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Microstructure and properties of concrete using bottom ash and waste

foundry sand as partial replacement of ne aggregates


Yogesh Aggarwal
a,
, Rafat Siddique
b
a
Civil Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India
b
Civil Engineering Department, Thapar University, Patiala 147004, India
h i g h l i g h t s
Use of industrial by-products i.e. bottom ash and waste foundry sand in concrete.
Microstructure analysis of concrete using XRD and SEM.
Mechanical and durability properties of concrete using industrial by-products.
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received 19 September 2013
Received in revised form 6 December 2013
Accepted 16 December 2013
Available online 17 January 2014
Keywords:
Industrial by-products
Waste foundry sand
Bottom ash
Mechanical properties
Rapid chloride penetration
Deicing salt surface scaling
XRD
SEM
a b s t r a c t
The possibility of substituting natural ne aggregate with industrial by-products such as waste foundry
sand and bottom ash offers technical, economic and environmental advantages which are of great impor-
tance in the present context of sustainability in the construction sector. The study investigated the effect
of waste foundry sand and bottom ash in equal quantities as partial replacement of ne aggregates in var-
ious percentages (060%), on concrete properties such as mechanical (compressive strength, splitting
tensile strength and exural strength) and durability characteristics (rapid chloride penetration and deic-
ing salt surface scaling) of the concrete along with microstructural analysis with XRD and SEM. The
results showed that the water content increased gradually from 175 kg/m
3
in control mix (CM) to
238.63 kg/m
3
in FB60 mix to maintain the workability and the mechanical behavior of the concrete with
ne aggregate replacements was comparable to that of conventional concrete except for FB60 mix. The
compressive strength was observed to be in the range of 2932 MPa, splitting tensile strength in the
range of 1.82.46 MPa, and exural strength in the range of 3.954.10 MPa on the replacement of ne
aggregates from 10% to 50% at the interval of 10%. Furthermore, it was observed that the greatest increase
in compressive, splitting tensile strength, and exural strength compared to that of the conventional con-
crete was achieved by substituting 30% of the natural ne aggregates with industrial by-product aggre-
gates. The inclusion of waste foundry sand and bottom ash as ne aggregate does not affect the strength
properties negatively as the strength remains within limits except for 60% replacement. The morphology
of the formations arising as a result of the hydration process was not observed to change in the concrete
with varying percentages of waste foundry sand and bottom ash.
2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
High consumption of natural sources, high amount production
of industrial wastes and environmental pollution are some of the
factors which are responsible for obtaining new solutions for a
sustainable development. A sustainable development can be
achieved only if the resource efciency increases. The resource
efciency increment is possible by the reduction in use of energy
and materials. Thus, solution is utilization of industrial by-prod-
ucts or solid wastes such as y ash (FA), bottom ash (BA), waste
foundry sand (FS), slag, silica fume, and waste glass in producing
concrete. These concrete technologies reduce the negative effects
on economical and environmental problems of concrete industry
by having low costs, high durability properties and environmental
friendliness.
When coal is burned in a coal red boiler, it leaves behind ash,
some of which is removed from the bottom of the furnace known
as bottom ash, and some of which is carried upward by the hot
combustion gases of the furnace, and removed by collection de-
vices (y ash). Worldwide, coal-red power generation presently
accounts for roughly 38% of total electricity production. Coal use
0950-0618/$ - see front matter 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.12.051

Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 1744 233361; fax: +91 1744 233050.
E-mail addresses: yogesh.24@rediffmail.com (Y. Aggarwal), siddique_66@
yahoo.com (R. Siddique).
Construction and Building Materials 54 (2014) 210223
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in some of the more developed countries is static or is in decline.
Signicant increases in coal-red generation capacity are taking
place in many of the developing nations and large capacity in-
creases are planned. During coal-red electric power generation
three types of coal combustion products (CCPs) are obtained. These
by-products; y ash, bottom ash and boiler slag are the largest
sources of industrial waste. Utilization of CCPs in construction
industry is an important issue involving reduction in technical
and economical problems of plants, besides reducing the amount
of solid wastes, greenhouse gas emissions and conserving existing
natural resources. Some authors have reported the use of bottom
ash in concrete as partial replacement of portland cement [13]
or as a partial replacement of ne aggregates [49].
A foundry produces metal castings by pouring molten metal
into a preformed mold to yield the resulting hardened cast. The
metal casts include iron and steel from the ferrous family and alu-
minum, copper, brass and bronze from non-ferrous family. Waste
foundry sand is high quality silica sand with uniform physical
characteristics. It is a by-product of ferrous and non-ferrous metal
casting industries, where sand has been used for centuries as a
molding material because of its thermal conductivity. Foundries
successfully recycle and reuse the sand many times. When the
sand can no longer be reused in the foundry, it is removed from
the foundry and is termed as waste foundry sand. Several authors
have reported the use of used-waste foundry sand in various civil
engineering applications such as highway applications [1017],
leaching aspect of usage of foundry sand [1821], controlled low
strength materials [2224], concrete and concrete related products
like bricks, blocks and paving stones [2529], asphalt concrete
[30].
Coal-combustion bottom ash and used foundry sand are abun-
dant by-products which appear to possess the potential, to par-
tially replace regular sand as a ne aggregate in concrete
mixtures, providing a recycling opportunity for them. If these
recycled materials can be substituted for part of the cementitious
and virgin aggregate materials in concrete mixtures without sac-
ricing, or even improving strength and durability, there are clear
economic and environmental gains. One of the primary impedi-
ments to benecial reuse of industrial by-products such as waste
foundry sands and bottom ash is a lack of engineering data that
designers can use to evaluate the efcacy and economy of using
the by-product in place of the natural sand. The engineering
properties and behavior of sands can be readily estimated from
the literature for use in preliminary design. In contrast, there is
a dearth of similar information for industrial by-products and
there are insufcient data to conrm that industrial by-products,
which appear similar to sands, also have comparable engineering
properties. With emphasis now being placed on engineering for
sustainable development, there is a pressing need to provide this
practical information to designers. Fullling this need is the pri-
mary purpose of this study. The objective is to provide practical
information, regarding the strength, durability and micro-struc-
tural properties of bottom ash and waste foundry sand as replace-
ment of ne aggregates in concrete. Both waste foundry sand and
bottom ash have been studied as aggregate replacement, sepa-
rately. The value of the current research is the use of both to-
gether. The present experimental study was conceived following
the general purpose of testing new sustainable building processes
and modern production systems, aimed not only at saving natural
raw materials and reducing energy consumption, but also to re-
cycle industrial by-products. The objectives of this study are to
investigate the effect of use of bottom ash and waste foundry
sand in equal quantities as partial replacement of ne aggregates
in various percentages (060%), on concrete properties such as
mechanical and durability characteristics of the concrete along
with micro-structural analysis with XRD and SEM.
2. Experimental program
The effect of using various percentages of bottom ash and waste foundry sand
as partial replacement of the ne aggregate in concrete was investigated. Also,
the effect of incorporating waste foundry sand and bottom ash, in concrete on
the mechanical, durability properties and microstructure were evaluated.
2.1. Materials and mix proportions
Portland Pozzolana Cement (53 MPa) conforming to Indian standard specica-
tions IS:1489-1991 [31] with consistency as 27%, specic gravity as 3.56 and ne-
ness as 5%, was used. Locally available natural sand with 4.75 mm maximum size
was used as ne aggregate, fullling the requirements of ASTM C 33-02a [32] and
IS:383-1970 [33] along with crushed stone of 20 mm maximum size used as coarse
aggregate. Locally available waste foundry sand was used as partial replacement of
ne aggregates (regular sand). The waste foundry sand showed lower neness mod-
ulus and bulk density than the regular sand. As per the particle size distribution of
the waste foundry sand, the size corresponding to 50% of passing (d
50
) was around
33 lm and average diameter of waste foundry sand particle was observed to be
28.8 lm. Coal bottom ash obtained from Panipat Thermal Power Station, Panipat,
Haryana, was also used as partial replacement of ne aggregates. The properties
of coal bottom ash conformed to IS:3812-2003. The particle size distribution of bot-
tom ash was measured, which showed that, of the particles 100% were smaller than
56 lm and 38% were smaller than 31.3 lm with average diameter of the particle
size distribution was 33.4 lm with standard mean deviation of 8.1 lm for bottom
ash. Table 1 gives the chemical composition of waste foundry sand and bottom
ash while Table 2 gives the physical properties of the aggregates used. A polycarb-
oxylic ether based superplasticizer of CICO brand complying with ASTM C-494 type
F [34], IS:9103-1999 [35] and IS:2645-2003 [36] was used.
Seven mix proportions were prepared. First was control mix (without bottom
ash and waste foundry sand), and the other six mixes contained bottom ash and
waste foundry sand in equal proportions. Fine aggregate (sand) was replaced with
bottom ash and waste foundry sand by weight. The proportions of ne aggregate
replaced ranged from 10% to 60% at the increment of 10%. Mix proportions are as
given in Table 3. The control mix without waste foundry sand and bottom ash
was proportioned as per Indian standard specications IS:10262-1982 [37], to ob-
tain a 28-day cube compressive strength of 36 MPa.
For these mix proportions, required quantities of materials were weighed. The
mixing procedure adopted was as follows: First, the cement, waste foundry sand,
and coal bottom ash were dry mixed till a uniform color was obtained without
any clusters of cement, waste foundry sand and bottom ash particles. Weighed
quantities of coarse aggregates and sand were then mixed in dry state, thoroughly
until a homogeneous mix was obtained. Water was then added in three stages as
50% of total water to the dry mix of concrete in rst stage; 40% of water and
superplasticizer to the wet mix; Remaining 10% of water was sprinkled on the
above mix and it was thoroughly mixed. All the moulds were properly oiled be-
fore casting the specimens. The casting immediately followed mixing, after carry-
ing out the tests for fresh properties. The top surface of the specimens was
scraped to remove excess material and achieve smooth nish. The specimens
were removed from moulds after 24 h and cured in water till testing or as per
requirement of the test.
2.2. Testing procedure
Fresh concrete properties such as slump ow, compaction factor, vee-bee con-
sistometer were determined according to an Indian Standard specication IS:1199-
1959 [38]. The results are presented in Table 3. The 150 mm concrete cubes were
cast for compressive strength, cylinders of size 150 mm 300 mm for splitting ten-
sile strength and beams of size 100 100 500 mm for exural strength. After re-
quired period of curing, the specimens were taken out of the curing tank and their
surfaces were wiped off. The various tests performed were compressive strength
test of cubes (150 mm side), splitting tensile strength of cylinders
(150 mm 300 mm), at 7, 28, 90, and 365 days and exural strength of beams
(100 100 500 mm) at 28, 90, and 365 days, as per IS:516-1959 [39].
The cylinders (100 mm 200 mm) were cast for rapid chloride penetration
resistance test and were sliced 51-mm (2-in.) thick of 102-mm (4-in.) nominal
diameter. Rapid chloride penetration resistance test (according to ASTM C
1202-97 [40] covered the determination of the electrical conductance of concrete
to provide a rapid indication of its resistance to the penetration of chloride ions.
The test method consisted of monitoring the amount of electrical current passed
through 51-mm (2-in.) thick slices of 102-mm (4-in.) nominal diameter cores or
cylinders for a 6-h period. A potential difference of 60 V dc was maintained
across the ends of the specimen, one of which was immersed in a sodium chlo-
ride solution, the other in a sodium hydroxide solution. The total charge passed,
in coulombs, was related to the resistance of the specimen to chloride ion
penetration.
The test method (according to ASTM C 672 [41]) covers the determination of
the resistance to scaling of a horizontal concrete surface exposed to freezing and
Y. Aggarwal, R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 54 (2014) 210223 211
thawing cycles in the presence of deicing chemicals. It is intended for the use in
evaluating surface resistance qualitatively by visual examination. Specimens of
size 225 225 25 mm were prepared for all mixes. A dike of 25 mm wide
and 20 mm high was placed along the perimeter of the top surface of the speci-
mens. The specimens were removed from the moulds after 24 h and then cured.
Since, the concretes with strength at different ages are to be compared, the spec-
imen were cured till that age. At the desired age, the specimens were removed
from moist storage and stored in air for 14 days. After completion of moist and
air curing, the at surface of the specimen was covered with 6 mm thick layer
solution of calcium chloride solution and water. 100 mL of solution contains 4 g
of anhydrous calcium chloride. The specimens were placed in freezing environ-
ment for 1618 h. The specimens were removed from freezer and placed in air
for 68 h. Water was added at each cycle, as necessary, to maintain proper depth
of solution. Cycle was repeated after every 24 h, ushing the surface at the end of
each 5 cycles. After making the visual examination, the solution was replaced and
the test continued for 50 cycles. Visual rating of the surface on the basis of the
scale given in Table 4 was carried out.
X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was done on Philips PW 1140/09. Diffractom-
eter operated at 35 KV, using Cu Ka radiation and Ni ller (k = 1.5418 ). The sam-
ples for X-ray diffraction analysis were prepared in powdered form. The concrete
sample was taken from the inner core of the matrix. X-ray diffraction is based on
the fact that, in a mixture, the measured intensity of a diffraction peak is directly
proportional to the content of the substance producing it (Soroka [42]). Since 2d is
a known constant, the 2h setting of each peak corresponds to a certain wave
length.
The type, amount, size, shape, and distribution of phases present in a solid con-
stitute its microstructure. It is the application of transmission and scanning electron
microscopy techniques which has made it possible to resolve the microstructure of
the materials to a fraction of one micrometer. Although, concrete is the most widely
used structural material, its microstructure is heterogeneous and highly complex.
Also, the microstructure-property relationships in concrete are not fully developed.
At the macroscopic level, concrete may be considered as a two-phase material,
consisting of aggregate particles dispersed in a matrix of cement paste. At the
microscopic level, complexities of the concrete microstructure are evident that
two phases are neither homogeneously distributed with respect to each other,
nor are they themselves homogeneous (Leas [43]).
Table 1
Chemical properties of coal bottom ash and waste foundry sand.
Coal bottom ash Waste foundry sand
Constituents Percent by weight Codal requirement Percent by weight Requirements (American foundry mens society, 1991)
Silica (SiO
2
) 57.76 35%(min) 78.81 87.9%
Iron oxide (Fe
2
O
3
) 8.56 70%(min)SiO
2
+ Fe
2
O
3
+ Al
2
O
3
4.83 0.94%
Alumina (Al
2
O
3
) 21.58 70%(min)SiO
2
+ Fe
2
O
3
+ Al
2
O
3
6.32 4.70%
Calcium oxide (CaO) 1.58 1.88 0.14%(min)
Magnesium oxide (MgO) 1.19 5%(max) 1.95 0.3%
Total sulphur (SO
3
) 0.02 3%(max) 0.05 0.09%
Alkalies (a) sodium oxide (Na
2
O) 0.14 1.5%(max)
(b) Potassium oxide (K
2
O) 1.08
Chloride 0.01 0.05%(max) 0.04
Loss on ignition 5.80 5%(max) 2.15 5.15%(max)
Table 2
Physical properties of aggregates.
Aggregates Specic gravity Unit weight (kg/m
3
) Fineness modulus
Sand 2.63 1890 3.03
Waste foundry sand 2.61 1638 1.78
Bottom ash 1.93 948 1.60
Coarse aggregates 2.77 1650 6.74
Table 3
Mix proportions of concrete mixes containing bottom ash & waste foundry sand.
Mix no. CM FB10 FB20 FB30 FB40 FB50 FB60
Cement (kg/m
3
) 350 350 350 350 350 350 350
Foundry Sand (%) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Foundry Sand (kg/m
3
) 0 30.25 60.50 90.75 121.00 151.25 181.50
Bottom ash (%) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Bottom ash (kg/m
3
) 0 30.25 60.50 90.75 121.00 151.25 181.50
Water (kg/m
3
) 175 180.30 185.60 190.90 201.50 212.12 238.63
W/C 0.5 0.52 0.53 0.55 0.58 0.61 0.68
Sand SSD (kg/m
3
) 605 544.5 484.0 423.5 363.0 302.5 242.0
Fine aggregate (kg/m
3
) 605 605 605 605 605 605 605
Coarse aggregate (kg/m
3
) 1260 1260 1260 1260 1260 1260 1260
Superplasticizer (kg/m
3
) 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75
Slump (mm) 30 30 30 30 30 30 30
Compaction factor 0.83 0.81 0.78 0.81 0.78 0.78 0.81
Vee-bee consistometer (sec) 5.98 5.20 6.42 5.54 6.44 6.68 5.26
Air temperature (C) 23 25 24 26 25 25 34
Concrete temperature (C) 25 25 25 26 25 27 28
Air content (%) 2.1 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.9 3.4
Fresh concrete density (kg/m
3
) 2392 2397 2402 2408 2418 2428.87 2455.38
Table 4
Rating for deicing salt surface scaling (ASTM C 672).
Rating Condition of surface
0 No scaling
1 Very slight scaling (3 mm depth, max., no coarse aggregates visible)
2 Slight to moderate scaling
3 Moderate scaling (some coarse aggregate visible)
4 Moderate to severe scaling
5 Severe scaling (coarse aggregate visible over entire surface)
212 Y. Aggarwal, R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 54 (2014) 210223
Original microstructure and morphology of the hydrate mixes were observed on
fractured surfaces. Fractured small samples were mounted on the SEM stubs with
gold coating. The scanning electron microscopic studies of various concrete samples
and constituent materials were carried out using Philips XL20 Scanning Electron
Microscope. The concrete specimens were rst cured in water for 365 days and then
oven dried at 105 C for 24 h.
3. Results and discussions
3.1. Fresh concrete properties
The workability of fresh concrete is a composite property which
includes the diverse requirements of stability, mobility, compacti-
bility, placeability, and nishability. Slump is a measure indicating
the consistency or workability of concrete. Slump for control mix
CM and FB mixes was observed to be 30 mm. The compaction fac-
tor values for control mix, and FB mixes corresponded to the slump
ow values as per Table 3. The presence of ner waste foundry
sand particles and bottom ash, in concrete lead to the increase in
the water demand, as compared to the regular sand particles. Thus,
to maintain the workability within specied range (slump has been
kept constant at 30 mm), the water content was gradually in-
creased with increase in replacement of sand with waste foundry
sand and bottom ash, which gave an idea about the increase in
water demand due to increase in replacement of sand with waste
foundry sand and bottom ash. The water content increased gradu-
ally from 175 kg/m
3
in control mix (CM) to 238.63 kg/m
3
in FB60
mix. It was observed that for initial replacements of 10%, 20%
and 30%, the increase in water content was constant and thereafter
for 40% and 50%, again it remained constant but almost twice the
value of initial replacements. For FB60 mix, the water content in-
creased drastically which reected on various strengths.
3.2. Compressive strength
Compressive strength results of FB mixes made with waste
foundry sand and bottom ash in equal percentages are as given
in Table 5. There is a decrease in the compressive strength of con-
crete mixes with the inclusion of waste foundry sand and bottom
ash as replacement of regular sand. The percentage decrease in
comparison to reference mix at various ages is as shown in Table 6.
It was observed that the mixes with replaced ne aggregates had
less difference from the reference mix as age increased to
365 days; the difference between CM and FB mixes left between
3% and 9% for all mixes (except FB60 mix which has showed higher
decrease at all ages, but that also has decreased with increase in
age).
The strength variation was observed to be marginal in the re-
placed mixes i.e. FB mixes, as the waste foundry sand tends to in-
crease the strength as observed in the waste foundry sand mixes
Table 5
Various strengths of CM and FB mixes.
Age 7-day (MPa) 28-day (MPa) 90-day (MPa) 365-day (MPa)
Mix Compressive
strength
Splitting
Tensile
strength
Compressive
strength
Splitting
Tensile
strength
Flexural
strength
Compressive
strength
Splitting
Tensile
strength
Flexural
strength
Compressive
strength
Splitting
Tensile
strength
Flexural
strength
CM 25.58 1.30 36.27 2.08 4.44 43.91 2.66 5.03 44.42 2.97 5.37
FB10 17.67 1.34 29.02 1.80 4.10 33.47 2.04 4.90 40.59 2.12 5.24
FB20 18.25 1.39 29.63 2.05 4.00 34.69 2.45 4.80 41.44 2.78 5.05
FB30 19.36 1.54 31.81 2.46 4.34 37.37 2.83 4.97 42.69 3.22 5.30
FB40 18.42 1.46 29.95 2.35 3.87 35.85 2.72 4.61 42.03 2.98 4.83
FB50 18.91 1.41 30.53 2.25 3.95 36.86 2.58 4.71 42.27 2.86 4.93
FB60 13.45 0.84 21.08 1.45 3.60 24.03 1.52 4.46 28.22 1.53 4.55
Table 6
Decrease in compressive strength at various ages in comparison to reference mix
(CM).
Mix 7-day (%) 28-day(%) 90-day(%) 365-day(%)
FB10 30.92 19.99 23.78 8.62
FB20 28.66 18.31 21.00 6.71
FB30 24.32 12.30 14.89 3.89
FB40 27.99 17.42 18.36 5.38
FB50 26.08 15.83 16.06 4.84
FB60 47.42 41.88 45.27 36.47
Fig. 1. Variation of cube compressive strength with age for CM & FB mixes.
Y. Aggarwal, R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 54 (2014) 210223 213
given elsewhere [44] and inclusion of same proportion of bottom
ash tends to decrease the strength [4]. Thus, not much difference
in strength was observed from 10% to 50% replacement of sand
with equal percentages of waste foundry sand and bottom ash.
Also, the strength observed at FB30 was highest as compared to
the other FB mixes, but less than that of reference mix. The maxi-
mum strength was obtained at replacement of 30% (15% waste
foundry sand and 15% bottom ash) in the replaced mixes, which
can be adjudged as optimum mix.
Compressive strength of all FB mixes increased with age. At
7 days, all FB mixes also showed the strength lower than CM mix
but as the age increases to 365 days gradually attained strengths
marginally lower than the reference mix CM as shown in Fig. 1.
The difference in the strengths of various mixes from reference
mix was observed to decrease for various FB mixes as given in Ta-
ble 6 with increase in age from 7 to 365 days. The reference mix
gained increase in strength from 7 to 28 days of 41.79%, from 28
to 90 days of 21.06% and from 28 to 365 days of 1.16% which is
characteristic of normal concrete. The FB mixes attained a rela-
tively constant strength of 5664% from 7 to 28 days, 1419% from
28 to 90 days, and 1421% from 90 to 365 days.
The FB mixes showed 7-day strength between 60% and 63% of
28-day strength; 90-day strength between 114% and 120%; and
365-day strength 133140% of the 28-day strength. It was ob-
served that at 7, and 90 days the gain of strength was less than that
of the CM mix but at 365 days the strength gain for FB mixes, ex-
ceeded the strength gain of CM mix.
3.3. Splitting tensile strength
The results of splitting tensile strength of FB mixes are indicated
in Table 5. The increase of 3.1%, 6.92%, 18.46%, 12.31% and 8.46%
was observed for the mixes FB10FB50 and decrease of 35.38%
was observed for the mix FB60 at 7 days with regards to reference
mix. The decrease of 13.46%, 1.44% and 30.29% for mixes FB10,
FB20 and FB60 was observed at 28 days, with increase of 18.27%,
12.98%, and 8.17% for the mixes FB30, FB40 and FB50 in compari-
son to the reference mix CM. Similarly, at 90 days, decrease of
23.31%, 7.89%, 3.01% and 42.86% for mixes FB10, FB20, FB50, and
Fig. 2. Variation of splitting tensile strength with age for CM & FB mixes.
Table 7
Ratio of splitting tensile strength and cube compressive strength for FB mixes.
Mix 7-day 28-day 90-day 365-day
FB10 0.076 0.062 0.061 0.052
FB20 0.076 0.069 0.071 0.067
FB30 0.080 0.077 0.076 0.075
FB40 0.079 0.078 0.076 0.071
FB50 0.075 0.074 0.070 0.068
FB60 0.062 0.069 0.063 0.054
For FB mixes The ratio of splitting tensile strength to cube compressive strength of
concrete varies from 5% to 8%.
For Normal strength mixes The ratio of splitting tensile strength to cube com-
pressive strength of concrete is in the range of 79% [45].
Fig. 3. Variation of exural strength with age for CM & FB mixes.
214 Y. Aggarwal, R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 54 (2014) 210223
FB60 was observed, with increase of 6.39% and 2.26% for the mixes
FB30 and FB40 in comparison to the reference mix CM. The trend
observed was same at 365 days as indicated in Fig. 2.
At 7 days, all FB mixes showed the strength higher than CM mix
except FB60, but as the age increases to 365 days all mixes showed
almost comparable strengths to that of reference mix CM.
Table 7 gives the ratio of splitting tensile strength to the cube
compressive strength of FB mixes. The results indicate that split-
ting tensile vary from 0.062 to 0.080; 0.062 to 0.078; 0.061 to
0.076 and 0.052 to 0.075 times the compressive strength, at ages
of 7, 28, 90 and 365 days, respectively.
3.4. Flexural strength
The exural strength of all FB mixes was observed to be less
than the strength of reference mix CM and FB30 attained maxi-
mum strength i.e. more than all other FB mixes at all the ages.
The exural strength results of concrete mixes are shown in Ta-
ble 5. Like compressive and splitting tensile strength, exural
strength of concrete mixes varied marginally with the increase in
waste foundry sand and bottom ash content. The 28-day exural
strength of CM mix was observed as 4.44 MPa, whereas mixes
FB10, FB20, FB30, FB40, FB50, and FB60 showed a decrease of
7.66%, 9.91%, 2.25%, 12.84%, 11.04%, and 18.92%. At 90 days, a de-
crease of 2.58%, 4.57%, 1.19%, 8.35%, 6.36% and 11.33% was ob-
served for mixes FB10, FB20, FB30, FB40, FB50 and FB60, in
comparison to the reference mixture CM. The same trend was ob-
served at the age of 365 days with FB10, FB20, FB30, FB40, FB50,
and FB60 showing decrease of 2.42%, 5.96%, 1.3%, 10.06%, 8.19%,
and 15.27%.
From the results given in Fig. 3, it is also evident that exural
strength of FB mixes increased with the age. The FB mixes showed
decrease in the strengths in comparison to reference mix as 7.66
2.42%, 9.915.96%, 2.251.30%, 12.8410.06%, 11.048.19%, and
18.9215.27% for mixes FB10, FB20, FB30, FB40, FB50, and FB60
with increase in age from 28 to 365 days. Also, an increase in
strength from 28 to 90 days was observed to be 13.29% for CM
mix whereas FB mixes showed increase in strength from 14.52%
to 23.89%, from 28 to 90 days. Between 90 and 365 days, an in-
crease in strength for CM mix was 6.76% and the FB mixes showed
an increase of 2.026.94%.
3.5. Relationship of exural strength to compressive and splitting
tensile strength
The exural strength as observed from Table 8 was 12.2%, 11.5%
and 12.1% of the cube compressive strength at the age of 28 days,
90 days, and 365 days, respectively of the reference mix CM. The FB
mixes showed the variation of 12.917.1% at 28 days, 12.818.6%
at 90 days and 11.516.1% at 365 days of the cube compressive
strength as has also been observed by Mehta and Monterio [45]
and Price [46].
The exural strength was observed to be 2.13, 1.89 and 1.81
times of the splitting tensile strength at the age of 28 days, 90 days
and 365 days, respectively of the reference mix CM. The FB mixes
showed the variation of 1.642.4 times at 28 days, 1.692.9 times
at 90 days and 1.62.9 times at 365 days of the splitting tensile
strength as given in Table 9.
Table 10 shows the computations of ratios of exural strength
(fr) to the square root of the cube compressive strength (
p
fck) of
experimental values of present investigation and the theoretical
values of exural strength based on expressions proposed by ear-
lier investigators (ACI Committee [47], IS:456-2000 [48]). An aver-
age value so obtained for different concrete mixes has been found
to be 0.744. This, in the general form, would give an expression as
Fr 0:744
p
fck 1
Table 8
Ratio of exural strength and cube compressive strength for CM & FB mixes.
Mix 28-day 90-day 365-day
CM 0.122 0.115 0.121
FB10 0.141 0.146 0.129
FB20 0.135 0.138 0.122
FB30 0.136 0.133 0.124
FB40 0.129 0.129 0.115
FB50 0.129 0.128 0.117
FB60 0.171 0.186 0.161
For normal concrete The ratio of exural strength to cube compressive strength of
concrete is nearly 0.11 to 0.18 [45].
Table 9
Ratio of exural strength and splitting tensile strength for CM & FB mixes.
Mix 28-day 90-day 365-day
CM 2.135 1.891 1.808
FB10 2.278 2.402 2.472
FB20 1.951 1.959 1.817
FB30 1.764 1.756 1.646
FB40 1.647 1.695 1.621
FB50 1.756 1.826 1.724
FB60 2.483 2.934 2.974
For normal concrete Flexural strength is about 1.52 times the splitting tensile
strength of concrete [45,61,62].
Table 10
Comparison of experimental values of exural strength (fr) with the theoretical
values predicted by other researchers.
Mix 28 days cube
compressive
strength, fck
(N/mm
2
)
Flexural Strength,
Fr (N/mm
2
)
Ratios based on
experimental
values fr/
p
fck
Exp. Theoretical values as
per references
ACI
committee
IS:456-
2000
CM 36.27 4.44 4.19 4.22 0.7372
FB10 29.02 4.10 3.55 3.77 0.7611
FB20 29.63 4.00 3.60 3.81 0.7348
FB30 31.81 4.34 3.75 3.95 0.7695
FB40 29.95 3.87 3.64 3.83 0.7072
FB50 30.53 3.95 3.70 3.87 0.7149
FB60 21.08 3.60 3.01 3.21 0.7841
Average value 0.744
Fig. 4. Comparison of experimental values of exural strength (Fr) with the
theoretical values predicted by other researchers.
Y. Aggarwal, R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 54 (2014) 210223 215
Further, a comparison of the experimental results has been made
with those of other authors and shown in Fig. 4. The results of the
exural strength of present study are less than the values of the
exural strength as reported by Siddique et al. [25] and higher than
those reported by ACI Committee 363 and slightly higher than
IS:456-2000 which gives the average value as 0.7. It was observed
that the concrete mixes containing waste foundry sand and bottom
ash behave in similar manner to that as plain concrete.
Theoretical expressions for exural strength:
ACI Committee 363, proposed the expression for exural
strength as:
Fr 0:94
p
fcc in MPa for 21MPa < fcc 6 83MPa
IS 456-2000, proposed the expression for exural strength
for NSC as:
Fr 0:7
p
fck in MPa for fck 6 60MPa
Compressive strength is assumed as an adequate index for all
types of strength, and therefore a direct relationship ought to exist
between the compressive and tensile or exural strength of a given
concrete. It has been observed that relationship among various
types of strength is inuenced by factors like the methods by
which the tensile strength is measured (i.e., direct tension test,
splitting test, or exure test), the quality of concrete (i.e., low, mod-
erate or high-strength), the aggregate characteristics (e.g., surface
texture and mineralogy), and admixtures (e.g., air-entraining and
mineral admixtures) [45].
Bottom ash when used as aggregate replacement from 20% to
50% showed decrease in compressive strength, from control mix
which was designed for almost comparable strength as in the pres-
ent research [49]. Waste foundry sand when used as aggregate
replacement from 10% to 60% showed increase in strength, from
the control mix which was same as in the present research, with
strength at 30% replacement of ne aggregates, being highest in
the replaced mixes and even higher than control mix [44]. The
use of waste foundry sand and bottom ash together compensate
for the increase and decrease of strength due to replacement with
waste foundry sand and bottom ash, respectively. It provides an
opportunity to use two by-products together and achieve strength
comparable to that of reference mix.
4. Durability properties
Durability, and more specically, resistance to chloride ion pen-
etration and deicing salt surfacing are of major importance for
reinforced concrete structures. Before using any industrial by-
product such as waste foundry sand and bottom ash, these behav-
ior needs to be investigated to study the effect of use of waste
foundry sand and bottom ash on concrete.
4.1. Resistance to rapid chloride penetration
The ability of concrete to resist the penetration of chloride ions
is a critical parameter in determining the service life of steel-rein-
forced concrete structures exposed to deicing salts or marine envi-
ronments. The effect of y ash on the mass transfer properties of
concrete has been well documented; however, no documentation
of waste foundry sand and bottom ash together, as replacement
of ne aggregates in concrete mixes is available. The measurement
concerns the chloride ions that come into concrete and also those
owing through the samples.
The RCPT values of FB mixes, at the age of 90 and 365 days are
given in Table 11. It can be observed that the RCPT value decreases
with increase in age. For the FB mixes, RCPT values were found to
be more than reference mix CM with maximum value observed for
FB60 mix. Results reported [5053] for the normal concrete and
concrete with various additives also indicate decrease of RCPT val-
ues with increase in age.
The RCPT values in coulombs, from literatures available, were
observed to be very high for normal concretes as shown in Ta-
ble 12, mostly above 1500 coulombs for most of the mixes, such
as 7890 coulombs [54]; 2766 coulombs [55], 1802 coulombs [56],
2869 coulombs [57], 5250 coulombs [58] at 28 days, 1725 cou-
lombs [51] and 2971 coulombs [52] at 90 days; 3767 coulombs
at 180 days [50]. The concrete with other additions like slag
and rice husk ash also showed higher RCPT values at 28 days
[53,59]. As compared to these concretes, it was observed that
all FB mixes in this study showed very low RCPT values, less than
750 coulombs at 90 days and 500 coulombs at 365 days on the
Table 11
Charge passed and rating for FB mixes.
Mix Charge passed in
coulombs (90-day)
Charge passed in
coulombs (365-day)
Chloride ion
penetrability
CM 578 323 Very low
FB10 628 357 Very low
FB20 616 306 Very low
FB30 600 321 Very low
FB40 664 383 Very low
FB50 652 377 Very low
FB60 741 486 Very low
Table 12
Charge passed at various ages for various types of concretes.
Author Type of concrete Fly ash content (%) RCPT Values (Coulombs)
28 56 90 180
Ramezanianpour and Malhotra [50] Normal 0 4251 3767
Oh et al. [55] Normal 0 2766
Naik et al. [51] Normal 0 3150 1725
Mackechnie and Alexander [56] Normal 0 1802
Feng et al. [57] Normal 0 2869
Yang and Chiang [54] Normal 0 7890
Guneyisi [52] Normal 4093 2971
Gu et al. [58] Normal 5250
Gastaldini et al. [53] Rice husk ash 0 3166 2136
20 1557 692
Cho and Chiang [59] Slag 0 9639
20 6355
40 2709
50 2148
70 1350
216 Y. Aggarwal, R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 54 (2014) 210223
addition of waste foundry sand and bottom ash, as is evident
from Table 11, which comes under very low category as per
ASTM-1202C.
It is observed that cement type, w/c ratio, curing condition, and
testing age have effect on chloride permeability of concrete. The
normal concretes or the concrete with various additives could vary
in above parameters, thereby effecting RCPT values. The FB mixes
in the present study showed very less RCPT value thereby indicat-
ing good resistance to permeability on addition of waste foundry
sand and bottom ash in concrete.
4.2. Relation between compressive strength and resistance to chloride
ion penetration
The fundamental destructive effect of chlorides is their inu-
ence upon the reinforcement corrosion process, is primarily due
to their capacity to negate the corrosion inhibiting properties of
the alkaline cement paste pore solution. This risk increases with
increasing concentration of free chlorides in the pore solution. It
is generally believed that there is a threshold concentration of
the chloride ions, which must be exceeded before corrosion oc-
Fig. 5. Relation between compressive strength and resistance to chloride ion penetration.
Table 13
Weight loss and visual rating ASTM C 672 for FB mixes.
Mix no. 90-Day 365-Day
Weight loss (kg/m
2
) Weight loss (%) Visual rating Weight loss (kg/m
2
) Weight loss (%) Visual rating
CM 0.8099 0.61 0 1.7975 1.36 1
FB10 0.3160 0.31 0 1.0074 0.92 0
FB20 0.4148 0.36 0 1.4222 1.17 1
FB30 0.6123 0.49 0 2.0741 1.67 1
FB40 0.4741 0.43 0 1.8765 1.62 1
FB50 0.4938 0.40 0 1.6198 1.30 1
FB60 0.7901 0.66 0 2.2716 1.87 1
Fig. 6. X-ray diffraction pattern of reference (CM) mix.
Y. Aggarwal, R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 54 (2014) 210223 217
curs. The threshold concentration may depend on the concrete
composition and on environmental parameters. The corrosion
due to chloride ingress progresses at a much higher rate than
that due to carbonation. In extreme cases, the corrosion rate in
real structures can be 5 mm/year compared to 0.05 mm/year
for carbonation-induced corrosion. The correlation as obtained
Fig. 7a. X-ray diffraction pattern of FB10 mix.
Fig. 7b. X-ray diffraction pattern of FB20 mix.
Fig. 7c. X-ray diffraction pattern of FB30 mix.
218 Y. Aggarwal, R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 54 (2014) 210223
from Fig. 5 shows a good relation between compressive
strength and chloride permeability (R
2
as 0.80 and 0.78 for
90 days and 365 days). A decrease in RCPT values with
increase in strength of FB mixes is also evident from
Fig. 5.
4.3. Deicing salt surface scaling
For the average cumulative mass of scaled-off material obtained
after 50 freezing-thawing cycles along with average visual surface
ratings determined as per the ASTM C672, results are given in Ta-
Fig. 7d. X-ray diffraction pattern of FB40 mix.
Fig. 7e. X-ray diffraction pattern of FB50 mix.
Fig. 7f. X-ray diffraction pattern of FB60 mix.
Y. Aggarwal, R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 54 (2014) 210223 219
ble 13. For reference mix, weight loss was observed as 0.81 kg/m
2
.
All FB mixes showed weight loss lower than the reference mix
which was observed as maximum of 0.79 kg/m
2
for FB60 mix at
90 days. Except for the FB mixes FB30 and FB60, all other mixes
showed weight loss lower than reference mix at 365 days. The
mass loss was observed to be between 0.31% and 0.66% at 90 days
and between 0.92% and 1.87% at 365 days for the FB mixes. In the
present study, the visual rating as per ASTM C 672, for most of the
mixes was between 0 and 1, and never exceeded 2 as given in
Table 13.
Wang et al. [63] reported mass loss of the normal concrete spec-
imens immersed in CaCl
2
deicing solution, as also used in the pres-
ent study, about 2% of the total weight of the sample at 20 wetting
dry cycles. For the present study, the mass loss was observed to be
0.61% and 1.36% at 90 and 365 days for the CM mix.
4.4. X-ray diffraction (XRD)
XRD technique was conducted to analyze the components of
concrete mixes and the results are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The X-
ray diffraction pattern and analysis of the concrete mixes i.e. refer-
ence mix, and FB mixes was carried out at age of 365 days. One of
the major problems encountered in the qualitative and quantita-
tive analysis of cement is that there are strong overlapping of ma-
jor diffraction peaks of all the main phases of cement components
in the angular range of 2h values from 30 to 35 making the iden-
tication of the individual components extremely difcult. In all
the mixes, C
2
S, C
3
S, and C
4
AF peaks are not visible indicating that
they may be totally consumed or overlapping of the peaks of unhy-
drated cement by that of Si may have occurred as all analyzed
mixes were concrete specimens with large number of aggregate
particles containing quartz which resulted in intensive Si peaks.
Hence, as shown, SiO
2
peak indicating free silica, in CM mix was
observed at 1800. The X-ray diffraction pattern observed in FB10
mix was similar to CM mix as the overall replacement of the sand
was only 10%, with waste foundry sand and bottom ash as 5% and
5%, respectively. The FB20 to FB50 mix showed SiO
2
peak between
4000 and 4500. The strength variation in all the FB mixes was com-
paratively less, thus the FB40 and FB50 mixes show almost same
intensity of SiO
2
peak at 4200. FB60 gave the SiO
2
peak at 3100.
Phase determination could not be carried out as the mixes are
complex and XRD analysis is done for single crystalline and poly-
crystalline (two) for phase determination. Using the software li-
brary, the analysis for various mixtures was carried out which
showed that the main component consisted of highly crystalline
quartz (compounds shown in the graphs were obtained at various
2h values, from the standard library of the software itself). Since, in
the material with crystalline structure, X-rays scattered by ordered
features will be scattered coherently in-phase in certain direc-
tions meeting the criterion for constructive interference. The con-
ditions required for constructive interference are determined by
Braggs Law.
4.5. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis
It is well known that, the calciumsilicahydrate (CSH) is
major phase present. The factors that inuence the mechanical
behavior of CSH phases are: size and shape of the particles, dis-
tribution of particles, particle concentration, particle orientation,
topology of the mixture, composition of the dispersed/continuous
phases and the pore structure. Considering various scanning elec-
tron microscope images, the phases were indicated studying the
literature available [Leas [41], Yazici [60]]. It was assumed that
the bright and dark matter in the images stands for CSH gel/
paste and inert aggregates respectively, after having some idea
about the presence of CSH gel/paste and inert aggregates respec-
tively, then further, referring to the above literatures, the differen-
tiation in various particles of inert aggregates, was tried to be
carried out as the medium dark particles considered as waste foun-
dry sand particles while the spherical like particles considered as
bottom-ash particles. The assumptions regarding presence of par-
ticles is based on the facts that these medium dark particles are
seen in almost every sample indicating waste foundry sand parti-
cles except the reference mix CM (every sample except the refer-
ence mix CM contains waste foundry sand and bottom ash),
while the spherical like particles are visible indicating bottom-
ash [60]. These assumptions can be justied based on the fact that
Fig. 8. Micrograph of reference (CM) mix.
Fig. 9a. Micrograph of FB10 mix.
Fig. 9b. Micrograph of FB20 mix.
220 Y. Aggarwal, R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 54 (2014) 210223
the basic structure of the concrete in all the samples is the same i.e.
the mix designed for the reference mix has been kept constant in
all the samples changing only the waste foundry sand and the bot-
tom ash part in these mixes.
Fig. 8 is micrograph of reference mix i.e. the SEM image at 1.5
KX magnications. It shows the formation of proper and clear C
SH gel in various stages. The encircled portions represent the
voids while rest of the picture consists of CSH gel and inert
aggregates (both ne and coarse). The important point to be noted
in the micrograph is that the CSH gel i.e. the bright masses with
nodules and big chalky gel parts are spread over the entire micro-
graph, as it is evident from various literatures, the CSH gel gets
spread over the aggregates thus acting as binders for the paste.
Fig. 9a, micrograph of FB10 mix shows two major features.
Firstly, the number of voids in the mix has signicantly reduced
and secondly, the CSH gel paste is not as widely spread as it
was in the reference mix, showing some aversion to the binder
paste but more importantly, the effect of waste foundry sand and
bottom ash has been negative on the strength because of lesser
quantity of waste foundry sand and bottom ash, clearly evident
as the strength of the mix has deteriorated signicantly. The micro-
structure also shows the presence of waste foundry sand and bot-
tom ash particles of various sizes at various places. The decrease in
strength could be attributed to the non formation of proper CSH
gel as compared to CM mix microstructure, although, at few places
the formation of CSH gel could be detected as the percentage of
the waste foundry sand and bottom ash, added was only 10%.
Figs. 9b9e, the micrographs of FB20, FB30, FB40 and FB50
show the presence of needle like structures around waste foundry
sand and bottom ash particles at various places. The reaction or the
formation of CSH gel is better, thereby indicating comparative
densication of the mixes till 50% replacement.
Fig. 9f, micrograph of FB60 mix shows that the mix has crum-
bled with coming out of waste foundry sand and bottom ash par-
ticles from the mix. The CSH gel could not be seen at many
places in the micrograph. The most important inference from the
image is that the paste is crumbling, as the amount of replacement
goes so high in this sample that the equilibrium falls and leads to
lower strength.
The micrographs from Figs. 9b9e show similarity in the pat-
tern formation of CSH gel in these mixes with all of them nearly
having same strength except for the mix with 60% replacement.
Fig. 9f, micrograph of FB60 mix shows that the mix has crum-
bled with coming out of waste foundry sand and bottom ash par-
ticles from the mix. The CSH gel could not be seen at many
places in the micrograph. The most important inference from the
image is that the paste is crumbling, as the amount of replacement
goes so high in this sample that the equilibrium falls and leads to
lower strength.
In fact, in the present study the mixes with amount of replace-
ment of sand more than 50% with waste foundry sand and bottom
ash, also lead to crumbling at the time of curing done experimen-
tally. These results simply imply that more than 50% replacement
of sand with waste foundry sand and bottom ash leads to aws
in concrete, but the best mixture in any case is inarguably the
30% replacement mix. Further, FB30 mix showed large formation
of CSH gel thus, development of dense microstructure. The -
brous CSH formation acts as a thick impermeable membrane
for the ingress of chloride ions into concrete. This makes the con-
Fig. 9c. Micrograph of FB30 mix.
Fig. 9d. Micrograph of FB40 mix.
Fig. 9e. Micrograph of FB50 mix.
Fig. 9f. Micrograph of FB60 mix.
Y. Aggarwal, R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 54 (2014) 210223 221
crete more resistant to aggressive environment as observed from
RCPT values.
5. Conclusions
The following conclusions could be arrived at from the study:
1. The studies carried out indicate the viability of using waste
from the foundry industry and bottom ash from electro-
static precipitators as recycled ne aggregates in the pro-
duction of concrete for structural purposes.
2. As, it was observed that for initial replacements of 10%, 20%
and 30%, the increase in water content was constant and
thereafter for 40% and 50%, again it remained constant
but almost double the value of initial replacements. The
mixes can be developed by varying the water content at
constant rate as specied in the study till 30% and thereaf-
ter till 50% replacement of ne aggregates. The mix FB60 is
not recommended as the water content of this mix is high
which also reects on various strengths.
3. The mechanical behavior of the concrete with waste foun-
dry sand and bottom ash showed strengths comparable to
that of conventional concrete except for FB60 mix, at the
age of 365 days. Furthermore, it was observed that the
greatest increase in compressive, splitting tensile strength
and exural strength was achieved by substituting 30% of
the natural ne aggregate with industrial by-product
aggregate in replaced mixes. Also, the maximum replace-
ment could be taken as 50%.
4. The splitting tensile strength for FB30 mix was observed to
be more than the control mix at all ages.
5. An increase in strength from 28 to 90 days was observed to
be 13.29% for CMmix whereas FB mixes showed increase in
strength from 14.52% to 23.89%. Between 90 and 365 days,
an increase in strength for CM mix was 6.76% and the FB
mixes showed an increase of 2.026.94%.
6. The inclusion of waste foundry sand and bottom ash as ne
aggregate does not affect the strength properties negatively
as the strength remains within limits. The concrete was
endowed with comparable mechanical properties and
greater resistance to aggressive agents (chemical, physical
and environmental).
7. The morphology of the formations arising as a result of the
hydration process was not observed to change in the con-
crete with varying percentages of waste foundry sand and
bottom ash except in FB60.
8. The possibility of substituting natural ne aggregate with
industrial by-product aggregate such as waste foundry
sand and bottom ash offers technical, economic and envi-
ronmental advantages which are of great importance in
the present context of sustainability in the construction
sector.
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