

for very simple designs and simple flows. An example was the laminar flow past a cylindrical

pipe (Appendix A) because since the flow is laminar no extra meshing is required near the wall

due to its simplicity. However, when dealing with different types of flow or sketches such as

nozzle, or turbulent cases, the meshing needed to be adjusted accordingly. The unstructured

meshing is extremely useful especially for shapes that are not symmetrical such as bends or

curves.

When dealing with complicated flow or complicated geometry; biased meshing changes how a

mesh is refined near a wall. For instance, in the turbulent flow through a pipe case biased

meshing was implemented since at turbulent cases the most flow gradients occur near the wall.

Therefore, to obtain better results the mesh was refined near the wall to be able to get better data.

However this still leaves one questions, how does one choose what mesh to start at?

The answer is that there is no actual starting point, based on experience the user will begin to

determine what meshing sizes he or she should start at. In the laminar pipe flow tutorial the

meshing chosen is based on other tutorials, however, meshing does not have a starting point but

rather serves as a reference value. Therefore, when choosing a meshing size it is always

recommended to start with simple small mesh and increase gradually based on how the accuracy

increases or decreases, which is why validation is very important

Validation is the utmost important part in the design process. When validating results it allows

the user to see the accuracy of their experiment. By doing hand calculations or referencing to

other scholarly sources it allows the user to see what needs to be improved to get better answers.

In addition, validation allows the user to go back and adjust parameters such as the meshing, like

it was done in the laminar pipe flow tutorial.

Lastly, the importance for all these tutorials is to be able to create a roadmap for future complex

problems. It is strongly suggested that before designing and analyzing complicated geometry, the

user break it down into parts and create a roadmap with each step increasing in complexity to be

able to not only build confidence in the values they get but also build knowledge on the uses of

FLUENT into more complex parts.

References

1. Cornell University.FLUENT Learning Modules. 4/10/11

https://confluence.cornell.edu/display/SIMULATION/FLUENT+Learning+Modules

43 | P a g e

2. Cornell University. Introduction to CFD Basics. 5/7/11,

https://confluence.cornell.edu/download/attachments/90736159/intro.pdf?version=1&modifi

cationDate=1222889778000

3. Lee, Huei-Huang. Finite Element Simulations with ANSYS Workbench 12. Schroff

development corporation, 2010.

http://www.sdcpublications.com/pdfsample/978-1-58503-604-2-2.pdf

4. Lawrence, Kent. ANSYS Workbench tutorial. Schroff development corporation, 2007.

5. Moran, Howard Shapiro. Fundamental of Eng. Thermodynamics. USA: NJ, 2008.

6. Munson, Young, Okiishi, Huebsch. Fundamentals of fluid mechanics 6

th

ed. USA: West

Virginia , 2009.

7. N.Rajaratnam. Turbulent Jets. New York: Elsevier scientific, 1976.

8. Schlichting, Hermann. Boundary Layer Theory. New York: McGraw, 1976.

9. Senior Design Project Website. University of Connecticut. 5/7/11

http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~barbertj/

10. Y+ definition, 5/7/11, http://my.fit.edu/itresources/manuals/fluent6.3/

11. Abbott, Doenhoff. Theory of Wing Sections. Dover Publications, New York, 1959.

12. ANSYS FLUENT 12.1 Theory Guide, Discrete Phase Modeling, 5/7/11

http://www3.hi.is/~halldorp/fluent_theory.pdf

13. Flow Velocity Profile, 12/10/10

http://www.tpub.com/content/doe/h1012v3/css/h1012v3_40.htm

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