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JET FUEL QUALITY ASSURANCE

Platts European Refining


Conference, Brussels
September 2013
Copyright of Shell Aviation Limited
September 2013
Mike Farmery, Shell Aviation
Global Fuel Technical and Quality Manager
Shell Aviation
FUEL QUALITY IS REALLY IMPORTANT NOT DUPLICATED
Copyright of Shell Aviation Limited
This presentation contains forward-looking statements and opinions concerning the
general global economic condition and that of the Aviation industry. Shell Aviation
does not warrant the reliability, accuracy or completeness of any information
contained in this presentation and, to the extent permitted by the applicable law,
disclaims any and all responsibility for any loss or damage (including without
limitation consequential, indirect or economic losses and damages) arising in any
way, including by reason of negligence for errors or omissions in this presentation.
DISCLAIMER
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You should therefore seek independent verification of any information presented
herein that you intend to rely on, and consult your professional advisors to
determine the course of action appropriate to you.
Importance of Traceability and what it means
QA in the supply chain EI 1530
OVERVIEW DEVELOPMENTS IN JET FUEL QA
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CX 780 ICAO 9977 and global regulation
FUELLER
DELIVERY H
Y
D
HYDRANT
DISPENSER
MULTIPRODUCT DISTRIBUTION
e.g. OCEAN TANKER, PIPELINE
JET FUEL SUPPLY CHAINS ARE ESSENTIALLY SIMPLE
S
F
F
REFINERY
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F
ROAD
RAIL
PIPELINE
BARGE
rack
loading
D
R
A
N
T
e.g. OCEAN TANKER, PIPELINE
DEDICATED DISTRIBUTION
5
S
F F F TERMINAL AIRPORT
Ultrafine filter microfilter, filterwater separator or filter monitor
F S
Strainer/course filter
BUT CAN BE VARIED AND COMPLEX
Airport
IOC
Supply
depot
IOC refinery
NOC refinery
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Airport
Merchant
refinery
Independent
supply depot
Merchant
refinery
Floating
storage
NOC
refinery
Traders are key players in the storage and transport of
aviation fuels and often act as intermediaries between
refineries, depots and airports. Activities include shipping,
entrepot storage or floating storage.
TRACEABILITY - DEF STAN 91-91 ISSUE 7 AMD 2
A
B
RCQ A
RCQ B
1 2
COA 1
COA 2
COA 2

Direct delivery or
pre-airfield terminal
Intermediate terminals
or floating storage etc
Refineries
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Airport
C
D
3
RCQ C
COA 2
RCQ D
COA 3

Release
Note
RCQ D and/or release note D
I have tested a representative sample of the batch and it
meets ALL the requirements of DEF STAN 91-91 Issue 7
Amd 1 (not just the main table test results)
The results are listed on the RCQ and it is compliant with
RCQ A ISSUED BY THE REFINERY LAB STATES:
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The results are listed on the RCQ and it is compliant with
the requirements of 91-91
TRACEABILITY - DEF STAN 91-91 ISSUE 7 AMD 2
A
B
RCQ A
RCQ B
1 2
COA 1
COA 2
COA 2

Direct delivery or
pre-airfield terminal
Intermediate terminals
or floating storage etc
Refineries
Copyright of Shell Aviation Limited
Airport
C
D
3
RCQ C
COA 2
RCQ D
COA 3

Release
Note
RCQ D and/or release note D
I have tested a representative sample of the batch and it meets the
requirements of DEF STAN 91-91 Issue 7 Amd 1 for all the
parameters tested.
The actual test results and test methods used.
The batch is a mixture of the following batches:
Batch A certified by RCQ A
COA 1 ISSUED BY THE TERMINAL LAB STATES:
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Batch A certified by RCQ A
Batch B certified by RCQ B
I have these documents in my possession
I confirm that both RCQ A and RCQ B show that the respective
batches meet the requirements of DEF STAN 91-91 Issue 7 Amd 1
TRACEABILITY - DEF STAN 91-91 ISSUE 7 AMD 2
A
B
RCQ A
RCQ B
1 2
COA 1
COA 2
COA 2

Direct delivery or
pre-airfield terminal
Intermediate terminals
or floating storage etc
Refineries
Copyright of Shell Aviation Limited
Airport
C
D
3
RCQ C
COA 2
RCQ D
COA 3

Release
Note
RCQ D and/or release note D
I have tested a representative sample of the batch and it meets the
requirements of DEF STAN 91-91 Issue 7 Amd 1 for all the
parameters tested.
The actual test results and test methods used.
The batch is a mixture of the following batches:
Batch 1 certified by COA 1
COA 2 ISSUED BY THE TERMINAL LAB STATES:
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Batch 1 certified by COA 1
Batch C certified by RCQ C
I have these documents in my possession
I confirm that both COA 1 and RCQ C show that the respective
batches meet the requirements of DEF STAN 91-91 Issue 7 Amd 1
TRACEABILITY - DEF STAN 91-91 ISSUE 7 AMD 2
A
B
RCQ A
RCQ B
1 2
COA 1
COA 2
COA 2

Direct delivery or
pre-airfield terminal
Intermediate terminals
or floating storage etc
Refineries
Copyright of Shell Aviation Limited
Airport
C
D
3
RCQ C
COA 2
RCQ D
COA 3

Release
Note
RCQ D and/or release note D
I have tested a representative sample of the batch and it meets the
requirements of DEF STAN 91-91 Issue 7 Amd 1 for all the
parameters tested.
The actual test results and test methods used.
The batch is a mixture of the following batches:
Batch 2 certified by COA 2
COA 3 ISSUED BY THE TERMINAL LAB STATES:
Copyright of Shell Aviation Limited
Batch 2 certified by COA 2
Batch D certified by RCQ D
I have these documents in my possession
I confirm that both COA 2 and RCQ D show that the respective
batches meet the requirements of DEF STAN 91-91 Issue 7 Amd 1
TRACEABILITY - DEF STAN 91-91 ISSUE 7 AMD 2
A
B
RCQ A
RCQ B
1 2
COA 1
COA 2
COA 2

Direct delivery or
pre-airfield terminal
Intermediate terminals
or floating storage etc
Refineries
Copyright of Shell Aviation Limited
Airport
C
D
3
RCQ C
COA 2
RCQ D
COA 3

Release
Note
RCQ D and/or release note D
Jet fuel batches to other specifications are allowed to be
mixed and certified to DEF STAN 91-91
RCQ must show that batch was originally manufactured and
certified as meeting one of the major international jet fuel
DO THE ORIGINAL RCQS HAVE TO BE TO 91-91?
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certified as meeting one of the major international jet fuel
specs (ASTD D 1655, GOST 10227, GB 6457) see IATA
Guidance Material
The RCQ must state that DEF STAN 91-91 requirements for
composition and approved additives are satisfied
Importance of Traceability and what it means
QA in the supply chain EI 1530
OVERVIEW DEVELOPMENTS IN JET FUEL QA
Copyright of Shell Aviation Limited
CX 780 ICAO 9977 and global regulation
JET FUEL QUALITY ASSURANCE STANDARDS
Refining Distribution Airport
JIG 3 JIG 2 JIG 1
Certification
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JIG 3 JIG 2 JIG 1
ATA 103 API 1543 API 1595
(RoW)
(USA)
Refining Distribution Airport
JIG 3 JIG 2 JIG 1
Certification
JET FUEL QUALITY ASSURANCE STANDARDS
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JIG 3
EI 1530
(out for comment)
JIG 2 JIG 1
ATA 103 API 1543 API 1595
(RoW)
(USA)
(Global)
Importance of Traceability and what it means
QA in the supply chain EI 1530
OVERVIEW DEVELOPMENTS IN JET FUEL QA
Copyright of Shell Aviation Limited
CX 780 ICAO 9977 and global regulation
CATHAY PACIFIC INCIDENT A TURNING POINT
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Flight CX780 Surabaya-HK, 13 April 2010
A330 - 2 x Trent 700 engines
Engine throttles stuck at 71% and 17% of max thrust
Safe landing but very nearly catastrophic very high
profile in HK fuel quality implicated
CATHAY PACIFIC INCIDENT - BACKGROUND
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profile in HK fuel quality implicated
Investigation lead by HK CAD but involving UK AAIB,
BEA, NTSB, NTSC plus R-R, Airbus
Airbus + Cathay raised many questions starting at IATA
meeting in Prague (Nov 2010)
AIRBUS A330 FUEL SYSTEM
Oil In
Oil Out
Fuel Filter
FOHE
VSV
Actuators
Pressure
Drop& Spill
Valve
FMV
HP Fuel
Shut Off
Valve
HP
Strainer LP Pump
HP Pump
Fuel In
Burners
Flowmeter
Fuel Metering Valves Seized
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23
Strainer
Fuel Metering Unit
Main Engine Pump
LP Pump
AIRBUS FOUND MICRO SPHERES IN FUEL SYSTEM
Oil In
Oil Out
Fuel Filter
FOHE
VSV
Actuators
Pressure
Drop& Spill
Valve
FMV
HP Fuel
Shut Off
Valve
HP
Strainer LP Pump
HP Pump
Fuel In
Burners
Flowmeter
Fuel Metering Valves Seized
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24
Strainer
Fuel Metering Unit
Main Engine Pump
LP Pump
HK CIVIL AVIATION DEPARTMENT INTERIM REPORT
INTO CX 780 INCIDENT
Recommendation 2011-1
International Civil Aviation Organization to establish
requirements for oversight and quality control on
THE DRIVE FOR MORE REGULATION
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requirements for oversight and quality control on
aviation fuel supply at airports. Such requirements
should also cover the refuel operational procedures
and associated training for relevant personnel.
Chapter 1 Introduction and Management Systems
1.1 Introduction - purpose & background, overall roles
and fuel contamination
1.2. Safety and Quality Management
Chapter 2 General Fuel Requirements
2.1 Aviation turbine engine fuel (jet fuel)
2.2 Additives
2.3 Design Standards, and Commissioning/Maintenance Procedures
CIVIL AVIATION JET FUEL SUPPLY MANUAL - 9977
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2.3 Design Standards, and Commissioning/Maintenance Procedures
2.4 Sampling for Testing of Aviation Fuels
2.5 Laboratory Requirements
2.6 Documentation
2.7 Tests for Microbiological Growth
2.8 Training of personnel involved in fuel operations
2.9 Abnormal and Emergency Preparedness
2.10 Monitoring
2.11 Aviation fuel storage and handling systems
Chapter 3 Supply and Distribution Systems
3.1 General
3.2 Refinery - Quality Requirements
3.3 Pre-airport Supply and Distribution Facilities Quality
and Operations Considerations
3.4 Primary and Secondary Transport
Chapter 4 Airport Storage and Hydrant Systems
4.1 General
CIVIL AVIATION JET FUEL SUPPLY MANUAL - 9977
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4.1 General
4.2 Design, Construction and Maintenance
4.3 Aviation Product Quality & Other Technical Programme
Chapter 5 Into-Plane Provision
5.1 General
5.2 Quality control requirements.
5.3 Notification of Customers/Quality
5.4 Re-fuelling of Aircraft Fuel Quality Considerations
5.5 Fuelling vehicles - technical and filtration requirements
Letter to all Member States (192)
Montreal meeting with key stakeholders September 2012
Discussion within IATA on how to include in supply
ICAO MANUAL 9977 - IMPLEMENTATION
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Discussion within IATA on how to include in supply
contracts
Longer term it could be incorporated into an Annex
DEF STAN 91-91 Traceability more
comprehensive, greater clarity
EI 1530 more comprehensive, including
SUMMARY QA IS ABOUT STANDARDS AND OVERSIGHT
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EI 1530 more comprehensive, including
refineries, global application
ICAO 9977 increased global regulation and
oversight
IF LIFT IS A GIFT AND THRUST IS A
MUST,
WHAT IS FUEL?
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WHAT IS FUEL?
30
IF LIFT IS A GIFT AND THRUST IS A
MUST,
WHAT IS FUEL?
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WHAT IS FUEL?
31
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