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GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

1. A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "ing." T!e gerund form of "!e verb "read"
is "reading." #ou $an use a gerund as "!e sub%e$"& "!e $om'(emen"& or "!e ob%e$" of a
sen"en$e.
E)am'(es*
+ Reading !e('s you (earn Eng(is!. sub%e$" of sen"en$e
+ ,er favori"e !obby is reading. $om'(emen" of sen"en$e
+ I en%oy reading. ob%e$" of sen"en$e
Gerunds $an be made nega"ive by adding "no"."
E)am'(es*
+ ,e en%oys no" -or.ing.
+ T!e bes" "!ing for your !ea("! is no" smo.ing.
/. Infini"ives are "!e ""o" form of "!e verb. T!e infini"ive form of "(earn" is ""o (earn." #ou $an
a(so use an infini"ive as "!e sub%e$"& "!e $om'(emen"& or "!e ob%e$" of a sen"en$e.
E)am'(es*
+ To (earn is im'or"an". sub%e$" of sen"en$e
+ T!e mos" im'or"an" "!ing is "o (earn. $om'(emen" of sen"en$e
+ ,e -an"s "o (earn. ob%e$" of sen"en$e
Infini"ives $an be made nega"ive by adding "no"."
E)am'(es*
+ I de$ided no" "o go.
+ T!e mos" im'or"an" "!ing is no" "o give u'.
0. 1o"! gerunds and infini"ives $an be used as "!e sub%e$" or "!e $om'(emen" of a sen"en$e.
,o-ever& as sub%e$"s or $om'(emen"s& gerunds usua((y sound more (i.e norma(& s'o.en
Eng(is!& -!ereas infini"ives sound more abs"ra$". In "!e fo((o-ing sen"en$es& gerunds sound
more na"ura( and -ou(d be more $ommon in everyday Eng(is!. Infini"ives em'!asi2e "!e
'ossibi(i"y or 'o"en"ia( for some"!ing and sound more '!i(oso'!i$a(. If "!is sounds $onfusing&
%us" remember "!a" 345 of "!e "ime& you -i(( use a gerund as "!e sub%e$" or $om'(emen" of a
sen"en$e.
E)am'(es*
+ 6earning is im'or"an". norma( sub%e$"
+ To (earn is im'or"an". abs"ra$" sub%e$" (ess $ommon
+ T!e mos" im'or"an" "!ing is (earning. norma( $om'(emen"
+ T!e mos" im'or"an" "!ing is "o (earn. abs"ra$" $om'(emen" (ess $ommon
7. As "!e ob%e$" of a sen"en$e& i" is more diffi$u(" "o $!oose be"-een a gerund or an infini"ive.
In su$! si"ua"ions& gerunds and infini"ives are no" norma((y in"er$!angeab(e. Usua((y& "!e
main verb in "!e sen"en$e de"ermines -!e"!er you use a gerund or an infini"ive.
E)am'(es*
+ ,e en%oys s-imming. "En%oy" re8uires a gerund.
+ ,e -an"s "o s-im. "9an"" re8uires an infini"ive.
:. Some verbs are fo((o-ed by gerunds as ob%e$"s. 6is" of Verbs Fo((o-ed by Gerunds
E)am'(es*
+ S!e sugges"ed going "o a movie.
+ ;ary .ee's "a(.ing abou" !er 'rob(ems.
<. Some verbs are fo((o-ed by infini"ives. 6is" of Verbs Fo((o-ed by Infini"ives
E)am'(es*
+ S!e -an"s "o go "o a movie.
+ ;ary needs "o "a(. abou" !er 'rob(ems.
=. Gerunds $an of"en be modified -i"! 'ossessive forms su$! as !is& !er& i"s& your& "!eir& our&
>o!n?s& ;ary?s& "!e ma$!ine?s& and so on. T!is ma.es i" $(earer -!o or -!a" is 'erforming
"!e a$"ion.
E)am'(es*
+ I en%oyed "!eir singing. T!ey -ere singing.
+ S!e unders"ood !is saying no "o "!e offer. ,e said no.
+ Sam resen"ed Debbie?s $oming (a"e "o "!e dinner. Debbie $ame (a"e "o "!e dinner.
+ 9e dis$ussed "!e ma$!ine?s being bro.en. T!e ma$!ine is bro.en.
@. Some verbs are fo((o-ed by a noun '(us an infini"ive. In some si"ua"ions& "!e noun is
re8uired. In o"!er si"ua"ions& "!e noun is o'"iona(. 6is" of Verbs Fo((o-ed by a Noun A an
Infini"ive
E)am'(es*
+ T!e 'o(i$e ordered "!e man "o s"o'. noun is re8uired
+ S!e as.ed "o (eave. noun is o'"iona(
+ S!e as.ed !im "o (eave. noun is o'"iona(
3. Some verbs are usua((y fo((o-ed by a gerund& 1UT "!ey $an a(so be fo((o-ed by a noun
'(us infini"ive. Using a noun '(us infini"ive -i(( usua((y $!ange -!o is 'erforming "!e a$"ion.
6is" of Verbs fo((o-ed by a Gerund BR a Noun A Infini"ive
E)am'(es*
+ I advised "a.ing "!e "rain. in genera(
+ I advised !im "o "a.e "!e "rain. ,e -i(( "a.e "!e "rain.
14. T!ere are many "go A gerund" e)'ressions used for adven"ure s'or"s and individua(
re$rea"iona( a$"ivi"ies. 6is" of Go A Gerund Combina"ions
E)am'(es*
+ I go s-imming every -ee.end.
+ 9ou(d you ever go s.ydivingD
11. Gerunds are used af"er 're'osi"ions. ;os" $ommon(y& "!ese are "verb A 're'osi"ion"
$ombina"ions. For referen$e& see "!e Verb A Ere'osi"ion Di$"ionary and "!e E!rasa( Verb
Di$"ionary. #ou don?" !ave "o memori2e "!ese resour$es& you %us" need "o remember "!a"
gerunds are used af"er 're'osi"ionsF
E)am'(es*
+ T!ey admi""ed "o $ommi""ing "!e $rime.
+ 6es(ie made u' for forge""ing my bir"!day.
+ ,e is "!in.ing abou" s"udying abroad.
1/. Remember "!a" "!ere are many "ad%e$"ive A 're'osi"ion" $ombina"ions and "noun A
're'osi"ion" $ombina"ions in Eng(is! as -e((. T!ese are a(so fo((o-ed by gerunds. 6is" of
Ad%e$"ive A Ere'osi"ion Combina"ions Fo((o-ed by Gerunds and 6is" of Noun A Ere'osi"ion
Combina"ions Fo((o-ed by Gerunds. Bn$e again& you don?" !ave "o memori2e "!ese
resour$es& you %us" need "o remember "!a" gerunds are used af"er 're'osi"ionsF
E)am'(es*
+ Sandy is s$ared of f(ying. ad%e$"ive A 're'osi"ion
+ Ni$. is an)ious abou" "a.ing "!e e)amina"ion. ad%e$"ive A 're'osi"ion
+ ,is in"eres" in be$oming a 'rofessiona( sno-boarder -as -e(( .no-n. noun A
're'osi"ion
+ T!omas? s"ory abou" seeing a gri22(y bear -as rea((y e)$i"ing. noun A 're'osi"ion
10. Some verbs $an be fo((o-ed by a gerund or an infini"ive& bu" -i"! a differen$e in
meaning. 6is" of Verbs Fo((o-ed by a Gerund or Infini"ive GDifferen" ;eaningH
E)am'(es*
+ Nan$y remembered ge""ing married. Nan$y !as a memory of ge""ing married.
+ Fred remembered "o bring sunb(o$. "o "!e bea$!. Fred remembered "!a" !e needed "o
bring sunb(o$..
17. Some verbs $an be fo((o-ed by a gerund or an infini"ive -i"! (i""(e differen$e in meaning.
6is" of Verbs Fo((o-ed by a Gerund or Infini"ive GSimi(ar ;eaningH
E)am'(es*
+ S!e (i.es s-imming.
+ S!e (i.es "o s-im.
A("!oug! "!e differen$e in meaning is sma(( -i"! "!ese 'ar"i$u(ar verbs& and gerunds and
infini"ives $an of"en be used in"er$!angeab(y& "!ere is s"i(( a meaning differen$e. Using a
gerund sugges"s "!a" you are referring "o rea( a$"ivi"ies or e)'erien$es. Using an infini"ive
sugges"s "!a" you are "a(.ing abou" 'o"en"ia( or 'ossib(e a$"ivi"ies or e)'erien$es. 1e$ause
of "!is sma(( differen$e in meaning& gerunds and infini"ives $anno" a(-ays be used
in"er$!angeab(y& su$! as in "!e e)am'(es be(o-.
E)am'(es*
+ T!e 1ri"is! re'or"er (i.es (iving in Ne- #or.. ,e (ives in Ne- #or. and !e (i.es -!a" !e
e)'erien$es "!ere.
+ T!e 1ri"is! re'or"er (i.es "o (ive in Ne- #or. -!enever !e -or.s in "!e Uni"ed S"a"es. ,e
(i.es "!e o'"ion or 'ossibi(i"y of (iving in Ne- #or. -!en !e -or.s in "!e Uni"ed S"a"es.
+ I (i.e s'ea.ing Fren$! be$ause i"?s su$! a beau"ifu( (anguage. I (i.e "!e e)'erien$e of
s'ea.ing Fren$!& and "!e -ay i" ma.es me fee( -!en I s'ea. "!e (anguage.
+ I (i.e "o s'ea. Fren$! -!en I?m in Fran$e. I 'refer "!e o'"ion of s'ea.ing Fren$! -!en I
am in Fran$e.
1:. T!ere are many "be A ad%e$"ive" $ombina"ions "!a" are $ommon(y fo((o-ed by infini"ives.
6is" of 1e A Ad%e$"ive Combina"ions Fo((o-ed by Infini"ives
E)am'(es*
+ T!ey -ere an)ious "o begin.
+ S!e -as de(ig!"ed "o re$eive su$! good feedba$..
+ ,e is (u$.y "o !ave su$! good friends.
1<. T!ere are a(so many nouns "!a" are $ommon(y fo((o-ed by infini"ives. 6is" of Nouns
Fo((o-ed by Infini"ives
E)am'(es*
+ I" -as a good de$ision "o move "o San Fran$is$o.
+ ,is -is! "o be$ome an a$"or -as -e(( .no-n.
+ 6aura?s desire "o im'rove im'ressed me.
1=. Some"imes infini"ives are used "o e)'ress "!e idea of "in order "o do some"!ing."
E)am'(es*
+ ,e boug!" "!e Eng(is! di$"ionary "o (oo. u' diffi$u(" -ords. in order "o (oo. u'
+ >anine so(d !er $ar "o ge" "!e money "!a" s!e needed. in order "o ge"
+ >uan uses Eng(is!'age.$om "o (earn Eng(is!. in order "o (earn
T!is idea of "in order "o do some"!ing" is found in many Eng(is! 'a""erns.
"oo A ad%e$"iveIadverb A infini"ive
E)am'(es*
+ T!e bo) is "oo !eavy "o $arry.
+ T!e "e(evision is "oo e)'ensive "o buy.
+ Fiona ran "oo s(o-(y "o -in "!e ra$e.
+ 9e arrived "oo (a"e "o see "!e beginning of "!e movie.
ad%e$"iveIadverb A enoug! A infini"ive
E)am'(es*
+ S!e is "a(( enoug! "o rea$! "!e boo. on "!e s!e(f.
+ 1rian -as smar" enoug! "o en"er $o((ege a" "!e age of 1/.
+ 6inda runs 8ui$.(y enoug! "o -in "!e ra$e.
enoug! A nounGsH A infini"ive
E)am'(es*
+ ,e !as enoug! money "o buy !is o-n $ar.
+ C!ery( o-ns enoug! boo.s "o s"ar" !er o-n (ibraryF
+ Diane needs enoug! "ime "o finis! -ri"ing !er boo..
1@. Cer"ain e)'ressions are fo((o-ed by "ING" forms. 6is" of E)'ressions fo((o-ed by
VerbAing Forms
E)am'(es*
+ ,e !ad fun fis!ing.
+ T!ey !ad diffi$u("y finding a 'ar.ing '(a$e.
+ S!e s'en" !er "ime 'ra$"i$ing "!e 'iano.
13. Verbs -!i$! indi$a"e (o$a"ion $an of"en be fo((o-ed by "ING" forms. T!is 'a""ern is VER1
BF 6BCATIBN A 6BCATIBN A VER1AING. 6is" of Verbs of 6o$a"ion
E)am'(es*
+ Sara! s"ood a" "!e $orner -ai"ing for Tom.
+ ;e(issa (ay in bed "!in.ing abou" !er fu"ure.
+ Don $(ung "o "!e side of "!e $(iff (oo.ing do-n.
/4. In addi"ion "o sim'(e gerund and infini"ive forms& "!ere are 'rogressive gerund and
infini"ive forms& 'assive gerund and infini"ive forms and 'erfe$" gerund and infini"ive forms as
-e(( as $ombina"ions of "!ese forms. Erogressive forms are used "o em'!asi2e "!a" an
a$"ion is "a.ing '(a$e no-. Eassive forms are used "o em'!asi2e "!a" "!e sub%e$" of "!e
sen"en$e is being a$"ed u'on. Eerfe$" gerund and infini"ive forms are used "o em'!asi2e
$om'(e"ion in bo"! "!e 'as" and "!e fu"ure. S"udy "!e e)am'(es be(o- "o !e(' unders"and
"!ese $on$e'"s.
GERUND FBR;S INFINITIVE FBR;S
SI;E6E
T!e "ea$!er en%oys "ea$!ing.
T!e "ea$!er -an"s "o "ea$!.
ERBGRESSIVE
;r. Smi"! is rea((y en%oying "ea$!ing !is $(ass.
6oo.s "!e same as sim'(e form above.
;r. Smi"! -ou(d (i.e "o be "ea$!ing !is $(ass.
EASSIVE
T!e s"uden"s en%oy being "aug!".
T!e s"uden"s -an" "o be "aug!".
EERFECT
T!e re"ired "ea$!er re$a((ed !aving "aug!".
T!e "ea$!er -as e)'e$"ing "o !ave "aug!" "!a" a(ready.
EASSIVE A ERBGRESSIVE
T!e s"uden"s are en%oying being "aug!" by su$! an e)$i"ing ne- "ea$!er.
6oo.s "!e same as "!e 'assive form above.
T!e s"uden"s -ou(d (i.e "o be being "aug!" by ;r Smi"!.
EASSIVE A EERFECT
T!e o(der s"uden"s re$a((ed !aving been "aug!" "!a" a(ready.
T!e s"uden"s -ere e)'e$"ing "o !ave been "aug!" "!a" by no-.
on damand as soon as someone as.s you "o do some"!ingI
"a(en" s'o""er a 'erson -!o finds 'o"en"ia( s"ars for "!e fi(m& musi$ or s'or"s indus"ries
'rede$essor a 'erson -!o !e(d a 'osi"ion before someone e(se
s!o- off be!ave so as "o ge" a""en"ion or admira"ion for onese(f
ma.e a fuss 'ay a (o" of a""en"ion "o
-ardro'e a $o((e$"ion of $(o"!es
en"ourage a(( "!e 'eo(e -!o surround and fo((o- an im'or"an" 'erson
'ub(i$is" a 'erson -!ose business i" is "o bring some"!ing& es'e$ia((y 'rodu$"s& "o "!e
a""en"ion of "!e 'ub(i$