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a absorption coefficient, acceleration, activity

Bohr radius
A ampere, adenine (in genetic code)
A absorbance, area, Helmholtz energy, mass number
Hall coefficient
atomic weight (relative atomic mass)
AAS atomic absorption spectroscopy
Abe abequose
abs absolute
ac alternating current
Ac acetyl
AcOH acetic acid
ACT activated complex theory
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone
Ade adenine
ADP adenosine diphosphate
ads adsorption
ae eon (10
AES atomic emission spectroscopy,
Auger electron spectroscopy
AF audio frequency
AFM atomic force microscopy
AI artificial intelligence
AIM atoms in molecules
Al Alfen number
Ala alanine
alc alcohol
aliph. aliphatic
alk. alkaline
All allose
Alt altrose
am amorphous solid
Am amyl
AM amplitude modulation
AMP adenosine 5'-monophosphate
amu atomic mass unit (recommended symbol is u)
anh, anhyd anhydrous
antilog antilogarithm
AO atomic orbital
AOM angular overlap model
Api apiose
APS appearance potential spectroscopy
APW augmented plane wave
aq aqueous
Ar aryl
Ara arabinose
Ara-ol arabinitol
Arg arginine
This table lists some symbols, abbreviations, and acronyms encountered in the physical sciences. Most entries in italic type are symbols for
physical quantities; for more details on these, see the table Symbols and Terminology for Physical and Chemical Quantities in this section.
Additional information on units may be found in the table International System of Units in Section 1. Many of the terms to which these
abbreviations refer are included in the tables Definitions of Scientific Terms in Section 2 and Techniques for Materials Characterization in
Section 12.
Publication practices vary with regard to the use of capital or lower case letters for many abbreviations. An effort has been made to follow the
most common practices in this table, but much variation is found in the literature. Likewise, policies on the use of periods in an abbreviation vary
considerably. Periods are generally omitted in this table unless they are necessary for clarity. Periods should never appear in SI units. The SI
prefixes (m, k ,M, etc.) are not listed here, since they should never be used alone, but selected combinations with SI units (e.g., mg, kV, MW) are
Abbreviations are listed in alphabetical order without regard to case. Entries beginning with Greek letters fall at the end of the table.
as, asym asymmetrical (as chemical descriptor)
ASCII American National Standard Code for Information
ASE aromatic stabilization energy
Asn asparagine
Asp aspartic acid
at atomization
atm standard atmosphere
ATP adenosine 5'-triphosphate
ATR attenuated total internal reflection
at.wt. atomic weight
AU astronomical unit
av average
avdp avoirdupois
b barn
B magnetic flux density, second virial coefficient,
bar bar (pressure unit)
bbl barrel
bcc body centered cubic
BCS Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (theory)
BDE bond dissociation energy
B Baum
BET Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (method)
BeV billion electronvolt
Bhn Brinell hardness number
Bi biot
BN bond number
BNS nuclear backscattering spectroscopy
BO bond order, Born-Oppenheimer (approximation)
BOD biochemical oxygen demand
bp boiling point
bpy 2,2'-bipyridine
Bq becquerel
BRE bond resonance energy
BSSE basis set superposition error
Btu British thermal unit
bu bushel
Bu butyl
Bz benzoyl
Bzl benzyl
c combustion reaction
c amount concentration, specific heat, velocity
speed of light in vacuum
C coulomb, cytosine (in genetic code)
C degree Celsius
C capacitance, heat capacity, number concentration
ca. approximately
cal calorie
calc calculated
CARS coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy
CAS RN Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number
CAT clear-air turbulence, computerized axial tomography
CBS complete basis set
cc cubic centimeter
CCD charge-coupled device
cd candela, condensed phase
c.d. current density
CD circular dichroism
CDP cytidine 5'-diphosphate
CEPA couplet electron pair approximation
cf. compare
cfm cubic feet per minute
cgs centimeter-gram-second system
CHF coupled Hartree-Fock (method)
Ci curie
CI configuration interaction, chemical ionization
CIDEP chemically induced dynamic electron polarization
CIDNP chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization
cir circular
CKFF Cotton-Kraihanzel force field
CL cathode luminescence
cm centimeter
c.m. center of mass
c.m.c. critical micelle concentration
CMO canonical molecular orbital
CMP cytidine 5'-monophosphate
CN coordination number
CNDO complete neglect of differential overlap
Co Cowling number
COD chemical oxygen demand
conc concentrated, concentration
const constant
cos cosine
cosh hyperbolic cosine
COSY correlation spectroscopy (in NMR)
cot cotangent
coth hyperbolic cotangent
cp candle power
cP centipoise
Cp cyclopentadienyl
CP chemically pure
CPA coherent potential approximation
cpd contact potential difference
cps cycles per second
CPT charge conjugation-space inversion-time reversal
CPU central processing unit
cr, cryst crystalline (phase)
CRU constitutional repeating unit
csc cosecant
ct carat
CT charge transfer
CTEM conventional transmission electron microscopy
CTP cytidine 5'-triphosphate
CTR controlled thermonuclear reaction
cu cubic
CV cyclic voltammetry
CVD chemical vapor deposition
cw continuous wave
cwt hundredweight (112 pounds)
Cy cyclohexyl
cyl cylinder
Cys cysteine
d day, deuteron
d distance, density, dextrorotatory
D debye unit
D diffusion coefficient, dissociation energy, electric
Da dalton
DA donor-acceptor (complex)
dB decibel
dc direct current
DE delocalization energy
dec decomposes
deg degree
den density
det determinant
dev deviation
DFT density functional theory
diam diameter
dil dilute, dilution
DIM diatomics in molecules
dm decimeter
dmf, DMF N,N-dimethylformamide
dmso, DMSO dimethylsulfoxide
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DNase deoxyribonuclease
DNMR dynamic nuclear magnetic resonance
DOS density of states
doz dozen
d.p. degree of polymerization
dpl displacement
dpm disintegrations per minute
dps disintegrations per second
dr dram
dRib 2-deoxyribose
DRIFT diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform
DRS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy
DSC differential scanning calorimetry
DTA differential thermal analysis
dyn dyne
e electron, base of natural logarithms
e elementary charge, linear strain
E electric field strength, electromotive force, energy,
modulus of elasticity, entgegen (trans configuration)
Hartree energy
EA electron affinity
EAN effective atomic number
ECP effective core potential
ECR electron cyclotron resonance
ED electron diffraction, effective dose
EDS energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
EELS electron energy loss spectroscopy
EFFF energy factored force field
EHMO extended Hckel molecular orbital
EHT extended Hckel theory
emf electromotive force
emu electromagnetic unit system
en ethylenediamine
ENDOR electron-nuclear double resonance
EOS equation of state
EPMA electron probe microanalysis
EPR electron paramagnetic (spin) resonance
eq, eqn equation
eqQ quadrupole coupling constant
erf error function
erg erg
ESCA electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
e.s.d. estimated standard deviation
ESD electron stimulated desorption
ESR electron spin resonance
est estimate, estimated
esu electrostatic unit system
Et ethyl
ET electron transfer, ephemeris time
O diethyl ether
e.u. entropy unit
Eu Euler number
eV electronvolt
EWG electron withdrawing group
EXAFS extended x-ray absorption fine structure
EXELFS extended energy loss fine structure
exp exponential function
expt experimental
ext external
f formation reaction
f activity coefficient, aperture ratio, focal length,
force constant, frequency, fugacity
F farad
F degree Fahrenheit
F Faraday constant, force, angular momentum
FAD flavin adenine dinucleotide
fcc face centered cubic
FEL free electron laser
FEM field emission microscopy
FEMO free electron molecular orbital
FET field effect transistor
fid free induction decay
FIM field ion microscopy
FIR far infrared
fl fluid (phase)
FM frequency modulation
Fo Fourier number
fp freezing point
fpm feet per minute
fps feet per second, foot-pound-second system
Fr franklin
Fr Froude number
Fru fructose
FSGO floating spherical Gaussian orbita
ft foot
ft-lb foot pound
FT Fourier transform
FTIR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Fuc fucose
Fuc-ol fucitol
fus fusion (melting)
g gram, gas
g acceleration due to gravity, degeneracy, statistical
weight, Land g-factor
G gauss, guanine (in genetic code)
G electrical conductance, Gibbs energy, gravitational
constant, sheer modulus
gal gallon
Gal gal, galileo, galactose
GalN galactosamine
GC gas chromatography
GC-MS gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
GDMS glow discharge mass spectroscopy
gem geminal (on the same carbon atom)
GeV gigaelectronvolt
GIAO gauge invariant atomic orbital
gl glacial
GLC gas-liquid chromatography
Glc glucose
GlcN glucosamine
Glc-ol glucitol
Gln glutamine
Glu glutamic acid
Gly glycine
GMP guanosine 5'-triphosphate
GMT Greenwich mean time
gpm gallons per minute
gps gallons per second
gr grain
Gr Grashof number
GTO gaussian type atomic orbital
Gua guanine
Gul gulose
GUT grand unified theory
GVB generalized valence bond
GWS Glashow-Weinberg-Salam (theory)
Gy gray, gigayear
h helion, hour
h Planck constant
H henry
H enthalpy, Hamiltonian function, magnetic field
Hubble constant
ha hectare
Ha Hartmann number
Hacac acetylacetone
HAM hydrogenic atoms in molecules
hav haversine
Hb hemoglobin
hcp hexagonal closed packed
Hea ethanolamine
HEIS high energy ion scattering
HEP high energy physics
HF high frequency
hfs hyperfine structure
Him imidazole
His histidine
HMO Hckel molecular orbital
HOMO highest occupied molecular orbital
hp horsepower
HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography
Hpz pyrazole
hr hour
HREELS high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy
HREM high resolution electron microscopy
HSAB hard-soft acid-base (theory)
HSE homodesmotic stabilization energy
Hz hertz
i square root of minus one
I electric current, ionic strength, moment of inertia,
nuclear spin angular momentum, radiant intensity
IAT international atomic time
i-Bu isobutyl
IC integrated circuit
ICP inductively coupled plasma
ICR ion cyclotron resonance
id ideal (solution)
ID inside diameter
Ido idose
IDP inosine 5'-diphosphate
IE ionization energy
i.e.p. isoelectric point
IEPA independent electron pair approximation
IF intermediate frequency
IGLO individual gauge for localized orbitals
Ile isoleucine
Im imaginary part
imm immersion
IMPATT impact ionization avalanche transit time
in. inch
INDO intermediate neglect of differential overlap
INS inelastic neutron scattering, ion neutralization
int internal
I/O input/output
IP ionization potential
IPN interpenetrating polymer network
i-Pr isopropyl
IPR isotopic perturbation of resonance
IPTS International Practical Temperature Scale
IR infrared
IRAS reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy
IRC intrinsic reaction coordinate
isc intersystem crossing
ISE isodesmic stabilization energy
ISS ion scattering spectroscopy
ITP inosine 5'-triphosphate
ITS International Temperature Scale (1990)
IU international unit
j angular momentum, electric current density
J joule
J angular momentum, electric current density, flux,
Massieu function
k absorption index, Boltzmann constant, rate constant,
thermal conductivity, wave vector
K kelvin
K absorption coefficient, bulk modulus, equilibrium
constant, kinetic energy
kb kilobar, kilobase (DNA or RNA)
kcal kilocalorie
KE kinetic energy
keV kiloelectronvolt
kg kilogram
kgf kilogram force
kJ kilojoule
km kilometer
Kn Knudsen number
kPa kilopascal
kt karat
kV kilovolt
kva kilovolt ampere
kW kilowatt
kwh kilowatt hour
l liquid, liter
l angular momentum, length, levorotatory
L liter, lambert
L Avogadro constant, inductance, Lagrange function
lat. latitude
lb pound
lbf pound force
lc liquid crystal
LC liquid chromatography
LCAO linear combination of atomic orbitals
LD lethal dose
Le Lewis function
LED light emitting diode
LEED low-energy electron diffraction
LEIS low energy ion scattering
Leu leucine
LFER linear free energy relationship
lim limit
LIMS laser ionization mass spectroscopy, laboratory
information management system
liq liquid
lm lumen
ln logarithm (natural)
LNDO local neglect of differential overlap
log logarithm (common)
long. longitude
LST local sidereal time
LT local time
LTE local thermodynamic equilibrium
LUMO lowest unoccupied molecular orbital
lut lutidine
lx lux
ly langley
l.y. light year
Lys lysine
Lyx lyxose
m meter, molal (as in 0.1 m solution), metastable
m magnetic dipole moment, mass, molality, angular
momentum component, meta (as chemical descriptor)
M molar (as in 0.1 M solution), metal (in chemical
M magnetization, molar mass, mutual inductance, torque,
angular momentum component
molecular weight (relative molar mass)
Ma Mach number
Man mannose
MASNMR magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance
max maximum
MBE molecular beam epitaxy
MBPT many body perturbation theory
MC Monte Carlo (method)
MCD magnetic circular dichroism
MCPF modified couple pair functional
MCSCF multi-configurational self-consistent field
MD molecular dynamics
Me methyl
MEP molecular electrostatic potential
MERP minimum energy reaction path
Mes mesityl
MESFET metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor
Met methionine
meV millielectronvolt
MeV megaelectronvolt
MF molecular formula
mg milligram
MHD magnetohydrodynamics
mi mile
MIM molecules-in-molecules
min minimum, minute
MINDO modified intermediate neglect of differential overlap
MIR mid-infrared
misc miscible
MKS meter-kilogram-second system
MKSA meter-kilogram-second-ampere system
mL, ml milliliter
mm millimeter
MM molecular mechanics
mmf magnetomotive force
mmHg millimeter of mercury
MO molecular orbital
mol mole
mol.wt. molecular weight
mon monomeric form
MOS metal-oxide semiconductor
MOSFET metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor
mp melting point
MPa megapascal
MPA Mulliken population analysis
Mpc megaparsec
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
mRNA messenger RNA
ms millisecond
MS mass spectroscopy
MSL mean sea level
Mur muramic acid
mV millivolt
mW milliwatt
MW megawatt, microwave, molecular weight
Mx maxwell
n neutron
n amount of substance, number density, principal
quantum number, refractive index, normal (in
chemical formulas)
N newton
N angular momentum, neutron number
Avogadro constant
density of states
NAA neutron activation analysis
NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NADH reduced NAD
NADP nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NAO natural atomic orbital
NBO natural bond order
nbp normal boiling point
Neu neuraminic acid
NEXAFS near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure
ng nanogram
NIR near infrared
nm nanometer
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
NNDO neglect of nonbonded differential overlap
NO natural orbital
NOE nuclear Overhauser effect
NPA natural population analysis
NQR nuclear quadrupole resonance
NRA prompt nuclear reaction analysis
ns nanosecond
NTP normal temperature and pressure
Nu nucleophile
Nu Nusselt number
o ortho (as chemical descriptor)
obs, obsd observed
OD optical density, outside diameter
Oe oersted
ORD optical rotatory dispersion
oz ounce
p proton
p dielectric polarization, electric dipole moment,
momentum, pressure, para (as chemical descriptor)
P poise
P power, pressure, probability, sound energy flux
Pa pascal
PA proton affinity
PAS photoacoustic spectroscopy
pc parsec
PCR polymerase chain reaction
PD potential difference
pdl poundal
pe probable error
Pe Pclet number
PES photoelectron spectroscopy
PET positron emission tomography
peth petroleum ether
pf power factor
pg picogram
pH negative log of hydrogen ion concentration
Ph phenyl
Phe phenylalanine
pI isoelectric point
pip piperidine
pK negative log of ionization constant
pm picometer
PMO perturbational molecular orbital
PNDO partial neglect of differential overlap
PNRA prompt nuclear reaction analysis
pol polymeric form
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
PPP Pariser-Parr-Pople (method)
ppt parts per thousand, precipitate
Pr propyl
Pr Prandtl number
PRDDO partial retention of diatomic differential overlap
Pro proline
ps picosecond
PS photoelectron spectroscopy
PSD photon stimulated desorption
Psi psicose
psi pounds per square inch
psia pounds per square inch absolute
psig pounds per square inch gage
pt pint
PVT pressure-volume-temperature
py pyridine
q electric field gradient, flow rate, heat, wave vector
Q electric charge, heat, partition function, quadrupole
moment, radiant energy, vibrational normal coordinate
QCD quantum chromodynamics
QED quantum electrodynamics
Q.E.D. quod erat demonstrandum (which was to be proved)
QSAR quantitative structure-activity relationship
QSO quasi-stellar object (quasar)
qt quart
quad quadrillion Btu (= 1.05510
Qui quinovose
q.v. quod vide (which you should see)
r reaction
r position vector, radius
R roentgen, alkyl radical (in chemical formulas)
R degree Rankine
R electrical resistance, gas constant, molar refraction,
Rydberg constant
RA right ascension
rad radian
RAIRS reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy
RAM random access memory
RBS Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy
RE resonance energy
Re real part
RED radial electron distribution
REM reflection electron microscopy
rem roentgen equivalent man
RF radiofrequency
Rha rhamnose
RHEED reflection high-energy electron diffraction
RHF restricted Hartree-Fock (theory)
RIA radioimmunoassay
Rib ribose
Ribulo ribulose
rms root mean square
RNA ribonucleic acid
RNase ribonuclease
rRNA ribosomal RNA
ROHF restricted open shell Hartree-Fock
ROM read only memory
RPA random phase approximation
rpm revolutions per minute
rps revolutions per second
RRK Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (theory)
RRKM Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (theory)
RRS resonance Raman spectroscopy
RS Raman spectroscopy
Ry rydberg
s second, solid
s path length, solubility, spin angular momentum,
symmetry number, symmetrical (as stereochemical
S siemens
S area, entropy, probability current density, Poynting
vector, symmetry coordinate, spin angular momentum
SALC symmetry adapted linear combinations
SALI surface analysis by laser ionization
SAM scanning Auger microscopy
SANS small angle neutron scattering
Sar sarcosine
sat, satd saturated
SAXS small angle x-ray scattering
s-Bu sec-butyl
Sc Schmidt number
SCE saturated calomel electrode
SCF self-consistent field
SCR silicon-controlled rectifier
sd standard deviation
sec secant, second
sec secondary (in chemical name)
SEELFS surface sensitive energy loss fine structure
SEM scanning electron microscope
sepn separation
Ser serine
SERS surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
SET single electron transfer
SEXAFS surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure
Sh Sherwood number
SI International System of Units
SIMS secondary ion mass spectroscopy
sin sine
SINDO symmetrically orthogonalized INDO method
sinh hyperbolic sine
SIPN semi-interpenetrating polymer network
SLAM scanning laser acoustic microscopy
sln solution
SMO semiempirical molecular orbital
SMOW Standard Mean Ocean Water
SNMS sputtered neutral mass spectroscopy
SNU solar neutrino unit
SO spin orbital
sol soluble, solution
soln solution
SOMO singly occupied molecular orbital
Sor sorbose
sp gr specific gravity
SPM scanned probe microscopy
sq square
sr steradian
Sr Strouhal number
SSMS spark source mass spectroscopy
St stoke
St Stanton number
std, stnd standard (state)
STEM scanning transmission electron microscope
STM scanning tunneling microscopy
STO Slater type orbital
STP standard temperature and pressure
sub sublimation, sublimes
Sv sievert
t metric tonne, triton
t Celsius temperature, thickness, time, transport
T tesla
T kinetic energy, period, term value, temperature
(thermodynamic), torque, transmittance
Tag tagatose
Tal talose
tan tangent
tanh hyperbolic tangent
t-Bu tert-butyl
TCA trichloroacetic acid
TCE trichloroethylene
tcne tetracyanoethylene
TCSCF two configuration self-consistent field
TE transverse electric
TED transmission electron diffraction, transferred electron
TEM transmission electron microscopy, transverse
temp temperature
tert tertiary (in chemical name)
TFD Thomas-Fermi-Dirac (method)
TGA thermo-gravimetric analysis
theor theoretical
thf, THF tetrahydrofuran
Thr threonine
Thy thymine
TL thermoluminescence
TLC thin-layer chromatography
TM transverse magnetic
Tol tolyl
Torr torr
tRNA transfer RNA
Trp tryptophan
trs transition
TS transition state
tsp teaspoon
Tyr tyrosine
u unified atomic mass unit
u Bloch function, electric mobility, velocity
U uracil (in genetic code)
U electric potential difference, internal energy
UDP uridine 5'-diphosphate
UHF ultrahigh frequency, unrestricted Hartree-Fock
UMP uridine 5'-monophosphate
uns, unsym unsymmetrical (as chemical descriptor)
UPES ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
UPS ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
ur urea
Ura uracil
USP United States Pharmacopeia
UT universal time
UTP uridine 5'-triphosphate
UV ultraviolet
v reaction rate, specific volume, velocity, vibrational
quantum number, vicinal (as chemical descriptor)
V volt
V electric potential, potential energy, volume
Val valine
vap vaporization
VB valence band, valence bond
VCD vibrational circular dichroism
VHF very high frequency
vic vicinal (on adjacent carbon atoms)
VIS visible region of the spectrum
vit vitreous
VSEPR valence shell electron pair repulsion
VSLI very large scale integrated (circuit)
VUV vacuum ultraviolet
v/v volume per volume (volume of solute divided by
volume of solution, expressed as percent)
w energy density, mass fraction, velocity, work
W watt
W radiant energy, statistical weight, work
WAXS wide angle x-ray scattering
Wb weber
We Weber number
WKB Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (method)
wt weight
w/v weight per volume (mass of solute divided by volume
of solution, generally expressed as g/100 mL)
w/w weight per weight (mass of solute divided by mass of
solution, expressed as percent)
x mole fraction
X X unit, halogen (in chemical formula)
X reactance
XAFS x-ray absorption fine structure
XANES x-ray absorption near-edge structure
XPES x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
XPS x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
XRD x-ray diffraction
XRF x-ray fluorescence
XRS x-ray spectroscopy
Xyl xylose
y, yr year
Y admittance, Planck function, Youngs modulus
yd yard
z charge number (of an ion), collision frequency factor
Z atomic number, compression factor, collision number,
impedance, partition function, zusammen (cis
ZDO zero differential overlap
ZPE, ZPVE zero point vibrational energy
ZULU Greenwich mean time
alpha particle
absorption coefficient, degree of dissociation, electric
polarizability, expansion coefficient, fine structure
beta particle
activity coefficient, conductivity, magnetogyric ratio,
mass concentration, ratio of heat capacities, surface
Gruneisin parameter, level width, surface
chemical shift, Dirac delta function, Kronecker delta,
loss angle
inertia defect, mass defect
emittance, Levi-Civita symbol, linear strain, molar
absorption coefficient, permittivity
overpotential, viscosity
Bragg angle, temperature, scattering angle, surface
quadrupole moment
compressibility, conductivity, magnetic susceptibility,
molar absorption coefficient, transmission coefficient
absolute activity, radioactive decay constant, thermal
conductivity, wavelength
angular momentum, ionic conductivity
chemical potential, electric dipole moment, electric
mobility, friction coefficient, Joule-Thompson
coefficient, magnetic dipole moment, mobility,
F microfarad
g microgram
m micrometer
s microsecond
frequency, kinematic velocity, stoichiometric number,

osmotic pressure, Peltier coefficient
density, reflectance, resistivity
electrical conductivity, cross section, normal stress,
shielding constant (NMR), Stefan-Boltzmann
constant, surface tension
transmittance, chemical shift, shear stress, relaxation
electrical potential, fugacity coefficient, osmotic
coefficient, quantum yield, volume fraction,
magnetic flux, potential energy, radiant power, work
magnetic susceptibility, electronegativity

electric susceptibility
circular frequency, angular velocity, harmonic
vibration wavenumber, statistical weight
axial angular momentum, solid angle