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LAMPIRAN A

PERHITUNGAN NERACA MASSA


Kapasitas Produksi
Hari Kerja
Basis Bahan Baku

=
=
=
=
=

Spesifikasi bahan baku

Spesifikasi Produk

62500
ton/tahun
7891.4141
kg/jam
hari
1 tahun = 330
24
jam
1 hari =
100 kg/jam
=
=
=
=

Nitrobenzen
Air
Di-Nitrobenzen
Benzen

= Anilin
= Air

Tabel Data Masing-masing Komponen


Komponen
Rumus Molekul
C6H5NO2
Nitrobenzen
H2 O
Air
C6H5NH2
Anilin

A.1

0.9930
0.0010
0.0010
0.0010

=
=

0.9900
0.0100

Titik Didih, oC
210.9
100
184.1

BM, kg/kmol
123
18
93

-259.2
301
80.1
-164

2
168
78
16

H2
C6H4NO2
C 6 H6
CH4

Hidrogen
Di-Nitrobenzen
Benzen
Metana

=
=
=
=

SEPARATOR
2

Separator

3
Basis
= 100
kg/jam
Asumsi
=
80% produk
Arus 2 (produk yang diinginkan):
79.4400
Nitrobenzen
=
H2 O
0.0800
=
0.0800
Di-Nitrobenzen
=
0.0800
Benzen
=

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

=
=
=
=

0.6459
0.0044
0.0005
0.0010

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

Arus 1 (umpan):
Nitrobenzen
H2 O
Di-Nitrobenzen
Benzen
Arus 3
Nitrobenzen
H2 O
Di-Nitrobenzen
Benzen

=
=
=
=

99.3000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

=
=
=
=

0.8073
0.0056
0.0006
0.0013

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

=
=
=
=

19.8600
0.0200
0.0200
0.0200

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

=
=
=
=

0.1615
0.0011
0.0001
0.0003

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

Tabel Neraca Massa Separator


Masuk (kg/jam)
Komponen
Arus 1
Nitrobenzen
99.3000
H2 O
0.1000
0.1000
Di-Nitrobenzen
Benzen
0.1000
Total

99.6000

Keluar (kg/jam)
Arus 2
Arus 3
79.4400
19.8600
0.0800
0.0200
0.0800
0.0200
0.0800
0.0200
79.6800
19.9200
99.6000

A.2 REAKTOR
4

Reaktor

Konversi
= 0.98
Bahan Baku yang Masuk kedalam Reaktor
C6H5NO2
79.4400
kg/jam
=
C6H4NO2
0.0800
kg/jam
=
C 6 H6
0.0800
kg/jam
=
H2 O
0.0800
kg/jam
=

=
=
=
=

Perbandingan mol Nitrobezen terhadap H2 = 1:3


H2
=
3.8751
kg/jam
=
CH4
=
0.00004
kg/jam
=
Bahan yang Bereaksi
C6H5NO2 yang bereaksi

=
=

Konversi
0.98

0.6459
0.0044
0.0005
0.0010

1.9376
0.000002

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

kmol/jam
kmol/jam

x C6H5NO2 yang masuk


79.4400

=
H2 O

C6H4NO2

C 6 H6

H2 yang bereaksi

CH4

Reaksi yang Reaksi


C6H5NO2
Mula-mula
0.6459
Bereaksi
0.6329
Sisa
0.0129
Produk yang Terbentuk
C6H5NH2
=
0.6329
H2 O
=
1.2659

kg/jam

0.6329

kmol/jam

= H2O yang masuk


=
0.08
kg/jam

0.0044

= C6H4NO2 yang masuk


=
0.08
kg/jam

0.0005

kmol/jam

= C6H6 yang masuk


=
0.08
kg/jam

0.001026

kmol/jam

= (3/1) x C6H5NO2 yang bereaksi


=
3.7976 kg/jam
=
1.8988
= CH4 yang masuk
=
0.00004
kg/jam

3H2

kmol/jam
kmol/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

0.000002

C6H5NH2

1.9376
1.8988
0.0388

Neraca Massa Total Reaktor


Komponen
Masuk (kg/jam)
C6H5NO2
79.4400
C6H4NO2
0.0800
H2 O
0.0800
C 6 H6
0.0800
H2
3.8751
CH4
0.00004
C6H5NH2
H2 O
Total
83.5552
Bahan Yang Masuk
C6H5NO2
= 1.5888
C6H4NO2
= 0.0800
H2 O
= 0.0800
C 6 H6
= 0.0800

77.8512

0.6329
0.6329

=
=

58.8631
22.7857

=
=
=
=

0.0129
0.0005
0.0044
0.0010

2H2O
1.2659
1.2659

kg/jam
kg/jam

Keluar (kg/jam)
1.5888
0.0800
0.0800
0.0800
0.0775
0.00004
58.8631
22.7857
83.5552

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

H2
CH4
C6H5NH2
H2 O

=
=
=
=

0.0775
0.00004
58.8631
22.7857

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

=
=
=
=

0.0388
0.000002
0.3197
1.2659

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.0129
0.0005
0.0044
0.0010
0.0388
0.000002
0.3197
1.2659

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

1.5570

A.3 Flash Tank


5

Flash Tank

6
Komposisi Umpan Masuk
Bahan Yang Masuk
C6H5NO2
=
1.5888
C6H4NO2
=
0.0800
H2 O
=
0.0800
C 6 H6
=
0.0800
H2
=
0.0775
CH4
=
0.00004
C6H5NH2
=
58.8631
H2 O
=
22.7857
Komposisi Bahan yang Teruapkan
Nitrobenzen (C6H5NO2)
98% x C6H5NO2 yang masuk
Di-Nitrobenzen (C6H4NO2)
99% x C6H4NO2 yang masuk

Air (H2O)
98% x H2O yang masuk

Benzen (C6H6)
98% x C6H6 yang masuk

Gas Hidrogen (H2)


100.0% x H2 yang masuk

Gas Metana (CH4)

kg/jam

0.0792

22.4084

0.0784

0.0127

kmol/jam

kg/jam

0.0005

kmol/jam

kg/jam

1.2449

kmol/jam

kg/jam

0.0010

kmol/jam

0.077502 kg/jam

0.0388

kmol/jam

100%

x CH4 yang masuk

0.00004

Anilin (C6H5NH2)
0.01%
x C6H5NH2 yang masuk

Komposisi Bahan Cair


Nitrobenzen (C6H5NO2)
2% x C6H5NO2 yang masuk

Di-Nitrobenzen (C6H4NO2)
1% x C6H4NO2 yang masuk

Air (H2O)
2% x H2O yang masuk
Benzen (C6H6)
2% x C6H6 yang masuk

=
=

Anilin (C6H5NH2)
99.99% x C6H5NH2 yang masuk
Hidrogen (H2)
0.00%
x H2 yang masuk

Komponen

Masuk (kg/jam)

C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6
H2
CH4
C6H5NH2

1.5888
0.0800
22.8657
0.0800
0.0775
3.87516E-05
58.8631

Total

83.5552

Komponen
C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6

A
-54.494
-24.246
18.3036
15.9008

0.0059

kg/jam

0.031776 kg/jam

0.0008

0.0016

0.0000

kg/jam

0.457314 kg/jam

kg/jam

kg/jam

kmol/jam

0.0001

kmol/jam

0.0003

kmol/jam

0.000005

0.0254

kmol/jam

2.05E-05

kmol/jam

0.6329

0.00000

V
L
1.5570
0.0318
0.0792
0.0008
22.4084
0.4573
0.0784
0.0016
0.0775
3.87516E-05
0.0059
58.8572
24.2065
59.3487
83.5552
Antoine
C
29.321
16.344
-46.13
-52.36

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

Keluar (kg/jam)

B
-2112.3
-4114
3816.44
2788.51

kmol/jam

58.85722 kg/jam

kg/jam

0.000002

D
-0.0448
-0.0241
-

E
0.0000
0.0000
-

H2
CH4
C6H5NH2

13.6333
15.2243
16.6748

164.9
597.84
3857.52

(L/V) data
=
2.4518
Dengan menggunakan persamaan
Fi
Vi = ((L/V)/ki)+1

3.19
-7.16
-73.15

(L/V)data
Ai =
ki

ki =

T trial
= 139.5 C = 412.5 K
P sistem
=
760 mmHg
logP = A + B/T + ClogT + DT + ET2

Li =

Pi
P sistem

Fi
(1+(L/V)*ki)

Komponen

Fi (kmol)

Pi (mmHg)

ki

Ai

C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6
H2
CH4
C6H5NH2

0.0129
0.0005
1.2703
0.0010
0.0388
2.E-06
0.3197

101.6479
1.1463
2663.536
3492.8994
560527.74
936103.2
201.9982

0.1337
0.0015
3.5047
4.5959
737.5365
1231.7147
0.2658

18.3314
1625.5992
0.6996
0.5335
0.0033
0.0020
9.2246

Total

1.6432

Vi

%V

Li

%Li

0.0007
2.92752E-07
0.7474
0.0007
0.0386
2.41716E-06
0.0313

0.0008
3.57597E-07
0.9130
0.0008
0.0472
2.95257E-06
0.0382

0.0097
0.0005
0.1324
0.0001
2.14181E-05
8.01744E-10
0.1936

0.0289
0.0014
0.3938
0.0002
0.0001
2.38388E-09
0.5756

0.8187

1.0000

0.3363

1.0000

Fi
Vi total

=
(L/V)hitung

2.0072
=

2.4518

A.5 MENARA DISTILASI

Menara
Distilasi

Arus 6
Komponen

Kg/Jam

Kmol/Jam

C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6
C6H5NH2

0.0318
0.0008
0.4573
0.0016
58.8572

0.0003
4.7619E-06
0.0254
2.05128E-05
0.6329

Total

59.3487

0.6586

A. Massa Masuk Menara Distilasi pada Kondisi Bubble Point


T =
170.11 C
443.11 K ; P =
=
1 atm
Trial pada T akan dianggap benar apabila Syi = 1

Komponen

(Kmol/jam)

xi

Pi

ki

C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2

0.0003
4.7619E-06
0.0254
2.05128E-05
0.6329

0.0004
7.23075E-06
0.0386
3.11478E-05
0.9610

267.6120
5.5490
5942.6871
6402.8470
516.9484

0.5177
0.0107
11.4957
12.3859
1.0000

0.6586

H2 O
C 6 H6
C6H5NH2
Total

yi

0.0002
7.76158E-08
0.4435
0.0004
0.9610
1.405

1.0000
0.0207
22.2064
23.9259
1.9317

760

mmHg

Jadi bisa disimpulkan bahwa suhu pemasukan umpan sebesar 170,11 C


B. Spesifikasi Hasil Yang Diinginkan
B.1 Distilat
Menentukan Massa Distilat
1. C6H5NO2
=
1%
x Massa
= 2.58E-06 kmol/jam
2. C6H4NO2
=
1%
x Massa
= 4.76E-08 kmol/jam
H
O
3.
= 99.00% x Massa
=
0.0252
kmol/jam
2
C 6 H6
4.
=
1%
x Massa
= 2.05E-07 kmol/jam
C6H5NH2
5.
=
1%
x Massa
=
0.0063
kmol/jam
Total
=
0.0315 kmol/jam
Menentukan Nilai xdi
1. C6H5NO2
= Massa Komponen
=

2.58E-06
0.0315

8.20552E-05

= Massa Komponen
Massa Total

4.76E-08
0.0315

1.51249E-06

= Massa Komponen
Massa Total

0.0252
0.0315

0.7989

= Massa Komponen
Massa Total

2.05E-07
0.0315

= Massa Komponen
Massa Total

0.0063
0.031484

0.2010

Massa Total
2. C6H4NO2

3. H2O

4. C6H6

6.

C6H5NH2

Menentukan Massa Bottom


1. C6H5NO2
=
99%
2. C6H4NO2
=
99%
3. H2O
=
1%
4.
C6H6
=
99%
C6H5NH2
5.
=
99%
Total

x
x
x
x
x

Menentukan Nilai xbi


1. C6H5NO2
= Massa Komponen
Massa Total
2. C6H4NO2

3. H2O

= Massa Komponen
Massa Total

Massa
Massa
Massa
Massa
Massa

=
0.0003
kmol/jam
= 4.71E-06 kmol/jam
=
0.0003
kmol/jam
= 2.03.E-05 kmol/jam
=
0.6265
kmol/jam
=
0.6271 kmol/jam

0.0003
0.6271

0.0004

4.71E-06
0.6271

0.0000

0.0004

= Massa Komponen

0.0003
=

4. C6H6

C6H5NH2

5.

Komponen
C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6
C6H5NH2
Total

Massa Total

0.6271

0.0004

= Massa Komponen
Massa Total

2.0.E-05
0.6271

0.0000

= Massa Komponen
Massa Total

0.626545
0.627079

0.9991

Massa
(Kmol/jam)
0.0003
4.7619E-06
0.0254
2.05128E-05
0.6329
0.6586

%
1%
1%
99%
1%
1%

Distilat
Massa
2.58341E-06
4.7619E-08
0.0252
2.05128E-07
0.0063
0.0315

xdi
8.20552E-05
1.51249E-06
0.7989
0
0.2010
1.0000

Massa
(Kmol/jam)
0.0003
4.7619E-06
0.0254
2.05.E-05
0.6329
0.6586

%
99%
99%
1%
99%
99%

Bottom
Massa
0.0003
4.71429E-06
0.0003
2.03.E-05
0.6265
0.6271

xbi
0.0004
7.51784E-06
0.0004
0.0000
0.9991
1.0000

Komponen
C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C6H6
C6H5NH2
Total

C. Perhitungan Suhu Atas (Dew point)


Trial pada T akan dianggap benar apabila Sxi = 1
Pt =
T=

1
182.7943

Komponen
C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6
C6H5NH2
Total

atm
C

Massa
(kmol/jam)
2.58341E-06
4.7619E-08
0.0252
2.05128E-07
0.0063
0.0315

=
=

760
455.9443

yi=
m/m total
8.20552E-05
1.51249E-06
0.798894751
6.51535E-06
0.201015166
1

mmHg
K

Pi
382.3358
9.967046
8030.418
8034.002
733.2846

Jadi dapat disimpulkan bahwa T distilat adalah 182,7943C


D. Perhitungan Suhu Bawah (Bubble point)

ki=
Pi/P
0.5031
0.0131
10.5663
10.5711
0.9648

xi=
yi/ki
0.000163
0.000115
0.0756
6.16E-07
0.2083
0.284

i =
ki/k(HK)
1.0000
0.0261
21.0036
21.0129
1.9179

Trial pada T dianggap benar apabila Syi = 1


Pt =
T=

1
184.0100

Komponen
C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C6H6
C6H5NH2
Total

atm
C

Massa
(kmol/jam)
0.0003
4.71429E-06
0.0003
2.03.E-05
0.6265
0.6271

=
=

760
mmHg
457.1599622 K

xi=
m/m total
0.0004
0.0000
0.0004
0.0000
0.9991
1

Pi
394.9502
10.51353
8254.673
8202.446
757.0548

ki=
Pi/P
0.519671
0.013834
10.86141
10.79269
0.996125

Jadi dapat disimpulkan bahwa T bottom adalah 172,5794C

Komponen
C 6 H6
H2 O
C6H5NH2
C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
Total
Produk

Faktor Pengali

Massa Masuk
(kg/gr)
0.0016
0.4573
58.8572
0.0318
0.0008
59.3487
59.3487

Massa Keluar
Distilat
Bottom
2.E-05
2.E-03
0.4527
0.0046
0.5886
58.2686
0.0003
0.0315
8.E-06
0.0008
1.0417
58.3071
59.3487

58.2732
=

7891.4141
58.2732

135.4209

135.4209

yi=
xi.ki
0.000212
1.04E-07
0.004401
0.00035
0.995275
1.000

i =
ki/k(HK)
1.0000
0.0266
20.9005
20.7683
1.9168

A
ACA MASSA

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

mmHg

LAMPIRAN A
PERHITUNGAN NERACA MASSA
Kapasitas Produksi
Hari Kerja
Basis Bahan Baku

=
=
=
=
=

Spesifikasi bahan baku

Spesifikasi Produk

62500
ton/tahun
7891.4141
kg/jam
hari
1 tahun = 330
24
jam
1 hari =
100 kg/jam
=
=
=
=

Nitrobenzen
Air
Di-Nitrobenzen
Benzen

= Anilin
= Air

Tabel Data Masing-masing Komponen


Komponen
Rumus Molekul
C6H5NO2
Nitrobenzen
H2 O
Air
C6H5NH2
Anilin

A.1

0.9930
0.0010
0.0010
0.0010

=
=

0.9900
0.0100

Titik Didih, oC
210.9
100
184.1

BM, kg/kmol
123
18
93

-259.2
301
80.1
-164

2
168
78
16

H2
C6H4NO2
C 6 H6
CH4

Hidrogen
Di-Nitrobenzen
Benzen
Metana

=
=
=
=

SEPARATOR
2

Separator

3
Basis
= 100
kg/jam
Asumsi
=
80% produk
Arus 2 (produk yang diinginkan):
Nitrobenzen
= 10757.8363
H2 O
= 10.8337
Di-Nitrobenzen
= 10.8337
Benzen
= 10.8337

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

=
=
=
=

87.4621
0.6019
0.0645
0.1389

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

Arus 1 (umpan):
Nitrobenzen
H2 O
Di-Nitrobenzen
Benzen
Arus 3
Nitrobenzen
H2 O
Di-Nitrobenzen
Benzen

=
=
=
=

13447.2954
13.5421
13.5421
13.5421

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

=
=
=
=

109.3276
0.7523
0.0806
0.1736

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

=
=
=
=

2689.4591
2.7084
2.7084
2.7084

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

=
=
=
=

21.8655
0.1505
0.0161
0.0347

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

Tabel Neraca Massa Separator


Masuk (kg/jam)
Komponen
Arus 1
Nitrobenzen
13447.2954
H2 O
13.5421
13.5421
Di-Nitrobenzen
Benzen
13.5421
Total

13487.9216

Keluar (kg/jam)
Arus 2
Arus 3
10757.8363
2689.4591
10.8337
2.7084
10.8337
2.7084
10.8337
2.7084
10790.3373
2697.5843
13487.9216

A.2 REAKTOR
4

Reaktor

Konversi
= 0.98
Bahan Baku yang Masuk kedalam Reaktor
C6H5NO2
kg/jam
= 10757.8363
C6H4NO2
kg/jam
= 10.8337
C 6 H6
10.8337
kg/jam
=
H2 O
kg/jam
= 10.8337

=
=
=
=

Perbandingan mol Nitrobezen terhadap H2 = 1:3


H2
= 524.7725
kg/jam
=
CH4
=
0.00525
kg/jam
=
Bahan yang Bereaksi
C6H5NO2 yang bereaksi

=
=

Konversi
0.98

87.4621
0.6019
0.0645
0.1389

262.3863
0.000328

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

kmol/jam
kmol/jam

x C6H5NO2 yang masuk


10757.8363

=
H2 O

C6H4NO2

C 6 H6

H2 yang bereaksi

CH4

Reaksi yang Reaksi


C6H5NO2
Mula-mula
87.4621
Bereaksi
85.7128
Sisa
1.7492
Produk yang Terbentuk
C6H5NH2
= 85.7128
H2 O
= 171.4257

kg/jam

85.7128

kmol/jam

= H2O yang masuk


= 10.83367 kg/jam

0.6019

= C6H4NO2 yang masuk


= 10.83367 kg/jam

0.0645

kmol/jam

= C6H6 yang masuk


= 10.83367 kg/jam

0.138893

kmol/jam

= (3/1) x C6H5NO2 yang bereaksi


= 514.2771 kg/jam
= 257.1385

kmol/jam

= CH4 yang masuk


=
0.00525
kg/jam

3H2

kmol/jam
kmol/jam

kmol/jam

0.000328

C6H5NH2

262.3863
257.1385
5.2477

Neraca Massa Total Reaktor


Komponen
Masuk (kg/jam)
C6H5NO2
10757.8363
C6H4NO2
10.8337
H2 O
10.8337
C 6 H6
10.8337
H2
524.7725
CH4
0.00525
C6H5NH2
H2 O
Total
11315.1151
Bahan Yang Masuk
C6H5NO2
= 215.1567
C6H4NO2
= 10.8337
H2 O
= 10.8337
C 6 H6
= 10.8337

10542.68

85.7128
85.7128

=
=

7971.2943
3085.6623

=
=
=
=

1.7492
0.0645
0.6019
0.1389

2H2O
171.4257
171.4257

kg/jam
kg/jam

Keluar (kg/jam)
215.1567
10.8337
10.8337
10.8337
10.4955
0.00525
7971.2943
3085.6623
11315.1151

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

H2
CH4
C6H5NH2
H2 O

=
=
=
=

10.4955
0.00525
7971.2943
3085.6623

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

=
=
=
=

5.2477
0.000328
43.2987
171.4257

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1.7492
0.0645
0.6019
0.1389
5.2477
0.000328
43.2987
171.4257

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

A.3 Flash Tank


5

Flash Tank

6
Komposisi Umpan Masuk
Bahan Yang Masuk
C6H5NO2
=
215.1567
C6H4NO2
=
10.8337
H2 O
=
10.8337
C 6 H6
=
10.8337
H2
=
10.4955
CH4
=
0.00525
C6H5NH2
=
7971.2943
H2 O
=
3085.6623

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

Komposisi Bahan yang Teruapkan


Nitrobenzen (C6H5NO2)
98% x C6H5NO2 yang masuk

Di-Nitrobenzen (C6H4NO2)
99% x C6H4NO2 yang masuk

210.8536 kg/jam

10.72534 kg/jam

Air (H2O)
98% x H2O yang masuk

3034.5661

Benzen (C6H6)
98% x C6H6 yang masuk

10.617

Gas Hidrogen (H2)


100.0% x H2 yang masuk

Gas Metana (CH4)

kg/jam

1.7143

kmol/jam

0.0638

kmol/jam

168.5870

kmol/jam

kg/jam

0.1361

kmol/jam

10.49545 kg/jam

5.2477

kmol/jam

100%

x CH4 yang masuk

0.00525

kg/jam

kg/jam

Anilin (C6H5NH2)
0.01%
x C6H5NH2 yang masuk

Komposisi Bahan Cair


Nitrobenzen (C6H5NO2)
2% x C6H5NO2 yang masuk

4.303135 kg/jam

Di-Nitrobenzen (C6H4NO2)
1% x C6H4NO2 yang masuk

0.108337 kg/jam

Air (H2O)
2% x H2O yang masuk
Benzen (C6H6)
2% x C6H6 yang masuk

Komponen

Masuk (kg/jam)

C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6
H2
CH4
C6H5NH2

215.1567
10.8337
3096.4960
10.8337
10.4955
0.005247778
7971.2943

Total

11315.1151

Komponen
C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6

A
-54.494
-24.246
18.3036
15.9008

kmol/jam

0.0086

kmol/jam

0.0350

kmol/jam

0.000645

kmol/jam

61.92992 kg/jam

3.4406

kmol/jam

0.216673 kg/jam

0.002778

kmol/jam

Anilin (C6H5NH2)
99.99% x C6H5NH2 yang masuk
Hidrogen (H2)
0.00%
x H2 yang masuk

0.7971

0.000328

0.0000

7970.497 kg/jam

kg/jam

85.7043

0.00000

kmol/jam

Keluar (kg/jam)
V
L
210.8536
4.3031
10.7253
0.1083
3034.5661
61.9299
10.6170
0.2167
10.4955
0.005247778
0.7971
7970.4972
3278.0598
8037.0552
11315.1151

B
-2112.3
-4114
3816.44
2788.51

Antoine
C
29.321
16.344
-46.13
-52.36

kmol/jam

D
-0.0448
-0.0241
-

E
0.0000
0.0000
-

H2
CH4
C6H5NH2

13.6333
15.2243
16.6748

164.9
597.84
3857.52

(L/V) data
=
2.4518
Dengan menggunakan persamaan
Fi
Vi = ((L/V)/ki)+1

3.19
-7.16
-73.15

(L/V)data
Ai =
ki

ki =

T trial
= 139.5 C = 412.5 K
P sistem
=
760 mmHg
logP = A + B/T + ClogT + DT + ET2

Li =

Pi
P sistem

Fi
(1+(L/V)*ki)

Komponen

Fi (kmol)

Pi (mmHg)

ki

Ai

C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6
H2
CH4
C6H5NH2

1.7492
0.0645
172.0276
0.1389
5.2477
3.E-04
43.2987

101.6479
1.1463
2663.536
3492.8994
560527.74
936103.2
201.9982

0.1337
0.0015
3.5047
4.5959
737.5365
1231.7147
0.2658

18.3314
1625.5992
0.6996
0.5335
0.0033
0.0020
9.2246

Total

222.5269

Vi

%V

Li

%Li

0.0905
3.96448E-05
101.2179
0.0906
5.2303
0.000327335
4.2348

0.0008
3.57597E-07
0.9130
0.0008
0.0472
2.95257E-06
0.0382

1.3173
0.0642
17.9333
0.0113
0.002900463
1.08573E-07
26.2154

0.0289
0.0014
0.3938
0.0002
0.0001
2.38388E-09
0.5756

110.8644

1.0000

45.5445

1.0000

Fi
Vi total

=
(L/V)hitung

2.0072
=

0.0181

A.5 MENARA DISTILASI

Menara
Distilasi

Arus 6
Komponen

Kg/Jam

Kmol/Jam

C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6
C6H5NH2

4.3031
0.1083
61.9299
0.2167
7970.4972

0.0350
0.000644861
3.4406
0.002777865
85.7043

Total

8037.0552

89.1832

A. Massa Masuk Menara Distilasi pada Kondisi Bubble Point


T =
170.11 C
443.11 K ; P =
=
1 atm
Trial pada T akan dianggap benar apabila Syi = 1

Komponen

(Kmol/jam)

xi

Pi

ki

C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2

0.0350
0.000644861
3.4406
0.002777865
85.7043

0.0004
7.23075E-06
0.0386
3.11478E-05
0.9610

267.6120
5.5490
5942.6871
6402.8470
516.9484

0.5177
0.0107
11.4957
12.3859
1.0000

89.1832

H2 O
C 6 H6
C6H5NH2
Total

yi

0.0002
7.76158E-08
0.4435
0.0004
0.9610
1.405

1.0000
0.0207
22.2064
23.9259
1.9317

760

mmHg

Jadi bisa disimpulkan bahwa suhu pemasukan umpan sebesar 170,11 C


B. Spesifikasi Hasil Yang Diinginkan
B.1 Distilat
Menentukan Massa Distilat
1. C6H5NO2
=
1%
x Massa
= 0.00035 kmol/jam
2. C6H4NO2
=
1%
x Massa
= 6.45E-06 kmol/jam
H
O
3.
= 99.00% x Massa
=
3.4061
kmol/jam
2
C 6 H6
4.
=
1%
x Massa
= 2.78E-05 kmol/jam
C6H5NH2
5.
=
1%
x Massa
=
0.8570
kmol/jam
Total
=
4.2636 kmol/jam
Menentukan Nilai xdi
1. C6H5NO2
= Massa Komponen
=

0.00035
4.2636

8.20552E-05

= Massa Komponen
Massa Total

6.45E-06
4.2636

1.51249E-06

= Massa Komponen
Massa Total

3.4061
4.2636

0.7989

= Massa Komponen
Massa Total

2.78E-05
4.2636

= Massa Komponen
Massa Total

0.8570
4.263572

0.2010

Massa Total
2. C6H4NO2

3. H2O

4. C6H6

6.

C6H5NH2

Menentukan Massa Bottom


1. C6H5NO2
=
99%
2. C6H4NO2
=
99%
3. H2O
=
1%
4.
C6H6
=
99%
C6H5NH2
5.
=
99%
Total

x
x
x
x
x

Menentukan Nilai xbi


1. C6H5NO2
= Massa Komponen
Massa Total
2. C6H4NO2

3. H2O

= Massa Komponen
Massa Total

Massa
Massa
Massa
Massa
Massa

=
0.0346
kmol/jam
= 0.000638 kmol/jam
=
0.0344
kmol/jam
= 2.75.E-03 kmol/jam
= 84.8472 kmol/jam
= 84.9197 kmol/jam

0.0346
84.9197

0.0004

0.000638
84.9197

0.0000

0.0004

= Massa Komponen

0.0344
=

4. C6H6

C6H5NH2

5.

Komponen
C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6
C6H5NH2
Total

Komponen
C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C6H6
C6H5NH2
Total

Massa Total

84.9197

0.0004

= Massa Komponen
Massa Total

2.8.E-03
84.9197

0.0000

= Massa Komponen
Massa Total

84.84723
84.91966

0.9991

Massa
(Kmol/jam)
0.0350
0.000644861
3.4406
0.002777865
85.7043
89.1832

%
1%
1%
99%
1%
1%

Distilat
Massa
0.000349848
6.44861E-06
3.4061
2.77786E-05
0.8570
4.2636

xdi
8.20552E-05
1.51249E-06
0.7989
0
0.2010
1.0000

Massa
(Kmol/jam)
0.0350
0.000644861
3.4406
2.78.E-03
85.7043
89.1832

%
99%
99%
1%
99%
99%

Bottom
Massa
0.0346
0.000638413
0.0344
2.75.E-03
84.8472
84.9197

xbi
0.0004
7.51784E-06
0.0004
0.0000
0.9991
1.0000

C. Perhitungan Suhu Atas (Dew point)


Trial pada T akan dianggap benar apabila Sxi = 1
Pt =
T=

1
182.7943

Komponen
C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6
C6H5NH2
Total

atm
C

Massa
(kmol/jam)
0.000349848
6.44861E-06
3.4061
2.77786E-05
0.8570
4.2636

=
=

760
455.9443

yi=
m/m total
8.20552E-05
1.51249E-06
0.798894751
6.51535E-06
0.201015166
1

mmHg
K

Pi
382.3358
9.967046
8030.418
8034.002
733.2846

Jadi dapat disimpulkan bahwa T distilat adalah 182,7943C


D. Perhitungan Suhu Bawah (Bubble point)

ki=
Pi/P
0.5031
0.0131
10.5663
10.5711
0.9648

xi=
yi/ki
0.000163
0.000115
0.0756
6.16E-07
0.2083
0.284

i =
ki/k(HK)
1.0000
0.0261
21.0036
21.0129
1.9179

Trial pada T dianggap benar apabila Syi = 1


Pt =
T=

1
184.0100

Komponen
C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C6H6
C6H5NH2
Total

atm
C

Massa
(kmol/jam)
0.0346
0.000638413
0.0344
2.75.E-03
84.8472
84.9197

=
=

760
mmHg
457.1599622 K

xi=
m/m total
0.0004
0.0000
0.0004
0.0000
0.9991
1

Pi
394.9502
10.51353
8254.673
8202.446
757.0548

ki=
Pi/P
0.519671
0.013834
10.86141
10.79269
0.996125

Jadi dapat disimpulkan bahwa T bottom adalah 172,5794C

Komponen
C 6 H6
H2 O
C6H5NH2
C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
Total

Massa Masuk
(kg/gr)
0.2167
61.9299
7970.4972
4.3031
0.1083
8037.0552
8037.0552

Massa Keluar
Distilat
Bottom
2.E-03
2.E-01
61.3106
0.6193
79.7050
7890.7922
0.0430
4.2601
1.E-03
0.1073
141.0619
7895.9934
8037.0552

yi=
xi.ki
0.000212
1.04E-07
0.004401
0.00035
0.995275
1.000

i =
ki/k(HK)
1.0000
0.0266
20.9005
20.7683
1.9168

A
ACA MASSA

0.98
0.98

yield
konversii

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

kmol/jam

mmHg

LAMPIRAN B
NERACA PANAS
Sebagai Basis Perhitungan
Kapasitas Produksi
=
62500 Ton/Tahun
Hari Kerja
= 330 Hari
Produksi Aniline Perjam=
7891.4141
Kg/Jam
Basis Waktu
= 1 Jam
Satuan Massa
= Kg
Satuan Panas
= kJ
Satuan Cp
= kJ/mol
o

= 25 C (298,15K)

Suhu Referensi

Data Data yang Diperlukan


Kapasitas panas gas, cairan dan padatan
Cp = A + BT + CT2 + DT3 + ET4 (kJ/kmol. K)
Sehingga Cp dT

AT

B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5
T T T T
2
3
4
5

keterangan
Cp
= kapasitas panas (kJ/kmol K)
A, B, C, D, E= konstanta
T
= suhu (K)

Komponen

H2
C 6 H6
H2 O
C6H5NH2
C6H5NO2
C 6 H4 N2 O4

27.1430
9.2730E-03 -1.3800E-05 7.6450E-09
-31.3860
0.4746
-3.11E-04 8.5240E-08 -5.0524E-12
32.243
1.9230E-03 1.0550E-05 -3.5960E-09
-22.0620
0.5731
-4.57E-04 -1.8410E-07 -2.9867E-11
-16.2020
0.5618
-3.93E-04 -1.0040E-07 -1.2252E-12
18.1480
0.5618
-3.93E-04 1.0040E-07 -1.2252E-12
CH4
34.9420 -3.9957E-02 -1.9184E-04 -1.5300E-07 3.9321E-11
Sumber Yaws dan Coulson
Data kapasitas panas untuk liquid
Komponen

H2
C 6 H6
H2 O
C6H5NH2
CH4
C6H5NO2
C 6 H4 N2 O4

28.8400
-33.6620
18.2964
46.9480
-0.0180
39.4730
-12.6350

0.00765
0.4743
0.4721
0.9896
1.1982
0.9128
1.5624

3.29E-01
-0.0036
-1.3388E-03
-2.3583E-03
-9.8722E-03
-0.0021
-2.9981E-03

-8.70E-10
3.8243E-06
1.3142E-06
2.3296E-06
3.1670E-05
2.0093E-06
2.3171E-06

Sumber Yaws dan Himmelblau

Kapasitas panas untuk Cooper Carbonate dicari dengan pendekatan pada


Perrys 7th Edition tabel 2-393
Elemen Solid ,J/mol C
Cu
26
C
7.5
O
16.7
H
9.6
Sehingga Kapasitas Panas CuCO3.Cu(OH)2 adalah
Cp CuCO3.Cu(OH)2=
162.2
J/mol C Treff =

20

Data entalpi pembentukan


Komponen Hf (Kj/mol)
H2
0
C 6 H6
82.9
H2 O
-241.826
C6H5NH2
86.86
CH4
-74.5
C6H5NO2
67.6
C 6 H4 N2 O4
50.8
Sumber Yaws an Himmelblau
Data berat molekul
Komponen
Rumus molekul
H2
Hidrogen
C6 H6
Benzene
H2 O
Air
C6H5NH2
Anilin
CH4
Metana
C6H5NO2
Nitrobenzen
C 6 H4 N 2 O4
Di-Nitrobenzen

BM
2
78
18
93
16
123
168

Data bilangan Antoine


Komponen
C6H5NO2
C 6 H4 N2 O4

A
-54.494
-24.246

B
-2112.3
-4114

Antoine
C
29.321
16.344

D
-0.0448
-0.0241

E
0.00002
0.00001

H2 O
C 6 H6
H2
CH4
C6H5NH2

18.3036
15.9008
13.6333
15.2243
16.6748

3816.44
2788.51
164.9
597.84
3857.52

-46.13
-52.36
3.19
-7.16
-73.15

B.1 Heater (E-114)


Fungsi : Mengubah fase Hidrogen cair menjadi uap Hidrogen
Tujuan

Menaikkan suhu feed menjadi 250oC


Q3

Qsteam

Q1

Q2

Neraca Energi
H = Hout - Hin
Hin = Hpendingin + Hout
1. Menghitung Panas Sensibel Masuk Heater, Q1
Massa
n
Komponen
(kg)
(kmol)
H2
524.7727
262.3863
CH4
0.0052
0.0003
Tin

Tref

30
25

C=

303.15

C=

298.15

H2
303.15

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15
303.15

= 262.3863

27.1430T + 9.2730E-03 T2 - 1.3800E-05 T3 + 7.6450E-09 T4 dT

298.15

= 262.3863 27.1430
+

303.15 -

298.15

-1.3800E-05
3
303.15
3

298.15

303.15
=

298.15

40129.7403

kJ/jam

+
3

9.27E-03
2
303.15
2
+

7.6450E-09
4

298.15

CH4
303.15

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15
303.15

34.942
T-3.9957E-02 T2 - 1.9184E-04 T3-1.53E-07 T4+3.9321E-11 T5
dT

= 0.000328

298.15

= 0.000328 34.9420
+

303.15 -

298.15

-1.9184E-04
3
303.15
3

298.15

303.15

298.15

0.1520

-0.04
2

+
3

3.9321E-11
5

303.15

298.15

-1.5300E-07
4
303.15

298.15

kJ/jam

Q1 = Q H2 + Q CH4
=
40129.7403 +
0.1520
= 40129.8923 kJ/jam
2. Menghitung Panas Sensibel Keluar Heater, Q2
*Hout
Tout
Tref

=
=

250
25

C=

523.15

C=

298.15

H2
523.15

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15
523.15

= 262.3863

27.1430T + 9.2730E-03 T2 - 1.3800E-05 T3 + 7.6450E-09 T4 dT

298.15

= 262.3863 27.1430
+

523.15 -

298.15

-1.3800E-05
3
523.15
3

298.15

523.15

= 1720025.5993

298.15

+
3

9.27E-03
2
523.15
2
+

298.15

7.6450E-09
4

kJ/jam

CH4
523.15

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15
523.15

= 0.000328

34.942 T-3.9957E-02 T2 - 1.9184E-04 T3-1.53E-07 T4+3.9321E-11 T5dT

298.15

= 0.000328 34.9420
+

523.15 -

298.15

-1.9184E-04
3
523.15
3

298.15

-0.04
2

+
3

523.15

-1.5300E-07
4

298.15

523.15
=

4.75040

298.15

3.9321E-11
5

523.15

298.15

kJ/jam

Q2 = Q H2 + Q CH4
= 1720025.59928 +

4.75040

= 1720030.34968 kJ/jam

3. Menghitung Kebutuhan Pemanas, Q3


Q3 = Q2 - Q1
= 1720030.3497 40129.8923
= 1679900.4574 kJ/jam
Kebutuhan panas Heater sebesar

1679900.4574 kJ, panas disupply menggunakan


o

Saturated steam, dengan suhu 300 C dengan tekanan 1 atm, dari properties of saturated
water and saturated steam up to 1 atm, stoichiometry 2004 diperoleh data:
steam = 909.99 kJ/kg
Sehingga :
Q3 = m.steam
Massa steam
= Q3 =
steam

1679900.4574 kJ/mol=
909.99
kJ/kg

1846.0647

Neraca Panas Total dalam Heater


Panas masuk
Panas keluar
Komponen
(kJ/jam)
(kJ/jam)
Q H2
40129.7403
1720025.5993
Q CH4
0.15198
4.7504
Q Steam
Total

1679900.4574
1720030.3497

1720030.3497

B.2. VAPORIZER (V-130)


Fungsi
: Menguapkan bahan baku Nitrobenzene sebelum
masuk reaktor
Tujuan
: - Menentukan Suhu Keluar (T out) Vaporizer.
- Menghitung kebutuhan pemanas
Arus 3
204.45 oC

Arus 2
o
30
C

Steam 250
Qs

Steam 250

kg/jam

1. Penentuan Kondisi Operasi Vaporizer (E-121)


Data Komponen Masuk
M
Komponen
(kg)
C6H5NO2 13447.2999
C6H4N2O4 13.5420945
13.5420945
H2 O
13.5420945
C 6 H6

n
(kmol)
109.3276
0.0806
0.7523
0.1736

Menentukan Suhu Keluar (T out) Vaporizer


Menentukan Kondisi Dew Point
Kondisi Operasi
P
=
T
=

1
atm = 760.0 mmHg
210.82 oC = 483.97 K

Tabel Perhitungan Tekanan Dew Point


n
Pi sat
Komponen
xi
kmol/jam
mmHg
C6H5NO2 0.8073 0.9909
766.9869
C6H4N2O4 0.0006 0.0007
31.3712
0.0013 0.0016
12582.7631
H2 O
0.0056 0.0068
14575.28479
C 6 H6
Total
0.8147 1.0000

Ki
Pi sat/P
1.0092
0.0413
16.5563
19.1780

yi
Ki/xi
0.9819
0.0177
0.0001
0.0004
1.0000

Menentukan Kondisi Bubble Point


Kondisi Operasi
P
= 1
atm = 760.0 mmHg
T
= 204.45 oC = 477.60 K
Tabel Perhitungan Tekanan Bubble Point
n
Pi sat
Komponen
xi
kmol/jam
mmHg
C6H5NO2 0.8073 0.9909
660.6744
C6H4N2O4 0.0006 0.0007
24.5323
0.0013 0.0016
11422.0738
H2 O
0.0056 0.0068
12815.31724
C 6 H6
Total
0.8147 1.0000

Ki
Pi sat/P
0.8693
0.0323
15.0290
16.8623

Suhu keluar vaporizer merupakan suhu pada kondisi operasinya yaitu


pada kondisi bubble point T out = 204.45 oC = 477.60 K
Perhitungan Neraca Panas pada Vaporizer (V-130)
a. Panas Sensibel Cairan Masuk, Q1
T Larutan =
30
C
T reff
=

25

yi
Ki.xi
0.8614
0.0000
0.0236
0.1150
1.0000

303.15

298.15

C6H5NO2
303.15

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

= 109.328 39.47 303.15

-0.0021
3
303.15
3
97189.7934 kJ/jam

C 6 H4 N2 O4

303.15

Q = n
298.15

0.0806

298.15

298.15

0.9128
2

+
3

303.15

2.01E-06
4
303.15
4

1.56240
2

2.32E-06
4
303.15
4

298.15
-

298.15

Cp dT

-12.6

303.15 -

-3.E-03
3
303.15
3
= 318.8357 kJ/jam
+

298.15
298.15

303.15

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H6
303.15

Q = n
298.15

0.1736 -33.6620
+

Cp dT
303.15 -

#######
3
303.15
3
467.9
kJ/jam

0.4743
2

298.15
298.15

303.15

3.82E-06
4
303.15
4

298.15
-

298.15

H2 O
303.15

Q = n
298.15

0.7523

18.2964

303.15 -

#######
3
303.15
3
281.8968 kJ/jam

+
=

Cp dT

298.15
298.15

+
+

0.4721
2

1.31E-06
4
303.15
4

Panas sensibel masuk, Q1


Q1 = Q C6H5NO2 + Q C6H4N2O4 + Q C6H6 + H2O
Q1=
97189.7934 +
318.8357
+
467.8883
Q1=
98258.4142 kJ/jam
b. Panas Laten Penguapan Komponen, Q

303.15

298.15
-

281.8968

298.15

kJ/jam

2
4

Komponen

Tb (K)

Tc (K)

C6H5NO2 483.9500
C6H4N2O4 572.0000
353.2400
H2 O
373.1500
C 6 H6

719.0000
803.0000
562.1600
647.4000

Hv (Kj/mol)
44.0800
61.5600
30.7500
40.6800

Yaws
Yaws
Yaws
Himmelblau

Untuk menghitung entalpi panas penguapan (Hv) digunakan Persamaan Watson:


H2
1 - Tr2 0.38
(Pers 4.13 Smith Van Ness, 200)
=
H1
1 - Tr1
H2 = H1
H1
H2
Tr2
Tr1
T1
T2

dimana:

1
1
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

- Tr2 0.38
- Tr1
Panas laten penguapan pada titik didih normal (kJ/kmol)
Panas laten penguapan pada suhu T2 (kJ/kmol)
T2/TC
(K)
T1/TC
(K)
Titik didih normal komponen (K)
Suhu tertentu
= 210.82 oC = 483.97 K
T dew

C6H5NO2

H2 = H1 x

1 1 1
x
1

Tr2
Tr1

483.97 719.0000 0.38 =


- 483.9500 719.0000

H2 =

44.08

Hv =

0.8073 kmol/jam x

44.0786

kJ/kmol =

44.0786

35.5854

kJ/kmol

kJ/jam

C 6 H4 N2 O4

H2 = H1 x

1 1 1
x
1

Tr2
Tr1

0.38

483.97 803.0000 0.38 =


- 572.0000 803.0000

H2 =

61.56

Hv =

0.0006 kmol/jam x

0.38

69.5956

kJ/kmol =

69.5956

0.0414

kJ/kmol

kJ/jam

C 6 H6

H2 = H1 x

H2 =

30.75

1 1 -

1
1

Tr2
Tr1

0.38

483.97 562.1600 0.38 =


- 353.2400 562.1600

21.1666

kJ/kmol

Hv =

0.0013 kmol/jam x

21.1666

kJ/kmol =

0.0271

kJ/jam

H2 O
H2 = H1 x

Tr2
Tr1

1 1 1
x
1

0.38

483.97 647.4000 0.38 =


- 373.1500 647.4000

H2 =

40.68

Hv =

0.0056 kmol/jam x

33.4158

kJ/kmol =

Q2= Q C6H5NO2 + Q C6H4N2O4 + Q C6H6 + Q H2O


Q2=
35.5854
+
0.0414
+
0.0271
Q2=
35.8396
kJ/jam
c. Panas Sensibel Uap Keluar (Q3)
T uap
=
204.45
C
=
477.6
K

T reff

=
=

25
298.15

33.4158

kJ/kmol

0.1856

kJ/jam

0.1856

kJ/jam

C
K

C6H5NO2
477.60

Q = n
298.15

Cp dT

= 109.3276 -16.2

-4.E-04
3

477.60

477.60

298.15

298.15

0.5618
2

477.60

1.00E-07
4
477.60
4

0.56182
2

1.00E-07
4
477.60
4

298.15

298.15

#######
5
5
477.60
- 298.15
5
5259818.8569 kJ/jam
=
+

C 6 H4 N2 O4
477.60

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

0.0806

18.1

-4.E-04
3

477.60

477.60 3

298.15
298.15

#######
5
5
477.60
- 298.15
5
2633.8489
=
kJ/jam
+

C 6 H6

477.60

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

477.60

Q = n
298.15

Cpg dT

0.1736 -31.3860
+

477.60 -

#######
3
477.60
3

#######
5
477.60
5
= 6410.1414 kJ/jam
+

0.4746
2

298.15

298.15

298.15

477.60

8.52E-08
4
477.60
4

298.15
-

298.15

H2 O
477.60

Q = n
298.15

0.7523

Cp dT
32.2430

477.60 -

1.06E-05
3
477.60
3
= 6179.9152 kJ/jam
+

298.15
298.15

+
+

0.0019
2

#######
4
477.60
4

Q3 = Q C6H5NO2 + Q C6H4N2O4 + Q C6H6 + Q H2O


Q3= 5259818.8569 +
2633.8489
+
6410.1414
Q3= 5275042.7623 kJ/jam
d. Panas yang dibutuhkan oleh pemanas
Q1+Q4 = Q2+Q3
Q4 = (Q2+Q3)-Q1
Q4 =
35.8396
+ 5275042.7623 Q4 = 5176820.1877 (kJ/jam)

477.60

98258.4142

6179.9152

298.15

kJ/jam

(kJ/jam)

Sebagai pemanas digunakan steam yaitu saturated steam pada suhu 300oC dan
dan tekanan 1 atm.
Dari properties of saturated water and saturated steam up to 1 atm, stoichiometry 2004
=
909.99
kJ/kg
Sehingga:
Q4

5176820.1877 kJ/jam
=
=
909.99
kJ/kg

msteam =

5688.8759 kg/jam

(V-130)
Tabel Neraca Panas Vaporizer
Komponen Q in (kJ/jam)
Q out (kJ/jam)
C6H5NO2
97189.7934
C 6 H4 N2 O4
318.8357
-

298.15
4

C 6 H6
H2 O
Q preheating
Q vaporizing
Q steam
Total

467.8883
281.8968
5176820.1877
5275078.6019

5275042.7623
35.8396
5275078.6019

B.3. SEPARATOR (H-120)


Fungsi : Memisahkan fase gas dan fase cair yang terbentuk
:

Menghitung panas setiap arus


Arus 4
204 oC

Arus 3
204 oC

Separator

Tujuan

Arus 5
204 oC
Neraca Energi
Q in =
3
=
dimana: 3 =
4=
5=

Q out
4+ 5
Panas sensibel gas masuk separator, Q1
Panas sensibel gas keluar separator, Q2
Panas sensibel cairan keluar separator, Q3

Untuk menghitug panas masing-masing arus digunakan persamaan:


dimana: Q=H=n_(T_reff)^TC_(p ) dT
_(T reff )^TC_p dT= [(Ax(T-T_reff ))+(B/2 x(T^2-T_reff^ ))+(C/3 x(T^3T_reff ))
+(D/4 x(T^4-T_reff))+(E/5 x(T^5-T_reff))]

1. Panas Sensibel Gas Masuk, Q1


Panas sensibel yang masuk Separator sama dengan panas gas yang keluar Vaporizer .
Q1 = 5275042.7623 kJ/jam
2. Panas Sensibel Gas Keluar, Q2
Komposisi arus 4:
C6H5NO2
= 10757.8399 kg/jam
C 6 H4 N2 O4
= 10.83368 kg/jam
C 6 H6
10.83368 kg/jam
=

=
=
=

87.4621 kmol/jam
0.0645 kmol/jam
0.1389 kmol/jam

H2 O

10.83368

kg/jam

0.6019 kmol/jam

C6H5NO2
477.60

Q = n

Cpg dT

298.15
477.60

= 87.4621

-16.2020 T + 0.5618 T2 - 3.93E-4 T3 - 1.004E-7 T4 - 1.2252E-12 T4

dT

298.15

= 87.4621 -16.2020

477.60 -

#######
3
477.60
3

#######
5
477.60
5
= 4207855.0855 kJ/jam
C 6 H4 N2 O4
+

298.15

298.15

298.15

0.5618
2

477.60

#######
4
477.60
4

298.15

298.15

477.60

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

477.60

0.0645

18.1480 T + 0.5618 T2 - 3.93E-4 T3 + 1.004E-7 T4 - 1.2252E-12 T5 dT

298.15

0.0645
+

18.1480

477.60 -

#######
3
477.60
3

#######
5
477.60
5
2118.1309 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15

298.15

298.15

0.56182
2

1.00E-07
4
477.60
4

477.60

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H6
477.60

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15
477.60

0.1389

-31.3860 T + 0.4746 T2 - 3.11E-4 T3 + 8.524E-8 T4 - 5.0524E-12 T5dT

298.15

0.1389 -31.3860
+

#######
3
477.60
3

#######
5
477.60
5
5128.1131 kJ/jam

+
=

477.60 -

H2 O

298.15

298.15

298.15

3
5

0.47460
2

8.52E-08
4
477.60
4

477.60

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

477.60

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

477.60

0.6019
298.15

0.6019

32.243 T + 1.923E-3 T2 + 1.055E-5 T3 - 3.596E-9 T4 dT

32.2430

477.60 -

1.06E-05
3
477.60
3
3713.5975 kJ/jam

+
=

Q2 =
=

298.15
298.15

4207855.0855 + 2118.1309 +
4218814.9270 kJ/jam

Sehingga, panas keluar separator:


Q1 = Q2 + Q3
Q3 = Q1 - Q2
= 5275042.7623 - 4218814.9270

0.00192
2

#######
4
477.60
4

5128.1131

477.60

Tabel Neraca Massa Separator (H-120)


Panas masuk (kJ/jam)
Panas keluar (kJ/jam)
Komponen
Arus 3
Arus 4
Arus 5
Q C6H5NO2
5259818.8569
4207855.0855 1051963.7714
Q C 6 H4 N2 O4
2633.8489
2118.1309
515.7179
Q C 6 H6
6410.1414
5128.1131
1282.0283
Q H2 O
6179.9152
3713.5975
2466.3177
4218814.9270 1056227.8353
Total
5275042.7623
5275042.7623

Tujuan

Menaikkan suhu menjadi 250 C


Q3
Q1

Neraca Energi

Qsteam
Q2

298.15
-

3713.5975

= 1056227.8353 kkal/jam

B.4 Heater (E-114)


Fungsi : Menaikkan suhu uap Nitrobenzen

298.15

2
4

H = Hout - Hin
Hin = Hpendingin + Hout
1. Menghitung Panas Sensibel Masuk Heater, Q1
M
n
Komponen
(kg)
(kmol)
C6H5NO2 10757.8399
87.4621
C6H4N2O4 10.83368
0.0806
10.83368
0.7523
H2 O
10.83368
0.1736
C 6 H6
*Hin
Tin

Tref

204
25

C=

477.60

C=

298.15

C6H5NO2
477.60

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

477.60

-16.2020
T + 0.5618 T2 - 3.93E-4 T3 - 1.004E-7 T4 - 1.2252E-12 T4 dT

= 87.4621

298.15

= 87.4621 -16.2020
+

477.60 -

#######
3
477.60
3

#######
5
477.60
5
4207855.0855 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15

298.15

298.15

+
+

0.5618
2

477.60

#######
4
477.60
4

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H4 N2 O4
477.60

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

477.60

0.0806
298.15

0.0806
+

18.1480

477.60 -

#######
3
477.60
3

#######
5
477.60
5
2633.8489 kJ/jam

+
=

18.1480 T + 0.5618 T2 - 3.93E-4 T3 + 1.004E-7 T4 - 1.2252E-12 T5 dT

C 6 H6

298.15

298.15

298.15

3
5

0.56182
2

1.00E-07
4
477.60
4

477.60

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

477.60

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

477.60

-31.3860 T + 0.4746 T2 - 3.11E-4 T3 + 8.524E-8 T4 - 5.0524E-12 T5dT

0.1736

298.15

0.1736 -31.3860
+

477.60 -

#######
3
477.60
3

#######
5
477.60
5
6410.1414 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15

298.15

298.15

0.47460
2

8.52E-08
4
477.60
4

477.60

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

H2 O
477.60

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

477.60

0.7523
298.15

0.7523

32.243 T + 1.923E-3 T2 + 1.055E-5 T3 - 3.596E-9 T4 dT

32.2430

477.60 -

1.06E-05
3
477.60
3
4641.9969 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15
298.15

0.00192
2

#######
4
477.60
4

477.60

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

Q1 = Q C6H5NO2 + Q C6H4N2O4 + Q C6H6 + Q H2O


= 4221541.0726 kJ/jam
2. Menghitung Panas Sensibel Keluar Heater, Q2
*Hout
Tin

Tref

250
25

C=

523.15

C=

298.15

C6H5NO2
523.15

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

523.15

= 87.4621

-16.2020
T + 0.5618 T2 - 3.93E-4 T3 - 1.004E-7 T4 - 1.2252E-12 T4 dT

298.15

= 87.4621 -16.2020
+

#######
3
523.15
3

#######
5
523.15
5
5706082.1206 kJ/jam

+
=

523.15 -

298.15

298.15

298.15

3
5

+
+

0.5618
2

523.15

#######
4
523.15
4

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H4 N2 O4
523.15

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

523.15

18.1480 T + 0.5618 T2 - 3.93E-4 T3 + 1.004E-7 T4 - 1.2252E-12 T5 dT

0.0806

298.15

0.0806
+

18.1480

523.15 -

#######
3
523.15
3

#######
5
523.15
5
3417.6783 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15

298.15

298.15

0.56182
2

1.00E-07
4
523.15
4

523.15

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H6
523.15

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15
523.15

-31.3860 T + 0.4746 T2 - 3.11E-4 T3 + 8.524E-8 T4 - 5.0524E-12 T5dT

0.1736

298.15

0.1736 -31.3860
+

523.15 -

#######
3
523.15
3

#######
5
523.15
5
8744.0538 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15

298.15

298.15

0.47460
2

8.52E-08
4
523.15
4

523.15

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

H2 O
523.15

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

523.15

0.7523
298.15

0.7523

32.2430

523.15 -

1.06E-05
3
523.15
3
5855.0194 kJ/jam

+
=

32.243 T + 1.923E-3 T2 + 1.055E-5 T3 - 3.596E-9 T4 dT

298.15
298.15

0.00192
2

#######
4
523.15
4

Q2 = Q C6H5NO2 + Q C6H4N2O4 + Q C6H6 + Q H2O


= 5724098.8721 kJ/jam

3. Menghitung Kebutuhan Pemanas, Q3

523.15

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

Q3 = Q2 - Q1
= 5724098.8721 4221541.0726
= 1502557.7995 kJ/jam
Kebutuhan panas Heater sebesar

1502557.7995 kJ, panas disupply menggunakan


o

saturated steam dengan suhu 300 C dengan tekanan 1 atm. Dari properties of saturated
water and saturated steam up to 1 atm, stoichiometry 2004
steam = 909.99 kJ/kg
Sehingga :
Q3 = m.steam
Massa steam
= Q3 =
steam

1502557.7995 kJ/jam=
909.99
kJ/kg

1651.1806

Neraca Panas Total dalam Heater


Panas masuk
Panas keluar
Komponen
(kJ/jam)
(kJ/jam)
Q C6H5NO2 4207855.0855 5706082.1206
Q C6H4N2O4 2633.84886
3417.6783
Q H2 O
Q C 6 H6
Q Steam
Total

4641.9969
6410.1414
1502557.7995
5724098.8721

5855.0194
8744.0538
5724098.8721

B.5. REAKTOR (R-210)


Fungsi : Tempat berlangsungnya reaksi Anilin
Tujuan : - Menghitung suhu keluar reaktor
- Menghitung kebutuhan pendingin
250 oC
Arus 6
Pendingin Qs
28 oC
Pendingin
45
Qrx
Arus 4
Neraca Energi
Q in =
4 + Qs =
dimana: 4 =
6 =
Qs =

250

Q out
6 + Qrx
Panas Sensibel Gas Reaktan Masuk, Q reaktan
Panas Sensibel Gas Produk Keluar, Q produk
Jumlah pendingin yang dibutuhkan

kg/jam

Qrx= Panas reaksi


1. Panas Sensibel Gas Reaktan Masuk, Q reaktan
Panas gas umpan masuk reaktor (R-210) besarnya sama dengan panas gas
5724098.872 kJ/jamdan Heater Hidrogen 1720030.35 kJ/jam
keluar Heater Nitrobenzen
Q reaktan = 7444129.2218 kJ/jam
2. Panas Reaksi, HR
Reaksi:
C6H5NO2 + H2
C6H5NH2 + H2O
-

Panas reaksi pada keadaan standar (T = 25oC)


o
Hr 298,15 = Hof (produk) - Hof (reaktan)
= (H of C6H5NH2 + H of H2O) - (H of C6H5NO2 + H2)
86.86 + (
-241.83 ) - (
67.60 +
0
=
-222.57 kJ/kmol
=
Panas reaksi, HR

kJ/mol

HRo523.15 = n ( Hro298,15 )
= XA ( n reaktan) ( Hro298,15 )
88.4687
= 0.98 x
x -222.57
-19296.3169 kJ/jam
=
Q reaksi adalah panas yang diperlukan untuk reaksi di dalam reaktor, dimana
reaksi berupa reaksi eksotermis (HR negatif). Sehingga, perlu ditambahkan
pendingin untuk menjaga suhu optimum sesuai dengan konversi yang diinginkan.
3. Panas Sensibel Gas Produk Keluar, Q produk
Untuk menghitug panas keluar reaktor digunakan persamaan:
Q=H=n_(T_reff)^TCp_g dT

dimana:

_(T reff )^T Cp_g dT= [(Ax(T-T_reff ))+(B/2 x(T^2-T_reff^ ))+(C/3 x(T^3T_reff )) +(D/4 x(T^4-T_reff))+(E/5 x(T^5-T_reff))]

Komposisi arus 6:
C6H5NO2 =
215.1568 kg/jam
C 6 H4 N2 O4 =
10.8337 kg/jam
10.8337 kg/jam
H2 O
=
10.8337 kg/jam
C 6 H6
=
10.4955 kg/jam
H2
=
0.0052 kg/jam
CH4
=
7971.2970 kg/jam
C6H5NH2 =
3085.6633 kg/jam
H2 O
=

1.7492
=
0.0645
=
0.6019
=
0.1389
=
5.2477
=
0.0003
=
= 85.7129
= 171.4257

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

C6H5NO2
523.15

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15
523.15

1.7492

-16.2020
T + 0.5618 T2 - 3.93E-4 T3 - 1.004E-7 T4 - 1.2252E-12 T4 dT

-16.2020
T + 0.5618 T2 - 3.93E-4 T3 - 1.004E-7 T4 - 1.2252E-12 T4 dT

1.7492

298.15

1.7492 -16.2020
+

523.15 -

#######
3
523.15
3

#######
5
523.15
5
114121.6424 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15

298.15

298.15

+
+

0.5618
2

523.15

#######
4
523.15
4

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H4 N2 O4
523.15

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

523.15

18.1480 T + 0.5618 T2 - 3.93E-4 T3 + 1.004E-7 T4 - 1.2252E-12 T5 dT

0.0645

298.15

0.0645
+

18.1480

523.15 -

#######
3
523.15
3

#######
5
523.15
5
2734.1427 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15

298.15

298.15

0.56182
2

1.00E-07
4
523.15
4

523.15

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H6
523.15

Q = n
298.15

Cp dT
523.15

-31.3860 T + 0.4746 T2 - 3.11E-4 T3 + 8.524E-8 T4 - 5.0524E-12 T5dT

0.1389

298.15

0.1389 -31.3860
+

523.15 -

#######
3
523.15
3

#######
5
523.15
5
= 94198.1462 kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

298.15

0.47460
2

8.52E-08
4
523.15
4

523.15

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

H2 O
523.15

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

523.15

0.6019

32.243 T + 1.923E-3 T2 + 1.055E-5 T3 - 3.596E-9 T4 dT

298.15

0.6019

32.2430

523.15 -

298.15

0.00192

523.15

298.15

0.6019

32.2430

523.15 -

1.06E-05
3
523.15
3
4684.0155 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15
298.15

+
+

523.15

#######
4
523.15
4

298.15
-

298.15

H2
523.15

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15
523.15

5.2477

27.1430T +

9.2730E-03 T2 - 1.3800E-05 T3 + 7.6450E-09 T4 dT

298.15

5.2477
+

27.1430

523.15 -

298.15

-1.3800E-05
3
523.15
3

298.15

523.15
=

298.15

34400.5120

kJ/jam

+
3

9.27E-03
2
523.15
2
+

298.15

7.6450E-09
4

CH4
523.15

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15
523.15

34.942
T-3.9957E-02 T2 - 1.9184E-04 T3-1.53E-07 T4+3.9321E-11 T5
dT

= 0.000328

298.15

= 0.000328 34.9420
+

523.15 -

298.15

-1.9184E-04
3
523.15
3

298.15

523.15

298.15

4.7504

+
3

#######
2
523.15
2
+

3.9321E-11
5

298.15

-1.5300E-07
4
523.15

298.15

kJ/jam

C6H5NH2
523.15

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

523.15

= 85.7129

-22.0620 T + 0.5731 T2 - 4.57e-4 T3 - 1.841e-7 T4 - 2.9867e-11 T5 dT

298.15

= 85.7129 -22.0620
+

523.15 -

#######
3
523.15
3

#######
5
523.15
5
= 5918417.6087 kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

298.15

3
5

0.57313
2

#######
4
523.15
4

523.15

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

H2 O
523.15

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

523.15

= 171.4257
298.15

32.243 T + 1.923E-3 T2 + 1.055E-5 T3 - 3.596E-9 T4 dT

= 171.4257 32.2430

523.15 -

1.06E-05
3
523.15
3
= 1334108.1608 kJ/jam
+

298.15
298.15

Jadi:
Q produk = ########## + 2734.1427 +
34400.5120 +
4.7504
+
7502668.9787
=
kJ/jam

0.00192
2

#######
4
523.15
4

523.15

298.15
-

298.15

94198.1462 + 4684.0155 +
5918417.6087 +
1334108.1608

4. Pendingin yang dibutuhkan oleh Pemanas


Qlepas = (Q produk + Q reaksi ) - Q reaktan
= 7502668.9787 +
-19296.3169 - 7444129.2218
39243.4401
=
kJ/jam
Sebagai pendingin digunakan air pada suhu 25oC dan tekanan 1 atm.
Diperkirakan air keluar pada suhu 45oC.
Dari App A.2 Geankoplis, 2003 diperoleh Cp air = 0.9987 kkal/kg.oC
= 4.1787 kJ/kgoC
Q = m . Cp. T
Qc
mc =
Cp. T
39243.4401
=
= 469.5695 kg/jam
4.1787 ( 45 - 25 )
Tabel Neraca Panas Reaktor (R-210)
Komponen Q in (kJ/jam) Q out (kJ/jam)
Q C6H5NO2 5706082.1206 114121.6424
Q C6H4N2O4 3417.6783
2734.1427
5855.0194
94198.1462
Q H2 O
8744.0538
4684.0155
Q C 6 H6
1720025.5993
34400.5120
Q H2
4.7504
4.7504
Q CH4
5918417.6087
Q C6H5NH2
1334108.1608
Q H2 O
Q pendingin 39243.4401
Q reaksi
-19296.3169
Total
7483372.6618 7483372.6618

2
4

B.6. COOLER 1 (E-221)


Fungsi : Mendinginkan gas produk keluar reaktor
Tujuan : Menghitung kebutuhan pendingin
o

28 C
Q1
250

Q2
139.53

C
Qc

45

C
Neraca Energi
Q in = Q out
Q1
= Q2 + Q3
Q1 = Panas sensibel gas keluar reaktor
dimana:
Q3 = Panas yang diserap oleh pendingin
Q2 = Panas sensibel cairan keluar cooler 1
Untuk menghitug panas masing-masing arus digunakan persamaan:
Q=H=n_(T_reff)^TCp_g dT

dimana:

_(T reff )^T Cp_g dT= [(Ax(T-T_reff ))+(B/2 x(T^2-T_reff^ ))+(C/3


x(T^3-T_reff ))
+(D/4 x(T^4-T_reff))+(E/5 x(T^5-T_reff))]

1. Panas Sensibel Gas Masuk, Q1


Panas sensibel yang masuk Cooler sama dengan panas sensibel yang keluar Condensor
Q1 = 3358498.9810 kJ/jam

2. Panas Sensibel gas keluar, Q2


Komposisi arus 6:
C6H5NO2 = 215.1568 kg/jam
C 6 H4 N2 O4 =
10.8337 kg/jam
10.8337 kg/jam
H2 O
=
10.8337 kg/jam
C 6 H6
=
10.4955 kg/jam
H2
=
0.0052
CH4
=
kg/jam
C6H5NH2 = 7971.2970 kg/jam
H2 O
= 3085.6633 kg/jam

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1.7492
0.0645
0.6019
0.1389
5.2477
0.0003
85.7129
171.4257

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

C6H5NO2
412.68

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15
412.68

1.7492

-16.2020
T + 0.5618 T2 - 3.93E-4 T3 - 1.004E-7 T4 - 1.2252E-12 T4 dT

298.15

1.7492 -16.2020
+
+

412.68 -

#######
3
412.68
3
#######
5
412.68
5
47718.2680 kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

298.15

+
+

0.5618
2

412.68

#######
4
412.68
4

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H4 N2 O4
412.68

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

412.68

18.1480 T + 0.5618 T2 - 3.93E-4 T3 + 1.004E-7 T4 - 1.2252E-12 T5 dT

0.0645

298.15

0.0645
+

18.1480

412.68 -

#######
3
412.68
3

#######
5
412.68
5
1273.1909 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15

298.15

298.15

0.56182
2

1.00E-07
4
412.68
4

412.68

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H6
412.68

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

412.68

-31.3860 T + 0.4746 T2 - 3.11E-4 T3 + 8.524E-8 T4 - 5.0524E-12 T5dT

0.1389

298.15

0.1389 -31.3860
+

412.68 -

#######
3
412.68
3

#######
5
412.68
5
= 2878.7365 kJ/jam
H2 O
+

298.15

298.15

298.15

0.47460
2

8.52E-08
4
412.68
4

412.68

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

412.68

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

32.243 T + 1.923E-3 T2 + 1.055E-5 T3 - 3.596E-9 T4 dT

412.68

0.6019

298.15

0.6019

412.68 -

1.06E-05
3
412.68
3
2350.8332 kJ/jam

+
=

32.2430

298.15
298.15

0.00192
2

#######
4
412.68
4

412.68

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

H2
412.68

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

412.68

27.1430T +

5.2477

9.2730E-03 T2 - 1.3800E-05 T3 + 7.6450E-09 T4 dT

298.15

5.2477
+

27.1430

412.68 -

#######
3
412.68
3
17448.4735 kJ/jam

298.15
298.15

+
+

0.0093
2

412.68

7.65E-09
4
412.68
4

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

CH4
412.68

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

412.68

34.942
T-3.9957E-02 T2 - 1.9184E-04 T3-1.53E-07 T4+3.9321E-11 T5
dT

0.0003

298.15

0.0003
+
+

34.9420

412.68 -

#######
3
412.68
3
3.93E-11
5
412.68
5
1.9867 kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

298.15

-0.03996
2
412.68
2

#######
4
412.68
4

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C6H5NH2
412.68

Q = n
298.15

Cp dT
412.68

= 85.7129

-31.3860 T + 0.4746 T2 - 3.11E-4 T3 + 8.524E-8 T4 - 5.0524E-12 T5dT

298.15

= 85.7129 -22.0620
+

412.68 -

#######
3
412.68
3

#######
5
412.68
5
= 1123864.9289 kJ/jam
+

H2 O
412.68

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

298.15

298.15

298.15

3
5

0.57313
2

#######
4
412.68
4

412.68

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

412.68

= 171.4257

32.243 T + 1.923E-3 T2 + 1.055E-5 T3 - 3.596E-9 T4 dT

298.15

= 171.4257 32.2430

412.68 -

1.06E-05
3
412.68
3
= ########## kJ/jam
+

298.15
3

298.15

0.00192
2

#######
4
412.68
4

412.68

Jadi:
Q2 =

47718.2680 + 1273.1909 + 2878.7365 + 2350.8332 +


+
1.9867
+ 1123864.9289 + 669567.7648
= 1865104.1826 kJ/jam

4. Panas yang diserap oleh Pendingin, Qc


Qc = Q1 - Q2
= 3358498.9810 - 1865104.1826 =

1493394.7984 kJ/jam

Sebagai pendingin digunakan air pada suhu 25 C dan tekanan 1 atm.


Diperkirakan air keluar pada suhu 45oC.
Dari App A.2 Geankoplis, 2003 diperoleh Cp air = 0.9987 kkal/kg.oC
= 4.1787 kJ/kgoC
Q = m . Cp. T
Qc
mc =
Cp. T
1493394.7984
=
= 17869.2979 kg/jam
4.17866 ( 45 - 25 )
Tabel Neraca Panas Cooler 1 (E-221)
Panas masuk
Panas keluar
Komponen
(kJ/jam)
(kJ/jam)
Q C6H5NO2
54650.8610
47718.2680
Q C 6 H4 N2 O4
1506.9847
1273.1909
3393.9394
671918.5980
Q H2 O
871986.3951
2878.7365
Q C 6 H6
19608.8722
17448.4735
Q H2
783.9192
1.9867
Q CH4
2406568.0094
1123864.9289
Q C6H5NH2
Q pendingin
- 1493394.7984
Total
3358498.9810 3358498.9810

298.15
-

298.15

17448.4735

2
4

B.7. FLASH TANK (H-220)


Fungsi: Menguapkan sebagian besar Nitrobenzen dalam campuran produk
keluaran reaktor
Arus 7
139.5 oC
Arus 6
139.5 oC

Flash
Tank

Arus 8
139.5 oC
Neraca Energi
Q in =
6
=
dimana: 6 =
7=
8=

Q out
7+ 8
Panas sensibel gas masuk flash tank , Q1
Panas sensibel gas keluar, QQ2 2
Panas sensibel cairan keluar flash tank , Q3

Untuk menghitug panas masing-masing arus digunakan persamaan:


Q=H=n_(T_reff)^TC_pl dT

dimana:

_(T reff )^T Cp_g dT= [(Ax(T-T_reff ))+(B/2 x(T^2-T_reff^ ))+(C/3


x(T^3-T_reff ))
+(D/4 x(T^4-T_reff))+(E/5 x(T^5-T_reff))]

a. Panas Sensibel gas keluar, Q2


Komposisi arus 7:
C6H5NO2 = 210.8537
C 6 H4 N2 O4 =
10.7253
3034.5671
H2 O
=
10.6170
C 6 H6
=
10.4955
H2
=
0.0052
CH4
=
0.7971
C6H5NH2 =

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1.7143
0.0638
168.5871
0.1361
5.2477
0.0003
0.0086

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

C6H5NO2
412.68

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15
412.68

1.7143

-16.2020
T + 0.5618 T2 - 3.93E-4 T3 - 1.004E-7 T4 - 1.2252E-12 T4 dT

298.15

1.7143 -16.2020

412.68 -

298.15

0.5618

412.68

298.15

1.7143 -16.2020
+
+

412.68 -

-3.9E-04
3
412.68
3
-1.2E-12
5
412.68
5
46763.9027 kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

298.15

+
+

412.68

-1.0E-07
4
412.68
4

298.15
-

298.15

C6H4NO2
412.68

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

412.68

0.0638

18.1480 T + 0.5618 T2 - 3.93E-4 T3 + 1.004E-7 T4 - 1.2252E-12 T5 dT

298.15

0.0638
+

18.1480

412.68 -

-3.9E-04
3
412.68
3

-1.2E-12
5
412.68
5
1260.4590 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15

298.15

298.15

0.56182
2

1.00E-07
4
412.68
4

412.68

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H6
412.68

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

412.68

0.1361

-31.3860 T + 0.4746 T2 - 3.11E-4 T3 + 8.524E-8 T4 - 5.0524E-12 T5dT

298.15

0.1361 -31.3860
+

412.68 -

-3.1E-04
3
412.68
3

-5.1E-12
5
412.68
5
2821.1618 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15

298.15

298.15

0.47460
2

8.52E-08
4
412.68
4

412.68

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

H2 O
412.68

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15
412.68

= 1.7E+02

32.243 T + 1.923E-3 T2 + 1.055E-5 T3 - 3.596E-9 T4 dT

298.15

= 1.7E+02 32.2430

1.1E-05
3
412.68
3
658480.2261 kJ/jam

+
=

412.68 -

298.15
298.15

0.00192
2

-3.6E-09
4
412.68
4

412.68

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

H2
412.68

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15
412.68

5.2477

27.1430T +

9.2730E-03 T2 - 1.3800E-05 T3 + 7.6450E-09 T4 dT

298.15

5.2477
+

27.1430

412.68 -

-1.4E-05
3
412.68
3
17448.4735 kJ/jam

298.15
298.15

0.0093
2

412.68

7.6E-09
4

412.68

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

CH4
412.68

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

412.68

0.0003

34.942
T-3.9957E-02 T2 - 1.9184E-04 T3-1.53E-07 T4+3.9321E-11 T5
dT

298.15

0.0003
+
+

34.9420

412.68 -

-1.9E-04
3
412.68
3
3.9E-11
5
412.68
5
1.9867 kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

298.15

-0.03996
2
412.68
2

-1.5E-07
4
412.68
4

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C6H5NH2
412.68

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

412.68

0.0086

-22.0620 T + 0.5731 T2 - 4.57E-4 T3 - 1.84E-7 T4 - 2.99E-11 T5

dT

298.15

0.0086 -22.0620
+
+

=
Jadi:
Q2 =
=

412.68 -

-4.6E-04
3
412.68
3
-3.0E-11
5
412.68
5
244.2101
kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

298.15

+
+

0.5731
2

-1.8E-07
4
412.68
4

298.15
-

298.15

46763.9027 + 1260.4590 + 2821.1618 +


17448.4735
1.9867
+
244.2101
727020.4199 kJ/jam

b. Panas Sensibel Cairan Keluar, Q3


Komposisi arus 8:

412.68

658480.2261 +

2
4

C6H5NO2
C 6 H4 N2 O4
H2 O
C 6 H6
H2
C6H5NH2

4.3031
0.1083
61.9299
0.2167
0.0000
7970.500

=
=
=
=
=
=

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

0.0350
0.0006
3.4406
0.0028
0.0000
85.7043

=
=
=
=
=
=

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

C6H5NO2
412.68

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15
412.68

39.4730 T + 0.9128 T2 - 0.00211 T3 + 2.01E-6 T4 dT

0.0350

298.15

0.0350
+

39.4730

412.68 -

-0.0021
3
412.68
3
751.7266
kJ/jam

298.15
298.15

0.9128
2

412.68

2.0E-06
4

412.68

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H4 N2 O4
412.68

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15
412.68

0.0006

-12.6350 T + 1.56240 T2 - 3.00E-3 T3 + 2.32E-6 T4 dT

298.15

0.0006 -12.6350
+

412.68 -

-3.0E-03
3
412.68
3
76.1702 kJ/jam

298.15
298.15

1.56240
2

412.68

2.3E-06
4

412.68

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H6
412.68

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15
412.68

0.0028

-33.6620 T + 0.47430 T2 - 3.61E-3 T3 + 3.82E-6 T4 dT

298.15

0.0028 -33.6620

-3.6E-03
3
412.68
3
245.1970 kJ/jam

+
=

412.68 -

H2 O
412.68

Q = n

Cpg dT

298.15
298.15

0.47430
2

412.68

3.8E-06
4

412.68

2
4

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

Q = n

Cpg dT

298.15
412.68

3.4406

18.2964 T + 0.47212 T2 - 1.34E-3 T3 + 1.31E-6 T4 dT

298.15

3.4406
+

18.2964

412.68 -

-1.3E-03
3
412.68
3
29965.3066 kJ/jam

298.15
298.15

0.47212
2

412.68

1.3E-06
4

412.68

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

H2
412.68

Cpg dT

Q = n

298.15

412.68

= 0.0E+00
298.15

28.8400 T + 0.00765 T2 + 3.29E-1 T3 - 0.8698 T4

= 0.0E+00 28.8400
+
=

412.68 -

3.3E-01
3
412.68
3
0.0000
kJ/jam

298.15
298.15

dT

0.00765
2

-8.7E-10
4
412.68
4

412.68

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C6H5NH2
412.68

Q = n

Cpg dT

298.15
412.68

85.70

46.9480 T + 0.9896 T2 - 2.3583E-3 T3 + 2.3296E-6 T4

dT

298.15

85.70

46.9480

412.68 -

-2.4E-03
3
412.68
3
2016973.0498 kJ/jam

+
=
Jadi:
Q3 =
=

751.7266 +
0.0000
2048011.4502

298.15
298.15

76.1702

0.9896
2

412.68

2.3E-06
4

412.68

245.1970
+
+
2016973.0498
kJ/jam

Sehingga, panas yang masuk flash tank :


Q in = Q out
Q1
= Q2 + Q3
= 727020.4199 + 2048011.4502 =

29965.3066

2775031.8700 kJ/jam

Tabel Neraca Panas Flash Tank (H-220)


Q in (kJ/jam)
Q out (kJ/jam)
Komponen
Arus 6
Arus 7
Arus 8
Q C6H5NO2 47515.6293
46763.9027
751.7266

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

Q C6H4NO2
Q H2 O
Q C 6 H6
Q H2
Q CH4
Q C6H5NH2

1336.6292
688445.5326
3066.3588
17448.4735
1.9867
2017217.2599

Total

2775031.8700

1260.4590
658480.2261
2821.1618
17448.4735
1.9867
244.2101
727020.4199

76.1702
29965.3066
245.1970
0.0000
2016973.0498
2048011.4502

2775031.8700

B.4 Heater (E-114)


Fungsi : Menaikkan suhu uap Nitrobenzen
Tujuan

Menaikkan suhu menjadi 170 C


Q3

Qsteam

Q1

Q2

Neraca Energi
H = Hout - Hin
Hin = Hpendingin + Hout
1. Menghitung Panas Sensibel Masuk Heater, Q1
M
n
Komponen
(kg)
(kmol)
C6H5NO2
4.30313
0.0350
C 6 H4 N2 O4
0.10834
0.0006
61.92992
3.4406
H2 O
0.21667
0.0028
C 6 H6
C6H5NH2
7970.497
85.7043
*Hin
o

Tin

= 139.5 C =

Tref

= 25
H2 O

C=

412.68

298.15

412.68

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

412.68

3.4406

18.2964 T + 0.47212 T2 - 1.34E-3 T3 + 1.31E-6 T4 dT

298.15

3.4406
+

18.2964

412.68 -

#######
3
412.68
3

298.15
298.15

0.47212
2

1.31E-06
4
412.68
4

412.68

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

29965.2966

kJ/jam

C 6 H6
412.68

Q = n
298.15

Cp dT
412.7

3.E-03

-33.6620 T + 0.47430 T2 - 3.61E-3 T3 + 3.82E-6 T4

dT

298.15

3.E-03 -33.6620

412.68 -

#######
3
412.68
3
245.1970 kJ/jam

+
=

C6H5NH2

298.15
298.15

0.47430
2

3.82E-06
4
412.68
4

412.68

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

Cp dT

412.68

Q = n

298.15
412.68

85.70
298.15

85.70

46.9480 T + 0.9896 T2 - 2.3583E-3 T3 + 2.3296E-6 T4

46.9480

412.68 -

#######
3
412.68
3
2016972.3765 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15

+
+

0.9896
2

412.68

2.33E-06
4
412.68
4

298.15
-

298.15

C6H5NO2
412.68

Q = n
298.15

298.15

dT

Cp dT

3.E-02 39.47 412.68

-0.0021
3
412.68
3
751.7263 kJ/jam

C6H4NO2

412.68

Q = n
298.15

6.E-04

298.15

298.15

+
3

0.9128
2

412.68

2.01E-06
4
412.68
4

1.56240
2

2.32E-06
4
412.68
4

298.15
-

298.15

Cp dT
-12.6

412.68 -

-3.E-03
3
412.68
3
19.7480 kJ/jam
=
+

298.15
298.15

412.68

Q1 = Q C6H5NO2 + Q C6H4N2O4 + Q C6H6 + Q H2O + Q C6H5NH2


= 2047954.3443 kJ/jam

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

2
4

2. Menghitung Panas Sensibel Keluar Heater, Q2


*Hout
o

Tin

= #### C =

Tref

H2 O

25

C=

444.80

298.15

444.80

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

444.80

3.4406

18.2964 T + 0.47212 T2 - 1.34E-3 T3 + 1.31E-6 T4 dT

298.15

3.4406
+

18.2964

444.80 -

#######
3
444.80
3
38610.6875 kJ/jam

298.15
298.15

0.47212
2

1.31E-06
4
444.80
4

444.80

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H6
444.80

Q = n
298.15

Cp dT
444.8

3.E-03

-33.6620 T + 0.47430 T2 - 3.61E-3 T3 + 3.82E-6 T4 dT


298.15

3.E-03 -33.6620

444.80 -

#######
3
444.80
3
346.4803 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15
298.15

0.47430
2

3.82E-06
4
444.80
4

444.80

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C6H5NH2
444.80

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

444.80

85.70
298.15

85.70

46.9480 T + 0.9896 T2 - 2.3583E-3 T3 + 2.3296E-6 T4

46.9480

444.80 -

#######
3
444.80
3
2626484.8134 kJ/jam

+
=

C6H5NO2

444.80

Q = n
298.15

0.035

298.15
298.15

+
+

0.9896
2

444.80

2.33E-06
4
444.80
4

dT

298.15
-

298.15

Cp dT

39.47 444.80

298.15

0.9128
2

444.80

298.15

2
4

-0.0021
3
444.80
3
978.0620 kJ/jam

C 6 H4 N2 O4

444.80

Q = n
298.15

298.15

2.01E-06
4
444.80
4

1.56240
2

2.32E-06
4
444.80
4

298.15

Cp dT

= 0.00064 -12.6

444.80 -

-3.E-03
3
444.80
3
= 104.9953 kJ/jam
+

298.15
298.15

444.80

298.15
-

298.15

Q2 = Q C6H5NO2 + Q C6H4N2O4 + Q C6H6 + Q H2O + Q C6H5NH2


= 2666525.0385 kJ/jam
3. Menghitung Kebutuhan Pemanas, Q3
Q3 = Q2 - Q1
= 2666525.0385 2047954.3443
= 618570.6942 kJ/jam
Kebutuhan panas Heater sebesar

618570.6942 kJ, panas disupply menggunakan

saturated steam dengan suhu 300oC dengan tekanan 1 atm. Dari properties of saturated
water and saturated steam up to 1 atm, stoichiometry 2004
steam = 909.99 kJ/kg
Sehingga :
Q3 = m.steam
Massa steam
= Q3 =
steam

618570.6942
909.99

kJ/jam=
kJ/kg

Neraca Panas Total dalam Heater


Panas masuk
Panas keluar
Komponen
(kJ/jam)
(kJ/jam)
Q C6H5NO2
751.7263
978.0620
Q C 6 H4 N2 O4
19.74801
104.9953
Q C6H5NH2 2016972.3765 2626484.8134
Q H2 O
Q C 6 H6
Q Steam

29965.2966
245.1970
618570.6942

38610.6875
346.4803
-

679.7555

kg/jam

2
4

Total

2666525.0385

2666525.0385

B.13. MENARA DISTILASI 1 (D-310)


Fungsi : Memisahkan produk Anilin dan air
Arus 16 138.9 oC
Qc
Arus 15
170.11

C
Arus 17

MD 2

Neraca Energi
Q in
15 + Qr
16
dimana: 15 =
16 =
=
17 =
18 =
21 =
Qc =
Qr =

Qr

Arus 18
#### oC

Arus 21
184.2 oC

= Q out
= 18 + 21
= 17 + 18 + Qc
Panas sensibel cairan umpan masuk MD 2 (D-340), Q1
Panas laten penguapan, Q2
Panas sensibel gas masuk kondensor, Q3
Panas sensibel cairan reflux, Q4
Panas sensibel cairan produk distilat, Q5
Panas sensibel cairan produk bawah, Q6
Panas yang diserap oleh pendingin pada kondensor
Panas yang dibutuhkan oleh pemanas pada reboiler

Menentukan Kondisi Operasi Menara Distilasi


a. Kondisi Operasi Umpan
1 atm =
Kondisi operasi umpan: P
=
Fasa = Cair Jenuh
T
= 171.65 oC =

760.0

mmHg

444.80 K

Trial Kondisi Operasi Umpan


Komponen (Kmol/jam)

xi

Pi

ki
Pi/P

yi
ki.xi

Ki/KHK

C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6
C6H5NH2

0.0350
0.0006
3.4406
0.00278
85.7043

0.0004
0.00001
0.0386
0.00003
0.9610

Total

89.1832

1.0000

280.9083
6.0081
6189.8280
6602.6352
542.0446

0.0001
0.0000
0.3142
0.0003
0.6854

0.5182
0.0111
11.4194
12.1810
1.0000

1.00

b. Kondisi Operasi Puncak Menara


Dew Point
1 atm =
Kondisi operasi:
P
=
T
= 138.938 oC =
Trial Kondisi Operasi Dew Point Puncak Menara
xi
Pi
Komponen (Kmol/jam)
C6H5NO2

0.0003

C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6
C6H5NH2

6.E-06
3.4061
3.E-05
0.8570

0.0001
2.E-06
0.7989
7.E-06
0.2010

1.1184
2630.6402
3460.2298
199.0620

Total

4.2636

6.290.E+03

100.1167

Bubble Point
Kondisi operasi:

1 atm =
P
=
T
= 105.98 oC =
Trial Kondisi Operasi Bubble Point Puncak Menara
xi
Pi
Komponen (Kmol/jam)
C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
H2 O
C 6 H6
C6H5NH2

3.E-04
6.E-06
3.4061
3.E-05
0.8570

0.0001
2.E-06
0.7989
7.E-06
0.2010

27.8877
0.1439
937.0218
1583.1294
58.4146

Total

4.2636

2.579.E+03

c. Kondisi Operasi Bawah Menara


Bubble Point
Kondisi Operasi:
P
=
T
=

0.3696
0.0079
8.1445
8.6877
0.7132

760 mmHg
412.09 K
ki
Pi/P
0.1317
0.0015
3.4614
4.5529
0.2619

yi
xi/ki
0.0006
0.0010
0.2308
1.E-06
0.7675

Ki/KHK
0.5029
0.0056
13.2152
17.3827
1.0000

1.00

760 mmHg
379.13 K
ki
Pi/P

yi
ki.xi

0.0367
0.0002
1.2329
2.0831
0.0769

3.E-06
3.E-10
0.9850
0.0000
0.0155

Ki/KHK
0.4774
0.0025
16.0409
27.1016
1.0000

1.00

1 atm = 760.0 mmHg


184.02 oC = 457.17 K

Trial Kondisi Operasi Bubble Point Bawah Menara


yi
Pi
Komponen (Kmol/jam)

ki

yi

Komponen (Kmol/jam)
H2 O
C6H6
C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2
C6H5NH2

0.0344
0.0028
0.0346
0.0006
84.8472

0.0004
3.E-05
0.0004
8.E-06
0.9991

8256.8840
8204.1008
303.8360
10.5190
757.2896

Total

84.9197

1.753.E+04

Pi/P

ki.xi

10.8643
10.7949
0.3998
0.0138
0.9964

0.0044
0.0003
0.0002
0.0000
0.9956

Ki/KHK
10.9032
10.8335
0.4012
0.0139
1.0000

1.00

Dew Point
Kondisi Operasi:

1 atm = 760.0 mmHg


P
=
T
= 184.18 oC = 457.33 K
Kondisi Operasi Dew Point Bawah Menara
yi
Pi
ki
Komponen (Kmol/jam)
Pi/P
H2 O
0.0344
0.0004
8.29.E+03
10.9028
C6H6
0.0028
3.E-05
8225.9791
10.8237
C6H5NO2
0.0346
0.0004
396.7234
0.5220
C6H4NO2
0.0006
8.E-06
10.5913
0.0139
C6H5NH2
84.8472
0.9991
760.3961
1.0005
Total

84.9197

1.77.E+04

*Condensor
*Penentuan Harga q
Karena umpan masuk pada keadaan titik didih nya (bubble point)
maka harga q = 1

xi
yi/ki
0.0000
0.0000
0.0008
0.0005
0.9986
1.00

Komponen

atas

bawah

rata-rata

C6H5NO2
C6H4NO2

0.4774
0.0025
16.0409
27.1016
1.0000

0.4012
0.0139
10.9032
10.8335
1.0000

0.4377
0.0058
13.2249
17.1349
1.0000

23.1518

31.8033

H2 O
C 6 H6
C6H5NH2
Total

44.6223

a i x id
= Rm 1
i -q

*Menentukan Kebutuhan Reflux Minimum


Dari persamaan Underwood 9.165 :
umpan masuk menara pada keadaan bubble point (titik didih) sehingga q=1
(cair jenuh)
(1-q) = ((F*XF)/(F-))

Ki/KHK
10.8971
10.8180
0.5217
0.0139
1.0000

Trial

2
8.91

Hasil
-0.9156
-0.003

Perhitungan Reflux minimum (Rmin)


Rmin +1=
((D*XD)/(D-))
= ((13,2221*0,7975)/(13,2221-8,454))+((17,4043*0,0007)/(17,4043-8,454))+
((1315,6591*0,0012)/(1315,6591-8,454))+((1*0,2007)/(1-8,454))
2.4269
=
R min =
2.4269
1
1.4269
=
Jadi nilai refluks minimum sebesar
Rm = 1.2 Rm - 1.5 Rm
1.3
diambil R operasi =
=

1.8549

menghitung Lo dan V
Lo = R x D
=
1.8549 x
4.2636
=
7.9087 kmol/jam
L' = Lo x F
=
7.9087
=
97.0919

+
89.1832
kmol/jam

a. Komposisi Cairan Reflux, Lo


H2 O

= yid x Lo
= 0.7989 x

V = Lo + D
=
7.9087
=
33.7193

x
4.2636
kmol/jam

V' = V
=
33.7193

kmol/jam

7.9087

=
=

6.3182 kmol/jam
113.7280 kg/jam

C6H5NH2 =
=

yid x Lo
0.2010 x

7.9087

=
=

1.5898 kmol/jam
147.8485 kg/jam

C6H5NO2 =
=

yid x Lo
0.0001 x

7.9087

=
=

0.0006 kmol/jam
0.0798 kg/jam

C6H4N2O4 =
=

yid x Lo
2.E-06 x

7.9087

=
=

1.E-05 kmol/jam
0.0020 kg/jam

yid x Lo
7.E-06 x

7.9087

=
=

0.0001 kmol/jam
0.0040 kg/jam

C 6 H6

=
=

Jadi:
Lo =

261.6624 kg/jam

b. Komposisi Uap Masuk Kondensor, V


H2 O

= yid x V
33.7193
= 0.7989 x

=
=

26.9382 kmol/jam
484.8875 kg/jam

C6H5NH2 =
=

yid x V
0.2010 x

33.7193

=
=

6.7781 kmol/jam
630.3630
kg/jam

C6H5NO2 =
=

yid x V
0.0001 x

33.7193

=
=

0.0028 kmol/jam
0.3403 kg/jam

C6H4N2O4 =
=

yid x V
2.E-06 x

33.7193

=
=

5.E-05 kmol/jam
0.0086 kg/jam

yid x V
7.E-06 x

33.7193

=
=

0.0002 kmol/jam
0.0171 kg/jam

C 6 H6

Jadi:
V =

=
=

1115.6165

kg/jam

c. Komposisi Cairan Masuk Reboiler, L' (Arus 19)


H2 O

= xib x L'
97.0919 =
0.0393
= 0.0004 x
0.7081
=
C6H5NO2 = xib x L'
97.0919 =
0.0396
= 0.0004 x
4.8707
=
C6H4NO2 = xib x L'
97.0919 =
0.0007
= 8.E-06 x
0.1226
=

C6H6

=
=

C6H5NH2 =

xib x L'
3.E-05 x

xib x L'

97.0919

=
=

0.0031
0.2453

kmol/jam
kg/jam
kmol/jam
kg/jam
kmol/jam
kg/jam

kmol/jam
kg/jam

=
Jadi:
L' =

0.9991 x

9027.7950

97.0919

97.0091 kmol/jam
9021.8483
kg/jam

=
=

kg/jam

d. Komposisi Uap yang dikembalikan ke Menara, V'


H2 O

= xib x V'
33.7193 =
= 0.0004 x
=
C6H5NO2 = xib x V'
33.7193 =
= 0.0004 x
=
C6H4NO2 = xib x V'
33.7193 =
= 8.E-06 x
=

C6H6

=
=

xib x V'
3.E-05 x

33.7193

=
=

C6H5NH2 =
=

xib x V'
0.9991 x

33.7193

=
=

Jadi:
V' =

3135.2030

0.0137 kmol/jam
0.2459 kg/jam
0.0138 kmol/jam
1.6916
kg/jam
0.0003 kmol/jam
0.0426 kg/jam

0.0011

kmol/jam
0.08517489 kg/jam

33.6906 kmol/jam
3133.2230
kg/jam

kg/jam

Perhitungan Neraca Panas pada Kondensor


a. Panas Laten Penguapan (Hv)
Untuk menghitung entalpi panas penguapan (Hv) digunakan Persamaan Watson:
H2
0.38
1 - Tr2
(Pers 4.19 Smith Van Ness, 2005)
=
H1
1 - Tr1
dimana: H1 = Panas laten penguapan pada titik didih normal (kJ/kmol)
H2 = Panas laten penguapan pada suhu T2 (kJ/kmol)
Tr2 = T2/TC (K)
Tr1 = T1/TC (K)
T1 = Titik didih normal komponen (K)
T2 = Suhu tertentu
= 138.94 oC = 412.09 K
H2 O

1 - Tr2 0.38
H2 = H1 x
1 - Tr1
412.09 562.16
0.38
1 H2 = 30.75 x
353.24 562.16
1 27.1173 kJ/kmol
=

Hv =

26.9382

kmol/jam x

27.1173

kJ/kmol =

730.4907

kJ/jam

608.2784

kJ/jam

0.1350

kJ/jam

0.0038

kJ/jam

0.0020

kJ/jam

C6H5NH2
1 - Tr2 0.38
1 - Tr1
412.09 972.15
1 86.92 x
457.25 972.15
1 89.7418 kJ/kmol

H2 = H1 x
H2 =
=
Hv =

6.7781

kmol/jam x

89.7418

0.38

kJ/kmol =

C6H5NO2
1 - Tr2 0.38
1 - Tr1
412.09 719
1 44.08 x
483.95 719
1 48.7827 kJ/kmol

H2 = H1 x
H2 =
=
Hv =

0.0028

kmol/jam x

48.7827

0.38

kJ/kmol =

C6H4N2O4
1 - Tr2 0.38
1 - Tr1
412.09 803
1 61.56 x
572 803
1 75.1824 kJ/kmol

H2 = H1 x
H2 =
=
Hv =

0.0001

kmol/jam x

75.1824

0.38

kJ/kmol =

C6H6
1 - Tr2 0.38
1 - Tr1
412.09 647.4
1 40.68 x
373.15 647.4
1 38.3804 kJ/kmol

H2 = H1 x
H2 =
=
Hv =
Jadi:
Q2 =

0.0001

1338.9098

kmol/jam x

38.3804

kJ/jam

b. Panas Sensibel Gas Masuk Kondensor, Q3


H2 O

0.38

kJ/kmol =

412.09

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15
412.09

32.243 T + 1.923E-3 T2 + 1.055E-5 T3 - 3.596E-9 T4 dT

26.94

298.15

26.94

32.2430

412.09 -

1.06E-05
3
412.09
3
104670.8476 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15
298.15

0.00192
2

#######
4
412.09
4

412.09

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C6H5NH2
412.09

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

412.09

-31.3860 T + 0.4746 T2 - 3.11E-4 T3 + 8.524E-8 T4 - 5.0524E-12 T5dT

6.778

298.15

6.778
+

-22.0620

412.09 -

#######
3
412.09
3

#######
5
412.09
5
191903.6870 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15

298.15

298.15

0.57313
2

#######
4
412.09
4

412.09

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C6H5NO2
412.09

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

412.09

-31.3860 T + 0.4746 T2 - 3.11E-4 T3 + 8.524E-8 T4 - 5.0524E-12 T5dT

3.E-03

298.15

3.E-03 -16.2020
+
+

412.09 -

#######
3
412.09
3
#######
5
412.09
5
75.0082
kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

298.15

0.56182
2

#######
4
412.09
4

412.09

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C6H4N2O4
412.09

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

412.09

-31.3860 T + 0.4746 T2 - 3.11E-4 T3 + 8.524E-8 T4 - 5.0524E-12 T5dT

5.E-05

298.15

5.E-05
+

18.1480

#######

412.09

412.09 3

298.15
298.15

+
+

0.56182
2
1.00E-07

412.09
412.09

2
4

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

+
+
=

412.09

#######
5
412.09
5
1.0011
kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

412.09

298.15

C 6 H6
412.09

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

412.09

2.E-04

-31.3860 T + 0.4746 T2 - 3.11E-4 T3 + 8.524E-8 T4 - 5.0524E-12 T5dT

298.15

2.E-04 -31.3860
+
+

=
Jadi:
Q3 =

412.09 -

#######
3
412.09
3
#######
5
412.09
5
2.5398
kJ/jam

296653.0838

298.15

298.15

298.15

0.47460
2

8.52E-08
4
412.09
4

412.09

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

kJ/jam

c. Panas Sensibel Cairan Reflux, Q4


H2 O

379.13

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

379.13

6.3182

18.2964 T + 0.47212 T2 - 1.34E-3 T3 + 1.31E-6 T4 dT

298.15

6.3182

+
=

18.2964

379.13 -

#######
3
379.13
3
38719.7657 kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

0.47212
2

1.31E-06
4
379.13
4

379.13

298.15

298.15

C6H5NH2
379.13

Q = n
298.15

Cp dT
379.13

1.59

46.9480 T + 0.9896 T2

- 2.3583E-3 T3 + 2.3296E-6 T4

dT

298.15

1.59
+

46.9480

379.13 -

#######
3
379.13
3

298.15
298.15

+
+

0.9896
2

379.13

2.33E-06
4
379.13
4

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

26016.6588

kJ/jam

C6H5NO2
379.13

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

379.13

0.0006

18.2964 T + 0.47212 T2 - 1.34E-3 T3 + 1.31E-6 T4 dT

298.15

0.0006

+
=

39.4730

379.13 -

#######
3
379.13
3
9.7017
kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

0.91277
2

2.01E-06
4
379.13
4

379.13

298.15

298.15

C6H4N2O4
379.13

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

379.13

1.E-05

18.2964 T + 0.47212 T2 - 1.34E-3 T3 + 1.31E-6 T4 dT

298.15

1.E-05 -12.6350

+
=

379.13 -

#######
3
379.13
3
0.2540
kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

1.56240
2

2.32E-06
4
379.13
4

379.13

298.15

298.15

C6H6
379.13

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

379.13

0.0001

18.2964 T + 0.47212 T2 - 1.34E-3 T3 + 1.31E-6 T4 dT

298.15

0.0001 -33.6620

379.13 -

#######
3
379.13
3
2.8928
kJ/jam

Jadi:
Q4 =

64749.2731

298.15

298.15

kJ/jam

d. Panas Sensibel Cairan Produk Distilat, Q5


H2 O

379.13

Q = n

Cp dT

0.47430
2

3.82E-06
4
379.13
4

379.13

298.15

298.15

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

379.13

= 20.6200

18.2964 T + 0.47212 T2 - 1.34E-3 T3 + 1.31E-6 T4 dT

298.15

= 20.6200 18.2964

379.13 -

#######
3
379.13
3
126364.7574 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15
298.15

0.47212
2

1.31E-06
4
379.13
4

379.13

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C6H5NH2
379.13

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15
379.13

= 5.2.E+00
298.15

46.9480 T + 0.9896 T2 - 2.3583E-3 T3 + 2.3296E-6 T4

= 5.2.E+00 46.9480
+
=

379.13 -

#######
3
379.13
3
84907.2488 kJ/jam

298.15
298.15

+
+

0.9896
2

379.13

2.33E-06
4
379.13
4

dT

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C6H5NO2
379.13

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

379.13

0.0021

18.2964 T + 0.47212 T2 - 1.34E-3 T3 + 1.31E-6 T4 dT

298.15

0.0021

+
=

39.4730

379.13 -

#######
3
379.13
3
31.6623
kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

0.91277
2

2.01E-06
4
379.13
4

379.13

298.15

298.15

C6H4N2O4
379.13

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

379.13

4.E-05

18.2964 T + 0.47212 T2 - 1.34E-3 T3 + 1.31E-6 T4 dT

298.15

4.E-05 -12.6350

+
=

379.13 -

#######
3
379.13
3
0.8291
kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

1.56240
2

2.32E-06
4
379.13
4

379.13

298.15

298.15

C6H6
379.13

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

379.13

0.0002

18.2964 T + 0.47212 T2 - 1.34E-3 T3 + 1.31E-6 T4 dT

298.15

0.0002 -33.6620

+
=
Jadi:
Q5 =

379.13 -

#######
3
379.13
3
9.4408
kJ/jam

211313.9385

298.15

298.15

0.47430
2

3.82E-06
4
379.13
4

379.13

298.15

298.15

kJ/jam

e. Panas yang dilepas oleh Pendingin Kondensor, Qc


Qc = Q2 + Q3 - Q4 + Q5
21928.7820 kJ/jam
=
Sebagai pendingin digunakan air pada suhu 25oC dan tekanan 1 atm.
Diperkirakan air keluar pada suhu 45oC.
Dari App A.2 Geankoplis, 2003 diperoleh Cp air = 0.9987 kkal/kgoC
= 4.1787 kJ/kgoC
Q = m . Cp. T
Qc
mc =
Cp. T
21928.7820
=
4.1787 ( 45 - 25 )

262.3901

kg/jam

Perhitungan Neraca Panas pada Reboiler


a. Panas Sensibel Cairan Masuk MD , Q1
Panas sensibel masuk MD 2 sama dengan panas sensibel cairan keluaran Heater .
Q1 =
2666525.0385
kJ/jam
b. Panas Sensibel Cairan Produk Bawah, Q6
H2 O

457.17

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

457.17

0.0344
298.15

0.0344
+

18.2964 T + 0.47212 T2 - 1.34E-3 T3 + 1.31E-6 T4

18.2964

457.17 -

#######
3
457.17
3

298.15
298.15

0.47212
2

1.31E-06
4
457.17
4

457.17

dT
-

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

419.9350

kJ/jam

C6H5NH2
457.17

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15
457.17

84.85
298.15

84.85

46.9480 T + 0.9896 T2 - 2.3583E-3 T3 + 2.3296E-6 T4

46.9480

457.17 -

#######
3
457.17
3
6570771.5516 kJ/jam

+
=

298.15

298.15

298.15

+
+

0.9896
2

457.17

2.33E-06
4
457.17
4

dT

298.15
-

298.15

C6H5NO2
457.17

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

=
+
=

3.E-02 39.47

457.17

-0.0021
3
457.17
3
1056.6921 kJ/jam

298.15

0.9128
2

457.17

2.01E-06
4
457.17
4

1.56240
2

2.32E-06
4
457.17
4

0.47430
2

3.82E-06
4
457.17
4

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C6H4NO2
457.17

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

6.E-04

-12.6

457.17 -

-3.E-03
3
457.17
3
27.8001 kJ/jam
=
+

298.15
298.15

457.17

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H6
457.17

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

3.E-03

-33.7

457.17 -

-4.E-03
3
457.17
3
= 386.0537 kJ/jam
+

Jadi:
Q6 =

6572662.0325 kJ/jam

298.15
298.15

457.17

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

2
4

c. Panas yang dibutuhkan oleh Pemanas Reboiler, Qrb


Qrb = Q5 + Q6 + Qc - Q1
4139379.7145
=
Kebutuhan panas Heater sebesar
4139379.7145 kJ, panas disupply menggunakan
o

saturated steam dengan suhu 300 C dengan tekanan 1 atm. Dari properties of saturated
water and saturated steam up to 1 atm, stoichiometry 2004
steam = 909.99 kJ/kg
Sehingga :
Qr = m.steam
Massa steam
= Qr =
steam

4139379.7145
909.99

kJ/jam=
kJ/kg

4548.8189

Tabel Neraca Panas Menara Distilasi


(D-330)
2
Panas masuk
Panas keluar (kJ/jam)
Komponen
(kJ/jam)
Arus
Arus
Q C6H5NO2
978.0620
31.6623
1056.6921
Q C 6 H4 N2 O4
104.9953
0.8291
27.8001
38610.6875
126364.7574
419.9350
Q H2 O
346.4803
9.4408
386.0537
Q C 6 H6
84907.2488
6570771.5516
Q C6H5NH2 2626484.8134
Q pendingin
21928.7820
4139379.71
Q steam
233242.7205 6572662.0325
Total
6805904.7530
6805904.7530
B.14 COOLER
Fungsi : Mendinginkan gas produk keluar reaktor
Tujuan : Menghitung kebutuhan pendingin
o

28 C
Q1
184.2 oC

Q2
30
Qc

45

C
Neraca Energi
Q in = Q out
Q1
= Q2 + Q3
Q1 = Panas sensibel gas keluar reaktor
dimana:
Q3 = Panas yang diserap oleh pendingin
Q2 = Panas sensibel cairan keluar cooler 1
Untuk menghitug panas masing-masing arus digunakan persamaan:

kg/jam

dimana:

1. Panas Sensibel Cairan Masuk, Q1


Panas sensibel yang masuk Cooler sama dengan panas sensibel cairan yang keluar MD
Q1 = 6572662.0325 kJ/jam
2. Panas Sensibel gas keluar, Q2
Komposisi arus 6:
C6H5NO2 =
4.2601
kg/jam
C 6 H4 N2 O4 =
0.1073
kg/jam
0.6193
H2 O
=
kg/jam
0.2145
kg/jam
=
C6H6
C6H5NH2 = 7890.7922 kg/jam

0.0346
0.0006
0.0344
0.0028
84.8472

=
=
=
=
=

kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam
kmol/jam

H2 O
457.17

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15

457.17

0.0344

18.2964 T + 0.47212 T2 - 1.34E-3 T3 + 1.31E-6 T4 dT

298.15

0.0344
+

18.2964

457.17 -

#######
3
457.17
3
1951.0776 kJ/jam

298.15
298.15

0.47212
2

1.31E-06
4
457.17
4

457.17

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C6H5NH2
457.17

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15
457.17

84.85
298.15

84.85

46.9480

457.17 -

#######
3
457.17
3
2838811.5810 kJ/jam

+
=

46.9480 T + 0.9896 T2 - 2.3583E-3 T3 + 2.3296E-6 T4

298.15
298.15

+
+

0.9896
2

457.17

2.33E-06
4
457.17
4

dT

298.15
-

298.15

C6H6
457.17

Cp dT

Q = n

298.15
457.17

3.E-03

46.9480 T + 0.9896 T2 - 2.3583E-3 T3 + 2.3296E-6 T4

dT

2
4

3.E-03
298.15

3.E-03 -33.6620
+

46.9480 T + 0.9896 T2 - 2.3583E-3 T3 + 2.3296E-6 T4


457.17 -

#######
3
457.17
3
386.0537
kJ/jam

298.15

298.15

298.15

+
+

0.4743
2

457.17

3.82E-06
4
457.17
4

dT

298.15
-

298.15

C6H5NO2
457.17

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

=
+
=

3.E-02 39.47

457.17

-0.0021
3
457.17
3
1056.6921 kJ/jam

298.15

0.9128
2

457.17

2.01E-06
4
457.17
4

1.56240
2

2.32E-06
4
457.17
4

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

C 6 H4 N2 O4
457.17

Q = n

Cp dT

298.15

6.E-04

-12.6

457.17 -

298.15

-3.E-03
3
3
457.17
- 298.15
3
= 115.9067 kJ/jam
Jadi:
Q2 = 2842321.3110 kJ/jam
+

4. Panas yang diserap oleh Pendingin, Qc


Qc = Q1 - Q2
= 6572662.0325 - 2842321.3110 =

457.17

3730340.7215 kJ/jam

Sebagai pendingin digunakan air pada suhu 25 C dan tekanan 1 atm.


Diperkirakan air keluar pada suhu 45oC.
Dari App A.2 Geankoplis, 2003 diperoleh Cp air = 0.9987 kkal/kg.oC
= 4.1787 kJ/kgoC
Q = m . Cp. T
Qc
mc =
Cp. T
3730340.7215
=
4.17866 ( 45 - 25 )

= 44635.5979 kg/jam

Tabel Neraca Panas Cooler 1 (E-221)


Panas masuk
Panas keluar
Komponen
(kJ/jam)
(kJ/jam)
Q C6H5NO2
1056.6921
1056.6921

298.15
-

298.15

2
4

2
4

Q C 6 H4 N2 O4
Q C6H5NH2
Q C6H6
Q H2 O
Q pendingin
Total

27.8001
6570771.5516
386.0537
419.9350
6572662.0325

115.9067
2838811.5810
386.0537
1951.0776
3730340.7215
6572662.0325

kJ/jam

kJ/jam

Neraca Massa (kg/jam)


Komponen
Arus
Arus
1 Arus
2 Arus
3 Arus
4 Arus
5 Arus
6 Arus
7 Arus
8 Arus
9 Arus
10Arus
11Arus
12Arus
13Arus
14Arus
15Arus
16Arus
17 18
C6H5NO2 0 0 ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ##
C6H4N2O4 0 0 ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ##
H2O 0 0 ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ##
C6H6 0 0 ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ##
H2 ## ## 0 0 0 0 0 ## ## ## ## 0 0
CH4 ## ## 0 0 0 0 0 ## ## ## ## 0 0
C6H5NH2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
## ## ## ## ##
Total ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ##

Nera
Komponen
C6H5NO2
C6H4N2O4
H2 O
C6H6
H2
CH4
C6H5NH2
Total

Arus 1
0
0
0
0
524.7725
0.0052
0
524.7778

Arus 2
Arus 3
Arus 4
Arus 5
Arus 6
Arus 7
0
10757.8363 10757.8363 10757.8363 2689.4591 10757.8363
0
10.8337
10.8337
10.8337
2.7084
10.8337
0
10.8337
10.8337
10.8337
2.7084
10.8337
0
10.8337
10.8337
10.8337
2.7084
10.8337
524.7725
0
0
0
0
0
0.0052
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
524.7778 10790.34 10790.337 10790.337 2697.5843 10790.337

Arus 8
10757.8363
10.8337
10.8337
10.8337
524.7725
0.0052
0.0000
11315.115

Neraca Massa (kg/jam)


Arus 9
Arus 10
Arus 11
Arus 12
Arus 13
Arus 14
Arus 15
Arus 16
215.1567 215.1568 215.1568
4.3031
210.8536
4.3031
0.0430
1.6916
10.8337
10.8337
10.8337
0.1083
10.7253
0.1083
0.0011
0.0426
3096.4960 3096.4960 3096.4960 61.9299 3034.5661 61.9299
61.3106
0.2459
10.8337
10.8337
10.8337
0.2167
10.6170
0.2167
0.0022
0.0852
10.4955
10.4955
10.4955
0
10
0
0
0
0.0052
0.0052
0.0052
0
0.0052
0
0
0
7971.2943 7971.2970 7971.2970 7970.4972
0.7971
7970.4972 79.7050 3133.2230
11315.115 11315.118 11315.118 8037.0552 3267.5591 8037.0552 141.06187 3135.2882

Arus 17
Arus 18
Arus 19
4.2601
4.8707
4.2601
0.1073
0.1226
0.1073
0.6193
0.7081
0.6193
0.2145
0.2453
0.2145
0
0
0
0
0
0
7890.7922 9021.8483 7890.7922
7895.9934 9027.795 7895.9934