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During this week, we will do the wire bending on the teeth. It is the reverse from last
year where they did the wire bending exercise (on paper) first, before applying them on the
teeth (cast). But since the students didnt bring their instruments last week, so we will do the
exercise as homework after doing the wire bending on the teeth during the lab. This is due to
the limited time in this semester.
Today we are going to start the steps for the provisional partial denture. Also known as:-
1. Interim
2. Transitional
3. Temporary
4. Acrylic - as the provisional prosthesis is made up from acrylic. (Another material; the
stainless steel wire).
Stainless steel wire is made up from iron plus a variety of other elements. Its known as 18/8
stainless steel.
18 stands for 18% of chromium to reduce corrosion
8 stands for 8% of nickel
The remainder 74% is mainly iron as a basic material.
Chromium sacrifices itself to prevent corrosion. Form layer of chromium oxide on the surface
and protect the underlying iron. So that it doesnt rust inside the patients mouth.
Acrylic partial denture is actually made up of:-
1. Heat cure acrylic or Cold cure acrylic
2. Denture teeth which also from acrylic
3. Stainless steel wire
Meanwhile, metal framework partial denture can be made up of:-
1. Any cast dental alloy - Usually cobalt chromium or nickel chromium.
2. Heat or cold cure acrylic
3. Denture teeth
4. In some cases, we also have rod wire (e.g. stainless steel)
Generally, for this week lab, we will talk about:-
1. Provisional partial denture step (fabrication)
Before we make a partial denture, we actually have to draw a design first.
2. Block-out and surveying
In order to draw the design, we need to know the topography of the teeth and
the cast. We need to know shape of the cast. (surveying)
As a dentist, we cant just make the partial denture like the complete denture
(which goes in and out direction only).
Partial denture have undercut on the teeth itself and often in the soft tissue, or
bony undercut presence in the mouth.

Favourable Undercut
Help in retention for the denture
which depends on a great degree
on mechanical retention (wire
which goes around the teeth).
The wire will go into in undercut.
Below the maximum bulging of
the teeth.
Unfavourable Undercut
Prevent the insertion and
removal of the prosthesis
Usually on lingual surface
of the teeth
The problem is we cant just determine these undercut by simply looking at it by
eye. Need to use an instruments; dental surveyor. Which tell us wheres the
undercut is on the cast. These will be more accurate as the teeth have a very
small and tiny scale. Using eye estimation will not be so accurate.
Well also talk about block-out (blocking the undercut)
3. Wire bending principle
Well learn how to bend clasps using the stainless steel wire.
And also the exercises (on the paper sheet) which well do it as a homework.

The things we need during this week lab:-
Loop forming pliers.
Wire cutter
CD marker mark the undercuts and on the wire while youre working.

1. Take primary impression.
2. Pour the primary cast.
3. On the primary cast, we fabricate a custom tray.
The custom tray; slightly differs (from the complete denture). The spacer has a different
shape and the stopper at difference locations.
The thickness of spacer:-
i. Edentulous area : 1 layer thick
ii. Dentate area : 2 layers thick
Tray used is perforated type for the retention; as well going to use an elastic type
i. Alginate
ii. Silicone
iii. Polyether
iv. Polysulphide
4. Using this tray, in edentulous area we can do the border molding (just like in a complete
denture). Elsewhere we dont need to do it.
5. Take the final impression.
6. Pour up the final impression to fabricate the final cast. (stone secondary final cast)

p/s: well received either maxillary or mandibular final cast; Kennedy class 2 modification 1 to
work on with. There are mirror images of each other.

The next step in fabrication will be surveying. We need to know wheres the undercut is.

After determining where the unfavorable undercut are, we need to block-out these
unfavorable undercuts.
There are part of undercuts on the lingual surface which will prevent the insertion and
removal of the denture.
Remember that all teeth have undercut.
If the acrylic goes into the undercut, it will stick inside. We wont be able to get it out. Or
if we do able to get it out, we probably wont able to get it in again.

The block-out should not done too much as it will result in a too loose denture.
Determining where the unfavorable undercut is important; in order to block it out, so
that we have a single path of insertion and removal.
Block-out is done using a gypsum products usually dental plaster. (Dental stone also can
be use. Its doesnt matter)
Locate wheres the favourable
and unfavourable undercuts.
The area that needed to be blocked-out:-
i. Small area on the lingual part.
ii. Proximal part; mesially and distally

Its almost the mesial and distal surfaces are parallel to each other.

Never put the block-out in the area where we want to put the clasps. If these areas are blocked-
out, well lose our favorable undercut which mean well lose our retention.
On the other hand, we also can mark and locate the favorable undercut which is on the outside
(labial surface) where were going to put our clasps.
P/s: we said that favorable undercut is considered on the labial surface; meanwhile the
unfavorable undercut is on the lingual surface. Actually, its not a general rule. Sometimes we
reverse them (favorable is on lingual and unfavorable on the labial). But just for this lab, well
Favorable undercut = labial surface
Unfavorable undercut = lingual surface and proximal surface

To sum up everything; when doing the surveying (locate favorable and unfavorable undercut),
we will also mark a line on the teeth to indicate the maximum convexity of the teeth. After the
surveying, well blocked-out the unfavorable undercut. Finally, now we are ready to do the wire
bending (final thing that we do during this week). After the wire is in its place, well need the
base plate and the teeth. So well do the waxes shape, and setting the teeth (these will be done
during another week). After the teeth are in its place, were going to process the denture in a
similar technique as a complete denture (flasking, packing, and curing). Well end up with a
mold that is packed and give us an acrylic denture.

Purposes of dental surveyor: -
i. To determine the path of insertion and the path of removal of the prosthesis. (main
ii. To locate the favorable undercut and unfavorable undercut. so we need to mark the
area of maximum convexity of the teeth.
Dental surveying
Wire bending
Waxes shape (for the
base plate)
Setting the teeth
Processing the partial
denture just like the
complete denture.
Except they have less teeth

A = Vertical arm
Can go up and down to adapt to the cast.

B = Horizontal arm
It is adjustable and can be rotate.

C = Vertical mandrel where the surveying tools are attached.
Also can go up and down.
It is spring loaded.
The chuck of this mandrel is similar to the chuck on a hand piece.

D = Surveying instruments/surveying tools.

E = Universal table Has three projections to hold the cast.
Free movement in 3 dimensions.
Have a tilt anterior posterior, right left or any combination between them.
If the table is tilt to the front; the denture is going to come in from the back.
If the table is tilt to the back; the denture coming in from the front.
If the table is tilt to the patients left; the denture coming in from the patients
(No need to understand that much so far because actually during this lab well
going to work almost entirely at 0 tilt. Well learn much more about it later)

F = Base at the bottom. Its attached to two things.
Universal table
Surveying apparatus which is A, B, C.

There is no cutting involve. The instrument is used to determine where the undercut is, to
shape and so on.

Analyzing rod

Make no marks and no measurements.
Its only a reference line. (acts just like a ruler)
Represent the path of removal and insertion. The
direction of the analyzing rod is the direction of
removal and insertion of prosthesis. (This is done after
we get the correct tilt which were not going to do it
for this lab as well going to use 0 tilt.)
A = part that held to the mandrel
B = vertical part that we used to analyze.

Graphite Marker

Itll mark or draw on the teeth. (survey line)
Designed to draw at the side, not at the tip of the end.
(it draws around the side of the tooth)
It supposes to draw two lines; draws on the teeth
which represent the maximum convexity. And also
draw on the gingival. (Refer the figure on how it was
In case of unfavorable undercuts, any region between
the two lines should be blocked-out. Or in other word,
any area below the maximum convexity line, should
be blocked-out.
A = metal sheath so that the graphite wont break.
B = graphite marker just like a pencil.

Undercut gauge

Used to measure the undercuts.
Looks like analyzing rod but it has something like a
disc at the end of it.
Each one measures at a different depth.
1 arrow : 0.25mm
2 arrows : 0.50mm
3 arrows : 0.75mm

Wax/plaster Trimmer (chisel)

Use to trim any excess of plaster during block-out
A = cut at the end
B = cut at the side

Some dental surveyors are more advanced which we can attach hand piece to them. So were
able to use burs to trim things on the cast. Well learn them in more advanced dentistry when
we want to make things very parallel in the metal (for special attachment). We actually do the
milling process. -just be aware with it but its no need for us to know it now.

Analysing Rod Graphite Marker
Undercut Gauge Wax trimmer
Where are we going to put the clasps? At the maximum convexity or in the middle or down by
the gums? Actually it is a little bit more complicated than that. Dr. Esam wants us to revise our
dental material.
We never put the clasps touching the gum because of:-
Hygienic reasons if the clasps is tend to get closer to the gingival, it will form a food
trap and so it is hygienically unacceptable.
Traumatic reasons acrylic partial denture is almost always tissue supported. When the
patients bite down, the clasps will start to traumatizing the gingiva (as there is no hard
material preventing the denture from going down to the tissue)
Keep in mind that we need to put the clasps at least 1mm above the gingiva.
Well going to put the wire in the undercuts. And the wire comes in different dimensions. The
wire that well use today is a stainless steel wire called wrought wire. Wrought wire is flexible
and its flexibility depends on:-
From measurements and experience, we know that each type of wire should go in a specific
depth of undercuts (cant simply say that its in the middle or top or below). We have to know
where our wire going to be (maybe by experience). Theoretically, 0.7mm or 0.8mm wrought
wire should be place in 0.5mm undercut (the one that we used in the lab). There is other type
of wire which should be place in 0.25mm undercut or even in 0.75mm undercuts. These claspss
location is depends on the wires:-

By using undercut gauge, we can measure the depth of the undercuts in a horizontal way (from
the rod of the undercut gauge to the surface of tooth. Refer to the picture for better
understanding). Below is a picture representing undercut gauge and its length at the end of it .

Remember that these undercut gauge measures in millimeter (mm) not centimeter (cm).
We want to know how much the undercut below the survey line/equatorial line. We measure
the undercuts in a horizontal way (from the rod of the undercut gauge to the surface of tooth.
Refer to the picture for better understanding). its a depth measurement. Not the length.

Essentially, we move the surveying arm (up and down movement) until it touches the tooth.
Then, we raise the surveying arm slowly until it touches the tooth from below. Just like the
picture above.

After measure it up using the undercut gauge, as were going to place the clasp on the 0.5mm
undercut, well make a mark along the tooth (refer the figure above). This line will be our
reference to bend the wire. Also, this will be our favorable undercut is which we place a clasp
onto it. On the other hand, at the other side (lingual side), well going to have unfavorable
undercut. So we need to block them up.
The unfavorable undercut that we blocked-out with plaster actually will be excessive. So we
need to trim them up. Generally, the things we do during trimming are as figure below:-

Final result, the plaster that applies proximally, on the mesial and distal surface will be parallel
to each other (which are parallel to the path of insertion and removal). Parallelism is important
for easy insertion and removal of prosthesis. When the acrylic denture comes in into the space,
it will fit; can be move in and out but with a space in the area of block-out.

So, again, the plaster in the final denture will become a space. If we put too much plaster,
retention of the denture will be compromised. (It shouldnt be more and it shouldnt be less).
Finally Dr Esam start the demo.
Before we do the surveying, marking, blocking, trimming n so on well draw first the outline of
the denture on the cast. Well not draw on the teeth yet, but it will be on the soft tissues. The
denture outline will have:-
Flange like a complete denture.
Then the outline will going to the hamular notch.
Include the 1
molar, meanwhile the 2
molar is not included in the design. so well
draw a line (outline) between the 1
and 2
Posterior border doesnt have to be at the vibrating line. It can be further forward (as
there are no peripheral seal in this case). If we can reach it, reach it. But if we cant, its
When we cross the gingiva and cross the midline, it should be at right angle. There is
area that is irritable and we need to cross them in a right angle as possible.

Dont need to go to the full depth of the sulcus. Our objective is static and stability.
Dont need to go to the full depth.
So now we have our acrylic border.
For an upper cast; we need to use the lecron carver to scribe a 0.5mm line at the posterior part
where the outline is draw. Its called a bead line. Its advantages are similar to the post dam in a
complete denture.

For the lower cast, the design is slightly different. We dont have the palate but we have the
lingual area. So, the outline includes:-
2/3 of the height of retromolar pad (sulcus area). labial and lingual flange. Dont need
to go through the full depth of sulcus.
Approximately all the retromolar pad is included.
At the bounded area; draw line from the sulcus up to the distal surface of the premolar.
Go up with the frenum
Mesial surface of the molar.
On the lingual; include the lingual sulcus and then do the lingual flange.


We need to understand that the outline is draw after the dental surveying. The reason were
doing this because were already know the design and its just to have a basic idea of where are
we working.

Now, Dr. Esam starts to do the demo for dental surveying. Dental surveyor is a very expensive
instrument. (It cost between 1500 - 2000). Have different types simpler one are less
expensive. BEGO Its German company and also a very well-known company for alloys and
dental instruments.
[Ill just list them up as we had discuss them before]
1. Attach the cast to the table tighten up the screws projection to hold the cast so that
they dont move. (One of the 3 projections is adjustable).

2. Attach the analyzing rod to the vertical mandrel and do the analysis. (Well not going to
use this much as were working on a 0 tilt just take a look where the undercut is).

3. Mark the maximum convexity using the carbon/graphite marker. Usually we only mark
on the teeth that are involved in the design but Dr. Esam told us its better to mark
everything. (we even can mark the undercut on the bone and on the soft tissue). Its
suppose to draw two lines.
I. On the teeth which is the maximum convexity
II. On the gingival

In order to this, graphite marker must have a good shape; bevel at the end.
Space between the two lines is blocked-out.

4. Measure where is the 0.5mm undercut is. Well going to put a clasp on premolar,
canine and molar. So, well measure the undercut at these areas.

The disc of the undercut gauge will make a very small scratch which will be in between
the survey line and the gingival line. And well going to put the clasp on the favorable
undercut here (half way between the survey line and the gingival). facial premolar,
facial canine and facial molar.

5. Do the block-out. Ideally we need to soak the cast in water but the problem is the cast
will become weak. Why? Because with plaster, we want to add gypsum product to a
gypsum product. Its a good idea to have cast saturated with water because it will stick
better. Moreover, if the gypsum cast is dry, it will suck the water from the new gypsum
plaster (block-out material). So the new gypsum plaster will become dry and it wont set
correctly. To save time, well just moisten the area where we want to add the plaster,
just a small amount of water. Well do block out at the lingual and proximal area.

Dr Esam used tera alba/slurry water to accelerate the setting time. Slurry water is just
like a super saturated solution of calcium sulphate.
By using the lecron carver, well approximately put the material that we mix (plaster
powder + water + slurry water) on the unfavorable undercut.
I. Mesial of molar
II. Lingual of molar
III. Distal of canine
IV. Lingual of canine
V. Distal of premolar
VI. Lingual of premolar
VII. Lingual of anterior optional
There should be no block out on the occlusal and facial surface. We can use water to
smooth it down. When we look from the top, it should look almost vertical. We can
remove pretty much the excess using the lecron carver. We wont know exactly how
much to put the block-out and thats why we do the trimming on the surveyor. Before
that, make sure the plaster is set enough. If not it will fall off when we do the trimming.

6. Trim away the excess using chisel. bevel shape.
I. Longer surface is toward the tooth.
II. Shorter surface is away from the tooth.

By touching the maximum convexity then it will start to cut when we brought the chisel
all around the tooth. Its almost like an analyzing rod which cut.
7. Now were ready to do the wire bending.

Its good idea before we start to know where the wires were going to go. The wrought wire has
two parts.

Retentive arm
They're exposed. It's
part of prosthesis
which keep the
denture in place.
Will go into the 0.5mm
undercut (we've
discuse it earlier)
Tag Buried in the acrylic.

Let see where are these wire going to go.
Upper cast:-
1. Start from the mesiofacial margin but not from the contact area.
2. Then follow the contour of the tooth, like the survey line which called C-clasp. (but for
the molar its a bit longer. So its more like a U ).
3. On the proximal, it will go half way of the gingival and occlusal. (0.5mm undercut)
4. Then it will go down onto the palate. we want it to go to area that is thick in acrylic. Its
need to be about 1.5cm long for aided in retention.
Lower cast:-
1. Just like the upper. Mesiofacial margin then to the proximal.
2. Then go down and bend it toward the edentulous area. Stay away from the bottom of
sulcus so that the wire still embedded inside the acrylic. (we can make the L-bend at the
end of wire but its not essential as we have enough length there to keep them in place)
Some notes about the wire:-
Theres something called an occlusally approaching or suprabulge clasp.
And also something called gingivally approaching or infrabulge clasp. (dont worry about
The type of clasp that were bending today is called occlusally approaching/suprabulge
The wires that we going to use for wrought wire clasp is 0.7mm or 0.8mm in diameter.
Usually in prosthodontic well use 0.8mm.

When we pour an alloy, we make it very hard. If we make the metal into liquid, the
atoms are in different areas. (Theyre all constantly moving). When the metal is cool down,
each atom will bond with another atom and will start forming a lattice (crystalline structure).
In metal, a metal crystalline is called grain. Sometimes these grains are large and
sometimes small. But they have a very significance effect on the mechanical properties of the
Cast Metal Wrought Metal

Cant be bending, very rigid and not
Should be at 0.25mm undercut.
because it is more rigid. If we put it in a
deeper undercut, it is not flexible
enough to get in and out.
Should be at 0.5mm undercut. as it is
more flexible, we can go in deeper
Wrought wire gold is used in 0.75mm
undercut. more flexible than stainless
Gingivally approaching cast clasp can
also be place in 0.5mm undercut.
Occlusally approaching wrought wire
clasp is put in 0.5mm undercut.

If the metal is left to cool down slowly,
well give the change for the crystal to
become very big.
Atoms are in different direction than
the other one. So, they act slightly

The cast alloy is processed (press and
squeeze), so that the thickness of the
cast alloy becomes a thickness of
wrought alloy which is very thin.
The grains become very narrow, very
thin and very long fiber. 1
grain=several meters long.
If we take this metal (when its cool
down with those large crystals) and try
to bend it, each crystal will separate
from a longer line which will form a
fault line. Finally it will crack. (Itll bend
a little bit but it will fail soon and itll
It doesnt have much plasticity and
elasticity. relatively a brittle material.
Wrought wire is elastic.
The problem: when we bend the wire,
we have changed the line of grain. If
we bend it twice, the fiber will bend
even more. Now it is less flexible and
more brittle.
This information important for the wire
bending. Produce a minimum number
of bends (basic principle in wire
bending). We dont want the clasp to
become brittle when inserted into the
patients mouth.

Making a clasp, we should have:-
1. Loop forming pliers good one should have beads 2 cm long. Handle about 10cm.
2. Marker
3. Heavy duty wire cutters
Some pliers can use for many types of bend and some have very specific purpose. The types
that we use in dentistry are generally versatile. Orthodontics uses much more pliers than
prosthodontics. Pliers which can produce all of the bends that we need:-

But the pliers dont do the works. Need to use our thumbs and finger instead. -only use the
pliers edge and were the one who bend it to the edge.
Adams pliers/universal pliers
two pyramidal beads.
produce a 90 bend.
design by an orthodontist known as Philips Adam.
we'll use them alot during the 4th year.
Loop forming pliers
one bead pyramidal and one bead conical.
bends wire towards the cone=curve
bends wire toward pyramide = 90 angle.
very flexible instruments.
1. Working with a comfortable piece of wire.
a. Cut the wire into sections. If it too short, we wont able to control it (difficult to bend). If
it too long, it will keep hitting the unwanted area. For clasps, we need about 8-12cm.
How to cut?
i. By holding both sections of the wire with fingers. Usually well cut towards the joint
(of wire cutter).
ii. Pointed it towards the floor.
iii. Cover with something lab coat, paper towel and etc.
b. Its almost always curve as it is sold in a large coils. Rarely comes in a straight form. Its
always better to start with a straight wire. The straighter the wire, the easier itll be.
i. Bend the wires in the direction opposite to the curve. Use a correct plane so that we
can see the curve.
ii. Keep in mind the three dimensions (3D) of where the curve is going.

2. Use the edge of pliers and our hand to do the bending. Some of us will try to bend the wire
on the cast. It wont work. It will scratch the cast. We only bend the wire with the pliers and
our thumbs and fingers only.
If it doesnt marked deep groove in your thumb when youre done, you didnt do the
bending correctly orthodontics professor.

3. The tips of the wire (the tip at the beginning) should not touch the adjacent tooth. At least a
millimeter away from the adjacent tooth. Any excess during bending, we can cut it out later.

4. Bends the wire following the contour of the survey line; touching the tooth. The clasp only
touches the mouth in two places:-
a. Favorable undercut on the facial
b. Tip at the end of the clasp. Tip of the tag. prevent wire from going down leaving no
space between the wire and the palate during packing (which has heavy pressure).

Means; when bending the c- clasp (occlusally approaching wrought wire), it will go touching
around the tooth. Proximally , when it reach the distofacial line angle (premolar for
example), it will go away from the tooth by 0.5mm or 1mm but parallel to the tooth.
Occlusalgingivally it will fit at 0.5mm undercuts. When it reaches the distolingual corner of
the tooth, its going to bend down to adapt to the patients mouth. Before it touches the
palate or edentulous ridge, there must be 1mm space between the palate and the wire. The
reasons are:-
We want the wire to be sandwiched within the acrylic so that the wire will not come
out during function. We also dont want too much space in between them because
this will make the acrylic become too thick.
Proximally we also have space so that in acrylic denture well not scratching the wire
when there is need to do the trimming. But at the same time, we cant make the
space too far away as it can interfere the adjacent tooth which were going to set.
Dr Esam starts showing us the way to bend the wire. (Premolar is used during demo. Premolar
and canine quite similar)
Most valuable aid when bending wire; mark where we want to bend.
The first thing we want to do is make a curve. Two ways to do it:-
i. Hold the tip of wire around the broad part of the conical bead. Using a thumb at
one end, and then bend round. One quick bend and the wire look smooth and
still flexible.
ii. Make many small bends. But the problem is well make sharp edges.
After done with the bend, well get small c-shape. Well check the adaptation on the
facial surface of tooth.
Once we take a reference on the cast at the tip, dont change it. Each bend will change
the wire after that.
We bend then check, bend again then check again. If we suddenly make a mistake and
the clasp becomes non adapted, the mistake was at the last bend. So, go back to the last
bend we made and make it straight again. We should always go back and check on the
cast. If mistake happen, dont keep going.
Mark the last point which is in contact with the tooth using sharp tip CD marker. So that
we know where to bend next. In case we were at the distofacial line angle of the
premolar, we need a space 0.5 mm here. So, well mark just a hair away from the tooth
in order to have a little bit space between the wire and the tooth.
If we want to bend exactly at the points that we marked, grasp the wire just a 1\10
millimeter before the point. If we grasp the wire exactly on the marked point, the bend
will happen after that point.
In case of our curve is too small, widened them by placing the pyramidal inside the
curve and the conical outside it. Then press and it will widen up.

For the retention of the clasp, at the end of the tag, we can do either zigzag shape or
just L shape bend toward the cast. But the more the bends, the more complicated it
is. (In lab we do the L-shape).

For the molar, the difference is; molar will have u-shape clasp rather than c-shape,
which means one bend is not enough. make a series of bends. So on the molar; well
have a curve then a straight line then a curve again.
In lower, wire bending is more challenging because the angle of the wire is more
difficult (in the tag). in the palate it is more horizontal but in the lower, the wire goes
straight down. Be careful not to reach to the bottom of the sulcus or beyond the border
of the denture. (Thats why we do the outline in the first place).
The easiest to do the wire bending is on the premolar canine molar the hardest.

When finish with the bending, put the utility wax at the tip end of the tag. Use small
amount just to keep them in place.

-the end-
Sorry for any mistake and good luck!