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ARTICLE V

SUFFRAGE
Section 1. Sufrage may be exercised by all
citizens of the Philippines not otherwise
disqualifed by law, who are at least eighteen
years of age, and who shall hae resided in the
Philippines for at least one year, and in the place
wherein they propose to ote, for at least six
months immediately preceding the election. !o
literacy, property, or other substantie
requirement shall be imposed on the exercise of
sufrage.
Section ". #he $ongress shall proide a system for
securing the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot as
well as a system for absentee oting by qualifed
%ilipinos abroad.
#he $ongress shall also design a procedure for the
disabled and the illiterates to ote without the
assistance of other persons. &ntil then, they shall
be allowed to ote under existing laws and such
rules as the $ommission on 'lections may
promulgate to protect the secrecy of the ballot.
()#*$+' ,*
THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
Section 1. #he legislatie power shall be ested in
the $ongress of the Philippines which shall consist
of a Senate and a -ouse of )epresentaties,
except to the extent resered to the people by the
proision on initiatie and referendum.
Section ". #he Senate shall be composed of
twenty.four Senators who shall be elected at large
by the qualifed oters of the Philippines, as may
be proided by law.
Section /. !o person shall be a Senator unless he
is a natural.born citizen of the Philippines and, on
the day of the election, is at least thirty.fe years
of age, able to read and write, a registered oter,
and a resident of the Philippines for not less than
two years immediately preceding the day of the
election.
Section 0. #he term of o1ce of the Senators shall
be six years and shall commence, unless
otherwise proided by law, at noon on the thirtieth
day of 2une next following their election. !o
Senator shall sere for more than two consecutie
terms. ,oluntary renunciation of the o1ce for any
length of time shall not be considered as an
interruption in the continuity of his serice for the
full term of which he was elected.
Section 3. 415 #he -ouse of )epresentaties shall
be composed of not more than two hundred and
ffty members, unless otherwise fxed by law, who
shall be elected from legislatie districts
apportioned among the proinces, cities, and the
6etropolitan 6anila area in accordance with the
number of their respectie inhabitants, and on the
basis of a uniform and progressie ratio, and
those who, as proided by law, shall be elected
through a party.list system of registered national,
regional, and sectoral parties or organizations.
4"5 #he party.list representaties shall constitute
twenty per centum of the total number of
representaties including those under the party
list. %or three consecutie terms after the
ratifcation of this $onstitution, one.half of the
seats allocated to party.list representaties shall
be flled, as proided by law, by selection or
election from the labor, peasant, urban poor,
indigenous cultural communities, women, youth,
and such other sectors as may be proided by
law, except the religious sector.
4/5 'ach legislatie district shall comprise, as far
as practicable, contiguous, compact, and ad7acent
territory. 'ach city with a population of at least
two hundred ffty thousand, or each proince,
shall hae at least one representatie.
405 8ithin three years following the return of
eery census, the $ongress shall ma9e a
reapportionment of legislatie districts based on
the standards proided in this section.
Section :. !o person shall be a 6ember of the
-ouse of )epresentaties unless he is a natural.
born citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of
the election, is at least twenty.fe years of age,
able to read and write, and, except the party.list
representaties, a registered oter in the district
in which he shall be elected, and a resident
thereof for a period of not less than one year
immediately preceding the day of the election.
Section ;. #he 6embers of the -ouse of
)epresentaties shall be elected for a term of
three years which shall begin, unless otherwise
proided by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of
2une next following their election. !o 6ember of
the -ouse of )epresentaties shall sere for more
than three consecutie terms. ,oluntary
renunciation of the o1ce for any length of time
shall not be considered as an interruption in the
continuity of his serice for the full term for which
he was elected.
Section <. &nless otherwise proided by law, the
regular election of the Senators and the 6embers
of the -ouse of )epresentaties shall be held on
the second 6onday of 6ay.
Section =. *n case of acancy in the Senate or in
the -ouse of )epresentaties, a special election
may be called to fll such acancy in the manner
prescribed by law, but the Senator or 6ember of
the -ouse of )epresentaties thus elected shall
sere only for the unexpired term.
Section 1>. #he salaries of Senators and 6embers
of the -ouse of )epresentaties shall be
determined by law. !o increase in said
compensation shall ta9e efect until after the
expiration of the full term of all the 6embers of
the Senate and the -ouse of )epresentaties
approing such increase.
Section 11. ( Senator or 6ember of the -ouse of
)epresentaties shall, in all ofenses punishable
by not more than six years imprisonment, be
priileged from arrest while the $ongress is in
session. !o 6ember shall be questioned nor be
held liable in any other place for any speech or
debate in the $ongress or in any committee
thereof.
Section 1". (ll 6embers of the Senate and the
-ouse of )epresentaties shall, upon assumption
of o1ce, ma9e a full disclosure of their fnancial
and business interests. #hey shall notify the
-ouse concerned of a potential con?ict of interest
that may arise from the fling of a proposed
legislation of which they are authors.
Section 1/. !o Senator or 6ember of the -ouse of
)epresentaties may hold any other o1ce or
employment in the @oernment, or any
subdiision, agency, or instrumentality thereof,
including goernment.owned or controlled
corporations or their subsidiaries, during his term
without forfeiting his seat. !either shall he be
appointed to any o1ce which may hae been
created or the emoluments thereof increased
during the term for which he was elected.
Section 10. !o Senator or 6ember of the -ouse of
)epresentaties may personally appear as
counsel before any court of 7ustice or before the
'lectoral #ribunals, or quasi.7udicial and other
administratie bodies. !either shall he, directly or
indirectly, be interested fnancially in any contract
with, or in any franchise or special priilege
granted by the @oernment, or any subdiision,
agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any
goernment.owned or controlled corporation, or
its subsidiary, during his term of o1ce. -e shall
not interene in any matter before any o1ce of
the @oernment for his pecuniary beneft or where
he may be called upon to act on account of his
o1ce.
Section 13. #he $ongress shall conene once
eery year on the fourth 6onday of 2uly for its
regular session, unless a diferent date is fxed by
law, and shall continue to be in session for such
number of days as it may determine until thirty
days before the opening of its next regular
session, exclusie of Saturdays, Sundays, and
legal holidays. #he President may call a special
session at any time.
S'$#*A! 1:. 415 #he Senate shall elect its
President and the -ouse of )epresentaties its
Spea9er, by a ma7ority ote of all its respectie
6embers.
'ach -ouse shall choose such other o1cers as it
may deem necessary.
4"5 ( ma7ority of each -ouse shall constitute a
quorum to do business, but a smaller number may
ad7ourn from day to day and may compel the
attendance of absent 6embers in such manner,
and under such penalties, as such -ouse may
proide.
4/5 'ach -ouse may determine the rules of its
proceedings, punish its 6embers for disorderly
behaior, and, with the concurrence of two.thirds
of all its 6embers, suspend or expel a 6ember. (
penalty of suspension, when imposed, shall not
exceed sixty days.
405 'ach -ouse shall 9eep a 2ournal of its
proceedings, and from time to time publish the
same, excepting such parts as may, in its
7udgment, afect national securityB and the yeas
and nays on any question shall, at the request of
one.ffth of the 6embers present, be entered in
the 2ournal.
'ach -ouse shall also 9eep a )ecord of its
proceedings.
435 !either -ouse during the sessions of the
$ongress shall, without the consent of the other,
ad7ourn for more than three days, nor to any other
place than that in which the two -ouses shall be
sitting.
S'$#*A! 1;. #he Senate and the -ouse of
)epresentaties shall each hae an 'lectoral
#ribunal, which shall be the sole 7udge of all
contests relating to the election, returns, and
qualifcations of their respectie 6embers. 'ach
'lectoral #ribunal shall be composed of nine
6embers, three of whom shall be 2ustices of the
Supreme $ourt to be designated by the $hief
2ustice, and the remaining six shall be 6embers of
the Senate or the -ouse of )epresentaties, as
the case may be, who shall be chosen on the
basis of proportional representation from the
political parties and the parties or organizations
registered under the party.list system represented
therein. #he senior 2ustice in the 'lectoral #ribunal
shall be its $hairman.
S'$#*A! 1<. #here shall be a $ommission on
(ppointments consisting of the President of the
Senate, as ex o1cio $hairman, twele Senators
and twele 6embers of the -ouse of
)epresentaties, elected by each -ouse on the
basis of proportional representation from the
political parties and parties or organizations
registered under the party.list system represented
therein. #he $hairman of the $ommission shall not
ote, except in case of a tie. #he $ommission shall
act on all appointments submitted to it within
thirty session days of the $ongress from their
submission. #he $ommission shall rule by a
ma7ority ote of all the 6embers.
S'$#*A! 1=. #he 'lectoral #ribunals and the
$ommission on (ppointments shall be constituted
within thirty days after the Senate and the -ouse
of )epresentaties shall hae been organized with
the election of the President and the Spea9er. #he
$ommission on (ppointments shall meet only
while the $ongress is in session, at the call of its
$hairman or a ma7ority of all its 6embers, to
discharge such powers and functions as are herein
conferred upon it.
S'$#*A! ">. #he records and boo9s of accounts of
the $ongress shall be presered and be open to
the public in accordance with law, and such boo9s
shall be audited by the $ommission on (udit
which shall publish annually an itemized list of
amounts paid to and expenses incurred for each
6ember.
S'$#*A! "1. #he Senate or the -ouse of
)epresentaties or any of its respectie
committees may conduct inquiries in aid of
legislation in accordance with its duly published
rules of procedure. #he rights of persons
appearing in or afected by such inquiries shall be
respected.
S'$#*A! "". #he heads of departments may upon
their own initiatie, with the consent of the
President, or upon the request of either -ouse, as
the rules of each -ouse shall proide, appear
before and be heard by such -ouse on any matter
pertaining to their departments. 8ritten questions
shall be submitted to the President of the Senate
or the Spea9er of the -ouse of )epresentaties at
least three days before their scheduled
appearance. *nterpellations shall not be limited to
written questions, but may coer matters related
thereto. 8hen the security of the State or the
public interest so requires and the President so
states in writing, the appearance shall be
conducted in executie session.
S'$#*A! "/. 415 #he $ongress, by a ote of two.
thirds of both -ouses in 7oint session assembled,
oting separately, shall hae the sole power to
declare the existence of a state of war.
4"5 *n times of war or other national emergency,
the $ongress may, by law, authorize the
President, for a limited period and sub7ect to such
restrictions as it may prescribe, to exercise
powers necessary and proper to carry out a
declared national policy. &nless sooner withdrawn
by resolution of the $ongress, such powers shall
cease upon the next ad7ournment thereof.
S'$#*A! "0. (ll appropriation, reenue or tarif
bills, bills authorizing increase of the public debt,
bills of local application, and priate bills shall
originate exclusiely in the -ouse of
)epresentaties, but the Senate may propose or
concur with amendments.
S'$#*A! "3. 415 #he $ongress may not increase
the appropriations recommended by the President
for the operation of the @oernment as specifed
in the budget. #he form, content, and manner of
preparation of the budget shall be prescribed by
law.
4"5 !o proision or enactment shall be embraced
in the general appropriations bill unless it relates
specifcally to some particular appropriation
therein. (ny such proision or enactment shall be
limited in its operation to the appropriation to
which it relates.
4/5 #he procedure in approing appropriations for
the $ongress shall strictly follow the procedure for
approing appropriations for other departments
and agencies.
405 ( special appropriations bill shall specify the
purpose for which it is intended, and shall be
supported by funds actually aailable as certifed
by the !ational #reasurer, or to be raised by a
corresponding reenue proposed therein.
435 !o law shall be passed authorizing any
transfer of appropriationsB howeer, the President,
the President of the Senate, the Spea9er of the
-ouse of )epresentaties, the $hief 2ustice of the
Supreme $ourt, and the heads of $onstitutional
$ommissions may, by law, be authorized to
augment any item in the general appropriations
law for their respectie o1ces from saings in
other items of their respectie appropriations.
4:5 Ciscretionary funds appropriated for particular
o1cials shall be disbursed only for public
purposes to be supported by appropriate ouchers
and sub7ect to such guidelines as may be
prescribed by law.
4;5 *f, by the end of any fscal year, the $ongress
shall hae failed to pass the general
appropriations bill for the ensuing fscal year, the
general appropriations law for the preceding fscal
year shall be deemed reenacted and shall remain
in force and efect until the general appropriations
bill is passed by the $ongress.
S'$#*A! ":. 415 'ery bill passed by the $ongress
shall embrace only one sub7ect which shall be
expressed in the title thereof.
4"5 !o bill passed by either -ouse shall become a
law unless it has passed three readings on
separate days, and printed copies thereof in its
fnal form hae been distributed to its 6embers
three days before its passage, except when the
President certifes to the necessity of its
immediate enactment to meet a public calamity
or emergency. &pon the last reading of a bill, no
amendment thereto shall be allowed, and the ote
thereon shall be ta9en immediately thereafter,
and the yeas and nays entered in the 2ournal.
S'$#*A! ";. 415 'ery bill passed by the $ongress
shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the
President. *f he approes the same, he shall sign
itB otherwise, he shall eto it and return the same
with his ob7ections to the -ouse where it
originated, which shall enter the ob7ections at
large in its 2ournal and proceed to reconsider it. *f,
after such reconsideration, two.thirds of all the
6embers of such -ouse shall agree to pass the
bill, it shall be sent, together with the ob7ections,
to the other -ouse by which it shall li9ewise be
reconsidered, and if approed by two.thirds of all
the 6embers of that -ouse, it shall become a law.
*n all such cases, the otes of each -ouse shall be
determined by yeas or nays, and the names of the
6embers oting for or against shall be entered in
its 2ournal. #he President shall communicate his
eto of any bill to the -ouse where it originated
within thirty days after the date of receipt thereofB
otherwise, it shall become a law as if he had
signed it.
4"5 #he President shall hae the power to eto any
particular item or items in an appropriation,
reenue, or tarif bill, but the eto shall not afect
the item or items to which he does not ob7ect.
S'$#*A! "<. 415 #he rule of taxation shall be
uniform and equitable. #he $ongress shall eole
a progressie system of taxation.
4"5 #he $ongress may, by law, authorize the
President to fx within specifed limits, and sub7ect
to such limitations and restrictions as it may
impose, tarif rates, import and export quotas,
tonnage and wharfage dues, and other duties or
imposts within the framewor9 of the national
deelopment program of the @oernment.
4/5 $haritable institutions, churches and
parsonages or conents appurtenant thereto,
mosques, non.proft cemeteries, and all lands,
buildings, and improements, actually, directly,
and exclusiely used for religious, charitable, or
educational purposes shall be exempt from
taxation.
405 !o law granting any tax exemption shall be
passed without the concurrence of a ma7ority of
all the 6embers of the $ongress.
S'$#*A! "=. 415 !o money shall be paid out of the
#reasury except in pursuance of an appropriation
made by law.
4"5 !o public money or property shall be
appropriated, applied, paid, or employed, directly
or indirectly, for the use, beneft, or support of any
sect, church, denomination, sectarian institution,
or system of religion, or of any priest, preacher,
minister, or other religious teacher, or dignitary as
such, except when such priest, preacher, minister,
or dignitary is assigned to the armed forces, or to
any penal institution, or goernment orphanage or
leprosarium.
4/5 (ll money collected on any tax leied for a
special purpose shall be treated as a special fund
and paid out for such purpose only. *f the purpose
for which a special fund was created has been
fulflled or abandoned, the balance, if any, shall be
transferred to the general funds of the
@oernment.
S'$#*A! />. !o law shall be passed increasing
the appellate 7urisdiction of the Supreme $ourt as
proided in this $onstitution without its adice
and concurrence.
S'$#*A! /1. !o law granting a title of royalty or
nobility shall be enacted.
S'$#*A! /". #he $ongress shall, as early as
possible, proide for a system of initiatie and
referendum, and the exceptions therefrom,
whereby the people can directly propose and
enact laws or approe or re7ect any act or law or
part thereof passed by the $ongress or local
legislatie body after the registration of a petition
therefor signed by at least ten per centum of the
total number of registered oters, of which eery
legislatie district must be represented by at least
three per centum of the registered oters thereof.