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Guide to

Single Point Moorings


Dr. Ir. Johan Wichers
2






















































Copyright WMooring 2013
All rights reserved.
Rev July 2013















Dr. Ir. Johan Wichers (1941-2012)

Preface:

Dr. Wichers devoted most of his life to working in research in the offshore industry. During his 40+
years of experience he was involved in the development of many different aspects in the offshore
industry. Over the last 10-years he was working on writing a book to share all the experience he had
gained during his career. He wanted to create a book that would show all the different aspect of the
industry and be a guide for new engineers to create the same enthusiasm and excitement Dr. Wichers
had for his work. Dr. Wichers passed away before he could finalize his book. However, most of the
work was complete. This book was compiled from the available work.












Disclaimer:
Although Dr. Wichers was very meticulous about his work, some errors might be present in this book.
Anything used from this book should be checked with other sources. If you have any comments on this
book, please contact info@wmooring.com.
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CONTENTS


1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 13
2 THE OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN PERSPECTIVE ................................ 13
2.1 Existence of oil and gas offshore and their reserves ................................................................. 13
2.2 Definitions of oil and gas and market prices ............................................................................. 16
2.3 Oil/gas production ..................................................................................................................... 16
2.4 Oil/gas consumption .................................................................................................................. 19
2.5 The present and future gas/oil reservoirs offshore .................................................................... 21
3 HISTORY OF THE TYPES OF MOORING SYSTEMS ................................................... 23
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 23
3.2 Passive weathervaning mooring systems .................................................................................. 24
3.3 The original integrated mooring, the CALM and SALM system ............................................. 27
3.4 The soft yoke system ................................................................................................................. 30
3.5 The external and internal turret ................................................................................................. 32
3.5.1 External turret ................................................................................................................ 32
3.5.2 Internal turret ................................................................................................................. 34
3.6 The RTM system ....................................................................................................................... 34
3.7 The BTM system ....................................................................................................................... 35
3.8 Spread mooring ......................................................................................................................... 36
3.9 Hawser moored FPSO's ............................................................................................................. 37
4 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FPSO'S .......................................................................... 39
4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 39
4.2 Basic characteristics of FPSO's ................................................................................................. 39
4.3 Advantages and disadvantages with regard to other floaters .................................................... 40
5 FPSO TERMINOLOGY ........................................................................................................ 42
5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 42
5.2 Turret: general ........................................................................................................................... 43
5.3 Chain table, chain hawse pipe and anchor chain pull-in arrangement ...................................... 46
5.4 Turret: axial swivel/toroidal swivels and sealing system .......................................................... 51
5.5 Turret: swivel stack ................................................................................................................... 54
5.6 Turret: internal and external turret bearing types (slewing and wheeled bearing) .................... 57
5.7 FPSO terminology Subsea architecture..................................................................................... 62
5.8 Storage and off-loading ............................................................................................................. 63
6 FPSO DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ................................................................................... 66
6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 66
6.2 FPSO design considerations ...................................................................................................... 66
6.3 Safety considerations................................................................................................................. 68
6.4 Interface considerations ............................................................................................................. 69
6.5 Design interface topsides-deck.................................................................................................. 69
6.6 International regulations/classification ..................................................................................... 71
7 WEATHER CONDITIONS ................................................................................................... 72
8 CURRENT ............................................................................................................................... 74
8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 74
8.2 The detailed treatment of the current types ............................................................................... 75
8.2.1 The wind-generated current or storm-driven current and the tidal current ................... 75

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8.2.2 Ocean currents (equatorial current, Gulf Stream, loop current) ................................... 76
8.2.3 River current which is a freshwater surface stream ...................................................... 80
8.2.4 Eddy current ................................................................................................................. 80
8.2.5 Soliton current .............................................................................................................. 82
8.2.6 Current variations due to interaction with topography ................................................. 82
8.2.7 Bottom currents or subsurface jets ............................................................................... 85
8.2.8 Turbidity current ........................................................................................................... 85
8.2.9 Current due to second order wave effects .................................................................... 85
8.2.10 Current due to air pressure. .......................................................................................... 86
8.3 General remark on current measurements ................................................................................ 86
8.4 Current forces ........................................................................................................................... 86
8.5 References ................................................................................................................................ 86
9 WIND ....................................................................................................................................... 87
9.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 87
9.2 Wind forces .............................................................................................................................. 89
9.3 Wind spectra ............................................................................................................................. 90
9.3.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 90
9.3.2 Harris-DnV (Ref. [9-2] and Ref. [9-3]) ........................................................................ 91
9.3.3 Ochi-Shin (Ref. [9-4]) .................................................................................................. 92
9.3.4 Modified Harris or Wills wind spectrum (Ref. [9-6]) .................................................. 94
9.3.5 API-1990 (Ref. [9-7]) ................................................................................................... 94
9.3.6 NPD Wind (Ref. [9-8]) ................................................................................................. 95
9.4 Vertical distribution of wind speed .......................................................................................... 97
9.4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 97
9.4.2 Bretschneider (Ref. [9-9]) ............................................................................................ 97
9.4.3 DnV (Ref. [9-3]) ........................................................................................................... 98
9.4.4 API-PR2A (Ref. [9-7]) ................................................................................................. 99
9.4.5 NPD (Ref. [9-8]) ......................................................................................................... 100
9.4.6 Spatial coherence ........................................................................................................ 102
9.5 Wind squall ............................................................................................................................. 102
9.6 Wind force spectrum .............................................................................................................. 106
9.6.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 106
9.6.2 Time domain analysis (Ref. [9-11]) ........................................................................... 106
9.6.3 Frequency domain analysis (Ref. [9-11] .................................................................... 106
9.7 References .............................................................................................................................. 109
10 WAVES ................................................................................................................................. 111
10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 111
10.2 Properties of regular waves according linear wave theory ..................................................... 113
10.3 Single peaked wave spectra .................................................................................................... 116
10.3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 116
10.3.2 Neumann spectrum (1954) ......................................................................................... 118
10.3.3 Fisher and Roll spectrum (1956) ................................................................................ 118
10.3.4 Darbyshire spectrum (1957) ....................................................................................... 119
10.3.5 Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum (or ISSC or Bretschneider-1964) Ref. [10-2] ............. 119
10.3.6 JONSWAP spectrum (1973) ...................................................................................... 120
10.3.7 TMA spectrum, see Ref.[10-4] ................................................................................... 123
10.3.8 Swell spectrum ........................................................................................................... 124
10.4 Double peaked wave spectra .................................................................................................. 124
10.4.1 Swell and wind wave spectra ..................................................................................... 124



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10.4.2 Ochi-Hubble spectrum (1976) ..................................................................................... 125
10.5 Wave group spectra related to the wave spectra ..................................................................... 126
10.6 Wave scatter diagram .............................................................................................................. 134
10.7 Shallow water waves ............................................................................................................... 137
10.7.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 137
10.7.2 Properties of regular waves according linear wave theory ......................................... 138
10.7.3 Shallow water wave spectra ........................................................................................ 141
10.7.4 Set-down ..................................................................................................................... 144
10.8 Shoaling, refraction and diffraction ........................................................................................ 144
10.8.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 144
10.8.2 Shoaling ....................................................................................................................... 145
10.8.3 Refraction .................................................................................................................... 145
10.8.4 Diffraction ................................................................................................................... 146
10.9 Multi-directional wave spectra ................................................................................................ 146
10.10 References ............................................................................................................................... 148
11 HURRICANE CONDITIONS ............................................................................................. 150
11.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 150
11.2 Hurricane events ...................................................................................................................... 152
11.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 152
11.2.2 Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale .................................................................................. 153
11.2.3 Development of a hurricane ........................................................................................ 153
11.2.4 Extreme local wave slopes .......................................................................................... 155
11.2.5 Zimmerman Hurricane Design Scale .......................................................................... 159
11.3 References ............................................................................................................................... 160
12 WAVE SIMULATION ......................................................................................................... 161
12.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 161
12.2 Simulation of wave profile from wave spectrum .................................................................... 161
12.3 Wave crest kinematics ............................................................................................................. 162
12.3.1 Linear theory and stretching ........................................................................................ 162
12.3.2 Nonlinear wave theories .............................................................................................. 164
12.4 Maximum wave height ............................................................................................................ 165
12.5 References ............................................................................................................................... 165
13 MOORING ELEMENTS ..................................................................................................... 167
13.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 167
13.2 General formulae for catenary lines ........................................................................................ 168
13.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 168
13.2.2 General formulae for catenary lines ............................................................................ 168
13.2.3 An examples for Case I and II ..................................................................................... 170
13.3 Mooring lines in deepwater ..................................................................................................... 171
13.4 Library of particulars of steel wire ropes ................................................................................ 174
13.4.1 Introduction to steel wire ropes ................................................................................... 174
13.4.2 Properties of conventional steel wire ropes ................................................................. 174
13.4.3 Properties of spiral strand steel wire ropes.................................................................. 182
13.4.4 Terminal attachments .................................................................................................. 184
13.5 Library of particulars of synthetic ropes ................................................................................. 193
13.5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 193
13.5.2 Properties of synthetic ropes ....................................................................................... 195

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13.5.3 Summary of the properties of synthetic ropes ............................................................ 200
13.6 Mass, displacement, material density and axial stiffness for synthetic and steel wires ......... 205
13.7 Library of particulars of chains .............................................................................................. 206
13.7.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 206
13.7.2 Properties of chains .................................................................................................... 207
13.7.3 Fatigue of chains in relation to steel wire ropes ......................................................... 210
13.7.4 Corrosion/wear allowance of chain ............................................................................ 210
13.8 Safety factors .......................................................................................................................... 210
13.9 References .............................................................................................................................. 212
14 RISERS .................................................................................................................................. 214
14.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 214
14.2 Flexible risers ......................................................................................................................... 215
14.3 Steel catenary risers ................................................................................................................ 218
14.4 Riser systems in shallow water ............................................................................................... 219
14.5 Riser systems in intermediate water depth ............................................................................. 221
14.6 Riser systems in deep water ................................................................................................... 222
14.7 References .............................................................................................................................. 226
15 HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES ON SLENDER BODIES ................................................. 227
15.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 227
15.2 Hydrodynamic forces on circular cylindrical slender members in a stationary flow ............. 227
15.3 Hydrodynamic forces on non-cylindrical slender members in a stationary flow ................... 233
15.4 Hydrodynamic forces on a circular cylindrical slender member in a non-stationary flow .... 237
15.5 References .............................................................................................................................. 243
16 RISER ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................... 245
16.1 Computation method according to lumped mass model ........................................................ 245
16.2 Hydrodynamic loads on an inclined member moving in waves ............................................. 247
16.3 Coefficients for friction on the seabed ................................................................................... 250
16.4 Example of large scale tests and computation on a SCR ....................................................... 251
16.5 Vortex Induced Vibrations ..................................................................................................... 254
16.6 References .............................................................................................................................. 255
17 CD AND CL OF MOORING ELEMENTS ....................................................................... 256
17.1 Cd and Cl of chains ................................................................................................................ 256
17.1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 256
17.1.2 Test set-up, sign convention and definitions of the coefficients ................................ 256
17.1.3 Discussion results and conclusions ............................................................................ 260
17.2 Cd and Cl of mooring lines .................................................................................................... 262
17.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 262
17.2.2 Results ........................................................................................................................ 262
17.2.3 Conclusions ................................................................................................................ 265
17.3 References .............................................................................................................................. 265
18 PARTICULARS OF VLCC'S ............................................................................................. 266
18.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 266
18.2 Nomenclature and definitions ................................................................................................. 266
18.3 Example of main particulars and stability data for a 200 kDWT VLCC ............................... 267
18.4 Dimensions of crude tankers and product tankers and bulk carriers .................................... 270
19 WIND LOADS ON VLCC'S AND FPSOS ...................................................................... 272
19.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 272
19.2 Wind loads on VLCCs ......................................................................................................... 272
19.2.1 Wind areas of VLCC's ................................................................................................ 275



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19.3 Wind loads on FPSO's ............................................................................................................. 277
19.3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 277
19.3.2 An example of wind tunnel results on a FPSO ........................................................... 278
19.3.3 Wind tunnel tests at full scale Re number ................................................................... 279
19.4 References ............................................................................................................................... 279
20 CURRENT LOADS ON VLCCS AND FPSOS ............................................................... 281
20.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 281
20.2 Current coefficients of VLCCs .............................................................................................. 281
20.3 Current coefficients on a 200 kDWT VLCC .......................................................................... 285
20.4 Current force measurements carried out with different VLCC forms and sizes ..................... 288
20.4.1 The different models ................................................................................................... 288
20.4.2 The effect of shallow water on the current force coefficients for hull forms .............. 288
20.5 Conclusions and remarks ........................................................................................................ 291
20.6 References ............................................................................................................................... 293
21 FIRST ORDER WAVE FORCES AND HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS ........... 294
21.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 294
21.2 Wave forces and coefficients on a 200 kDWT VLCC in shallow and deep water ................. 294
21.2.1 Introduction to linear hydrodynamics (wave frequency motions) .............................. 294
21.2.2 First order wave forces and hydrodynamic reaction forces ........................................ 296
21.3 Example of forces/moment in the cross section of a FPSO at the internal turret ................... 298
21.4 References ............................................................................................................................... 302
22 SECOND ORDER WAVE FORCES-WAVE DRIFT FORCES ...................................... 303
22.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 303
22.2 Theory and an example of the mean wave drift force acting on a 200 kDWT VLCC ........... 303
22.3 Matrix of the second order wave forces on a loaded 200 kDWT VLCC ................................ 306
22.4 The slowly oscillating wave drift forces in shallow water (the set-down) .............................. 309
22.5 References ............................................................................................................................... 313
23 SECOND ORDER REACTION FORCES - WAVE DRIFT DAMPING ....................... 314
23.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 314
23.2 Experimental determined wave drift damping. ....................................................................... 314
37.3 The quadratic transfer function of the wave drift damping ..................................................... 315
23.3 The mean wave drift damping coefficient in a wave spectrum ............................................... 317
24 THE WAVE GROUP SPECTRA AND THE WAVE DRIFT FORCES ......................... 319
25 ANALYSIS OF DECAY TESTS IN SURGE AND ROLL DIRECTION ....................... 322
25.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 322
25.2 The logarithmic decrement method (linear roll damping) ...................................................... 322
25.3 The P and Q method (linear and quadratic roll damping) ....................................................... 325
25.4 An example on the forces on the bilge keels due to the roll motions ..................................... 329
25.5 Some remarks on the external roll damping induced by the bilge keels ................................. 332
25.6 Internal roll damping associated with FPSOs ........................................................................ 333
26 VISCOUS FORCES INDUCED BY SLOWLY OSCILLATING SURGE MOTIONS . 335
26.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 335
26.2 Surge damping on a FPSO hull in calm water ........................................................................ 339
26.3 Surge damping on a FPSO hull in current ............................................................................... 341
26.4 Total surge damping of a typical FPSO .................................................................................. 343
26.5 References ............................................................................................................................... 343
27 SOME REMARKS ON ROLL AND PITCH ..................................................................... 344

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27.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 344
27.2 Some remarks on the roll and pitch response ......................................................................... 345
27.3 Example of excitation force resonance peak in ship motions (pitch) ..................................... 347
28 EQUATIONS OF MOTION IN FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAIN ........................ 349
28.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 349
28.2 Equations in the frequency domain ........................................................................................ 349
28.3 An example of the motions of the 200 kDWT tanker in 82,5 m water depth ........................ 352
28.4 Equations of motion in the time domain ................................................................................ 354
28.5 References .............................................................................................................................. 355
29 EQUATIONS OF LOW FREQUENCY MOTION OF MONOHULL ........................... 357
29.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 357
29.2 Theory still water in shallow and deep water ......................................................................... 361
29.3 Theory in a current field in shallow and deep water .............................................................. 363
29.4 Twilight zone .......................................................................................................................... 365
29.5 Coupled equations of motion .................................................................................................. 365
29.6 References .............................................................................................................................. 366
30 FPSO IN SHALLOW/DEEPWATER UNDER STORM CONDITIONS ...................... 367
30.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 367
30.2 Input data ................................................................................................................................ 368
30.3 Results of the computations .................................................................................................... 373
30.4 Discussion on the results ........................................................................................................ 375
30.5 Sensitivity of forces and motions to Cd-parameters ............................................................... 378
30.6 References .............................................................................................................................. 379
31 ANALYSIS TO GENERATE TIME SERIES ................................................................... 380
31.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 380
31.2 Generating of time traces using the random phase model ...................................................... 381
31.2.1 Generating of wave elevation in the time domain ...................................................... 381
31.2.2 Cyclic reproduction of the registration ....................................................................... 381
31.2.3 Nyquist-frequency ...................................................................................................... 382
31.2.4 Generating of 1st and 2nd order wave forces in the time-domain ............................. 383
31.3 Generating of time traces using the convolution integral ....................................................... 384
31.3.1 Generating of 1st and 2nd order wave force registration ........................................... 384
31.4 Frequency domain computations ............................................................................................ 387
31.4.1 Review of the theory of harmonic analysis ................................................................ 387
31.4.2 Frequency domain analysis derived from known wave spectrum .............................. 387
32 SIGNAL ANALYSIS IN TIME DOMAIN-STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ....................... 388
32.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 388
32.2 Statistical analysis .................................................................................................................. 389
33 SIGNAL ANALYSIS IN THE SPECTRAL DOMAIN-SPECTRAL ANALYSIS ........ 390
33.1 Spectral analysis ..................................................................................................................... 390
33.2 Spectral analysis on wide-band noise signal - effect of the sample time ............................... 392
33.3 Linear transfer function or RAO ............................................................................................ 394
33.4 Coherence function ................................................................................................................. 396
33.5 Results of spectral analysis ..................................................................................................... 398
34 SIGNAL ANALYSIS IN THE PROBABILITY DOMAIN .............................................. 401
34.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 401
34.2 System with a linear response to waves ................................................................................. 401
34.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 401
34.2.2 Distribution of the elevation (samples) of the signal .................................................. 401



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34.2.3 Distribution of the peaks of the signal ........................................................................ 401
34.2.4 Weibull distribution..................................................................................................... 404
34.2.5 Distribution of the extreme values .............................................................................. 408
34.2.6 Summary on statistics of linear systems responses ..................................................... 410
34.3 Systems with non-linear response to waves ............................................................................ 411
34.3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 411
34.3.2 Spreading of maximum mooring line forces and offsets ............................................ 413
34.3.3 MPM according to DnV .............................................................................................. 416
34.3.4 MPM according to BV ................................................................................................ 417
34.4 References ............................................................................................................................... 418
35 SIDE-BY-SIDE AND TANDEM OFFLOADING ............................................................. 419
35.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 419
35.2 Side-by-side offloading ........................................................................................................... 419
35.3 Tandem offloading .................................................................................................................. 423
35.4 References ............................................................................................................................... 426
36 SPM ........................................................................................................................................ 427
36.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 427
36.2 Hawser data ............................................................................................................................. 428
36.3 The fishtailing behavior of a SPM in uniform current (Ref. [36-1]) ....................................... 430
36.4 References ............................................................................................................................... 430
37 MODEL TESTING OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES ..................................................... 431
37.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 431
37.2 Scale laws ................................................................................................................................ 431
37.3 Shallow water model testing ................................................................................................... 433
37.4 Deepwater model testing ......................................................................................................... 434
37.4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 434
37.4.2 Truncation ................................................................................................................... 435
37.5 Modeling of metocean conditions in a laboratory basins ........................................................ 436
37.6 Review of model basins .......................................................................................................... 437
37.6.1 MARINTEK ................................................................................................................ 437
37.6.2 Lab Oceanico............................................................................................................... 437
37.6.3 MARIN ....................................................................................................................... 437
37.6.4 Jiao Tong Offshore Basin Shanghai ............................................................................ 438
37.6.5 Oceanic-St. Johns New Foundland ............................................................................ 438
37.6.6 Offshore Model Basin-Escondido ............................................................................... 439
37.6.7 OTRC College Station ................................................................................................ 439
38 ENGINEERING OF THE MOORING INSTALLATION PLAN ................................... 441
38.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 441
38.2 Tensioning of moorings .......................................................................................................... 442
38.3 Mooring components .............................................................................................................. 443
38.4 Installation planning ................................................................................................................ 443
38.4.1 General ........................................................................................................................ 443
38.4.2 Operational aspects ..................................................................................................... 443
38.4.3 Mooring equipment documentation ............................................................................ 443
38.4.4 Pre-installation activities ............................................................................................. 444
38.4.5 Sequence of mooring component installation ............................................................. 444
38.4.6 Post-installation activities ........................................................................................... 444

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38.5 Fluke anchor installation ........................................................................................................ 445
38.5.1 General ....................................................................................................................... 445
38.5.2 Operational aspects ..................................................................................................... 445
38.5.3 Anchor installation vessel ........................................................................................... 446
38.6 Plate anchor installation ......................................................................................................... 446
38.6.1 General ....................................................................................................................... 446
38.6.2 Operational aspects ..................................................................................................... 447
38.6.3 Anchor installation vessel ........................................................................................... 447
38.7 Suction anchor installation ..................................................................................................... 448
38.7.1 General ....................................................................................................................... 448
38.7.2 Operational aspects ..................................................................................................... 450
38.7.3 Operation control parameters ..................................................................................... 450
38.8 Pile anchor installation ........................................................................................................... 450
38.8.1 General ....................................................................................................................... 450
38.8.2 Operational aspects ..................................................................................................... 451
38.8.3 Operational control parameters .................................................................................. 452
38.9 Gravity anchor installation ..................................................................................................... 452
38.9.1 General ....................................................................................................................... 452
38.9.2 Operational aspects ..................................................................................................... 452
38.9.3 Operational control parameters .................................................................................. 452
38.10 Chain Installation .................................................................................................................... 453
38.10.1 General ....................................................................................................................... 453
38.10.2 Operational aspects ..................................................................................................... 453
38.10.3 Post-installed inspection ............................................................................................. 453
38.11 Steel wire rope ........................................................................................................................ 453
38.11.1 General ....................................................................................................................... 453
38.11.2 Operational aspects ..................................................................................................... 453
38.11.3 Post-installed inspection ............................................................................................. 454
38.12 Synthetic fibre rope ................................................................................................................ 454
38.12.1 General ....................................................................................................................... 454
38.12.2 Operational aspects ..................................................................................................... 454
38.12.3 As-installed inspection ............................................................................................... 455





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1 INTRODUCTION

This book covers many different aspects of single point mooring systems. A single point mooring
system is used to keep a vessel stationed at a fixed location. These vessels can for instance be a
Floating Production Storage and Offloading System(FPSO) or Floating Storage and Offloading
system(FSO). Hundreds of these systems are operational today. The first part of this book shows a
little history of the origins of oil and gas and the current supply and demand for oil. This book also
shows some of the history of the development of the single point mooring systems. It also addresses
the many different aspects of designing these types of systems. This book will also go into the detail
of the hydrodynamics and loadings that act on these vessels by wind and waves and the behavior of
the different types of mooring systems.


2 THE OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN PERSPECTIVE

Some information on the offshore oil and gas industry in perspective is given below and divided in
the following topics: Existence of oil and gas, oil and gas definitions, (offshore) production and
demand.

2.1 Existence of oil and gas offshore and their reserves
The oil and gas is a fossil energy source and of limited quantity. In the following a remark on the
existence of oil and gas will be given.
Many types of oil reservoirs have a gas pocket on top. Due to the high pressure of this gas, prevention
must be taken when drilling into these reservoirs. Other reservoirs consisting of porous geological
layers have dry natural gas. Due to pressure and earth heat, the gas has been formed out of lower
situated carbon layers. The gas was prevented to escape to the earth surface by impenetrable
geological layers, often consisting of salt. Sometimes these types of gas reservoirs also contain large
amounts of carbon dioxide and nitrogen (e.g. Indonesia Natuna field 222,000 Bcf). In other
reservoirs the crude is mixed with wet gas like condensates (e.g. Nigeria).

In the North Sea the oil and gas fields lay on an average depth of 3 km underneath the sea floor.
Offshore fields were formed out of organic deposits in the widened geological gaps during the start of
the drifting apart of the continents (New Found land/West of Shetland basin, West-Africa/Brazil
basin, North Sea basin, basins in Indonesia, and basins in the Timor Sea). On the other sides of the
drifting continents organic material were deposited in geological folds formed by the bulldozing
effects of the drifting continents (basins in South China Sea, basins Offshore California), see Figure
2-1.

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Figure 2-1: Drifting apart of the continents







63



135

180

230
280
345

405
425
500





600
Filling the
swaps
270 million yrs
Figure 2-2: The drifting of the continents and the time frames that the swaps between the
continents were filled with organic material



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In Figure 2-3 the process is shown of the cooking of the oil. This process shows that the deposits in
the Brazil-West Arica basin separated by the motion of the rigid mantle material. The rigid mantle
material pulled the deposit to more depth and higher temperature.


Figure 2-3: The process of cooking the oil




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2.2 Definitions of oil and gas and market prices
Some definitions of kinds of oil and gas are given below.
Oil:
-Sweet oil: Oil containing little or no sulfur, especially little or no hydrogen sulfide
-Sour oil: Oil containing hydrogen sulfide or another acid gas
-Heavy oil: Oil composed mainly of heavy ends (heavy ends are the parts of a hydrocarbon mixture
that have the highest boiling point and the highest viscosity, such as fuel oils and waxes)
-Light crude oil: Oil of relatively high API gravity (usually 40 or higher)
(API gravity: A measure of the density or gravity of liquid petroleum products used in the United
States. API gravity is expressed in degrees, 10 API is equivalent to the density of fresh water)
-Light ends: The lighter hydrocarbon molecules that comprise gasoline, light kerosene, heptane,
natural gas, etc.
-West Texas Intermediate: Crude oil produced from the Permian Basin of West Texas and eastern
New Mexico. Its gravity falls between light and heavy crude oil. It is "benchmark crude in that its
price is often quoted as a measure of general crude oil prices.
-Brent oil: Oil produced from the Brent area in the British sector of the North Sea. Benchmark
crude often quoted as a measure of oil prices.
-Barrel = 159 liter

Gas:
-Natural gas: Dry natural gas consists of 80-95 % of methane. If cooled down to minus 161
Celsius (under atmospheric pressure) we speak about LNG (=liquefied natural gas). The volume is
now 1/600 of the original natural gas volume. As such it will be transported in LNG carriers and
stored in onshore LNG tanks.
-Natural gas liquids (NGL): NGL is, with natural gas connected, fluid heavy gas hydrocarbons. These
heavy gas hydrocarbons consist of ethane, butane and propane (=LPG), pentane and condensates (=a
mixture of pentane and heavier hydrocarbons like hydrates, waxes and asphaltenes). Gas field
installations normally extract the NGL from the natural gas (methane).
-Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG): LPG is fluid petroleums consisting mainly of butane (fluid minus
2 Celsius) and propane (fluid minus 42 Celsius). LPG is produced by treatment of NGL and as side-
product of crude oil. Under atmospheric pressure it is gas, but under pressure or cooling it is fluid.



2.3 Oil/gas production
In Figure 2-4 the world and gas output over the last 50 years are shown. The production of oil will,
obliterate previous record output, peak by 2005. Concerning gas there was a nearly steady pattern of
production growth. Further increases are expected during the next decade.



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Figure 2-4: World oil and gas production over the last fifty years

In Figure 2-5 the oil production is divided in production onshore, shallow water and deep water. As is
shown the production in deep water is increasing over the coming years.



Figure 2-5: Oil production onshore, in shallow water and in deep water


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Figure 2-6: Oil and gas produced offshore


Concerning gas there was a nearly steady pattern of production growth. Further increases are
expected during the next decade. A review of the production of oil and gas per day by OPEC and of
some non-OPEC countries is given below in Table 2-1.

Oil Gas
Million bopd Bcfd
OPEC
Saudi Arabia 9.3 4.2
Iran 3.7 4.4
Venezuela 3.0 2.7
Iraq 1.2 0.3
UAE 2.5 3.5
Kuwait 2.2 1.0
Qatar 0.7 1.7
Nigeria 2.3 0.5
Indonesia 1.4 6.5
Libya 1.5 0.6
Algeria 1.4 6.8
Other 3 ?
Total OPEC 32.2 32.2
OECD
USA 9.5 51.9
Norway 3.3 4.4
UK 2.8 8.9



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Canada 2.6 16.1
Australia 0.7 2.8
Netherlands 0.2 8.2
Other 0.8 ?
Total OECD 19.9 92.3
Non-OECD
Russia 6.1 55.4
Mexico 3.4 3.3
China 3.2 2.1
Brazil 1.1 .5
Egypt 1 1.3
Angola 0.7 -
Gabon 0.4 -
Other 7 ?
Total non-OECD 22.9 62.6
Table 2-1: Production oil and gas


The OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) consists of countries of
Europe (exclusive the Eastern countries and Turkey), Japan, USA, Canada, Australia and New
Zealand.

2.4 Oil/gas consumption
The demand of oil in 2010 is given in Table 2-2.

million people million bopd million bopd
OECD 45
USA 300 19
Union of Europe 500 16
Japan 126 7
Canada 29 2
Australia & NZ 21 1
non-OECD 31
Russia 170 5
China >1000 5
S&C America Brazil 163 4
S.E Asia Thailand 59 8
India >1000 2
Africa 2
Other 5
Table 2-2: Review of demand of oil in 2010

From the point of consumption it can be noted that the USA needs 19 million barrels/day, of which 5
million have to be imported. Of the in-house produced oil approximately 2 million barrels originates
from the GoM, 2 million from Alaska and 10 million from many (small) on-shore oil fields.


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The USA also consumes the world largest amount of gas. In 1998 the total use of natural gas by the
USA was 630 billion cm (63 Bcfd) from in-house sources and imported from Canada. In comparison
to the Netherlands, with a reserve of 1,800 billion cm, the total use of gas for own-use (5 Bcfd) and
export (3 Bcfd) amounts to 80 billion cm (8 Bcfd) per year.

A review of the oil/gas basins in the middle-east is given in Figure 2-7.

Figure 2-7: Review of the oil/gas basins in the Middle East

The gas reserve in QATAR amounts to 899 trillion cf in 2010. This huge gas field can be compared to
the recent developed Shell Prelude gas field (Prelude/Concerto) in Australia. The magnitude of that
field is only 3 trillion cf of liquids-rich gas.

The total world reserve for gas and oil has been presented in the diagrams in the Figure 2-8.

Gas Reserves total 6,289 trillion cf Oil Reserves total 1,047.5 billion barrels
(Equivalent to 1,119 billion barrels)

Figure 2-8: Total world reserves for gas and oil in 2010



Table 2-3: The conversion table of gas products*) is given.
1 MM**)cf natural gas 0.0283 MMcm natural gas
178.0 bo
269.0 tons crude
349.0 tons coal
192.0 tons LNG



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219.0 tons LPG
1 ton LNG 1,400 cm natural gas
1 ton LPG 1,250 cm natural gas
*) based on 9,500 kilocalories per cm natural gas
**) 1 trillion= 10^12; 1 billion= 10^9; 1 million MM= 10^6

If the gas reserve of QATAR will be compared to oil then in terms of barrel of oil we will have: 899
trillion cf natural gas = 899*10^4*17,800 barrels oil (bo) =160*10^9 bo. In comparison the oil
reserve of Saudi Arabia amounts to 261.8*10^9 bo!

For comparison the estimated reserves of some oil field in the GoM and West Africa are given below.
GoM: Thunderhorse basin = 1 billion, Nikika Basin = 1 billion, Holstein Field = 1 billion
Thunderhorse: 1MM bopd,
West of Africa: Kizomba basin = 2 billion, Total-Girassol Field = 1 billion
Campos Field = 7.21 billion oil, and 101.53 billion m^3 gas!
End 2011 Norway's state oil company and partners confirmed significant additional volumes in its
appraisal well in the Aldous Major South discovery (PL265) in the North Sea.
The results of appraisal well 16/2-10 have increased production license PL265 estimates in the range
of 2.4 bn barrels of recoverable oil equivalent (Aldous in PL265 and Avaldsnes in PL501).



2.5 The present and future gas/oil reservoirs offshore

In Figure 2-9 the former, the current and the frontier/future oil/gas basins of the world are shown.


Figure 2-9: Review of the former, present and future oil/gas basins


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Barent sea in the arctic area in some more detail is presented in Figure 2-10:
HAVIS (Statoil): 0.8 billionoe, SNOHVIT (oil), Gas field: Shtokman (Gazprom with Statoil-Total
delayed-postponed)

Figure 2-10: Activities in the arctic area in some more detail



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3 HISTORY OF THE TYPES OF MOORING SYSTEMS

3.1 Introduction
Actually a mooring system and the type of floater depend of the field developments. The field
developments can be divided in field developments with pipeline infrastructure or without pipeline
infrastructure. In Figure 3-1 the field development without pipeline infrastructure is given. Examples
of some areas without pipeline infrastructure are West of Africa, Brazil, Australia and Northern North
Sea/North Atlantic areas.


Figure 3-1: Field development without pipeline infrastructure
.
In Figure 3-2 the development with pipeline infrastructure is given. Examples of some areas with
pipeline infrastructure are Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea. The pipelines are used for the export of
the cruse and gas.
In the Gulf of Mexico the floater types are dominated by TLPs, SPARs and semi-submersibles. The
structures in the relative shallow North Sea are dominated by jackets and GBS fixed platforms.

.:
Figure 3-2: Field development with pipeline infrastructure



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Mooring systems has to be designed to keep a floating offshore structure in the open sea in position. The
system that may keep a floating structure in position can be either a passive or an active one (DP) or a
combined system (assisted DP). In the last 30 years numerous of types of passive mooring systems
were applied.
In the following sections the mooring systems of monohull vessels are dealt with. Some types are
typically used for shallow water, while other are applied to deep water. Further, some systems are
typically used for loading or offloading only. Most of the mooring systems are single point moorings.
A vessel, which is single point moored can rotate freely with the environment obtaining minimum
mooring loads. Mooring systems which give the vessel a fixed heading are vessels moored to a jetty, a
spread mooring or a multi buoy mooring.

3.2 Passive weathervaning mooring systems
The following passive single point mooring systems can be mentioned:

- CALM: Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring - applied in shallow and deep water
- SALM: Single Anchor Leg Mooring - applied in shallow water
- SBS: Single Buoy Storage (old: FPSO mooring)
- SALS: Single Anchor Leg Storage (old: FPSO mooring)
- SALMRA: Single Anchor Leg Mooring Rigid Arm (old: FPSO mooring)
- ALP: Articulated Loading Platform (old: loading point)
- Soft Yoke System - applied in shallow water
- External turret Mooring - applied in shallow water with a goose neck to "increase" the water
depth to facilitate the risers
- Internal Turret Mooring - applied in deep water
- RTM: Riser Turret Mooring (disconnectable) - applied in deepwater in typhoon prone areas
- BTM: Buoy Turret Mooring (disconnectable) - applied in deepwater in typhoon prone areas
- STP: Submerged Turret Production (disconnectable) -applied in deepwater in typhoon prone
areas

and the passive spread moored systems

In Figure 3-3 the old systems are shown, being the SBS, the SALS and the SALMRA.


Figure 3-3: The SBS, SALS, SALMRA system

An example of an old off-loading platform named the ALP system is given in Figure 3-4.



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Figure 3-4: The ALP system

The near shore loading and off-loading systems being the CALM and the SALM are still existing
systems, see Figure 3-5.

Figure 3-5: The CALM and SALM system


A review of the present used single point mooring systems is given in the Figure 3-6 and Figure 3-7.
The system in Figure 3-6 belongs to the soft-yoke systems. The A-frame with the heavy cross beam
can be underwater or above water.

Figure 3-6: Soft yoke system


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Figure 3-7: Review of the present types of single point mooring systems




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3.3 The original integrated mooring, the CALM and SALM system

The history of mooring in the oil and gas industry started in the late fifties with the loading/unloading
terminals using single buoy mooring (SBM) systems. The systems are given in Figure 3-8.

CALM
SALM
ALP
old Shell patent
old EXXON patent
pipe line with PLEM
underwater hoses-Lazy S or Chinese
lantern configuration (2-3 hoses)
buoy swivel-turntable
floating hose (2-3 hoses)
mid ship manifold
pipe line with PLEM
fluid swivel above piled bottom frame
underwater/floating hoses from swivel
to surface and to mid ship manifold
Shell Esso
1959: Malaysia 1969: Brega, Lybia
WD= 48 ft WD= 140 ft

Figure 3-8: The original SBM systems


The underwater hoses of the CALM are presented in the Figures 3-9 and 3-10. The CALM system
shows in Figure 3-9 the "lazy-s" and in Figure 3-10 the "Chinese lantern" hose configuration.

underwater hoses CALM buoy



Figure 3-9: The Lazy-s underwater hose system







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1981

Figure 3-10: The Chinese Lantern underwater hose system


The details of the SALM system are given in the Figures 3-11 and 3-12

1993

Figure 3-11: A VLCC moored to the SALM buoy

As is shown in Figure 3-12, the underwater hose is connected to the mooring foundation by means of
a fluid swivel. From the foundation also the chain is connected for the buoy mooring.




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Figure 3-12: The underwater hose of a SALM system

The Figures 3-13 to 3-14 give some of the history of the permanent mooring systems. Note that the
CALM buoy was either fixed or articulated connected to the rigid arm of the SBS-system. The rigid A
frame was articulated to bow hinges.

Permanently moored tankers Mooring
system derived from the CALM buoy:
SBS-system:
Cadlao 1981-97 m
Kakap 1986-87 m
Permanently moored tankers Mooring system
derived from the SALM buoy:
Yoke Tower or SALMRA system

Figure 3-13: The SBS and SALMRA system







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To reduce the wave frequency wave loading on top-uni-joint: SALS system
Hondo (1981)- 150 m
Fulmar (1982)-90 m
Challis (1989)-100 m
Castellon (1977)-141 m
Nilde (1980)-96 m
Tazerka (1982)-143 m
Motivation at that time no risers
Only jumper hoses and fluid swivels

Figure 3-14: The SALMRA and SALS system



3.4 The soft yoke system
In this section the soft yoke systems are presented. The soft yokes are mostly applied in in
shallow water (<50 m) and in moderate wave conditions. The system was in fact a Change in thinking
not buoyancy but weight. The system can also be refereed as the reversed yoke tower system. The
system is applied. Examples of the soft yoke systems are given in the Figure 3-15 and 3-16.



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In moderate wave conditions
Motivation: no risers
Only jumper hoses and fluid swivels
Antan field-Nigeria-41 m
1988

Figure 3-15: Soft yoke system Antan field Nigeria



Figure 3-16: Soft yoke system EA field Nigeria







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3.5 The external and internal turret

3.5.1 External turret

A system where the "calm buoy" is fixed to a cantilever yoke at the bow or often on an increased
height above the bow (goose neck structure) of the moored tanker and often applied in shallow water
is called an external turret.
























The problem of the external turret in shallow water is the design of the riser system. Especially the
horizontal motions at the location of the turret are much larger than for a CALM system with the
results that the risers can touch the seabed or will be taut. An example of a riser design in shallow
water is given in the figure below.


Turret-external and internal
motivation: no structural joints
Use of risers 960275
Yepco-North Jemen-WD=31 m
1986



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In the figure below an example is given of an external turret in relative deep water.




















Turret-external and internal
careful design of risers not touching seafloor-not taught
No high out-of-plane bending moments due to cross-current
1986
Turret-external and internal
motivation: no structural joints
Use of risers
1988
North Sea-100 year storm-WD=85.5 m

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3.5.2 Internal turret
An example of an internal turret is given in the figure below. An internal turret is needed for example
to receive the large number of risers and to create enough structural strength of the bearings to
survival in extreme weather conditions.





3.6 The RTM system
To prevent very heavy permanent mooring systems, the system can be designed as a disconnect-able
system. These systems are applied in hurricane and typhoon prone areas. In the figure below a Riser
Turret Mooring (RTM) disconnectable mooring system is given. If the system consists of a buoy turret



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incorporated in the bow base and has been designed to be disconnectable, the system is called a Buoy
Turret Mooring (BTM).























The recent installed RTM FPSO was the Nganhurra FPSO (2006).

3.7 The BTM system
Some recent installed BTM (buoy turret mooring) or STP (submerged turret production) are Pierce
(Shell N.Sea) FPSO, Lufeng (China) FPSO Navion Munin provide with APL STP.


Jabiru (1986)-88 m
Griffin (1993)- 131 m
Cossack/Wanaea (1995)-76 m
RTM: Riser Turret Mooring
BTM: Buoy Turret Mooring
motivation disconnectable system in typhoon area

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(Courtesy APL)

A schematic review of the historical developments of mooring systems is given in the figure below.
















3.8 Spread mooring
Spread moorings can be used in applications requiring long service life, in any water depth, and on
any size of vessel. Since the vessel is held essentially at a constant heading, the requirement for a
turret structure with a large capacity slewing bearing, as well as the associated swivel stack for fluid,
gas, chemical, hydraulic power, electrical power and control transfer is not needed. Virtually all types
of anchor leg configurations can be used with this system. Typically, risers and control umbilicals are
located amidships on both sides of the vessel. This arrangement provides ample room to
accommodate a large number of risers and umbilicals. In applications with highly directional
prevailing weather, the shuttle tanker offloading facilities are typically located at the stern or the bow;
other deepwater applications may require a dedicated buoy terminal for cargo transfer.




Below the spread moored Greater Plutonio FPSO from BP is shown. The subsea layouts include 43
wells. The offloading occurs using a CALM buoy. It is a new build hull and the FPSO went on stream
in 2007-Block 18 Angola.

CALM SBS TURRET
(hawser replaced by yoke) (CALM buoy fixed to vessel)
RTM/BTM
(RTM: CALM buoy with UJ connected to vessel-disconnectable)
(BTM: CALM buoy locked into vessel-disconnectable)
fluid swivel and underbuoy hoses-low pressure/risers-high pressure-turret can be disconnectable
SALM YOKE TOWER SALS SOFT YOKE
(buoyancy in tower) (buoyancy in yoke) (reversed system)
fluid swivel and jumper hoses-low or high pressure-soft yoke can be disconnectable



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3.9 Hawser moored FPSO's
In benign weather conditions FPSO's are sometimes moored by means of a hawse as shown in the
pictures below.




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4 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FPSO'S

4.1 Introduction
FPSO's are ship shaped vessels, either new built or converted tankers. The number of FPSO's is more
than 100 units in operation worldwide since 1977 (Shell's Castillon). The water depth the FPSO's are
moored in range from 20 m to larger than 1800 m. The number of production risers varies from 1 to
over 100 risers. The production rate of the units can be 10,000 bopd to more than 250,000 bopd
(barrels fluid per day).
The FPSO are applied in weather conditions ranging from benign (West Africa) to extreme
environment (North Atlantic).
As discussed in Chapter 3, the FPSO's can be present with different mooring systems. The mooring
systems can be either turret-moored, spread-moored, soft yoke-moored or hawser moored.
The FPSO's can be equipped with substantial pigging, water/gas injection, gas lift and
monitoring/control requirements. For staged developments the FPSO may provide of large capacity
for future tie-backs from multiple wells.

4.2 Basic characteristics of FPSO's
Ship shaped vessels are characterized by a single hull or a box shaped structure which may be purpose
designed or the results of a ship conversion. These vessels form the bulk of the FPSO's in operation to
date. The first versions of FPSO's were converted crude tankers and the design characteristics of
purpose designs have evolved from the basic tanker characteristics.
The major variables in the monohull FPSO design are:
-size and storage of the vessel
-mooring system
-new built or converted.

The physical size of a monohull FPSO is generally determined by the required storage capacity and
sea keeping performance. The resulting availability acreage for topsides capacity and utility
equipment is generally more than adequate.

The dimensional constraints results from the allowable ratio's between the principal dimensions
considering basic unit strength and sea keeping characteristics. Within sea keeping theory, the
hydrostatic stability, the hydrodynamic excitation and reaction forces/moments and the motions are
involved. Below an example is given of the pitch RAO (response amplitude operator) of a FPSO in
head waves. The effect of the changing the length in steps of 20 m starting from 260 m is significant.
For dimensions on existing VLCC's reference is made to chapter 18.


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The combination of weathervaning and relative large lateral excursions means that monohull vessels
must be used with subsea completions, i.e. "wet" trees, and must be connected to the wells via a riser
system. Drilling and work-over activities should be carried out with separate vessels.

4.3 Advantages and disadvantages with regard to other floaters




Semi-submersible-spar-with pipeline up to 10,000 ft., FPSO without pipeline up to 10,000 ft.
wet and dry trees.
With regards to advantages and disadvantages of the monohull FPSO compared to other floaters the
following can be stated:




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Advantages:
- relative low Capex;
- technology is simple and proven;
- short construction/installation schedule, especially if second-hand vessel is used;
- low abandonment costs;
- can be constructed in low cost-base shipyards;
- integrated storage is possible;
- ability to weathervane with wind, waves and current;
- relatively insensitive to topsides weight;
- relatively insensitive to water depth.
Disadvantages:
- deck motions are such that wellheads need to be installed subsea;
- separate workover vessels are required to service wells;
- relatively high Opex.

Comparison of maximum total heave and pitch is given in the figure below.











Semi, TLP, SPAR heave and pitch are detuned from the waves (semi & SPAR: Tz, Tu =20-50 s);
FPSO Tz and Tu=8-12s.

The comparison of the offset as function of the mooring system is given in the figure below.












0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
FPSO: 200
kDWT
FPSO: 300
kDWT
Semi TLP SPAR
Maximum heave Maximum total pitch
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
FPSO:
semi-taut
mooring
Semi:
Catenary
risers
SPAR
Offset in % water depth

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5 FPSO TERMINOLOGY

5.1 Introduction
In this chapter the FPSO technology in terms of terminology and nomenclature will be given. First the
definition of a FPSO (Floating Production Storage Offloading) unit will be given below.

Floating: the body is in equilibrium when floating. The body consists of a monohull. Due to the
motion characteristics of a monohull, the vessel cannot be provided of TTR's (top tension risers).
TTR's are deck mounted "dry trees". FPSO's have normally deployed subsea completed "wet trees".

Production: the unit supports processing equipment to fully treat live well fluid, with separation gas
compression, water injection, cooling and heating systems, water treatment, fuel gas, chemical
injection etc.

Storage: The processed oil is held in tanks on the unit prior to export. Gas cannot be stored and must
be exported by pipeline, used for power generation, re-injected, used for subsea gas lifting and flaring.

Offloading: a means by which the oil product is transferred to shuttle tankers.

The total FPSO system can be divided in the building blocks on the vessel and downwards.

The building blocks on the vessel are:
- vessel hull including storage
- turret and swivel
- deck based process plant
- offloading system to shuttle tankers
- other units like accommodation, flare towers etc.

The building blocks from the vessel downwards are:
- mooring lines
- riser, umbilicals (control and power)
- subsea systems of - wellheads and Xmas trees
- manifolds and templates
- pipe lines and flow lines
- subsea control system

The following can be marked for the subsea. For new field developments, the assessment relies often
on the geological description of the reservoir and the pressure, volume, and temperature behavior of
the reservoir fluids. For producing fields, production rate and reservoir pressure data provides
valuable information for the reservoir control systems. In most cases the lay-out of the subsea
architecture depends on the properties of the field. The subsea equipment will be dominated if the
field has fluids with either low pressure and low temperature (LPLT) or high pressure and high
temperature ( HPHT).

In the following sections the terminology of the technical building blocks were a FPSO can be
divided in are explained. In the frame work of this book on the mooring systems the turret, mooring
lines, risers and offloading will be discussed in more detail in the sections below.



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The turret mooring system comprises the following main components:
- Turret general (section 5.2)
- chain table, chain hawser and chain pull-in arrangement (section 5.3)
- axial swivel/toroidal swivels and sealing system (section 5.4)
- swivel stack (section 5.5)
- internal and external turret bearing-slewing bearing, wheeled bearing and plain bearing
(section 5.6).

Further some attention is paid to the following subjects:
- Subsea and interface (section 5.7)
- Storage and offloading (section 5.8)

5.2 Turret: general
The turret mooring system is a passive mooring, retained that FPSO on station without the aid from
external sources. The turret structure has to transfer high dynamic loading from the mooring lines and
generated from the (large quality of) steel or flexible risers and mooring lines via bearings to the
tanker hull. The turret can be provided of a spacious main deck accommodating large on-turret
components such as manifolding, pigging, injection monitoring and control equipment. In most
designs the swivel systems are located within a swivel torque tube that eliminates lengthy swivel
torque arms and freeing more space for other turret sub systems.
Further the turret is provided of the chain table and the I-tubes. The chain table secures the mooring
legs to the turret. The I-tubes received the risers and guide them to the upper turret structure.

In the following the terminology of two types of turret systems is given. Below a figure is given of a
large capacity turret (many risers), while the other is an application on the Brazilian FPSO
"P.P.Moralis".









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(Courtesy of SOFEC)




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(Courtesy of SOFEC)



(Courtesy of SOFEC)








swivel access structure


swivel stack


manifolds & pig
launching/receiving

E-house & subsea controls
& HPU's



anchor leg + riser pull-in
equipment deck

bearing system





turret shaft




chain support





risers & umbilicals

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5.3 Chain table, chain hawse pipe and anchor chain pull-in arrangement
In the picture below the underside is shown of the chain table. Attention should be paid to the chain
hawse pipes.


(from internet Skarv FPSO)

In 2001 the dedicated Girassol CALM buoy for unloading the Girassol FPSO was installed in 1350 m
offshore Angola. After ~8 month several chains broke in the hawse pipe of the large Girassol CALM
buoy (diameter 20 m). The chain-polyester-chain legs have a taut pre-tension.
The Girassol chains were designed according to conventional fatigue assessment using API RP2SK
T-N curves and the API fatigue life shows fatigue life >60 years (3 x design life).

The cause of the Girassol event is shown in the pictures below. The failure occurs in link 5. Link 5 is
the first link after a link that was constrained against free rotational movement due to the chain hawse
pipe, which was a part of the hull of the buoy. It was found that the bushing friction torque was higher
than the interlink friction torque. The chain must bend before link came free from the side of the
hawse introducing out of plane bending (OPB).
The crack propagation initiated at hot spot stress in bending. It was found that the crack initiation was
due to corrosion pitting. The rupture came over 235 days.
The pictures showing the problem are self-explanatory.








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(Reference to FRF-Rio de Janeiro-2006 presented by SBM)

After the Girassol incident the mooring contractors have re-designed the hawse pipes. SBM standard
became a 2-axis hawse pipe as shown in the picture below.



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(Courtesy SBM)

Bluewater came with the retractable uni-joint. The retractable uni-joint in combination with the
transition piece, in principle, is a multiple pivoting joint with two or more separate hinging elements
providing ideal conditions for the mooring line during the dynamic movements of the floating facility,
see pictures below.

The tensioning method of the CALM system always is executed with the floating facility in the
DRAFT trimmed condition. Pre-tensioning and final tensioning is by linear pull-in equipment located
in the turret which makes it universal for various operation activities on board of the floating facility
without boarding of extensive subcontractor assistance.
By retracting the uni-joint above seawater level physical inspection is not so much restricted by
weather influences. The retractable uni-joint makes the employ of a diving team superfluous in all
aspects of the hook-up phase and inspection surveys.


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Pre-Tensioning and Final Tensioning
First step in the hook-up installation phase is ensuring that all mooring lines are placed in position,
directly thereafter, pre-tensioning of all mooring lines is followed by slightly pulling the mooring
lines to a higher tension for compensation in lengthening of the mooring line by incorporation of the
uni-joint finally. The uni-joint is omitted in pre-tensioning operation, all mooring lines are in this
situation mechanically fixed at the chain locker position.


(Courtesy Bluewater)



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(Courtesy Bluewater)


5.4 Turret: axial swivel/toroidal swivels and sealing system
An important part of the turret is the fluid swivels. Fluid swivels are used for the transfer of product
like oil, water and gas between the (anchor/riser bound) stationary part of the turret and the
weathervaning vessel. Two types of fluid swivels exist:
-Pipe swivels
A pipe swivel (or in-line swivel) includes one fluid path and is the simplest and most cost effective
fluid transfer system, see figure below.





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-Toroidal swivels
When more than one fluid path is required toroidal swivels are implemented. Because of their large
bore diameter, a large number of paths can be accommodated by stacking several fluid toroidal
swivels. In general fluid transfer swivels are classified by pressure rating:
- Low Pressure Fluid Transfer Swivels to 740 psi
- Medium Pressure Fluid Transfer Swivels to 6,000 psi
- High Pressure Fluid Transfer Swivels to 7,500 psi


(Courtesy SOFEC)

In the installation picture below, a three toroidal swivels unit is shown.




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(Courtesy SBM)

The seal diameters of the shown swivels amount to 2800 mm. The large bore diameters are needed to
accommodate not only the riser piping, but also the piping for the manifolding for the high voltage
electrical swivels, the umbilicals, the water injection piping and the gas injection piping
In general the toroidal swivel is provided of in situ-of-seal-change-out. Seals are essential for the
correct operation of the fluid/gas swivels. Besides the seals also the swivel bearings are essential.
High precision three race roller bearings are generally used to permit the outer rotating part of the
swivel to rotate around the fixed inner part.


(Courtesy SBM)


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5.5 Turret: swivel stack
In the pictures below parts of the swivel stacks are shown. Spare seal trays are between each toroidal
swivel. The spare seals can be replaced in-situ. The typical lifetime of swivel seals is 10 years.
Normally the stack is designed with redundancy, which includes spare paths if possible and allowing
for re-routing through spare/test swivels.


(Courtesy SOFEC-Terra Nova) (Courtesy Bluewater-Bleo Holm)


In the figure below the complete stack is shown implementing the communication rotary joints, the
electric/monitoring/control swivel, the toroidal swivels for production fluid, water injection, gas lift,
gas injection and gas export.



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In the following picture an example is given of a swivel stack of an external turret.



Fiber optic rotary joints
-optical communication between
turret and subsea


Utility swivels
-hydraulic fluids for sub-sea
controls and SDV
-chemical injection fluids for
corrosion, wax, scale inhibitors,
methanol
-utility fluids for service air,
instrument air, nitrogen, water,
vents

Electric slip rings
-low voltage/medium voltage
-for signals between turret and
subsea




Toroidal swivels
-production fluids
-production export
-water injection
-gas lift,
-gas injection
-gas export


Electric power slip ring
-subsea pump/well head platform
power

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(Courtesy of SBM)

The picture below shows the swivel stack incorporated in a large diameter turret.


(Courtesy of SBM)

Finally in the picture below the history of the developments of swivel stack are given.




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(Courtesy of SBM)

5.6 Turret: internal and external turret bearing types (slewing and wheeled bearing)
This section concerns the turret bearing. An example of a proposed internal turret is given in the
figure below-slewing bearing, wheeled bearing and plain bearing
. In order to design the bearing structure, the loads on the turret have to be known. The loads consist
of the anchor legs and risers and the hydrodynamic loads on the turret and the inertia forces of the
turret. The loads and moments are transformed in the forces/moments acting on the horizontal radial
bearing level and the vertical bearing level.

SLEWING BEARING
To "slew" means to turn without change of place; a "slewing" bearing is a rotational rolling-element
bearing that typically supports a heavy but slow-turning or slow-oscillating load, often a horizontal
platform such as a conventional crane, a swing yarder, or the wind-facing platform of a horizontal-
axis windmill.




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In the pictures below a part of a three race roller bearing is shown. The bearing has a diameter of 12.5
m and is segmented.

(Courtesy of SBM)

The picture below shows the three race roller bearing with 7.3 meter diameter, being the largest
available bearing in continuous ring design




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(Courtesy of SOFEC)




(Courtesy of SOFEC)

WHEELED BEARING
An example of a large diameter turret is shown below. The picture is taken from the BP Skarv FPSO
turret mooring system (internet). Bearing system consisting of a proven AmClyde-type wheel and rail
assembly for vertical loads and radial bearings for horizontal loads has been used for Skarv.
turret side
tanker side
three race slewing bearing

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(Courtesy of SBM)

The axial bogies support the earth-fixed turret weight and vertical loads, and counteract moments.
Radial wheels in the bogie support cylinder above the highest water level transfer horizontal loads
from the turret to the vessel.

In addition to this proven bogie bearing system, an additional lower friction bearing functions when
mooring loads exceed a certain level to assist the bogie system. It is assumed that the bearing is only
needed if the turret perform too high relative horizontal motions and rotations in pitch and roll
direction. The bearing may possible consist of a plain bearing.






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(Courtesy of SBM)


(Courtesy of SBM)


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5.7 FPSO terminology Subsea architecture

In the figure below an example is given of the subsea architecture. The bundle underneath the turret
consists of the production risers, the umbilicals (electrical and hydraulic power lines), the chemical
risers, the water injection risers, gas lift risers and gas injection risers. All lines are gathered at the
template of the main drill site manifold.


A picture of the template manifold or tie-in system is given below.








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5.8 Storage and off-loading

Off-loading will generally be via a shuttle tanker directly from the FPSO or via a dedicated loading
point.
The direct off-loading is normally performed with the shuttle tanker in tandem in the lee side of the
weathervaning FPSO, see picture below. Most of the shuttle tankers are dedicated to keep station
under DP, see picture below. Besides DP also passive hawser moored shuttle tanker are applied.
Passive hawser moored shuttle tankers suffer, however, from a higher downtime.
A spread moored FPSO is directionally fixed. This directional restriction may hamper the safe
operation. In this case a remote loading buoy is required, see picture below.

The overall efficiency of the export system (ability of a shuttle tanker to connect and disconnect) will
have a direct influence on the FPSO storage capacity. This is a situation where two functional
requirements cannot be considered in isolation of each other. It must be avoided that the FPSO is
loaded to 90% if a shuttle tanker will start the operation. A FPSO cannot shut down because of too
full loading tanks.


(Courtesy of Shell)



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Shuttle under DP (courtesy of APL)


Dedicated off-loading point for spread moored FPSOs using a CALM buoy










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Either the off-loading will be in tandem or in side-by-side. In the picture below an example is given of
a study with a LNG FPSO. The off-loading is performed side-by-side using a LNG carrier.
The figure below shows a turret moored LNG production and storage floater offloading the LNG
side-by-side.

(MARIN Report no. 88)

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6 FPSO DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

6.1 Introduction
In section 6.2 some important FPSO design considerations are given. The considerations concern:
- design criteria for the mooring system
- topsides plant lay-out and heading control
- marine growth
- ULS and ALS (structure strength)
- turret system design
- safety considerations
- interface considerations
- strength of the topsides-hull interface
- section 6.3 safety considerations on FPSO's are given, while in section 6.4 the important interfaces
are discussed. In section 6.5 some remarks on the interface in the design of the Topsides-Hull are
given.

6.2 FPSO design considerations

For the design of a FPSO attention has to be paid to the following requirements:
- environment
- vessel particulars
- mooring system
- turret design
- fluid transfer requirements.

All the design considerations are summarized in the picture below.



Below attention is spent to some of the design considerations.





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Design criteria mooring system
Joint probability of extreme environmental conditions is normally used for the design of the mooring
system and the vessel behavior.
Having determined by means of long-term statistics the data of the extreme condition on waves, wind
and current the joint probability densities have to be considered. Both the values of the extreme
weather components and their mutual directions have to be determined. As an example, in the DNV
document it is described that the most unfavorable of the following load cases is normally to be
considered for the extreme condition and used for the mooring analysis:

1) 10-minute average wind speed and sea state corresponding to a 100-year return period combined
with a 10-year return period current;
2) current velocity and sea state with 100-year return period combined with a 10-minute average
wind speed with a 10-year return period.

Unless more detailed information on environmental data is available, the following correlation may
be applied:

- The 10-year wind speed to be taken as 90% of 100-year wind speed.
- The 10-year current velocity corresponds to the 100-year current with the wind-generated current
reduced by 10 percent.

The rules for the design considerations clearly show that joint probability densities of the
environmental components will not be the extreme values, see figure below.



In the rules, however, nothing is said about the direction of the waves, wind and current. The
determination of the direction of the components causing the unfavorable load cases have to be
chosen very carefully.

Code requirements are considered as minimum requirements. In addition to the code requirements
standards can be increased pending of the safety policy of the owner. In particular, the two-line
broken case may be investigated in 100-year conditions to document robustness of the system.
Finally, another robustness case may be considered in the either 1,000- or 10,000-year conditions with

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the station-keeping systems intact. In these extremely rare conditions the FPSO must remain on
station, provide a safe shelter to the crew and safeguard the environment. Furthermore the fatigue life
should be several times the FPSO service life.

Topsides plant lay-out and heading control:
Concerning the topsides plant lay-out the topsides sensitive for vertical motions using gravity
separation should be located in the middle part of the vessel. Thrusters may assist the natural vessel
weathervaning and maintain the vessel so that wind incidence is approximately 15 from portside or
starboard to enhance ventilation. In storms this requirement can be waived.

Marine growth:
Marine growth has been considered for both extreme and fatigue limit states. The marine growth
thickness values specified for chains should be applied as a minimum.

ULS and ALS:
The ULS (ultimate limit state) 100-year mooring force corresponds to the contour peak significant
wave height. The ALS (accidental limit state) 100-year mooring force is obtained in 100-year for the
black ship (with no weathervaning thrusters) condition.
The ULS is defined as the states, which generally involve checking the floater structure's strength to
resist extreme actions and action effects.

Turret system design
In general the turret is the fore part of the FPSO, within a moon pool well. It provides the following
three critical functions:
- attachment point to the anchoring system
- it allows the FPSO to weathervane around the earth fixed turret cylinder
- transfer of production, injection, export, and services fluids through the swivel between the
earth-bond turret and the weathervaning FPSO.

Studies have been carried out to determine the optimize position of the turret location. An example is
given in the figure below.



6.3 Safety considerations
For safety reason the hazardous areas should be identified and located far away from the locations of
the accommodation and the helideck. In most cases the accommodation and helideck are located
before the turret location having the advantage to be at the wind side of the hazardous location of the
vessel. Further the location of all safety equipment e.g. lifeboat capsules should be identified close to
the accommodation.



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Further consideration should be given to all safety routes. The safety routes as much as possible
consist of fire and blast protected gangways.

6.4 Interface considerations
In new build FPSO or the conversion of a FPSO many different parties are involved in the
construction/installation work. In the past, projects suffer from overrun of schedule and costs due to
miscommunication between the parties. It is the risk management-interface management strategies to
minimize overall project risks. From the seabed to the export of the crude the following interfaces can
be distinguished:
*interface risers/turret
*interface turret/hull
*interface topsides/deck
*interface offloading/hull and topsides

6.5 Design interface topsides-deck
The topsides on deck of the FPSO consist of modules. The modules concern for instance the oil
treating and export, the gas treating and export, water treating and utility systems. The utility systems
consist of modules for fuel gas treating, power generating and modules to support the subsea systems
including methanol and chemical injection. Other utilities include fire water, potable water, diesel and
emergency power etc.
The process equipment modules and the vessel utility modules will be integrated on the deck. In
storm prone areas the topsides are supported by an elevated deck structure avoiding the modules from
greenwater damage from the sides. The elevation is in the order of 3 m. The supports of the elevated
deck consist of typical fixed footings and sliding footings. The fixed and sliding footings are at the
locations of the crossing of the beam grillage. An example of the grillage with crossing beams is
given in the figure below. In the figure the beam grillage has an under plate. As show the under plate
is stiffened.


An example of the module support construction with the fixed and sliding footings is given in the
figure below.


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The supporting fixed and sliding footings should be checked on the structural effectiveness. For the
structural reliability the structural analysis should be carried out in the hogging and sagging
configuration in the 100-yr head seas and the 100 yr quartering seas for all loading conditions of the
FPSO. An example of the computed deflections in the hogging and sagging modes is given in the
figures below. The information is from a relative small FPSO in the US GoM, see OTC paper #
21248-212011.



Besides the modules, the deck construction has to carry mostly the SB and PS cranes. The foundation
of the cranes is often integrated in the pedestal stanchions.



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6.6 International regulations/classification

In general it must be considered that the code requirements are often minimum requirements. As an
example of the internal regulations and classification requirements it is shown that mooring elements
(especially chains) are suffer from corrosion and wear. The codes give requirements to design for the
degradation. Further attention is paid to the fairleads, terminations and connectors since failures
typically occur at these places. In most all aspects in designing FPSO's the existing standards and
requirements are given by the following organizations:
- America Petroleum Institute
- International Standard Organization
- America Bureau of Shipping
- Det Norske Veritas
- Bureau Veritas

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7 WEATHER CONDITIONS

From the table below it can be concluded that the weather conditions strongly depends on the geographic
location. Examples of weather conditions as applied to mooring systems in the past are given below.

swell sea Wind 1-hour@10 m current
Hs Tp Hs Tp Vw spectra surface bottom
m s m s m/s type m/s m/s
1 North Sea-350m
100-yr 16.0 18.2 2.0 39.4 NPD 0.99 0.50
WOS-100-yr-500 m 17.5 19.2 2.0 40.0 NPD 2.08 1.1
3 North Atlantic-NFL/Canada
100-yr 16.0 17.0 1.7 39.6 API 0.91 0.50

3 South China Sea
100-yr Typhoon-350m 14.3 14.2 3.3 42.0 API 1.74 0.30
Soliton current 2.00
4 Gulf of Mexico
100-yr Hurricane 12.2 14.0 2.5 41.0 API 1.07 0.10
100-yr Hurricane WC*) 12.0 14.5 36.0 NPD 1.49
10-yr Hurricane WC*) 8.3 12.6 13.4 NPD 1.02
10-y winter storm**) 5.8 10.6 26.0 API 0.60
Loop eddy current 6.1 11.0 2.0 22.0 API 2.13 0.10
5 Brazil: Campos Basin
100-yr 7.8 15.4 1.7 28.3 API 1.75 0.69
6 West of Africa
100-yr 4.5 17.0 4.0 1.5 4.0 1.0 7.5 API/NPD 0.50 0.15
Squall 40.0
*) API Bulletin 2INT-MET (2007)
**) wind direction 22.5
0
and 45
0
with the collinear wave and current direction

According to API Bulletin 2INT-MET (2007) the GoM is divided in regions, see figure below.


Each region has her own characteristics in terms of wind, waves and current for hurricane storm. In
the table below the characteristic values are given for the West Central region during the 10, 25, 50,
100, 200 and 1000 yr return period, see Table below.



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In general the (100y) hurricane and the (100y) typhoon are considered as similar environmental
conditions. This means the lessons learnt in the Gulf of Mexico can be applied in the waters of Asia and
Australia.

It must be noted when dealing with wind that:
1) the speed in knots, however, always corresponds to nautical miles/hour=1853/3600=0.5147 m/s
2) If it is eastern wind then the wind comes from the east. For eastern waves and eastern current it
means going to the east.

Below the conversion table is given.

Velocity conversion table
3.281 ft/s
1 m/s 2.237 mile/h
3.600 km/h
0.3048 m/s
1 ft/s 0.6809 mile/h
1.097 km/h
0.5942 knot
0.5144 m/s
1 knot 1.852 km/h
1.151 nautical mile/h
0.4470 m/s
1.609 km/h
1 mph 1.467 ft/s
0.8689 knot

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8 CURRENT



8.1 Introduction
Current can be divided into the following different types and in more detail treated in the mentioned
sections:
1) Wind-generated current or storm-driven current, section 8.2.1

2) Tidal current, section 8.2.1

3) Ocean currents (equatorial current, Gulf Stream, loop current), section 8.2.2

4) River current which is a freshwater surface stream, section 8.2.3

5) Eddy current, section 8.2.4

6) Soliton current, section 8.2.5

7) Local current phenomena due to bottom topography, section 8.2.6

8) Bottom currents or subsurface jets, section 8.2.7

9) Turbidity current being mud avalanches with extreme high current speeds (25m/s). Important in
Cabinda (Angola), Scotian shelf and Manteo (NC), section 8.2.8

10) Current due to second order wave effects of shoaling waves in shallow water causing longshore
drift current and rip currents along the coast line, section 8.2.9.

11) Current due to air pressure, section. 8.2.10

The duration of the current is given in the figure below.





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8.2 The detailed treatment of the current types

8.2.1 The wind-generated current or storm-driven current and the tidal current

The estimates of current velocity with depth due to tidal in combination with wind generated current
are as follows, see Figure below:

V(z) = V
tide
(z) + V
wind
(z)

V
tide
(z) = V
tide
{(h+z)/h}
1/7
for z s 0

V
wind
(z) = V
wind
{(h
0
+z)/h
0
} for 0 > z > -h
0


V
wind
(z) = 0 for z < -h
0


in which:
V(z) = total current velocity at level z
z = distance from still water level, positive upwards
V
tide
= tidal current velocity at the still water level
V
wind
= wind-generated current velocity at the still water level
h = water depth to still water level (taken positive)
h
0
= reference depth for wind-generated current (h
0
= 50 m).

In open areas wind-generated current velocities at the still water level can be taken as follows:
v
wind
= 0.02 v
1 hr 10


The tidal and wind driven current

Wind-generated current or storm-driven current are typically surface currents. The direction of the
current under cyclone or hurricane condition follows the direction of the track of the eye.

Tidal current, which can also be felt down to a considerable depth below the surface although the
velocities will normally be reduced with depth




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8.2.2 Ocean currents (equatorial current, Gulf Stream, loop current)
Ocean currents (for example the Equatorial current, Gulf Stream, see Figure below), which can have
homogenous flow down to several hundred meters;




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Another Representation of the Equatorial current and the Atlantic Gulfstream is given in the figure below.


















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The area off the coast of South Africa is dominated by both the Benguela and Agulhas Currents. The
Benguela Current transports cold water towards the equator along the west coast of South Africa at a
speed of approximately 20 cm per second and the Angulhas Current transports warm equatorial
waters along the east coast towards the Antarctic.




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Further large scale ocean surfaces ocean currents have been distinguished, as shown in the figures
below.



Ocean current has turbulence. Field measurements have shown that the ocean current has a turbulence
intensity of approximately % 8 . 1 % 100 * / = =
c c
V T o . During model tests the turbulence must be
identified to understand the effect on moored floating structures. In general the turbulence in model
basins is much higher than in the field (~10-40%). This has to be noticed in the results of model tests.

Further the loop current belongs to the ocean current since it is a part of the north equatorial current
passing via the strait of Yucatan and the strait of Florida the Gulf of Mexico.













The associated vertical current distribution is given in the Figure below, representing a 100 yr current
distribution, for the loop current eddy see section 8.2.4.



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100-yr Loop current Prof ile
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
speed (cm/s)
D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)


8.2.3 River current which is a freshwater surface stream
River current which is a freshwater outflow is typically a surface current. The river fresh water can
form a strong surface current.
In the figure below the Congo river flume has been shown. The strong surface current has been
detected by chlorophyll pictures taken from the SEAWIFS Satellite.





8.2.4 Eddy current
In this section the Loop/Eddy current will be dealt with as occurs in the GoM. The Loop current in the



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GoM is a part of the northern equatorial current running from West Africa parallel with the equator to
the Caribbean Sea passing the strait of Yucatan and runs through the GoM and exit through the strait
of Florida to follow her way to the North (all the way to Murmansk, Russia).
The loop current can have a homogenous flow down to several hundred meters. The eddy current is a
local current phenomena being separated from the meandering main Loop current. The separated
currents from the main Loop current are called eddy currents; eddy currents can be strong and
persistent and having a strong vertical coherence.
An example of the trajectories of the loop and eddy current is given in the figure below.


















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An example of the typical loop current speed distribution over the depth in the GoM is given in the
figure below.


8.2.5 Soliton current
Local current phenomena, such as soliton current caused by internal waves, see figure below. Soliton
current are sudden high current speeds due to different densities of water masses (important Australia,
South China Sea and West Africa). The initiation of the soliton current is induced by the forces of
tides and winds. The wave length can be 5 km long and the (internal) wave height can be 30 m high.
The wave surface speed can be in the order of 1m/s.










8.2.6 Current variations due to interaction with topography
Sites where a complexity of the bathymetry exists can generate unstable flow during the ebb and
flood current and are called topographical currents. An example is the shedding of current stream
around obstacles as harbor piers, heads on the beaches and rivers, sharp land corners, relative small
massive constructions etc. introducing macro vortices (wakes) in the main current flow. Macro
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Cur r ent speed (f t /sec)
W
a
t
e
r

d
e
p
t
h

(
f
t
)
Hurricane
Loop current
Colder Water
Warmer Water
Internal
Waves
Wave
Breaking



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vortices can have diameters of several large tanker lengths. If in this area a floating structure is
moored large mooring forces can be expected due to the encountered macro vortices.
An example of an obstruction and the induced macro vortices shedding from the obstruction is given
in the figure below. In this case the obstacle is a grounded crude tanker. The wake is visualized by the
leaking crude oil.






The figures below show a small sand island (the blue spot) in the middle of an otherwise homogenous
ebb and flood current. The water depth is 24 m and the strength of the flood and ebb current amounts
to approximately 1.5 knots. Hydraulic computations were carried out to compare the computed and
measured macro vortices as were shed from the island. In spite of the complexity of the flow the
results of the full scale and the computed data were very close. The computations were carried out
with the computer code Delft3D-FLOW with HLES (horizontal large eddy simulations) method of
WL/Delft Hydraulics. The HLES module was applied in the hydraulic modeling. This module
calculates at each grid point and for each time step the value for the horizontal eddy viscosity
parameter. The HLES method replaces the specification of the horizontal viscosity parameter, which
otherwise would be a calibration parameter that depends on the flow and the grid size, Ref. [8-2], [8-
3] and [8-4]. The code uses the correct viscosity of the fluid which makes it possible to simulate the
correct shedding of the flow behind the island introducing the macro vortices.
The figures below gives examples of the hydraulic computations on macro vortices shedding from an
island representing the maximum flood current (undisturbed 1.5 knots) in an area of 1.5*2.5 km and
with an interval of 10 minutes. The pictures show the large instability of the flow which will be
dangerous to moor a vessel close by.

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15:50
500 m
16:00
500 m



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8.2.7 Bottom currents or subsurface jets
An example of a bottom current or subsurface jet is given in the figure below. These currents can last
for few days with peaks of 2 m/s.
Subsurface profiles, Jan 26, 0000-0400
0
50
100
150
200
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
alongshore current (cm/s)
d
e
p
t
h

(
m
)


8.2.8 Turbidity current
Turbidity current being mud avalanches with extreme high current speeds (25m/s). Important in
Cabinda (Angola), Scotian shelf and Manteo (NC).

8.2.9 Current due to second order wave effects
The second order wave effects are caused by shoaling waves in
shallow water causing longshore drift current and rip currents
along the coast line as given in the figure below.


















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8.2.10 Current due to air pressure.
Current can be generated due to the air pressure over a certain area High and lower water levels).

8.3 General remark on current measurements
To be able to forecast current with necessary reliability, the following will normally be necessary, see
also Ref. [8-5]:
- For sites where tidal current dominates, measurement during all lunar cycles over the year
are advised;
- For sites where the complexity of the bathymetry (topographical current, see 8.2 6) can
generate unstable flow, real-time current measurements with devices that record the
current velocity and direction, with readouts at various depths. An example is the shedding
of current stream around land obstacles that can introduce macro vortices in the main
current flow.


8.4 Current forces
The knowledge of the steady current loads on FPSO's is important. To determine the current loads not
only the current speed but also the current force coefficients in x-, y- and -direction e.g. a vessel
shaped body has to be known. The current coefficients of FPSO's are generally determined by means
of model tests. The models are either towed to simulate the current or, when a model basin has the
possibility to generate current, tested in current. Besides in model basins the current coefficients can
also be determined in wind tunnels.
The current coefficients for tankers determined by means of model tests are given by MEG 3, see
Ref.[8-1], and are dealt with in Chapter 34 of Part 3. The principles of the applied model laws and the
model test set-up to determine the current coefficients in either wind tunnels or model basins are
presented in Chapter 53 of Part 5.

Besides the steady current loads in a homogenous current field also the determination of the
oscillating forces and motions due to vortex shedding from the structures is important. Vortex
shedding can occur on tankers moored in beam current in shallow water or due to changing of the
shedding points along the circumference of the vessel.


8.5 References
8-1) OCIMF: "Mooring equipment guidelines", 3rd edition (MEG3), published in 2008 by Witherby
Seamanship International, 4 Dunlop Square, Deans estate, Livingston EH54 8SB, UK
8-2) Bijlsma, A.C., R.E. Uittenbogaard and T. Blokland: Horizontal large eddy simulation applied to
stratified tidal flows, Proc. Int. Symp. On shallow Flows, Delft 16-18 June 2003: Part II
8-3) Uittenbogaard, R.E. and B. Van Vossen: Subgrid-scale model for Quasi-2D turbulence in
shallow water, Proc. Int. Symp. On shallow Flows, Delft 16-18 June 2003: Part II
8-4) WL//Delft Hydraulics, 2003, Delft3D-FLOW, Simulation of multi-dimensional hydrodynamic
flows and transport phenomena, including sediments. User manual version 3.10, March 2003
8-5) ISO 19901-6.3 Petroleum and natural gas industries-specific requirements for offshore
structures-Part 6: Marine operations-ISO 2009



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9 WIND

9.1 Introduction
Wind velocities in general can be split into a number of components:
-A steady component corresponding to an average steady wind velocity value determined during a
certain period of time.
-Dynamic components due to the following effects:
* turbulence in the undisturbed wind field, which results in time variations of the wind velocity and
direction as well as spatial variations;
* in-stationary behavior of the flow around the structure due to vortex shedding and variations in the
separation point of the flow.
The dynamic wind velocities or fluctuating wind speed or wind gusting in the main direction are
given in Figure 9-1. The example of time history of wind speed has a mean wind speed of Vw=21.5
m/s and derived from Ref. [9-13].


Fig. 9-1: Example of time history of wind speed (from Ref. [9-13]

In computations the representation of the wind as given in Figure 9-2, is normally applied, see also
section 23.6.2.

Fig. 9-2: Wind characteristics

The characteristic values in Figure 9-2 are defined below:
Vw=mean measured wind speed
o = standard deviation of the measured wind speed

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The total wind speed is defined as Vw(t)=Vw +u(t) where the wind gusting is expressed by u(t),
where /u(t)/ < Vw.
The wind gusting will be described in the form of a wind spectrum as will be dealt with in this
chapter.
In Figure 9-3 the description is given on the vertical distribution of the wind velocities.


Fig.9-3: Characteristic values of the vertical wind distribution

From a point of view of design and operation of floating offshore structures the steady component is
important but also attention should be paid to the in-stationary part of the wind speed. Figure 9-4
represents the frequency range where the wind spectrum is importance. The wind fluctuations are in
the area of the longer periods out of the range of the wave frequency but in the frequency range of the
natural periods of the motions of a moored structure in the horizontal plane.

Fig. 9-4: Distribution of the spectral density of the wind and waves

From visual observation the classification of wind speeds can be given on Beaufort scale. The review
of the Beaufort scales is given in Table 9-1.




0 0.1 0.2
Frequency (Hz)
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

e
n
e
r
g
y

d
e
n
s
i
t
y
Wave
spectrum
Wind
spectrum
Surge / sway natural
frequencies for floaters
Natural frequency
for fixed platforms



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Average wind speed at 10 m above sea level
Beaufort Name km/hour m/sec mph knots
0 calm 0 to 1 0 to 0.2 0,0 - 0,6 0,0 - 0,4
1 light air 1 to 5 0.3 to 1.5 0,6 - 3,1 0,6 - 2,9
2 light breeze 6 to 11 1.6 to 3.3 3,7 - 6,8 3,1 - 6,4
3 gentle breeze 12 to 19 3.4 to 5.4 7,5 - 11,8 6,6 - 10,5
4 moderate breeze 20 to 28 5.5 to 7.9 12,4 - 17,4 10,7 - 15,3
5 fresh breeze 29 to 38 8.0 to 10.7 18,0 - 23,6 15,5 - 20,8
6 strong breeze 39 to 49 10.8 to 13.8 24,2 - 30,5 21,0 - 26,8
7 near gale 50 to 61 13.9 to 17.1 31,1 - 37,9 27,0 - 33,2
8 gale 62 to 74 17.2 to 20.7 38,5 - 46,0 33,4 - 40,2
9 strong breeze 75 to 88 20.8 to 24.4 46,6 - 54,7 40,4 - 47,4
10 storm 89 to 102 24.5 to 28.4 55,3 - 63,4 47,6 - 55,2
11 violent storm 103 to 117 28.5 to 32.6 64,0 - 72,7 55,4 - 63,3
12 hurricane > 117 > 32.6 > 72,7 >63,3
Table 9-1: Review of the Beaufort scales

It must be noted when dealing with wind that if one speaks about wind velocities or gust winds then
velocity must be considered as the mean 1-minute wind speed.:

The theory on the different types of wind spectra and the vertical distributions are based on
measurements. In the following some of the wind data sources and uncertainties involved are
mentioned as for instance:

- Platform measurements:
Structure interferes with flow. Measure sustained wind and gusts at top of derrick and measure
air and sea water temperature. Adjust winds to reference level, accounting for platform
interference.
(above deck: convergence increased Vw, at deck level: stagnation reduced Vw, between
deck and sea level increased Vw)
- Buoy measurements
At top wave increased Vw and at wave trough reduced Vw
Wave form interferes with flow, anemometer height may be too low, buoy heave, pitch, and
roll may affect measurements.
- Satellite winds
Altimeter and scatter meter agree well with ground truth up to about 20 m/s. Algorithms are
being improved: may be good to 35 m/s eventually.
- Hindcast winds
-Represent one-hour average speed at 10 m (or 20 m)
-Accuracy depends on quantity and quality of available wind and pressure data and
assimilation methods.

9.2 Wind forces
The knowledge of the wind speed is important to calculate the steady and oscillating wind forces on
an offshore structure. For the calculation of the wind force, however, not only the wind characteristics
but also the wind force coefficients of the structure has to be known. The wind coefficients of
offshore structures are generally determined from model test in wind tunnels. A model of the structure

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is fixed to a force balance by means of which the three forces and the three moments acting on the
structure can be measured. In measuring the wind force on a floating structure, a flat plate is usually
situated at the level of the waterline of the vessel, thus ensuring that only the above-water part of the
structures is exposed to the wind. The wind force coefficients for tankers determined by means of
wind tunnel tests are given by MEG3 and are dealt with in Chapter 19.
For wind forces on semi-submersibles not only the wind forces while the platform is in a horizontal
position but also it is important to measure the wind forces while the platform is in a tilt position, see
Figure 9-5. Due to the relative small restoring moment the platform can be in a tilt position during
storm conditions.


Fig. 9-5: Effect wind force on a semi-submersible

The principles of the applied model laws to determine the wind coefficients are presented in Chapter
53 of Part 4.

9.3 Wind spectra

9.3.1 Introduction
As mentioned earlier for the computation of the wind forces on an offshore structure a mean wind
speed in combination with the fluctuating wind speed have to be known. It must be noted that even in
a wind tunnel the wind speed has in longitudinal direction a mean and a fluctuating part, see Ref.[9-
1]. The turbulence intensity is indicated in Figure 9-6.




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Fig. 9-6: turbulence intensity

The description of the fluctuating wind speed is very complex, however, several investigators have
tried to express the turbulence in terms of a so-called wind spectrum or gust spectrum, most of them
derived from prototype measurements. Some of the formulations are summarized below.

9.3.2 Harris-DnV (Ref. [9-2] and Ref. [9-3])
The description of the wind spectrum in Hz is given below.

) ( f S f
w
V
=
g w
F V C
2
4

g
F =
6
5
) 2 (
2
x
x
+


x =
w
V
f
1800


or in rad/s we will find the following formulae:

( )
6
5
286 2
2
7200
2
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
w
w
V
V

V
C

S
w

where:

F
g
= gust factor
C = turbulence or surface drag coefficient; may be chosen equal to 0.002 for "rough" seas and
0.0015 for "moderate" seas

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V
w
= the hourly mean wind speed (m/s) at reference level 10 m above the water surface
f = frequency of the wind oscillations in Hz
e = frequency of the wind oscillations in rad/s
w
V
S
= spectral density of the wind velocity in m
2
/s.

Below the spectrum of the measured wind during the hurricane Eloise (1975) at location EI331 is
presented. The measured wind spectrum is compared with the theoretical results of the Harris-DnV
wind spectrum.


9.3.3 Ochi-Shin (Ref. [9-4])
The description of the wind spectrum in Hz is given below.

) ( f S f
w
V
=
g w
F V C
2


in which the gust factor F
g
is defined as follows:

w
V f 0003 . 0 0 < s x F
g
583 =

w w
V f V 01 . 0 0003 . 0 < s
5 . 11 35 . 0
7 . 0
) 1 (
) 420 (
x
x
F
g
+
=

w
V f 01 . 0 >
5 . 11 35 . 0
) 1 (
) 838 (
x
x
F
g
+
=
where:
x = z f/V
w
(z)
z = height above sea level (10 m)
C= surface drag coefficient

or in rad/s we will find the following formulae:




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) (e e
w
V
S
=
g w
F V C
2


in which the gust factor F
g
is defined as follows:

w
V 001885 . 0 0 s s e
x F
g
583 =


w w
V V 0628 . 0 001885 . 0 < s e
5 . 11 35 . 0
7 . 0
) 1 (
) 420 (
x
x
F
g
+
=


w
V 0628 . 0 > e
5 . 11 35 . 0
) 1 (
) 838 (
x
x
F
g
+
=


where:

x = 1.592 e/V
w

V
w
= mean wind speed at a reference level of 10 m.

In the formulation of the surface drag coefficient C, the results of Wu, Ref [9-5], have been used. In
the formula form the drag coefficient as function of V
w
is given below:

C = (750 + 69 V
w
)-10
-6

or in graphical form




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9.3.4 Modified Harris or Wills wind spectrum (Ref. [9-6])
The description of the wind spectrum in Hz is given below.

) ( f S f
w
V
=
g w
F V C
2
4


g
F
=
6
5
) 2 (
) (
2
x
x A x
+


x =
w
V
f
1800


in which:
A(x) =
3
5
6
5
8
9
15 . 0
2
) 2 (
51 . 0
(

+
+
x x
x


C = roughness parameter or surface drag coefficient = 0.003
V
w
=mean wind speed in m/s @ 10 m

or in rad/s we will find the following formulae:

( ) 3
5
2
3672
) (
8
9
15 . 0
x x
V C
S
w
V
w
+
=
t
e


where:
x = 286.5 e/V
w


9.3.5 API-1990 (Ref. [9-7])
The description of the wind spectrum in Hz is given below.
3 5
2
5 1
1
*
*
/
Vw
V
fp
f .
fp
f (z)
(f) S f
w
(

+
=

in which:
fp = average factor derived from measured wind spectra
= 0.025 V
w w
(z)/z

o
Vw
(z) = turbulence intensity
=
(z) V
z
z
.
w

s
|
|
.
|

\
|
15 0




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where:
o = -0.125 for z s z
s
o = -0.275 for z > z
s

V
w
(z) = hourly mean wind speed (m/s) at a level z meters above SWL
z
s
=20 m representing the thickness of the "surface layer".
z =10 m

or in rad/s we will find the following formulae:

3 5
2
2
5 1
1 2
)
/
Vw
V
fp
.
fp
(z)
( S
w
(

+
=



Measured wind spectra show a wide range in variation in fp. Due to the large range of fp in the
measured spectra it is recommended that concepts sensitive to dynamic wind loading should be tested
with spectra whose natural frequency is in the range and conservative values may be considered for
the design:

0.01<= fp *z/V
w
(1hr, z) <=0.1
It should be noted that fp is not at the peak of the dimensional wind energy.

9.3.6 NPD Wind (Ref. [9-8])
The following wind spectrum may be used for energy density S(f) ((m/s)
2
/Hz) of the longitudinal
wind speed fluctuations at frequency f(Hz).

| |
n /
n
w
V
t
z V
(f) S
w * 3 5
45 . 0 2
1
10
*
10
320
+
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=


and

75 . 0
3 / 2
10
10
* * 172
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
w
V

z
f
t


or in rad/s we will find the following formulae:


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| |
n /
n
w
V
t
V
) ( S
w * 3 5
2
1
10 2
320
+
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
=
t
e



75 . 0
10
*
2
172
|
.
|

\
|
=
w
V

t
e
t


where

f = frequency in Hz
e -frequency in rad/s
z =height above sea level in m
n =0.468
V
w
= the 1-hour mean wind speed in m/s at 10 m above sea level.

For reason of comparison the results of the above mentioned wind spectrum formulations have been
computed. The results are based on an hourly mean wind velocity of 30.9 m/s at 10 m above sea level
and presented in the figure below.

Spectral densities following the formulation of Harris-DnV, Ochi-Shin, API and
NPD wind spectra (V
w
(1-hour mean) = 30.9 m/s; altitude=10 m)

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0.001 0.01 0.1 1
e (rad/s)
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

m
2
/
s
NPD
API
Harris
Modified Harris
Ochi
Vw=30.9 m/s
Z=10 m



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9.4 Vertical distribution of wind speed

9.4.1 Introduction
The vertical distribution of wind velocity expresses the reduction of the wind velocity closer to the
sea surface due to friction effects.
For offshore structures the surface is bound to waves. The vertical profile of the dynamic pressures of
measured wind over a rigid wavy boundary in a wind tunnel have been measured and shown in the
picture below. It clearly shows the effects of the wavy boundary. It must be noted that in vertical wind
profiles this effect are averaged.
.
Formulas exist to describe the vertical wind profiles and are presented in this chapter.

9.4.2 Bretschneider (Ref. [9-9])
The relation often chosen for the vertical profile using the boundary layer profile for the wind is as
follows:
7 / 1
10
* ) 10 ( ) (
|
.
|

\
|
=
z
V z V
w w
in which:
V
w
(10) = average wind speed during a certain period at 10 m above SWL
V
w
(z) = wind velocity z m above SWL

The periods over which the average value is determined may vary from 1-hour to 3 seconds. The 3-
second mean wind speed is called the 3-second gust. Contrary to the application of wind spectra, the

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(sustained) wind speed averaged over, for instance, 3 seconds or 1 minute is often used for the design.
This ensures in most cases that the complete structure has been subjected to the same wind speed.
When no specific data are available for the sustained wind speed averaged over a short period, this
speed can be approximated from the wind speed averaged over a different period using the following
empirical relationship:

|
|
.
|

\
|
(

+ =
2
1
1 2
log * 16 . 0 1 * ) ( ) (
t
t
t V t V
w w

in which:

V
w
(t
2
) = wind speed averaged over the duration t
2

V
w
(t
1
) = wind speed averaged over the duration t
1


The results of the empirical relation are shown in the table below. The calculations are carried out for
the known 1-hour and the 10-minute wind and are derived from oV
w
as given in the next section.









In general the empirical relationship gives for the wind speeds at shorter duration larger wind speeds
than derived from the formulae as given by DnV in the section below.

9.4.3 DnV (Ref. [9-3])
In absence of more reliable data, the wind speed as a function of height above SWL and averaging
time interval may be approximated by the following power law:
|
o
|
.
|

\
|
=
10
* ) 10 , 1 ( * ) , (
z
hr V z t V
w w

in which:
V
w
(t,z) = the wind speed averaged over a time interval t as
defined by o and |, z meters above SWL
V
w
(1hr,10) = the wind speed averaged over one hour, 10 m above SWL
o = gust factor referenced to V
w
(1 hr, 10)
| = height exponent.

The factors in the power law for the wind profiles are shown in the table below:

Factor
Average time interval
1 hr 10 min 1 min 15 s 5 s 3 s
o
|
1.000
0.150
1.060
0.130
1.180
0.113
1.260
0.106
1.310
0.102
1.330
0.100
Vw(t1) t1 t2 Vw(t2) Vw Vw(t1) t1 t2 Vw(t2) Vw
m/s s s m/s m/s m/s s s m/s m/s
30.6 3600 600 34.4 32.8 32.8 600 3600 28.7 30.9
60 39.3 36.5 60 38.0 36.5
15 42.3 38.9 15 41.2 38.9
5 44.6 40.5 5 43.7 40.5
3 45.7 41.1 3 44.9 41.1



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9.4.4 API-PR2A (Ref. [9-7])
In this paragraph an example is given of the wind according to API-RP2A. The profile for the wind
speed in m/s averaged over a period at elevation z and based on the 1-hour wind speed at elevation z
R
,
amounts to:

125 . 0
* ) , 1 ( * ) , ( ) , (
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
R
R w w
z
z
z hr V z t G z t V

in which:
G(t,z) = gust factor
z
R
= reference elevation, for instance 10 m.

The gust factor G(t,z) can be defined as

) ( * ) ( 1
) , 1 (
) , (
) , ( z I t g
z hr V
z t V
z t G
R w
w
+ = =
where:
I(z) = normalized turbulence intensity
g(t) = factor, where t is the gust duration in seconds

The factor g(t) can be calculated from:

(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
6 . 0
3
ln 0 . 3 ) (
t
t g
for t<=60 sec

Note that this equation only gives the gust factor for averaging intervals of 1-minute or less.

For the 10 minute average we recommend G(10 min, 10 m)=1.05. The corresponding factor g
amounts to g(600 s) = 0.3056.

The normalized turbulence intensity I(z) is the standard deviation of wind speed divided by the mean
wind speed over one hour. Normalized turbulence intensity can be approximated by:

o
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
s R w
z
z
z hr V
z
z I 15 . 0
) , 1 (
) (
) (

in which:
o = -0.125 for z s z
s
or -0.275 for z > z
s


z
s
=20 m and represents the thickness of the "surface layer".

In the table below the wind velocities at a height of 10 m above SWL and for the short durations of 3,
5, 15 and 60 s based on a 1-hour wind speed of 30.9 m/s at 10 m above SWL have been compared:


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average
based on 1hr - Vw=30.9
m/s
time at 10 m above SWL
interval DnV API
s m/s m/s
60 36.5 37
15 38.9 41.2
5 40.5 44.5
3 41.1 46.1

It can be concluded that API gives higher wind velocities than DnV.

9.4.5 NPD (Ref. [9-8])
For strong wind conditions the design wind speed V
w
(t,z) in m/s at height z in m above sea level and
corresponding to an averaging time period t<= t
0
= 3600 s is given by:
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
* ) ( * 41 . 0 1 * ) , 1 ( ) , (
t
t
LN z I z hr V z t V
w w

in which:
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
10
* 1 * ) 10 , 1 ( ) , 1 (
z
LN C hr V z hr V
w w

where Vw(1hr,10) is the 1-hour mean wind speed

) 10 , 1 ( * 15 . 0 1 ( 0573 . 0 hr V C
w
+ =

where I(z) = turbulence intensity at a level z
| |
22 . 0
10
* ) 10 , 1 ( * 034 . 0 1 06 . 0 ) (

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
z
hr V z I
w


In the figure below the results of the NPD, API and DnV wind speeds as function of height z above
SWL and the specified wind durations based on the 1-hour wind speed of 30.9 m/s at 10 m above
SWL are shown in the figure below.




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comparison wind distribution over vertical
0
10
20
30
40
50
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0
wi nd speed [m/s]
h
e
i
g
h
t

z

a
b
o
v
e

S
W
L

[
m
]NPD-1 hr
NPD-10 min
NPD-1 min
NPD-3 s
API-1 min
API-3 s
DnV-1 hr
DnV-10 min
DnV-1 min
DnV-3 s


From the results it can be concluded that both NPD, API and DnV are close except for the period of
the 3 second period where API is significantly higher.

The NPD and API normalized turbulence intensity o(z)/V
w
(1hr,10) in which V
w
(1hr,10)=30.9 m/s is
given in the figure below.

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
turbul ence i ntensi ty I(z) [-}
h
e
i
g
h
t

z

a
b
o
v
e

S
W
L

i
n

m
NPD
API


From the figure it can be seen that the turbulence intensity differ considerably.

The comparison between the gust factor G(t,z)=Vw(1min,z)/Vw(1hr,10) for a average period of 1
minute and 3 second based on a 1-hour wind speed of 30.9 m/s and 10 m above SWL for API and
DnV is given below.

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gust factor for average interval 1 min and 3 s
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Vw(1 mi n,z)/Vw(1 hr, 10)
h
e
i
g
h
t

a
b
o
v
e

S
W
L

i
n

m
API-1 min
NPD-1 min
NPD-3 s
API-3 s


Although the values for the gust factors for the 1 minute period are close, the values for the 3 second
period deviate significantly. The gust factor for the 3 second period is considerably higher for the API
values resulting in much higher wind speeds.

9.4.6 Spatial coherence
Wind gusts have three dimensional scales related to their durations. For example, 3 second gusts are
coherent over shorter distances and therefore affect smaller length elements of a platform
superstructure than e.g. 15 second gusts. The wind in a 3 second gust is appropriate for determining
the maximum static wind loads on individual members; 5 second gusts are appropriate for maximum
total loads on structures whose maximum horizontal dimensions is less than 164 feet (50 m); and 15
second gusts are appropriate for the maximum total static wind load on larger structures. The one
minute sustained wind is appropriate for total static superstructure wind loads associated with
maximum wave forces. In frequency domain analyses of dynamic wind loading, it can be
conservatively assumed that all scales of turbulence are fully coherent over the entire superstructure.

9.5 Wind squall
In this paragraph the wind squalls will be dealt with. Sudden squall winds are due to thunder storms
which induce suddenly strong increase of wind speed combined with change in direction.
Wind squalls typically occur in the following geographical areas:
-West of Africa (Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Sao Tome, Angola)
-Gulf of Mexico (at the Mexico and Venezuela sites)

In West Africa wind measurements close to the Bonga location (offshore Nigeria-latitude 4.5
0
N and
4.5
0
E; 1000 m water depth) have been carried out. The data includes the following particulars:
- Data collection during December 1996-July 1998;
- 1 Hz measurements at top of drill derrick, 83 m above mean water level;
- 10 squalls with 1-second gusts above 20 m/s.

Squall winds are not stationary as for instance:
- 1-min mean speed is far from the constant speed over a 1-hour period;
- They cannot be described with a spectral model



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- Scaled records must be used in time-domain dynamic response calculations; maximum structure
response can vary considerably for different squall records even if all squall records are scaled to the
same peak wind speed.

The following are the squall wind unknowns as for instance:
- Vertical, transverse, and longitudinal coherence of gusts
- Proper averaging time for sustained speed in wind loads and response calculations
- Vertical profile of speed
- Statistics of speed build-up and decay rates
- Statistics of direction changes rates
- Extreme (100-year) speed

A suite of squall time series as measured and scaled to the same peak wind speed is given in the
figures below.

June 1997:










March 1997










October 1997









0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0 1800 3600
ti me (s)
n
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

s
p
e
e
d
0
90
180
270
360
0 1800 3600
time (s)
d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
d
e
g
)
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0 1800 3600
ti me (s)
n
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

s
p
e
e
d
0
90
180
0 1800 3600
ti me (s)
d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
d
e
g
)
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0 1800 3600
ti me (s)
n
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

s
p
e
e
d
0
30
60
90
0 1800 3600
ti me (s)
d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
d
e
g
)

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Maximum structure response can vary considerably for different squall records even if all squall
records are scaled to the same peak wind speed.

An example of a wind squall on tandem mooring with FPSO 100% loaded and shuttle tanker 40%
loaded draft will be given below and derived from Ref. [10]. The system is exposed to the following
environment:
Swell: Hs=0.6 m, Tp=15 s, direction 180
0
Wind wave: Hs=1.0 m, Tp=6 s, direction 135
0

Squall wind: 0-20 m/s in 10 seconds, direction 135
0
Current: 1 knot, direction 90
0


The results are shown in the figure and table below.


























The review of the weather conditions are given in the matrix below.



450 300 150 0 -150 -300 -450
-750
-600
-450
-300
-150
0
150
300
450
Tandem Mooring Simulations
FPSO100 %- Offtake Tanker 40 %- Sudden wind squall
Swell: Hs=0.6 m Tp=15 s Dir=180 deg
Wave : Hs=1.0 m Tp= 6 s Dir=135 deg
Wind :10-20 m/s Dir=135 deg - Current : 1 kn Dir= 90 deg
TEST NO. 9
Waves
135
o
Wind
135
o Current 90
o
Swell
180 o
YE in m
XE
in
m
0 10 20 30 40 [minutes]
20 m/s
10 m/s
Weather
condition Hs Tp dir Hs Tp dir speed dir Speed dir
m sec deg m sec deg m/s degr Knot deg
V 1 6 135 0.6 15 180 0-20*) 135 1 90
wind waves
*) 0-20 m/s increase in 10 minutes decrease in 20 minutes from 20
swell wind Current
2 tug @ 2*500 kN
Typical wind squall



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1 Year
Swell Wind Current Squall Swell Wind Current Squall Combined
(S100) (W100) (C100) (T100) (S10) (W10) (C10) (T10)
Hs (m) 3.08 1.33 1.33 1.33 2.25 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.33
Tp (sec) 18.5 15.53 15.53 15.53 17.33 15.53 15.53 15.53 15.53
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Hs (m) 1.52 2.76 1.52 2.30 1.52 2.03 1.52 1.71 1.52
Tp (sec) 5.6 7.09 5.6 5.2 5.6 6.28 5.6 4.49 5.6
0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75
1-hr (m/s) 10.2 14.7 10.2 0.0 10.2 12.1 10.2 0.0 10.2
1-min (m/s) 34.6 26.9 0.0
1-sec 43.2 33.7
Depth (m) Vel (m/s) Vel (m/s) Vel (m/s) Vel (m/s) Vel (m/s) Vel (m/s) Vel (m/s) Vel (m/s) Vel (m/s)
0.0 0.90 0.90 1.37 0.90 0.90 0.90 1.14 0.90 0.90
25.0 0.41 0.41 0.62 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.52 0.41 0.41
150.0 0.13 0.13 0.20 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.17 0.13 0.13
1219.2 0.13 0.13 0.20 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.17 0.13 0.13
Environment (SI - units)
Wind
Current Profile
100 Year 10 Year
Swell
Sea






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9.6 Wind force spectrum

9.6.1 Introduction
In this chapter the techniques will be explained using the wind spectra and the 1-hr average wind
speed exposed to an offshore structure to determine the induced motions of the offshore structures in
both the time domain and in the frequency domain.

9.6.2 Time domain analysis (Ref. [9-11])
In order to compute the effect of the 1-hour mean wind speed and the oscillating wind velocities on
moored offshore structures time domain computations can be carried out. For the computations not
only the description of the wind spectrum but also the statistical distribution of the wind velocity has
to be known. Based on the results in Ref. [9-12] it can be assumed that the turbulence is Gaussian
(like the distribution of random waves), see figure below.


Given the shape of the wind spectrum the oscillating wind speed can be simulated as time series by
means of a finite summation technique by means of the random phase model:

( ) | |
w
N
J
j j V w
V j Q t S t V
w
+ + A =

=1
) ( cos( ) ( 2 ) ( e e e

in which:
N =number of spectral values
S
Vw
(e
j
) =array with spectral values
Ae =frequency interval of spectrum in rad/s
t =time in s
Q(j) =random phase, uniform distributed in the interval [0,2t]
V
w
= mean wind velocity at a reference level of 10 m.

Having the time domain trace of the wind velocity, the wind force trace on a (fixed) floating structure
can be computed if the wind resistance coefficient and wind area are known. To determine the
motions of the moored structure due to the external wind, the wind forces have to be inputted in the
equations of motion.

9.6.3 Frequency domain analysis (Ref. [9-11]
Spectral analysis of the wind force trace may deliver the wind force spectrum. Knowing the wind
area, for instance the frontal area of a moored tanker A
t
and the associated wind resistance coefficient
C
1w
(180
0
), the wind force spectrum can be straight forward determined using the wind speed



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spectrum. For the computation it is assumed that the mean wind velocity (for instance 1-hour average
wind speed V
w
) is always larger than the oscillating wind components V(t).

The total wind force acting on the (fixed) tanker in head wind will be:
2 2 ) 1 (
1
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
1
2 0
1
2 0
1
2 0
1
2 0
1
2 0
1 1
)) ( )( / ( ) ( ) / 2 (
)) ( ( ) 180 (
2
1
) ( ) / ) 180 (
2
1
2 ( ) 180 (
2
1
)) ( ( ) 180 (
2
1
)) ( ( ) 180 (
2
1
) (
t V V X t V V X X
t V A C t V V V A C V A C
t V V A C
t V A C t X
w w w w w
t w w w t w w t w
w t w
w t w w
+ + =
+ + =
+ =
=



The first term represents the mean longitudinal wind force on the tanker. The second term is an
oscillating wind force with frequencies corresponding to the frequencies of the wind spectrum with an
average of zero. The last term, however, is a quadratic nature. Such a term contains not only a mean
part, but also oscillating parts in the (e
i
-e
j
) and (e
i
+e
j
) frequency range. Neglecting the parts with
the sum frequency an analogy with the wave drift forces can be made. For reason of analogy it may
be assumed that the oscillating wind V(t) can be replaced by the wave height ,(t).

In terms of spectral density of the wind forces the second term can be read as follows:

) ( ) / 2 ( ) (
) ( ) / 2 ( )) ( ) / 2 ((
2
1
)) ( (
2
1
) (
2 ) 1 (
1
2 ) 1 (
1
2 ) 1 (
1
2 ) 1 (
1
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
1
e e
e e e e e e
V w w
X
V w w w w w
X
S V X S
or
S V X V V X X S
w
w
=
A == == = A


For the third term the spectral density of the wind force can be derived as follows:

= =
+ + =
N
i
N
j
j j i i aj ai
t t V V t V
1 1
2
) sin( ) sin( )) ( ( c e c e


while the low frequency part can be read:

= =
+ =
N
i
N
j
j i j i aj ai l
t V V t V
1 1
2
}] ) ( ) [cos{cos(
2
1
)) ( ( c c e e


in which the mean part of the quadratic wind velocity V(t) amounts to:


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}

= =
=
0
0
1
2 2
) (
) (
2
1
)) ( (
m d S
V t V
V
N
n
an l
e e


in which m
0
= area of the spectrum of the wind velocity, and the corresponding mean wind force
amounts to:

) / (
2 ) 1 (
1 0
) 2 (
1 w w w
V X m X =

while the low frequency oscillating part can be read as follows:

e e e d V X S S S
w w V V
X
w
2 2 ) 1 (
1
0
) /( )( ( * ) ( 8 ) (
) 2 (
1
+ =
}



in which = e
i
-e
j

The total spectral density of the wind force at the natural frequency
e
of the moored tanker will be:

e e e d V X S S S V X S
w w e V V e V w w
X
w
2 2 ) 1 (
1
0
2
1
) /( )( ( * ) ( 8 ) ( ) / 2 ( ) (
1
+ + =
}



while the total mean wind force amounts to:

) / ( ) (
2 ) 1 (
1 0
) 1 (
1 1 w w w w
V X m X total X + =

For the frequency domain the mean displacement, the standard deviation and the most probable
maximum excursion for a storm duration of 3 hours (only wind and waves) are determined according
to the theory as given in Ref. [9-14], [9-15], [9-16] and [9-17]:

-the mean displacement can be read as follows:
11
) 2 (
1
) 2 (
1
) 1 (
1
1 / ) ( C X X X X
w w
+ + =



-the natural frequency will be:
) /(
11 11
a m C + =

-the variance of the low frequency surge motion can be expressed as follows:

11 11 1 1 11
2
) ( 2
)} ( ) ( {
) (
1
) 2 (
1
1
C B b b b
S S
m w
e X e
X
X
w
+ + +
+
=
t
o





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-while the most probable maximum surge motion in a time period T will be:

N x x
x
ln * 2
1
1 max
o + =



in which:

1
x = mean displacement in m
1

X = mean force
) 2 (
1 X = mean wave drift force
) 1 (
1w
X = mean wind force, first order contribution
) 2 (
1w
X = mean part of the oscillating wind force
11
C = spring constant in surge direction

e
= natural frequency in surge direction
m = mass of the tanker
a
11
= added mass at the natural frequency of the system
o
x1
= standard deviation of the low frequency surge motion
) (
) 2 (
1
e
X
S
= spectral density of wave drift force at the natural frequency of the system in surge
direction
) (
) 1 (
1
e
X
w
S
= spectral density of the wind force at the natural frequency of the system in surge
direction
) (
) 2 (
1
e
X
w
S
= second order contribution to the spectral density of the wind force at the natural
frequency of the system in surge direction
b
11
(
e
) = viscous damping at the natural frequency in surge direction
b
1w
= wind damping
w w
V X / 2
) 1 (
1
=

b
1m
= damping due to mooring system
B
11
= wave drift damping
x
max
= most probable maximum excursion during N oscillations
N = number of low frequency oscillations in the considered storm time period

9.7 References
9-1) Pike, Paul J.: "A wind tunnel investigation of loads and pressures on a typical guyed tower
offshore platform", OTC paper 4288, 1982.
9-2) Harris, R.I.: The nature of the wind, the modern design of wind sensitive structures, Const. Ind.
Res. & Inf. Assn. , London, 1971
9-3) Det norske Veritas: Rules for the design-construction and inspection of offshore structures,
1977, Appendix A/Environmental Conditions (reprint with corrections 1982)
9-4) Ochi, M.K. and Y.S. Shin: Wind turbulent spectra for the design consideration of offshore
structures, OTC paper 5736, Houston, 1988

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9-5) Wu, J: Wind-stress coefficients over sea surface from breeze to hurricane, Journal Geophy.
Res., Vol. 87, pp. 9704-9706, 1982
9-6) Wills, J.A.B.: Analysis of high-wind spectra from the NMI West Sole experiment for Shell,
NMI project No. 3511534, 7 volumes
9-7) API-RP 2A: RP for planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms, 19
th

edition, 1990
9-8) Kaassen, K.E.: "Time domain model representations of standard wind gust spectra, ISOPE 1999
ISO 19901-1 "Metocean design and operating considerations",
A.7.3: Wind profile and time average wind speed,
A.t.4: Wind spectra
9-9) Bretschneider, C.L.: Wave and wind loads, section 12 of handbook of ocean and underwater
engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1969
9-10) Wichers, J.E.W. and A.W. van Dijk: Investigations of FPSO-tandem offloading systems under
sudden wind squall and current fluctuations, 9
th
SNAME Offshore Symposium, Houston, 2000
9-11) Feikema, G.J. and J.E.W. Wichers: The effect of wind spectra on the low frequency motions of
a moored tanker in survival condition, OTC paper # 6605, Houston TX, 1991
9-12) Wichers, J.E.W.: The effect of wind spectra on the low frequency motions of a moored tanker
in survival condition, Symposium Wind Technology Buitengaats, TNO, Apeldoorn, November
1993.
9-13) Shinju, Kato, Sadao Ando, Hiroshi Sat and Yutaro Motora: At-sea experiment of a floating
offshore structure, part 1 wind characteristics at the test field, Journal of the society of naval
architects of Japan, Vol. 167, June 1990
9-14) Wichers, J.E.W: On the low frequency surge motions of vessels moored in high seas, OTC
paper 4437, 1982
9-15) Wichers, J.E.W.: A Simulation Model for a Single Point Moored Tanker, PhD, Delft
University of technology, 1988
9-16) Pinkster, A.J. and J.E.W. Wichers: The statistical properties of low frequency motions of a
Non-Linearly Moored tankers, OTC paper 5457, 1987
9-17) Pinkster, J.A.: On the determination of the statistical properties of the behavior of moored
tankers, Proceedings of a workshop on floating structures and offshore operations, Wageningen, The
Netherlands, 1987




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10 WAVES

10.1 Introduction
In the figure below the frequency domain of waves are shown. The waves can vary from planetary
waves (tidal waves) to capillary waves. Our interest is focused on the swell and wind waves.


In this chapter the properties of regular and irregular waves will be reviewed.
The following wave theories can be distinguished:
-the Airy or linear wave theory
-the 2nd, 3rd and 5th Stokes wave theory
-the cnoidal wave theory
-the solitary wave theory.

The figure below shows the areas in terms of wave heights and period, where the various wave
theories are valid. The linear and the Stokes theories are limited to H*L^2/h^3=26. For the extreme
waves in the area between H*L^2/h^3=26 and H/d=0.78 (shallow water breaking criteria) the theories
of the cnoidal and solitary wave are valid



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The area of validity of various wave theories

The real sea is assumed to be a composition of regular waves with different wave heights and
frequencies, see figure below. When the direction of the waves per frequency is parallel it is called a
uni-directional sea state and when the waves are not parallel the seastate is multi-directional.


In this chapter the properties of waves are given, followed a review of the existing wave spectra and
wave group spectra. Finally attention is paid to shallow water waves and multi-directional wave
spectra.




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10.2 Properties of regular waves according linear wave theory
In the following the properties of regular waves dependent on the water depth h according the linear
theory are presented.

1) The amplitude of the horizontal and vertical motion components as function of position can be
expressed by:
kx
kh
h z k H
kx
kh
h z k H
sin
sinh
) ( sinh
2
cos
sinh
) ( cosh
2
+
=
+
=
,


where:
is the horizontal amplitude
, is the vertical amplitude
H is the wave height
k is the wave number =2t/L
h is the water depth
z is the vertical co-ordinate measured from an origin at the still water surface (upwards positive)
L is the wave length

2) The instantaneous water particle velocity components and accelerations are:
) sin(
sinh
) ( sinh
2
) cos(
sinh
) ( cosh
2
t kx
kh
h z k H
w
t kx
kh
h z k H
u
e
e
e
e

+
=

+
=

and
) cos(
sinh
) ( sinh
2
2
) sin(
sinh
) ( cosh
2
2
t kx
kh
h z k H
z
a
t kx
kh
h z k H
x
a
e
e
e
e

+
=

+
=


were:
u is the instantaneous horizontal velocity
w is the instantaneous vertical velocity
a
x
is the instantaneous horizontal acceleration

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a
z
is the instantaneous vertical acceleration
x is the horizontal co-ordinate
e is the circular wave frequency = 2t/T
t is time
T is the wave period

3) Wave length and wave period are defined as follows:
kh gk
T
and
kh
gT
L
tanh
1
2
tanh
2
2
t
t
=
=

4) Maximum wave slope o and steepness are defined below:
L
H
steepnes
and
L
H
a
L
=
= =
t
,
t
o
2

5) The average energy in a wave period and per unit area of the sea surface:
potential energy
2
4
1
a
g,

kinematic energy
2
4
1
a
g,

total energy on an entire wave of unit width (crest length L) is

L gH
a
g E
2
8
1
2
2
1
, = =

were:
is the density of sea water corresponding with 1.025 tonnes/m
3
g is the acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s
2
)

6) The wave speed or the velocity with which a wave crest moves (often called the phase speed or
wave celerity) is given by:



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kh
k
g
k T
L
c tanh = = =
e

7) The wave group velocity
When a finite number of waves are left to propagate in the otherwise still water, we observe that
waves seems to originate at the rear of the group, move through the group with speed c, and die out
near the front of the group. This implies that the energy of the group of the waves moves forward with
a speed which is less than the individual wave speed. The speed with which the energy is propagated
(often called the group velocity c
g
or the non-dimensional group speed n) is given by:

)
2 sinh
2
1 (
2
1
)
2 sinh
2
1 (
2
kh
kh
c
g
c
n
or
kh
kh c
g
c
+ = =
+ =

The behavior of the hyperbolic functions as used in the proceeding equations are given below.
:

The approximations for deep water were h>1/2L or kh>t, so kh will be large and therefore
y=sinh kh = cosh kh if kh > t
and y=tanh kh 1
Resulting in:

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2
1
2
2
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
) sin(
2
0
) cos(
2
0
2
0
2
0
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
n
T
g
c
T
g
L
t kx
kz
e
H
w
t kx
kz
e
H
u
kz
e
H
kz
e
H
t
t
e
e
e
e
,


The subscript 0 has been added to denote deepwater conditions. The vertical and horizontal wave
particular motions as given above show the same amplitude. Hence the water particles move in
circles, the radii of which decrease exponentially with depth. At a depth of z=-L/2, the motions
amplitudes have decreased to 1/500 times their value at the surface as indicated in the figure below,

In section 10.7 attention will be paid to the properties of waves in shallow water.

10.3 Single peaked wave spectra

10.3.1 Introduction
In this section the following single peak wave spectra are presented:
- Neumann



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- Fisher and Roll
- Pierson-Moskowitz
- Darbyshire
- JONSWAP
- TMA
- Gaussian swell

The following double peaked wave spectra will also be discussed
- Ochi-Hubble
- Combined swell and wind wave spectra

Spectra are defined by seastate parameters. The seastate parameters have the following definitions:
4
2
2 ,
2
0
2
2
,
1
0
2
1
) (
0
4
4
, ) (
0
2
2
, ) (
0
1
2
) (
0
0
0
4
3 / 1 3 / 1
m
m
m
T
m
m
z
T T
m
m
T
d S m d S m d S m
p
T p
d S m
m
s
H H
w
t t t
e e
,
e e e
,
e e e
,
e
t
e
e e
,
,
= = = =

=
=

=
= = =
} } }
}

where
T
2
=T
z
= average zero-up crossing period
T
m
= mean period between wave crests
T
m
/ T
2
= quantity indicates the width of the spectrum

Several parameters may be used for definition of spectral bandwidth:
1
2
2 0
2
1
1
1
2
1
2 0
+
= =
=
v
v
o
v
m m
m
m
m m

or in terms of and :

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2
1
4 0
2
2
1
4 0
2
o c
o
= =
=
m m
m
m m
m

Note that the fourth order spectral moment, and consequently the spectral bandwidth do not exist for
the PM and JONSWAP spectra.

The average significant wave steepness S
s
can be estimated by:
0
2
2
2
2
2
m
m
g
T
s
H
g
s
S
t
t
= =

The average steepness S
p
and S
1
for short term irregular seastates are defined as:
2
1
2
1
2
2
T
s
H
g
S
p
T
s
H
g p
S
t
t
=
=

The limiting values of S
s
may, in absence of other reliable sources, be taken as:
S
s
=1/10 for T
2
6 s
S
s
=1/15 for T
2
12 s
and interpolated linearly between the boundaries. The limiting values of S
p
may be taken as:
S
p
=1/15 for T
p
8 s
S
p
=1/25 for T
p
15 s
and interpolated linearly between the boundaries.

The limiting values were obtained from measured data from the Norwegian Continental Shelf, but are
expected to be of more validity.

10.3.2 Neumann spectrum (1954)
The Neumann spectrum, which is hardly used to-day can be written as follows, see Ref. [10-1]
2
)
1
(
76 . 69
6
1
1
1
2
) (
3828
) (
e
e
e
T
s
e
T
T H S =



10.3.3 Fisher and Roll spectrum (1956)
The Fisher and Roll spectrum, which is hardly used to-day can be written as follows
2
)
1
(
26 . 50
5
1
1
1
2
) (
8 . 315
) (
e
e
e
T
s
e
T
T H S =





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10.3.4 Darbyshire spectrum (1957)
Also the Darbyshire spectrum is hardly used to-day. The formulation is as follows
1
8 . 4
264 . 0 ) 1 ( . 2 . 0 .( 0532 . 0
2
)) 1 ( . 2 . 0 (
. 2 . 0
. 2377 . 0 ) (
1
1
2
T p
and
p
p
x
with
e
p
T H S
x
s
=
+

=
=

e
e
e
t
e
e
t
e
t
e


10.3.5 Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum (or ISSC or Bretschneider-1964) Ref. [10-2]
Of the wave spectra types the Pierson-Moskowitz (PM) spectrum is the most frequently applied one
for fully developed seas. PM has been derived for wave spectral formulations for fully developed seas
from analysis of wave spectra measured on the North Atlantic Ocean.
The Pierson-Moskowitz (PM) spectrum S
PM
() is given by

where
p
= 2/T
p
is the angular spectral peak frequency.

By means of numerical integration the following relationships between the various wave periods valid
for the PM spectrum can be derived and are presented below:












and the following relationships exist between various wave heights Ref.[10-2]:

Example H
1/10
=1.27 H
1/3
H
1/1
H
1/3
H
1/10

Average wave height H
1/1
1 0.6 0.49
Example: T
2
=0.71 T
p
T
1
T
p
T
2

Average period T
1
= 1 0.77 1.086
Period associated with maximum energy T
p
= 1.296 1 1.408
Average zero up-crossing period T
2
= 0.92 0.71 1

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Significant wave height H
1/3
1.59 1 0.78
H
1/10
2.03 1.27 1

in which H
1/n
is the mean of the wave height of the n
th
highest part of the wave height distribution.

10.3.6 JONSWAP spectrum (1973)
An extensive wave measurement program known as the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP)
was carried out in 1968 and 1969 along a line4 extending over 100 miles into the North Sea from
Siltland. From the analysis of the measured wave spectra, a JONSWAP wave spectral formulation
was derived which is representative of wind generated seas with a fetch limitation, Ref.[10-3].

The JONSWAP spectrum S
j
() is formulated as a modification of the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum
for a developing sea state in a fetch limited situation:

where
S
PM
() = Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum
= angular frequency
H
s
= significant wave height
T
p
= spectral peak period
= non-dimensional peak shape parameter
= spectral width parameter
=
a
= 0.07 for e s e
p

=
b
= 0.09 for e > e
p

A

= normalizing factor

)) ln( 287 . 1 (
909 . 1
925 . 0
168 . 0 15 . 1
1

=
+
+
=
A
or
A


Average values for the JONSWAP experiment data are = 3.3,
a
= 0.07,
b
= 0.09. For = 1 the
JONSWAP spectrum reduces to the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum.

A definition sketch of the parameters for the description of the JONSWAP spectrum is given in the
figure below.



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The effect of the peak shape parameter for H
s
= 4.0 m, T
p
= 8.0 s for =1, =2 and =5 is shown in
the figure below.

For the ratio of the wave periods the following approximate relations exist (1<<7)::

and

For = 3.3; T
p
= 1.2859T
z
and T
1
= 1.0734T
z

For = 1.0 (PM spectrum); T
p
= 1.4049T
z
and T
1
= 1.0867T
z

or in table form





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T
p
/T
1
T
p
/T
2
T
1
/T
2

1.0 (PM) 1.296 1.408 1.086
2.0 1.240 1.338 1.079
3.0 1.206 1.295 1.073
3.3 (mean) 1.198 1.285 1.072
4.0 1.183 1.264 1.069
5.0 1.165 1.240 1.065
6.0 1.151 1.221 1.061

If no particular values are given for the peak shape parameter , the following value may be applied:

where T
P
is in seconds and H
S
is in meters.

Sometimes the JONSWAP spectrum is defined with the Phillips constant as is given below:
(
(

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2 2
2
2
) (
exp
4
5 2
4
5
exp ) (
p
p
p
g S
e o
e e

e
e
e o e

The Phillips constant o can be determined according to the following relation:
}

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
}

= =
0
4
5 2
2 2
2
2
) (
exp
4
5
exp 16
) (
0
16
2
)
0
4 (
2
)
3 / 1
(
e
e o
e e

e
e
e o
e e

d
p
p
g
d S
p
m
w




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For this computation knowing ,
w1/3
and T
1
the value of the spectral shape coefficient o can be
determined and the spectral form can be drawn. An example of different wave mean period
JONSWAP spectra is shown below.
10.3.7 TMA spectrum, see Ref.[10-4]
The finite water depth TMA spectrum, for non-breaking waves, S
TMA
() is given as the JONSWAP
spectrum multiplied by a depth function |(e):


where

Applying the dispersion relation

the depth function |(e) can be written

where d is the water depth.

It must be noted that if the JONSWAP wave spectrum is known in deepwater, then the JONSWAP in
shallow water can be derived using the depth function |(e) .


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10.3.8 Swell spectrum
The formulation for the energy density S

() in m
2
.s of the wave heights of swell generated waves is
the Gaussian spectrum as given below.
p
p
p
e
w
S
e t o
e o
e e

2
2 2
2
2
) (
2
}
4
3 / 1
{
) (

=
The Gaussian wave spectrum is symmetrical and therefore T
1
= T
2
= T
p.

The formulation for the energy density S(f) in m
2
/Hz of the wave height of the swell generated waves
is the Gaussian spectrum as given below.

(
(

|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2 2
2
) (
exp
2
1
4
) (
o t o
p
s
f f
H
f S
where:
f = frequency (Hz)
H
s
= significant wave height
T
p
= spectral peak period
f
p
= 1/T
p

o = spectral width parameter

Below is an example with ,
w1/3
=0.2 m, Tp=12 s and =0.1.


10.4 Double peaked wave spectra

10.4.1 Swell and wind wave spectra
Combined wind sea and swell may be described by a double peak frequency spectrum, i.e.
) (
swell
S ) ( ) ( e e e + =
sea
S
total
S

where wind sea and swell are assumed to be uncorrelated.




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In this case the spectral moments are additive,

m
n
=m
n,sea
+ m
n,swell


from which it follows that the significant wave height is given as

2
,
2
, , swell s sea s total s
H H H + =
where H
s,sea
is the significant wave height for the wind sea, and H
s,swell
is the significant wave height
for the swell.

10.4.2 Ochi-Hubble spectrum (1976)
The Ochi-Hubble spectrum is a general spectral formulation to describe seas which is a combination
of two different seastates, Ref. [10-5]. The spectrum is a sum of two gamma distributions, each with 3
parameters for each wave system, viz. significant Hsj, spectral peak period Tpj and a shape factor j.
The parameters should be determined numerically to best fit the observed spectra.
On the assumption of narrow-bandeness of the entire spectrum, generally, the value of
1
is much
higher than
2
.The value of
1
for the most probable value of e
01
is
1
=2.72 and
2
=1.82e
-0.027Hs
,
where H
s
is in feet

The Ochi-Hubble spectra spectrum can be described as follows:

] ) )(
4
1 4
( exp[
) (
)
4
1 4
(
4
1
) (
4
1 4
2
2
1
4
e
e
e

,
pj j sj
j
j
pj
j
j
j
H
S
+

I
+
=
+
=



where:
H
s1
, e
p1
, and
1
are the significant wave height, spectral peak frequency and shape factor for the swell
frequency components
H
s2
, e
o2
, and
2
are the significant wave height, spectral peak frequency and shape factor for the sea
wave frequency components

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In the example below the Ochi-Hubble spectrum is shown, where H
s1
=13.1 m, T
p1
=16.5 s,
1
=2.72
and H
s2
=9.85 m, T
p2
=7.85 s,
2
=0.75 with (2.72)= 1.56964 and (0.75)=1.22542. The values of the
gamma distribution can be read from the gamma function calculator.

If in either spectral component the value of the parameters H
sj
and epj are held constant, the
parameter
j
controls the shape, or, in particular, the sharpness of the spectral peak. Thus,
j
is called
the spectral shape parameter. If
1
=1 and
2
=0, the modified P-M spectrum will be obtained.

10.5 Wave group spectra related to the wave spectra
In the foregoing the different wave spectrum formulations are reviewed.
The wave spectral components of the spectrum will cause, according to the linear theory, the wave
exciting forces and moments on the moored vessel and mooring system inducing the high frequency
motions and forces in the mooring system.
The spectral shape involved, however, will not only affect the high frequency behavior of the system.
In Ref. [10-6] it is shown that from the normal wave spectrum S
,
(e) the spectrum of the square of the
wave envelope can be derived theoretically. This feature is important because of the analogy which
exists between the low frequency wave drifting forces and the low frequency part of the square of the
heights of the incident waves, see Ref. [10-7].

An example is given of a wave group consisting of ,
1
and ,
2
with the frequencies e
1
and e
2
and phase
angles c
1
and c
2
respectively. The wave elevation can be written as:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
i 1 1
i 1
1 1 1 2 2 2
t sin t
sin t sin t
=
, = , e +c
=, e +c + , e +c


For small differences between e
1
and e
2
a schematic representation of the wave train is shown in the
figure below. Such a wave train will be called a regular wave group. This type of wave train is
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
e (rad/sec)
S
(
e
)

m
2
-
s
H
s1
=13.1m
H
s2
=9.85m
e
o1
=0.38
e
o2
=0.8

1
=2.72

2
=0.75



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characterized by a periodic variation of the wave envelope. The frequency associated with the
envelope is equal to = e
2
- e
1
being the difference frequency of the regular wave components.


The wave elevation in amplitude modulated form can be written as:

( ) ( ) ( ) t A t sin t , = e +c

in which:
e= (e
1
+ e
2
)/2
c = (c
1
+ c
2
)/2

It can be shown that the envelope becomes:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
2 2 2
1 j i j i j
i 1i 1
A t cos t
= =
(
= , , e e + c c
(


The square of the envelope is:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
1 j i j i j
i 1j 1
A t cos t
= =
= , , e e + c c
or

( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 2
A t 2 cos t = + + , , , ,

in which: = e
2
- e
1


Note that (see figure on the next page):

,
1
= 1/2 A
2
in which: ,
1
= low frequency part of the squared wave height ,(t).

In accordance with the definition of a spectrum the spectral densities are:


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S
,
(e) de = 1/2 ,
a
2


S
A2
() de = 1/2 p
2
in which p = A
2


In accordance with the definition of a spectrum the spectral densities of the square of the wave envelope
will be:

S
A2
() de = 1/2 (2,
1
(e
1
) ,
2
(e
1
+ ) )
2


which will yield for the regular wave group with ,(e
1
) and ,
2
(e
2
):

S
A2
() de = 2 (,
1
(e
1
) ,
2
(e
1
+ ) )
2
= 2{2 S
,1
(e
1
) de 2 S
,2
(e
1
+ ) de}

or for all the wave groups with the frequency-difference in a wave spectrum:

( ) ( ) ( )
A2
0
S 8 S S d

, ,
= e e+ e
}

with
}
}

=
= =
0
0
0
2
0
0
) (
4 ) (
2 2
e e

,
d S m
where
m d S m
A A




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The distribution function of A
2
(t) is, for a narrow band spectrum:

( )
2
0
A
2m 2
0
1
P A e
2m

=

where:

( )
0
0
m S d

,
= e e
}


From the above, it follows that knowledge of S
,
(e) and the assumption that the wave elevation is
normally distributed is sufficient to calculate the spectral density and distribution function A
2
(t).

From the foregoing it follows that the spectral density and distribution may also be calculated from the
low frequency part of the square of the record of the wave height measured in the basin. If the waves are
completely random then the spectral density and distribution obtained from and based on the normal
(first) spectrum of the waves should correspond with the spectral density and distribution of 2.,
1
2

calculated directly from the wave record.

The distribution function P(A
2
) and p(2.,
1
2
) and the spectral density of the waves and of A
2
and 2.,
1
2

are shown in Figures below on the next page, respectively for an irregular wave train.
As mentioned, the wave envelope is related to the low-pass filtered square of the wave elevation:
( ) ( )
2
1
A t 2. t = ,

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Spectra of waves and low frequency part of the square of a wave record


Distribution function of the low frequency part of the square of a wave record

In order to show that this operation does indeed represent the wave envelope, results of an analyzed
irregular wave train are plotted in the figure below showing the wave elevation , (t) and the
corresponding wave envelope A (t).



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Using the spectral density formulation of A
2
(t), which means the spectrum of the square of the wave
envelope or the wave group spectrum according to:
( ) ( ) ( )
g
0
S 8 S S d

, ,
= e e+ e
}

Computations have been carried out on the different afore - mentioned wave spectrum formulations.
In the figure below the wave group spectra have been computed for 5 different wave spectrum
formulations each having the same significant wave height
w1/ 3 0
4 m 5.5 , = = m and the same
average period T
1
= 11.50 s.





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In the figure below the wave group spectra have been computed for 5 different wave spectrum
formulations each having the same significant wave height
w1/ 3
5.5 m , = and the same peak period T
p
=
14.9 s.


From the results it can be concluded that the spectral density of the square of the wave groups will be
substantially influenced by the shape of the chosen wave spectrum.




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10.6 Wave scatter diagram
In the table below the scatter diagram is given with Hs in ft and Tp in seconds. The collection of the
measured wave spectra is omni-directional and concerns wave spectra in the Gulf of Mexico.


Another representation of the statistics of the wave spectra measured in the Northern Atlantic is given
in the figures below. The wave spectra are characterized by the percentage of the total occurrence of
the Tp, the Hs and the direction of the wave spectra.



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10.7 Shallow water waves

10.7.1 Introduction
As shown in the figure below the linear and the Stokes theories are limited to HL
2
/h
3
=26, in which
h=water depth in m, H= wave height in m and L =wave length in m. In shallow water the waves
become non-sinusoidal with a higher crest and a lower flatter trough as wave steepness H/L and
relative depth h/L decreases. For higher waves, the wave form will be completely dominated by
cnoidal or solitary waves.



The effect of the parameter HL
2
/h
3
on the wave form

is given in the following figures. At HL
2
/h
3
=25.1
the wave is close to the cnoidal waves. Note that the wave has a higher crest and a flatter trough with
the typical "bump".

In the next section the wave theory based on shallow water will be dealt with. In this linear wave
theory also the basics of the set-down in shallow water will be discussed.

In this chapter finally the properties of shallow wave spectra will be discussed.


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10.7.2 Properties of regular waves according linear wave theory
The following refers to section 24.2. In section 24.2 the general wave theory is given and the
properties of regular waves in deep water are presented. In this section the properties of regular waves
in shallow water are dealt with.
For shallow water another set of approximations can be substituted in the general formulas when the
water is shallow (h<L/25). In this case, kh and kz are small and referred to section 4.2 this results in
the following characteristics:
y=sinh kh kh
y=cosh kh 1
y=tanh kh kh.

Resulting in:



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1
) sin( ) 1 (
2
) cos(
2
) 1 (
2
2
=
= =
=
+ =
=
+ =
=
n
gh
T
L
c
gh T L
t kx
h
z H
w
t kx
kh
H
u
h
z H
kh
H
e
e
e
e
,



From the results it can be learnt that in shallow water the group velocity is increased to the wave
celerity. Further the orbital motions are not decreasing exponentially with the depth: at z=-h, w=0 and
the horizontal velocity is constant over the ordinate z.

For a water depth h=-15 m and a wave height H= 2 m with a period T=14 s the wave motions
according to the linear wave theory are given in the figure below. The wave length will be L=169.8 m.
The wave parameters are:
-H/h=0.133 (check shallow water breaking criteria=0.78)-no breaking wave
-H*L
2
/h
3
=17.1 (check on linear and Stokes wave theory limitation < 26)
-h/(g*T
2
)=0.0078
-H/(g*T
2
)=0.001
The ratio's h/(g*T
2
) and H/(g*T
2
) show the earlier picture, that the particular wave will be in the
linear wave theory. In the following the linear theory will be applied.

In the picture below the orbital motion of the specified wave in shallow (h=15m) and in deep water is
given. From the results it can be concluded that the orbital motions in shallow water are elliptical at
the surface (z=0 m) and at the bottom only a horizontal motion (z=-15m) is left. In deep water,
however, the orbital motions remain circles and decreases with the exponential function. Since the
factor between displacement and velocity relates to e, a similar picture can be derived for the
velocities.

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orbital motions shallow water wave
-2.00
-1.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
-2.0 -1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0
horizontal displacement in m
v
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

m
shallow
z=0 m
deep z=0
m
shallow
z=-7.5 m
shallow
z=-15 m
deep z=-
7.5 m
deep z=-
15 m


Below we consider the equation of Bernoulli (=potential theory) for a stationary flow with uniform
flow V:
0
2
2
1 1
= + + + z
g
p
g
V
dt
d
g
|


Each of the terms has the dimension [m]. Since the flow is stationary the first
term is zero. The pressure over the vertical z can be read as follows:
2
2
1
V gz p =

in which:
gz
= the hydrostatic pressure
2
2
1
V
= the velocity head
The result is visualized in the figure below.


In an in-stationary flow the equation of Bernoulli is fully used as given below:
0
2
1
2
= + + + gz p
dt
d
g V
|




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In the linear potential theory, however, the velocity head term is neglected. Below it is shown that in
shallow water waves the non-linear term can be of importance.
In shallow waves the horizontal velocity u over the depth is constant and amounts to (in which
k=wave number=2*/L):
t
kh
H
u e
e
cos
2
=


In the equation of Bernoulli the horizontal velocity is defined as V=u. If the quadratic term will be
based on (Acost)
2
= A+ Acos2t , then the results will be:

t
kh
H
kh
H
V e
e

e
2 cos )
2
(
4
1
)
2
(
4
1
2 2 2
2
1
+ =

The constant part is an average velocity head in the regular wave and amounts to 0.17 m for the above
mentioned wave data. The term with double frequency has an average of zero and can be deleted. In
shallow water the velocity head is more pronounced especially due to the horizontal velocity at the
bottom than in deep water. In shallow water waves the velocity head is called the set-down. In
irregular waves the set-down can be accurately computed as given in Ref.[10-6] and shown in the
picture below.


10.7.3 Shallow water wave spectra
In shallow water the waves become non-sinusoidal with a higher crest and a lower flatter trough as
wave steepness H/L and relative depth h/L decreases as is shown in the previous section.
The shallow water waves introduce several phenomena which will be discussed below.

A typical example of the shallow waves derived from a wave spectrum and measured in a shallow
water basin is given in the picture below. In the wave registration the high crests and the low troughs
with bumps are shown.
:

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The wave elevation distribution, the spectral density of the wave heights and the distribution of the
crests and trough as derived from the measured shallow wave train are given in the picture below.


As a result of the non-linearity of the waves, the occurrence of the wave elevations will deviate from a
Gaussian distribution and will be significantly skew; the skewness is caused because more samples
will be found below the SWL due to the long low troughs with possible "bumps.
Further as a results of the shallow water form, the ratio of the significant wave height and the standard
deviates will deviate that
w1/3
/

4. Note that
w1/3
and

are derived from the statistical analysis of


the measured wave train, see Chapter ...

In the next figures the distribution of the crests and the troughs of the wave train during test 103002
are given. In the figure also the Raleigh distributions for linear random wave amplitudes in deep water
are indicated.




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The theoretical distribution of the probability of exceedance of the wave amplitudes is a straight line
with intersections with zero and the significant value of the crest and through as is derived below. The
intersection of the significant amplitude value amounts to 13.5 % for deep water wave heights:

o 2 2
0 3 / 1
= =
u a
m u

and for
3 / 1 a
a u u =

than
135 . 0 ) ( 1 ) (
2
0
2
0
2
= = = = >

}
e e du u p u u Q
a
u
a
u
m
u
a a
a
a
or the percentage of the probability of exceedance of the amplitude of the significant value u
a1/3
is
13.5 %.

From the results it is shown that negative crests are present being the bumps in the wave train. The
registration also shows that positive crests are possible.


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Further the wave crests are higher than the Rayleigh distribution as found for the linear waves and the
wave troughs are consistent below the Rayleigh distribution.

These effects are not included in linear wave theories. For the theoretical simulations use should be
made of the 2
nd
order Stokes or cnoidal wave theory.

10.7.4 Set-down
In a wave train low frequency bound wave amplitudes increases as depth decreases. In a wave group
the mean water level will decreases at the position of the highest waves, while at the mean water level
will raise at the nodes. In the wave train a low frequency oscillation is present associated with the
wave groups. In spectral analysis of the wave train not only the wave frequency components will be
distinguished but also the wave bound long wave components.
In the measured wave spectrum as shown in section 24.7.2 the low frequency energy can be clearly
seen.
Below a typical example is shown of the low frequency energy due to the low frequency bound wave
amplitudes. The energy is given as function of water depth being 20 m and 10 m.



water depth 20 m water depth 10 m
Hmo, high=4m Hmo, high=4m
Hmo, low=0.16 m Hmo, low=0.63 m

The explanation of the physical origin of the set-down is given in section 24.7.2.

10.8 Shoaling, refraction and diffraction

10.8.1 Introduction
Provided that the water depth varies slowly on a scale given by the wave length, wave theories
developed for constant water depth can be used to predict transformation of wave properties when
water waves propagate towards the shore from deep to shallow water in terms of shoaling, refraction
and diffraction. Wave period T remains constant, while phase speed c and wave length decrease,
and wave height H and steepness S increases. A general description of wave transformations is given
by Sarpkaya & Isaacson, see Ref.[10-9].



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10.8.2 Shoaling
Shoaling occurs as the waves enter shallower water. The wave speed and the wave length decrease in
shallow water, therefore the energy per unit wave length has to increase, so the wave height increases.
The wave period remains the same in shoaling.
For two-dimensional motion, the wave height increases according to the formula

where K
s
is the shoaling coefficient and c
g
is the group velocity

) tanh(
k
g
sinh(2kd)
2kd
1
2
1
kd c
g (

+ =


and wave number k is related to wave period T by the dispersion relation. The zero subscript refer to
deep water values at water depth d = d
0
.


10.8.3 Refraction
The phase speed varies as a function of the water depth, d. The part of a wave in shallow water moves
slower than the part of the wave in deeper water. Therefore, for a wave which is approaching the
depth contours at an angle other than normal, the water depth will vary along the wave crest, so will
the phase speed. As a result, the crest will tend to bend towards alignment with the depth contours and
wave crests will tend to become parallel with the shore line.
For parallel sea bed contours, Snell's refraction law applies

where c = c(kd) is the phase velocity and is the angle between the wave ray and a normal to the bed
contour.
Refraction has also an effect on the amplitude. For depth contours parallel with the shore line, the
change of wave height is given by


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where K
s
is the shoaling coefficient as given in 3.2.2 and K
r
is the refraction coefficient defined by

where
0
is the angle between the wave crest and the depth contours at the deep water location. More
details on shoaling and refraction can be found in Sarpkaya and Isaacson, see Ref.[10-9].


10.8.4 Diffraction
Diffraction usually happens when waves encounter surface-piercing obstacles, such as a breakwater
or an island (and vessels). It would seem that on the leeside of the island, the water would be perfectly
calm; however it is not. The waves, after passing the island turn into the region behind the island and
carry wave energy and the wave crest into this so-called "shadow zone". The turning of the waves
into the sheltered region is due to the changes in wave height (say along the crest) in the same wave.


10.9 Multi-directional wave spectra
In a real sea environment the waves are propagating from different directions. For example, after a
passage of a storm the wave climate at a certain point will show a long duration swell. This swell
direction is mainly in line of the path the storm has traveled. On top of this swell climate also local
wind fields will generate a wave climate more or less in the direction of the local wind different from
the former storm direction). This results in for instance two different wave spectra of which the
directions are shown in the figure below, see Ref. [10-8 and 10-10].



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This spreading effect is not only restricted to this type of crossed sea conditions. For wave climates
that are more or less correlated to the local wind field we can describe the wave spectrum in terms of
a unidirectional wave spectrum corrected for spreading effects like:

) , ( G ) ( S ) , ( S
s
u e e = u e
q q


Or more specifically:

) ( G ) ( S ) , ( S
s
u e = u e
q q


Such that:

}
= u u
t 2
0
s
1 d ) ( G

and with:

|
.
|

\
| u u

+ I
+ I
t
= u
2
cos
) 1 s 2 (
) 1 s (
2
2
) ( G
0 s 2
2 s 2
s

This spreading function is often referred to as a "cosine 2s" spreading function. For very large values
of s (50 or higher) this description will converge to a unidirectional wave description. In practice
values are used for the parameters 2s between 4 and 48. The spreading function for different 2s-values
is demonstrated in the figure below.


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It must be noted that due to the spreading of the waves about head waves for instance the mean and
low frequency wave drift forces are also spread about the mean direction. The contribution to the
excitations will decrease by decreasing spread factor s. The standard deviation of the low frequency
surge motion confirms the mentioned statement.















10.10 References
10-1) Neumann, G.: On ocean wave spectra and a new method of forecasting wind-generated sea,
Beach Erosion Board, U.S. Army Corp of Engineeers, Tech. Mem.43, 1953
10-2) Pierson, W.J. and Moskowitz, L.: A proposed spectral form for fully developed wind seas
based on the similarity theory of S.A. Kitagorodskii, Journal of Geoph. Res, 69, No. 2, Dec. 1964.
10-3) Hasselmann, K. et al.: Measurements of wind and wave growth and swell decay during the
joint north sea wave project (JONSWAP), Erganzungheft Nr. 12 Reihe A, Deutsche
Hydrographischen Zeitschrift 1973
10-4) Bouws, E., H. Gunther, W. Rosenthal and C.L. Vincent (1985): "Similarity of the wind wave
spectrum in finite water depth", 1. Spectral form. J. Geophys. Res., 90, C1, pp. 975-86



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10-5) Ochi, M.K. and Hubble, E.N.(1976), "On six -parameters wave spectra", Proc. 15th Coastal
Eng. Conf., Vol I, pp-301-328.
10-6) Pinkster, J.A. :Low frequency second order wave exciting forces on floating structures, PhD,
Delft University of Technology, 1980
10-7). Wichers, J.E.W.: Simulation model for a single point moored tanker, PhD, Delft University
of Technology, 1988
10-8)Pinkster, J.A.: "Drift forces in directional seas", MARINTEC CHINA'85, Shanghai.
10-9) Sarpkaya. T and M. Isaacson: "Mechanics of wave forces on offshore structures", VNB, 1981
10-10) Kat, J.O. de: "Time-varying drift forces in cross seas: measurements and theory", ISOPE'92.


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11 HURRICANE CONDITIONS

11.1 Introduction
For the design of a FPSO in the GoM several environmental conditions can be distinguished being the
hurricane condition, the winter storm and the loop/eddy current extreme events. Typical design
conditions are given in the table below.














The typical vertical
current distributions associated for the 100-y hurricane and the 1-y winter storm are presented in the
figure below. The wind/storm driven current is mainly present in the first 100 m.

0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0 0.5 1 1.5
current speed [m/s]
w
a
t
e
r

d
e
p
t
h

[
m
]
100-y hurricane
1-y storm


The typical vertical distribution of the loop/eddy current event for the 100-y and 1-y occurrence is
given in the next figure. The high current speeds are mainly present in the first 200 m.




100-y 1-y 100-y 1-y
designation hurricane winter storm current current
waves
Hs m 12.37 4.63 2.74 2.74
2.2 1.7 1 1
Tp s 13.7 9 8 8
wind
1/2-hr @ 10 m m/s 39.6 17.5 17.5 17.5
current
surface current m/s 0.98 0.24 1.65 1.39



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0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
current speed [m/s]
w
a
t
e
r

d
e
p
t
h

[
m
]
100-y current
1-y current


Concerning the mutual directions the following comments can be made:
-100-y and 1-y loop/eddy current events
The directions of the waves and wind are independent form the directions of the 100-y and 1-y current
events. It can be assumed that waves are caused by the wind and consequently are parallel directed.
The direction of the loop current may be chosen to come from an arbitrary direction. Typical
directions of wind, waves and current during the loop/eddy current events are given in the picture
below.














-100-y hurricane and the 1-y winter storm
*100-y hurricane
It is expected that both the current and the waves outside the eye area of the hurricane is wind driven.
The hurricane wind is a rotating wind on a large scale diameter with high speed while the whole wind
system moves slowly in the direction of the track. The inertia of both waves and current are relatively
large.
While the wind turns both the waves and the current have a delay. In terms of velocity has the wind
the highest velocity followed by the wave velocity and the relatively slow speed of the current. It is
assumed that the delay with the current is relatively large. Typical directions for wind (180
0
), waves
(210
0
) and current during hurricane are given in the picture below.

90
0
0
0

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*1-y winter storm
In the 1-y winter storm the waves and current are generated by the wind. Due to the relative low
density of air, the wind direction may shift from the original direction of 180
0
to another direction.
Typical directions for the 1-y winter storm are given in the picture below.









11.2 Hurricane events

11.2.1 Introduction
In the following a review is given the major hurricane events in 2004 and 2005 in the GoM. The data
given are measured on board of the TLP Marco Polo and derived from Ref. [11-1]. The purpose if this
section is to show some typical phenomena associated with hurricanes.








IVAN KATRINA RITA

IVAN KATRINA RITA
120 miles left side of track 45 miles left side of track 58 miles right side of track
15/09/2004-12:00 GMT 29/08/2005-00:00 GMT 23/09/2005-10:00 GMT
Max Hs= 8.5 m Tp=13.5 s Max Hs= 10.5 m-Tp= 15.5 s Max Hs= 12.3 m- Tp=12.2 s
Hmax ~ 15 m Hmax ~ 23 m Hmax ~ 26.9 m
15/09/2004-21:00 GMT 29/8/2005 23/09/2005-12:00 GMT
Vw max=70 kn-36 m/s-SE Vw max ~121 knots-SE*) Vw max=97 knots-50 m/s-NW

*) Houston Chronicle 09-03-05
180
0
210
0
240
0
180
0
235
0



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All wind speeds are measured at a location 44 m above SWL
API requirements: Hs=41 ft (12.5 m), H max= 70 ft (21.3 m), Current: 2.2 knots, Wind 74 knots (38
m/s)

11.2.2 Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
Comparing to the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, see picture below and section 5.4, Katrina reaches
the category 5 concerning the wind velocities (> 62.3 m/s) at the moment that the track was close to
the Marco Polo.

.














Comparing the 3 hurricanes being Ivan, Katrina and Rita, hurricane Rita, however, generated the
highest waves being Hs=12.3 m and Hmax 26.9 m with a lower wind speed as Katrina. The complete
track of Rita in the GoM is shown in the picture below.



11.2.3 Development of a hurricane
In the pictures below the developments of the wind and waves during hurricane Rita is given.

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The upper picture shows the significant wave height in m including the peak period Tp and is based
on 30-minutes intervals. The lower picture shows the wind velocities based on the 30-minutes mean
and the 1 second maximum. Further the wind direction is shown.



The wind directions during hurricane and typhoon conditions are cyclonic and waves will turn in time
(dispersive and directional spread). In how far the waves are affected by the turning effect of the
waves in the time are discussed below.

In the right side of the picture below a polar plot of the measured waves are shown. The polar plot
shows the actual wave spreading analysis results at the moment that the maximum significant wave
during the Rita hurricane was Hs=11.4 m at the location of the Marco Polo. The peak of the
directional wave spectrum is marked red. The mean wave direction is approximately (waves are
coming from) 130-135
0
and the wave spreading is considerably. The waves are coming from the
directions in between 180 and 105
0
. The mean wind direction is (wind is coming from) 150
0
.
During the hurricane the wind direction turns from (coming from) 235
0
to 100
0
in less than 12 hours.
It must be noted that in the GoM the cyclonic motions of the hurricanes are anti-clock wise.




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By generating the polar plot for each 30-minutes interval the history of the hurricane in terms of wave
direction and spreading and the associated wind direction can be studied. In this way the comparison
of the hurricane Ivan, Katrina and Rita can be carried out. The results show that for the hurricane Ivan
and Katrina where the location of Marco Polo was at the left side of the track, the waves were in
general more or less long crested. For hurricane Rita where the Marco Polo was located on the right
side of the track, the waves were significant more short crested.

11.2.4 Extreme local wave slopes
Local wave slopes are important for the determination of the impact loads on offshore structures. In
this section some consideration will be given on extreme local wave slopes. The wave slopes are
considered during the hurricane Camille in 1969 (category 5) and hurricane Rita in 2005 (Category
4).

In an Airy wave the surface profile of a regular wave can be calculated as given below, see section
11.2:

) ( 2 cos[
2
) , (
T
t
L
x H
t x = t


and the maximum wave slope amounts to

L
H
dx
x d t
=
) (


in which H=wave height, L=wave length and T=wave period.

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The maximum wave slope of a selected wave with a regular steepness H/L=1/12 is therefore
t/12=0.26 ~ 14.5
0
. For a 1/10 wave this value is equal to t/10= 0.314 ~ 17.43
0
. At H/L=1/7 steepness
the maximum slope for the Airy wave is t/7= 0.448 ~ 24.2
0
. Longuet Higgins (Ref. [11-2]) predicts a
value of 0.577 for his maximum wave (30).The slope of the Longuet Higgins Wave is therefore
approximately 29% higher than the value given by the maximum local wave slope from linear theory.

An example of the time series characteristics of highest waves measured during the Hurricane
Camille (1500-1530 hours) is given in the figure below. Hurricane Camille was Category 5 and
occurs in August 1969. In the figure 3 wave profiles are given. The first wave profile shows the
lowest elevation/amplitude ratio with a crest height of 26 ft and a trough of 27 ft. The second wave
profile gives the intermediate elevation/amplitude ratio with a crest height of 42 ft and a trough of 22
ft, while the third profile gives the highest elevation/amplitude with a crest height of 49 ft and a
trough of 17 ft. The wave profile with the highest ratio shows that for a wave steepness H/L~
66/415=1/6, the maximum local wave slope can be less than 1/1.6 as is indicated in the figure.

In the following the maximum local wave slope measured during Camille is compared to the local
wave slope of the maximum wave as measured during Hurricane Rita at the location of the Marco
Polo TLP. The maximum wave height amounted to 26.9 m (corrected for the platform displacement).


elevation/amplitude ratio measured during Camille











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Elevation/amplitude ratio measured during Rita (Ref. [11-1])





In the table below the results of the maximum local wave steepness are compared.




















designation symbol unit Camille Rita
maximum significant wave height Hs m 12.3
peak period of wave spectrum Tp s 12.2
wave steepness in a spectrum Hs/Lp 0.053
ratio maximum crest to standard dev Amax/o 6.18
length of extreme wave L m 126 156
period of extreme wave T s 9 10
wave crest to trough H m 20.1 26.9
regular steepness H/L 1:6.3 1:5.8
associated wave length s trough-crest s m 61 78
steepness trough-crest based on s trough-crest H/s 1:3 1:2.9
zero line to crest Hc m 14.9 19
associated wave length s zero line-crest sc m 32.2 50
steepness crest based on s zero line-crest Hc/sc 1:1.6 1:2.6
local wave crest height H m 11.7
associated wave length s over local wave crest s m 14.5
local wave slope H/ s >1:1.6 1:1.24
slope in degrees deg >32 40
W1= East
W2= South
W3= West

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From the results it can be concluded that the steepness of the local part of the maximum wave crest
was most probable higher (40
0
) than during Camille (>32
0
). The general steepness (H/L) was about
the same (26.5 vs. 28.5
0
).

In the previous figure with the maximum wave measured during Rita was one of the maximum waves
measured by means of the three wave radars of the TLP. The other 2 waves were considerable lower.
Referring to Ref. [11-1] it was said that a large number of similar events have been recorded in all
three hurricanes, although hurricane Rita showed significant higher differences between the three
wave radars than hurricane Ivan and Katrina. As explained already in section 25.2 this indicates more
short crested seas, which may be explained by the fact that in hurricane Rita the platform was on the
right hand side of the hurricane track. In hurricanes Ivan and Katrina the measuring point was on the
left hand side and the seas were in general more long crested.
Another observation in the measurements is that some extreme waves lead to impacts on the platform.
These impact loads can be observed by the measured accelerations on the topsides. An example of an
extreme impact is shown in the figure below. The shape of the wave crest measured on the south side
of the platform is very different from the normal wave profile and must be due to a breaking wave.



The response of the platform due to this wave impact in terms of the accelerations is very
pronounced.

It must be noted that the maximum crest/st.dev ratio as function of the wave steepness based on the
measured Hs and the Tp (see table before) can be high as shown in the figure below.




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11.2.5 Zimmerman Hurricane Design Scale
The Zimmerman Hurricane Design Scale (ZHDS) takes mooring design metocean estimates for use in
analyzing floating structures and matches them to the commonly used Saffir-Simpson Hurricane
Scale. Since hurricanes are typically measured, reported, and recorded by this standard, this effort
seeks to provide a measure of mooring performance that aligns itself to the same standard. In turn,
this provides the designer, owner, and operator with a relative measurement of the mooring system
performance.

The metocean values for the Zimmerman Hurricane Design Scale and the corresponding Saffir-
Simpson Scale categories are given in the following table.










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Saffir wind maximum Hs Tp surface
Simpson speed wind current
Categories (1) speed (1) speed

knots
(m/s)
mph mph
feet (m) sec knots (m/s)
Tropical dep. <39
Tropical storm 39-73
1 56 (28.8) 64.5 74-95 25 (7.62) 12 2.0(1.03)
2 74(38.1) 85.2 96-110 34(10.36) 13 3.1(1.60)
3 86(44.3) 99.0 111-130 40(12.19) 14 3.7(1.91)
4 102(52.5) 117.4 131-155 49(14.94) 15 4.4(2.27)
5 121(62.3) 139.3 156+ 60(18.29) 16 5.1(2.63)
(1) wind speed is the 1-minute mean taken at 10-meters
(2) values are taken at the lowest portion of the category level

maximum wind speed category Hs Tp
Hurricane date mph m s
Katrina 29/8/2005 139 4 10.5 15.5
Rita 23/9/2005 111.6 3 12.3 12.2
Gustav 01/10/08 3 10.8
Ike 12/9/2008 <103 2


11.3 References
11-1. Dijk, Radboud van and Henk van den Boom, Full scale monitoring Marco Polo
tension leg platform, OMAE 2007, June 10-15, 2007, San Diego, California
11-2. Higgings, L.: On the form of the highest progressive and standing waves in deep
water, Proc. Royal Society, London A331, 445-456, 1973



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12 WAVE SIMULATION

12.1 Introduction
In the following the linear theory in terms of spectral components are applied to simulate a seastate.
In reality a seastate with high waves may deviate from the linear theory. Some consideration in this
respect will be given in this section.

12.2 Simulation of wave profile from wave spectrum
The wave is computed using the wave spectral density function together with a random phase. The
wave elevation of an irregular wave can be described by a Fourier series:

) t ( cos ) t (
i i i
c + e , E = , (i=1,...,N)

in which:
,
i
= wave amplitude
e
i
= wave frequency
c
i
= random phase angle (uniformly distributed between 0 and 2t rad)
i = wave frequency index
N = number of discrete frequency components
t = time.

The amplitudes of the wave components are found from:

( )
5 . 0
i i i
) ( S 2 e A e = ,
,
(i=1,...,N)

where:
) ( S
i
e
,
= wave spectral density
i
e A = frequency interval.

At the frequency f
1
the energy density is S(f
1
), the wave height at this frequency is as follows:

f f S f H A = ) ( 2 2 ) (
1 1
and corresponding wave period is
T=1/ f
1

For the random seas a wave train with specified length (or duration) is calculated from the energy
spectrum. Due to the Fourier representation of the random waves, the time trace will always be cyclic.
The number of frequency components is taken such that the period of this cycle is equal to the duration
of the tests (in our case 3 hours full scale). This means that for a longer duration of the tests a larger
number of frequency components and thus a smaller value of the frequency bandwidth are used.

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Example for the 3 hours random wave duration is given below.
For the 3 hours simulation the frequency interval Ae will be determined as follows: Ae= 2t/10800
=0.000582 rad/s. This means that the number of wave components between 0 and 2 rad/s will be 3436.
For the Hurricane the components between .25 and 1.5 rad/s will have approximately 2148 non-zero
amplitudes, while for the Loop-current wave spectrum the components between 0.3 and 1.5 rad/s will
have approximately 2062 non-zero amplitudes. With this approach no cyclic affects or repeatability of
the wave train will occur.

12.3 Wave crest kinematics

12.3.1 Linear theory and stretching
Linear wave theory is the most commonly applied method in the determination of wave loads on
offshore structures. Strictly speaking, linear theory is applicable only to waves with relatively small
amplitudes. From an engineering viewpoint, such a restriction is not practical, but fortuitously, the
method lends itself also to waves with finite amplitude and moderate steepness. Furthermore, non-
extreme irregular seas of moderate steepness tend to be Gaussian distributed, so that the wave surface
can be adequately modeled by the superposition of randomly distributed sinusoids.

The design feasibility of an offshore structure, however, is to a large extent governed by extreme
wave loads. To predict such loads, one must be able to account for the kinematics in extreme waves.
Wave properties underneath the mean water level (MWL) are described with reasonable accuracy by
linear wave theory, even for extreme waves; one must, however, also consider the wave crest region,
which can contribute a large share of the total force or overturning moment. Linear wave theory
defines wave properties up to the mean water level, while those in the crest region are not defined. To
apply linear theory in the crest, several approximate "stretching" schemes have been proposed; an
overview of which is provided by e.g. Le Mehaute and Hanes, Ref. [12-1]. Stretching schemes
comprise:

- Functional extrapolation
- Truncation at MWL
- Linear extrapolation
- Reid-Wheeler stretching (Wheeler [12-3])
- Delta stretching (Rodenbusch and Forristal [12-2])

Functional extrapolation is a straightforward extension of linear theory. Here one simply inserts the
height z above MWL in the usual kinematic equations. The stretched wave velocities in the crest and
through according to linear theory for waves in deep water is given in the figure below.













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This approach, however, will result in an exponentially increasing horizontal velocity. De Kat and
Wichers [12-4] found that measured maximum horizontal velocities in regular waves tend to be over
predicted by 5 to 20% in the crest, which for an initial estimate of forces may be acceptable. Sobey et
al. [12-5] also found this approach to yield reasonable engineering results.

Caution is required, however, when using this approach. This applies especially to extreme waves in
irregular seas, where the (exponentially increasing) contribution to the kinematics due to the small
amplitude, high frequency wave components riding on top of the long waves can be very large.

The figure below illustrates how the Gaussian (linear superposition) model yields good results in the
crests of lower waves, but largely over predicts the horizontal velocity underneath the crests of some
extreme waves (at a level z = +4 m). The same figure shows that horizontal velocity predictions in
the same seaway improve at and below MWL.

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Truncation at the MWL keeps the kinematics in the crest constant and equal to those at MWL (z = 0),
which does not seem reasonable. Linear extrapolation assumes that the kinematics above MWL
increase linearly with increasing z. Wheeler stretching consists of proportionally stretching kinematic
properties above MWL; Delta stretching is based on comparisons with field test measurements.

12.3.2 Nonlinear wave theories
Even in deep water conditions, steep waves are not sinusoidal. They are characterized by sharpened
crests and flattened troughs, where the crest height is larger than the trough value. The asymmetric
distribution of crest and trough elevations is important, e.g. in the determination of the minimum air
gap for a fixed platform, semi-submersible, or TLP. Depending on the wave height, length and water
depth, several nonlinear wave theories exist for the estimation of relevant kinematics of steady
(regular) waves, see for instance Chapter 26 for appropriate applications. Sobey et al. Ref. [12-5] and
Le Mehaute and Hanes Ref. [12-1], amongst other, provide an overview of higher order wave
theories.
De Kat and Wichers Ref. [12-4] compared the following theories (as well as a higher order panel
method) with LDV measurements in moderate and steep regular waves:

- linear theory with functional extrapolation (Stokes 1st order)
- Stokes 5th order
- Fourier 5th order

The figure below shows measured and computed wave profiles; the higher order theories closely
predict the higher crests. For the conditions considered, Stokes 5th order and Fourier 5th order theory
both yield approximately the same results, which are better especially as regards horizontal crest
velocities in large amplitude waves than linear theory.


The knowledge of the wave velocities is important for the green water loads above an air gap.



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The horizontal velocities in the crest and through were computed and measured for a regular deep
water wave with H= 18.0 m and T= 11.4 s.

12.4 Maximum wave height
What are the formulations for the MPMHmax/Hs ratio's? The following formulations can be found
for the calculated of the MPMHmax/Hs ratio's (MPM=most probable maximum):

1) Longuet-Higgins & Cartwright gives, see Ref. [6]
MPMHmax/Hs=0.707{(lnN)^0.5+0.29(lnN)^-0.5}

2) Forristall with =2.125, =8.42 and Euler =0.5772 gives, see Ref. [12-7]
MPMHmax/Hs=0.68{(lnN)^0.4706 + 0.272(lnN)^-0.5294}

3) Naess with =1 (= -0.65281) gives, see Ref. [12-8]
MPMHmax/Hs=0.6428{(lnN)^0.5}

where:
Tp/Tz=1.30301-0.01698*+0.12102/
=-0.000191*^3+0.00488*^2-0.0525*-0.605
N=t/Tz
t=test duration in seconds

An example of the ratio's for N=10800/11=982 being 3 hours and a zero-up crossing period Tz=11 s
comparing the MPMHmax and the EHmax (expected Hmax) are as follows:

1) L-H&C gives MPMHmax/Hs=1.93
(numerical integration of the distribution function according to L-H&C gives EHmax/Hs=1.97)
2) Forristall gives MPMHmax/Hs=1.75
(numerical integration of the distribution function according to Forristall gives EHmax/Hs=1.78)
3) Naess gives MPMHmax/Hs= 1.69
(numerical integration of the distribution function according to Naess gives EHmax/Hs=1.78)

The EHmax values can be computed from numerical integration of the distribution functions. The
distribution functions according to Longuet-Higgins & Cartwright, Forristall and Naess are different.

The EHmax values for the three distributions still have to be computed for the Ormen Lange design.
The reason is that it is recommended to use the EHmax instead of the MPMHmax, because the
distribution of the maximum following the wave heights has a relatively long tail (regardless of the
particulars of the wave height distribution chosen), so the MPMHmax is lower than the EHmax, and
therefore use of the MPMHmax would lead to underestimation of the risk.

12.5 References

12-1) Le Mhaut, B. and Hanes, D.M.: "The Sea" - Ocean Engineering Science Series, Vol. 9, Part
A, Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1990.


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12-2) Rodenbusch, G. and Forristal, G.: "An empirical model for random directional wave kinematics
near the free surface", Proc. 1986 Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, pp. 137-146, 1986.

12-3) Wheeler, J.D.: "Method for calculating forces produced by irregular waves", Proc. 1969
Offshore Technology Conference, OTC Paper 1007, Houston, pp. 83-94, 1969.

12-4) Kat, J.O. de and Wichers, J.E.W.: "Measurement and prediction of regular and irregular wave
kinematics", Paper presented at 23rd International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ICCE '92,
Paper No. 76, Venice, 4-9 October 1992.

12-5) Sobey, R.J. et al.: "Application of Stokes, Conoidal, and Fourier Wave Theories", J. of
Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 113, No. 6, Nov. 1987.

12-6) Longuet-Higgins, M.S.: "On the joint distribution of wave periods and amplitude in a random
sea", Journal of Geophysical Research, 80, 2688-2694, 1975

12-7) Forristall, G.Z.: "On the statistical distribution of wave heights in a storm", Journal of
Geophysical Research, 83, 2353-2358, 1978 or recommended practice DNV-RP-C205-Environmental
conditions and environmental loads-April 2007

12-8) Naess, A.: "The joint crossing frequency of stochastic processes and its application to wave
theory", Journal of applied Ocean Research, Vol. 7, No.1, 1985 or recommended practice DNV-RP-
C205-Environmental conditions and environmental loads-April 2007



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13 MOORING ELEMENTS

13.1 Introduction
A mooring line can have one of the shapes as are given in the figure below. The shapes are defined as
1) the taut mooring line, 2) the catenary mooring line, 3) the mooring line with a clump weight and
finally 4) the mooring line with a spring buoy.

In section 13.2 the principles of the theory on the catenary line shapes are given.


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13.2 General formulae for catenary lines

13.2.1 Introduction
It is always hard to find the principles of the theory on the catenary mooring lines. In the following
sections the general formulae for catenary lines and some variation on this line are given.

13.2.2 General formulae for catenary lines
The definitions of the symbols used in the theory of catenary lines are presented in the figure below.




T
s
= tension in anchor chain
T
0
= horizontal tension
s = chain length
w = submersed weight per unit length of anchor chain
(=0.87 weight in air)
h = water depth
L = horizontal projection

s
= upper angle of incidence of chain with horizontal in radials

1
= lower angle of incidence of chain with horizontal in radials

Reference: Basil W. Wilson: Characteristics of anchor cables in uniform ocean current, A&M
project 204; reference 60-ST, Technical Report Nr. 204-`, April 1960, A&M College of Texas.

The following cases on the catenary lines with the associated restrictions are given below.










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Case I-General formulae for catenary case (
1
>=0
0
):

1 s
s s
sec - sec
sec

h * w
T



= (1)

1 s
0
sec - sec
1

h * w
T


=
.(2)

from (1) and (2) we can find

s 1
T
h * w
- 1
cos
cos
=

s
.(3)

further

s
s




cos cos
) sin(
sec - sec
tan tan

h
s

1
1
1 s
1 s

=
....(4)

and

] ) sec (sec ) tan [(tan 12 36 6
sec - sec
1

h
L

2
1
2
1
1 s


+ + =
s s

(5)


Case II-If lower angle of incidence of the chain with the horizontal
1
= 0, then the following
formulae is valid:



s
s
cos - 1
1

h * w
T

=
(6)

s
s 0
cos - 1
cos

h * w
T

= .(7)

from (6) and (7) we can find

s
s
s
0
s
s
T
* T
T
T
T
h * w
- 1 cos
h w
= = = . .(8)

further


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)
2
1
( cot
cos 1
) sin(
1 - sec
tan

h
s

s
s
s
s
s
an

= = . ..(9)

or

)
2
( h
w
T
h s
s

=

and

] )
cos
cos 1
( ) [(tan 12 36 6
cos - 1
cos

h
L

2 2
s
s
s
s
s


+ + =

or

s

cos
24
12 6
cos - 1
cos

h
L

s
s
+ + =
..(10)

Case III- Calculation procedure if a sinker is used:

Estimate an h and calculate T
s
/w*h, T
0
/w*h and
s
.
Read s/h from Fig.1 and check s of upper part. Repeat this procedure till the right s is
found. Then the h for upper and lower part are known and all characteristics can be
calculated.
(T
0
is constant for the whole anchor line).

Case IV- Calculation procedure if different materials are used in an anchor line:
If different materials are used in an anchor line the same procedure as mentioned under
case III is to be used.

13.2.3 An examples for Case I and II
Example of the chain computations for an anchor leg of a CALM buoy is given below. Note that the
stiffness of the chain is not taken into account. The water depth belonging to the chain is 27.1-2.44=
24.66 m.

CALM buoy
Diameter m 12.5
Depth (12 ft) m 3.65
Draft (9 ft) m 2.74
Diameter chain stoppers (inside buoy) m 12
Position chain stopper below SWL (8 ft) m 2.44
water depth SWL m 27.1
Chain particulars
Pretension angle at chain stopper with the horizontal deg 40
Pretension force at chain stopper kN 215.8
Chain



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Diameter inch 4 1/8
Weight in air N/m 2368
Stiffness AE kN 9.514E+05
Length m 212.3

The results obtained from the equations (1) through (10) are given in the table below.

angle angle
pre-
tension chain horizontal off
length projection set

1
T
s
s L x
deg deg kN m m m
40 0 217 67.79 61.67 0.00
34.3 0 291 79.71 74.53 0.95
28.3 0 425 97.87 93.68 1.93
22.1 0 692 126.34 123.11 2.89
16 0 1313 175.56 173.24 3.80
14 0 1712 200.94 198.92 4.10
13.5 0 1840 208.46 206.51 4.17
13.25 0 1910 212.30 210.51 4.34
11.1 2.2 2828 212.30 210.61
8.6 4.75 6489 212.30 210.72
7.6 5.75 13481 212.30 210.83


-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 50 100 150 200
[m]
h
e
i
g
h
t

a
b
o
v
e

s
e
a

f
l
o
o
r

[
m
]



13.3 Mooring lines in deepwater
As an introduction to the design of mooring systems, the systems in intermediate and ultra deep water
are presented in this section.
In the figure below the FPSO is moored in intermediate deep water.


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In intermediate deepwater (less than 1000 m) the FPSO is moored by means of catenary mooring
systems. The mooring leg consists of chain, steel wire rope and chain combination. An example of the
mooring lines lay-out may be as follows:

Turret chain Mid-water wire Touch-down chain Ground wire anchor chain
D length D length D length D length D length
inch m inch m inch m inch m inch m
6.25 10 5.75 440 6.25 292 5.5 1000 6 55

In ultra deep water the FPSO is moored by means of taut polyester mooring systems. The mooring leg
consists of chain, polyester rope and chain combination.


The mooring leg of the mooring system for a water depth in the GoM may consist of the following
parts:
Hurricane
current profile
Loop
current profile
Riser
Mooring line (polyester-taut)
V
csurface
=7 ft/s
V
csurface
=3.5 ft/s
10,000 ft
~9798 ft
~9798 ft



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turret chain polyester anchor chain
D length D length D length
inch m inch m inch m
4.0 91.4 7.09 4053.8 4.0 122.0

In the following sections the library of steel wire ropes, the library of synthetic ropes and the library
of chains are given. In section 27.7 also some remarks are given on the fatigue and on the
corrosion/wear allowance of chains are given and finally in section 27.8 the safety factors are defined.








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13.4 Library of particulars of steel wire ropes

13.4.1 Introduction to steel wire ropes
Steel wire ropes have many applications in the offshore industry including towing, mooring and
winching.
Aspects to be considered during planning and engineering shall include, as appropriate:
- wire segments shall have a valid certificate that is associated with a unique identification
number on the wire segment;
- methods for stopping off for actions during installation;
- load-elongation properties (axial stiffness);
- twist and torque of the wire when loaded, and in particular its effect on the adjacent mooring
system elements;
- handling of sheathed wire rope should be planned such that any damage to the wire sheathing
is avoided and, should it occur, can be repaired on deck with adequate repair kit;
- minimum bending radii on winch reels, fairleads and over the stern roller should be respected,
in particular near the wire terminations;
- protection from mechanical damage or weld spatters, in particular when the wire is coated;
- other hazards with respect to the integrity of the wire sheathing;
- avoid kinks or loops during wire handling and in the as-laid configuration;
- fatigue contribution during the pre-installed time period if relevant;
- minimum tension to avoid over-bending.

13.4.2 Properties of conventional steel wire ropes
Wire ropes can be made in different constructions, consisting of various tensile strengths and qualities
of wires and several lays.
A steel wire rope consists of several strands, usually 6, laid helically around a center core. Each strand
is made up of several wires laid helically in one or more layers. A spiral strand wire rope is just one
single strand. The behavior characteristics of wire rope and its durability under a given set of
operating conditions are largely determined by certain basic features of the design, including:
a) The number of strand in the wire rope
b) The number and arrangement of the wires in the strands
c) The tensile strength of the wires
d) The type of core in the wire rope
e) Special processing applied, such as post-forming and pre-forming
f) Zinc coating and lubrication.

The following details can be presented on the basic features of steel wire ropes are as follows:
bb) The number and arrangement of the wires in a strand
In ropes of regular or "ordinary" lay the lay of wires in each strand are twisted in one direction and
the lay of the strands in the opposite direction, whereas in ropes of Lang lay the lay of the wires in
each strand is in the same direction as the lay of the strands.



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As a consequence Lang" lay ropes may not be used in a load, which is not guided, since there is no
resistance against untwisting because of the lay.
cc) Tensile strength of wires
The tensile strength of wires or the grade of wires is presented as 1766/1952 N/mm^2 and for higher
tensile strength or grades are denoted as 1962/2148 and 2158/2345 N/mm^2.
dd) Type of core
Three types of cores are commonly used:
1. Fiber core: Polypropylene is standard, but either natural sisal (or hemp) fiber or other man-made
fibers are available on special request.
Polypropylene has the advantage that it neither absorbs nor retains moisture, and thus it eliminates
conditions creating internal corrosion. Polypropylene core will have small variations in size and
weight and are less susceptible to damage, especially under moist conditions.
The following precautions must be taken during use:
- Do not use fiber core wire rope where these are exposed to high temperatures, i.e. above 90
o
C, this
will damage the fiber core.
- The fiber core wire rope should not be used when multi-layer winding is required as the fiber cores are susceptible
to crushing
2. Independent Wire Rope Core: Literally an independent wire rope with strands and a core, called
IWRC. Most wire ropes made with steel core use an IWRC, see also wire rope core on page 15.
3. Strand core A strand made of wires. Typically, strand cores are used in utility cables only.
ee) Special processing
The principle of pre-formed wire ropes is that the individual strands are pre-shaped to the exact
helical position they normally take up in the finished rope. Consequently the strands lie in a relaxed
position free from internal stresses. The performance of the wire improves considerably (better under
load, more flexible, higher resistance to bending fatigue, less tendency to kink etc.
ff) Zinc coating and lubrication
Drawn galvanized wires are used throughout the construction of the 6-strand and spiral strand wire
ropes. Further if required the outer wires of the six outer strands can be given a heavier zinc coating to
enhance the corrosion properties.
As a cathodic design six sacrificial zinc filter wires can be incorporated in the construction during the
closing operation. These filler wires will enhance the lifetime by about two years.
To improve the protection from corrosion a marine lubrication or blocking compound is applied
during the stranding and closing operations. During this operation all wires are coated with lubricant
and all the voids are filled with blocking compound. The features of lubrication are:
-an adhesive, pore-free, pressure resistance and lubricating film, free from becoming brittle in cold
weather or slide away because of heat.
-a high film breaking point
-a chemically stable structure and low ash residue (and acid- and alkali-free)
-it protects the fiber of the core
-during timely post lubrication it penetrates very well into the core of the rope
-it is water resistance.

The design life of the two wires is indicated in the figure with the 6-strand and spiral strand wire rope.
The two wire types have different properties and may affect the system designers thinking. The
advantages of two wires constructions are shown in the Table 13-1. An example of wire rope
constructions is shown in Figure 13-1. In Figure 13-1 also a picture is shown of the cathodic design of
steel wire ropes.

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Fig. 13-1: Constructions of wire rope
The life times of mooring wire rope design are given in Table 13-1 (TREFILEUROPE).

constructions years
6-strand + IWRC galvanized wire rope without anodes 1 to 3
Self-protected 6 strands +IWRC galvanized wire rope 3 to 7
unsheathed galvanized spiral strand without cathodic protection 7 to 13
self-protected unsheathed galvanized spiral strand 13 to 20
sheathed galvanized spiral strand without cathodic protection 20-25
self-protected and sheathed half locked coil galvanized spiral 25 to 30
Self-projected and sheathed full locked coil galvanized spiral 30 to 35

Spiral strand-advantage Six strand-advantage
Higher strength to weight ratio Higher elasticity
Higher strength to diameter ratio Greater flexibility
Torsional balanced Low axial stiffness
Higher resistance to corrosion
Higher fatigue resistance
Table 13-1: Life time of mooring wires (TREFILEUROPE) and advantage of two types of wire
construction (Bridon)

The strands provide all the tensile strength of a fiber core rope and over 90% of the strength of a
typical 6-strand wire rope with an independent wire rope core.
Characteristics like fatigue resistance and resistance to abrasion are directly affected by the design of
strands.
In most strands with two or more layers of wires, inner layers support outer layers in such a manner
that all wires may slide and adjust freely when the rope bends.
As a general rule, a rope that has strands made up of a few large wires will be more abrasion resistant
and less fatigue resistant than a rope of the same size made up of strands with many smaller wires.

Wire rope core proves advantageous in severe working conditions involving a low factor of safety,
small drums and sheaves, high operational speeds and wide fleet angles. Steel core tends to preserve
the circular cross-section of the wire rope when over-winding on drums crushes it. It also prevents
the strands from bridging, (bearing forcibly against each other) which can result in fatigue failure of




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wires. It will be loss in breaking load when the wire rope bends over small sheaves as shown in
Figure 13-2.
The typical sections of 6 strand and spiral strand wire ropes are shown in the Figure 13-3.



Fig. 13-2 Bending ratio-Drum or pulley/rope diameter ratio (Scan Rope)



Fig. 13-3 Typical sections of 6-strand and spiral strand steel wire ropes (FC = Fibre core and IWRC =
Independent wire rope core) (ScanRope)


Single layer The most common example of the single layer construction is a 7 wire strand. It has a
single-wire center with six wires of the same diameter around it.
Seale This construction has two layers of wires around a center with the same number of wires in
each layer. All wires in each layer are the same diameter. The strand is designed so that the large
outer wires rest in the valleys between the smaller inner wires. Example: 19 Seale (1-9-9) strand.
Filler wire This construction has two layers of uniform-size wire around a center with the inner layer
having half the number of wires as the outer layer. Small filler wires, equal in number to the inner
layer, are laid in valleys of the inner layer. Example: 25 Filler Wire (1-6-6f -12) strand.
Warrington This construction has two layers of wires around a center with one diameter of wire in
the inner layer, and two diameters of wire alternating large and small in the outer layer. The larger
outerlayer wires rest in the valleys, and the smaller ones on the crowns, of the inner layer. Example:
19 Warrington [1-6-(6+6)].

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Combined patterns When a strand is formed in a single operation using two or more of the above
constructions, it is referred to as a combined pattern. This example is a Seale construction in its first
two layers. The third layer utilizes the Warrington construction, and the outer layer is a Seale
construction. Its described as: 49 Seale Warrington Seale [1-8-8-(8+8)-16].
Rope cores form a foundation for the strands. The primary function of the ropes core is to serve as
the foundation for the strands to keep the rope round and the strands properly positioned during
operation. Your choice of core will have an effect upon the ropes performance.

The nominal diameter of wire rope as used in the engineering is defined in Figure 13-4.

Fig. 13-4 Definition of the nominal diameter of a steel wire

Elongation of steel wire ropes
When a wire rope is put under load, its length increases by an amount which is the sum of the
constructional extension of the wire rope and the elastic stretch of wire material. Constructional
extension is caused by the wires adjusting themselves to their proper position in the strands and by the
strands seating themselves in the wire rope and compressing the core. This constructional extension is
usually permanent and its magnitude depends on the wire rope construction and length of lay. It also
varies with the loads imposed and amount of bending to which the wire rope is subjected. It is not
possible to quote exact values for the various types of wire rope in use, but the following approximate
values may be used as a guide for the permanent elongation. The values are shown in Table 13-2.






Table 13-2: Permanent elongation of 6-strand wire rope with fiber core
(given in percentage wire rope length)

Wire rope with steel core will produce only about 50% of the above values. If a new wire rope is
immediately put under heavy load, the permanent elongation will reach its maximum value after a
few days. With light load this may take quite some time.
Modulus of elasticity of steel wire ropes
The modulus of elasticity of a wire rope varies throughout its life and is dependent on the construction
of the rope and conditions under which it operates. The modulus increases during the useful life of the
wire rope. Elastic stretch under load is caused by elastic elongation and the contraction of the
individual wires.
The load-elongation curve of the steel wire can within limits be determined by means of Hook's
formula. The stiffness of the steel wires is determined using the equation given as follows:

Light load Factor of safety-greater than 8:1 0.25%
Normal load Factor of safety-about 6:1 0.50%
Heavy load Factor of safety-less than 5:1 1.00%



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L
d C E
K


=
4
2
t

in which :

K = spring constant in kN/m
E = modulus of elasticity in kN/mm
2

C = constant, Fill-factor of wire rope, constant depending on construction type of wire
d = nominal diameter of wire in mm
L = length of wire in m

or
L
A E
K

=

where: A= Nominal metallic area of wire mm
2

Elastic stretch (m) =
EA
WL
=
K
W

in which: W = load in kN

The modulus of elasticity of wire rope with the load range 15~60% of the mean break strength M.B.L.
is given in the Table 13-3.

E-modulus for load range: 15~60% of
MBL
E (new
wire)
Wire rope constructions kN/mm
2

6x7 Fibre core 93
6x19 Classification fibre core 83-88
6x19 Classification steel core 88-98
6x37 Classification fibre core 69-78
6x37 Classification steel core 78-88
6x91 Classification steel core 64-69
18x7 and 19x7 Non rotating 78
35x7 Non rotating 74
Spiral strand 7 wires 152
Spiral strand 19 wires 145
Spiral strand 37 wires 138
Spiral strand 61 wires 131
Table 13-3 Modulus of elasticity of wire ropes

It is found that the up to approx. 60% of the actual breaking load of the rope at which the elastic limit
of the wire material is reached.

The table gives the approximate range of the modulus of elasticity for the different wire rope
constructions. These values are for new wire rope of standard constructions and lengths of lay. It can
be deducted that wire ropes with low modulus of elasticity are more able to withstand shock loadings
under heavy duty conditions as greater elastic elongation permits absorption of work of deformation.

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The values of C and other E values are given in Table 13-4 and information on the minimum break
strength, weight in air of wire ropes are shown in Tables 13-5 and 13-6.















Table 13-4 Values of C and E of wire ropes


6 Strand-ISO 2408 8 Strand-ISO 2408
6*26WS/ 6*31WS/ 6*36WS/ 6*41WS
Warrington Seale constructions
8*26WS/ 8*31WS/ 8*36WS/ 8*41WS
Warrington Seale construction
Fiber core Steel core Steel core
Grade 1766 Grade 1766 Grade 1962 Grade 1766 Grade 1962
E=80 kN/mm
2
E=105kN/mm
2
E=105kN/mm
2
E=85 kN/mm
2
E=85 kN/mm
2

C=0.497 C=0.586 C=0.586 C=0.586 C=0.586
Diameter

Break
strength
Weight Break
strength
Weight Break
strength
Weight Break
strength
Weight Break
strength
Weight
mm kN N/m KN N/m KN N/m KN N/m KN N/m
20 234 14.91 252 16.38 279 16.36 259 16.38 283 16.38
22 283 18.05 305 19.82 338 19.82 309 19.82 343 19.82
24 336 21.48 363 23.64 402 23.64 368 23.64 408 23.64
26 395 25.21 426 27.76 472 27.76 432 27.76 479 27.76
28 458 29.23 494 32.18 548 32.18 501 32.18 555 32.18
32 598 38.16 646 41.99 715 41.99 655 41.99 725 41.99
36 757 48.36 817 53.17 905 53.17 829 53.17 918 53.17
40 934 59.65 1010 65.63 1120 65.63 1020 65.63 1130 65.63
44 1130 72.20 1220 79.46 1350 79.46 1240 79.46 1370 79.46
48 1350 85.94 1450 94.57 1610 94.57 1470 94.57 1630 94.57
52 1580 101.04 1701 110.85 1890 110.85 1730 110.85 1910 110.85
56 1830 116.74 1980 128.51 2190 128.51 2000 128.51 2220 128.51
60 2100 134.40 2270 148.13 2510 148.13 2300 148.13 2550 148.13
64 - - - - - - 2620 167.75 2900 167.75
68 - - - - - - 2960 189.33 3270 189.33
72 - - - - - - 3310 212.88 3670 212.88
76 - - - - - - 3690 237.40 4090 237.40
80 - - - - - - 4090 262.91 4530 262.91
84 - - - - - - 4510 289.40 5000 289.40
Table 13-5 Steel wire rope (Warrington Seale) with fiber and steel core (weight in air)
Standard Construction Diameter Grade Core type E C
Strands d in mm N/mm2 kN/mm2
ISO 2408 6 d<=60 mm 1766 Fibre 80 0.497
ISO 2408 6 d<=60 mm 1766 Steel 105 0.586
ISO 2408 6 d<=60 mm 1962 Steel 105 0.586
ISO 2408 8 d<=84 mm 1766 Steel 85 0.586
ISO 2408 8 d<=84 mm 1962 Steel 85 0.586
America 6 d<=45 mm 1864 Fibre 80 0.446
America 6 d<=76 mm 1864 Steel 105 0.522
America 6 d<=76 mm 2060 Steel 105 0.522



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6 Strand 6*37-America
Fibre core Steel core
Grade 1864 Grade 1864 Grade 2060
E=80.0 kN/mm
2
E=105 kN/mm
2
E=105 kN/mm
2

C=0.446 C=0.522 C=0.522
Diameter Break
strength
Weight Break
strength
Weight Break
strength
Weight
Inch mm kN N/m kN N/m KN N/m
1 25 372 24.53 399 26.98 460 26.98
1.13 29 468 31.10 503 34.14 579 34.14
1.25 32 575 38.36 618 42.18 711 42.18
1.38 35 692 46.40 743 51.11 854 51.11
1.5 38 819 55.23 880 60.72 1010 60.72
1.63 41 953 64.84 1020 71.22 1177 71.22
1.75 45 1099 75.15 1187 82.80 1364 82.80
1.88 48 - - 1354 94.86 1550 94.86
2 51 - - 1530 107.91 1766 107.91
2.13 54 - - 1707 121.64 1962 121.64
2.25 57 - - 1913 136.36 2197 136.36
2.38 60 - - 2129 152.06 2443 152.06
2.5 64 - - 2335 169.71 2688 169.71
2.63 67 - - 2560 186.39 2943 186.39
2.75 70 - - 2796 204.05 3208 204.05
2.83 72 - - 3032 223.67 3492 223.67
3 76 - - 3296 242.31 3787 242.31
Table 13-6 Steel wire rope with fibre and steel core (weight in air)



Table 13-7 6-strand construction steel wires D > 3 (Bridon)


min. breaking load Weight Nominal
diameter construc- API-9A Bridon air water area
inch mm tion kN kN N/m N/m mm^2
3 76 6 x36 3404 4169 245 201 2835
3.25 83 6 x47 3944 4659 284 240 3285
3.5 90 6x 47 4513 5640 343 289 3950
3.75 96 6 x 52 5062 6131 368 309 4185
4 103 6 x 52 5709 6670 427 358 4925
4.25 109 6 x 52 6396 7259 481 407 5575
4.5 115 6 x 76 7112 8279 549 461 6050
4.75 122 6 x 76 7858 9319 628 530 6810
5 128 6 x 76 8633 10055 677 569 7760
5.25 135 6 x 95 8976 10889 736 618 8095
5.5 140 6 x 96 9761 11968 785 657 9025
5.75 146 6 x 95 10575 12851 863 726 9815
6 152 6 x 95 11429 13832 952 800 10650

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13.4.3 Properties of spiral strand steel wire ropes
The mean break strength, weight in air, submerged weight, nominal metallic area vs. diameter of
spiral strand construction steel wires for D 3 are given in Table 13-8.
No standard properties are proposed for spiral strand wire, however the following are provided for
information (diameter (D) is for unsheathed wire and the weight in water includes the sheathing).

MBL weight in air weight
in
nominal
metallic
stiffness sheathing
D
diameter load unsheathed sheathed water area AE thickness
inch mm kN N/m N/m N/m mm^2 kN*10^6 mm
3 77
5739 275 304 235
3465 8
3.25 83
6769 345 380 299
4220 8
3.5 90
7848 387 417 329
4750 0.760 10
3.75 96
8829 441 486 373
5435 10
4 102
981 500 530 422
6350 11
4.25 109
11282 559 608 471
7055 11
4.5 115
12263 638 687 540
7775 11
4.75 121
13734 697 746 589
8550 1.353 11
5 127
15206 785 834 657
9565 11
5.25 133
16677 863 922 726
10490 11
5.5 140
18639 942 991 795
11675 1.799 11
5.75 146
19620 1040 1089 873
12470 1.940 11
6 152
21582 1118 1177 942
13270 11
6.7 170.2
1207 1050 2.079
11
Table 13-8: Spiral strand construction steel wire D 3 (Bridon)

The mean break strength, submerged weight, weight in air versus diameter are shown in Figures 13-5,
13-6 and 13-7. The axial and bending stiffness as the function of the diameter are shown Figures 13-8
and 13-9.


0.0
2.5
5.0
7.5
10.0
12.5
15.0
17.5
20.0
22.5
25.0
27.5
30.0
32.5
80 100 120 140 160 180 200
diameter in mm
M
B
L

M
N
Polyester Six Strand Spiral Strand

Fig. 13-5: Minimum breaking load (MN=1000 kN) versus nominal diameter
(ScanRope)



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0
250
500
750
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000
2250
2500
80 100 120 140 160 180 200
diameter in mm
W
e
i
g
h
t

i
n

N
/
m
Polyester Six Strand Spiral Strand

Fig. 13-6: Weight in air versus nominal diameter (ScanRope)
0
250
500
750
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000
80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Diameter in mm
S
u
b
m
e
r
g
e
d

w
e
i
g
h
t

N
/
m
Polyester Six strand Spiral Strand

Fig. 13-7: Submerged weight versus nominal diameter (ScanRope)

0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
80 100 120 140 160 180
Diameter in mm
A
x
i
a
l

s
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s

i
n

M

N
Spiral Strand Six Strand

Fig. 13-8: Axial stiffness versus nominal diameter (Scanrope)


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0
2.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
17.5
20
22.5
25
75 95 115 135
Diameter in mm
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

s
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s

N
m
m
2
*
E
9
Six Strand Spiral Strand Sheathed Spiral Strand

Fig. 13-9: Bending stiffness (EI) versus nominal diameter (Bridon)

13.4.4 Terminal attachments
A wire rope must be attached in some manner to perform useful work. There are a number of different
types of terminal attachments available for use on wire ropes.
A review of the wire rope fittings are as follows:

-Open conical socket and closed conical socket
-Standard or open heart-shaped thimble
-Cast heart shaped thimble or solid thimble
-Wedge socket
-Wire rope clips
-thimble or soft eye with hand-splicing or swaged ferrules

The different fittings are presented in Figure 13-10.







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Fig.13-10 Review of the steel wire terminal attachments

The sockets are ideally for static loaded wire ropes. For many purposes sockets are replaced fittings
such as thimbles and wedge sockets. Two types of sockets are available, open and closed types.
Sockets are mainly used for large rope sizes. From a pure strength efficiency standpoint, poured
attachments made with molten zinc or resins, such as Wirelock being a polyester resin, are one of the
most efficient end attachments, giving 100% of rope breaking strength.

In Figure 13-11 a picture is given of the socket end attachment.


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Fig. 13-11 Closed and open socket construction for steel wire ropes

Some definitions of the terminal constructions:

- Swaging is a method of wire rope termination that refers to the installation technique. The
purpose of swaging wire rope fittings is to connect two wire rope ends together. A mechanical
or hydraulic swager is used to compress and deform the fitting, creating a permanent
connection. There are many types of swaged fittings.
Swaging ropes with fibre cores is not recommended.
- A wedge socket termination is useful when the fitting needs to be replaced frequently. For
example, if the end of a wire rope is in a high-wear region, the rope may be periodically
trimmed, requiring the termination hardware to be removed and reapplied. An example of this
is on the ends of the drag ropes on a dragline. The end loop of the wire rope enters a tapered
opening in the socket, wrapped around a separate component called the wedge. The
arrangement is knocked in place, and load gradually eased onto the rope. As the load increases
on the wire rope, the wedge become more secure, gripping the rope tighter.
- Poured sockets are used to make a high strength, permanent termination; they are created by
inserting the wire rope into the pointy end of a conical cavity which is oriented in-line with the
intended direction of strain. The individual wires are splayed out inside the cone, and the cone
is then filled with molten zinc, or now more commonly, an epoxy resin compound.
[3]

- An eye splice may be used to terminate the loose end of a wire rope when forming a loop. The
strands of the end of a wire rope are unwound a certain distance, and plaited back into the wire
rope, forming the loop, or an eye, called an eye splice. When this type of rope splice is used
specifically on wire rope, it is called a "Molly Hogan", and, by some, a "Dutch" eye instead of
a "Flemish" eye.
[4]


An example of a termination design of steel wire ropes (2 to 6) is shown in Figure 13-12.




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Fig.13-12: Connection of wire ropes (Bridon)

Besides Bridon also Trefileurope-ISPAT International N.V. delivers similar types of connection
equipment.

For wire rope slings the following constructions can be distinguished:
-Single rope sling with heart-shaped thimbles
-Single rope sling with large and small thimbles (one thimble made smaller to pass the other)
-Double rope sling spliced endless
-Double rope sling, spliced endless with heart-shaped thimbles
-Double part endless grommet.

In the following 4 subjects remarks are given on steel wire ropes

1) Example of failure of a closed socket construction
Albeit all recommendations and standards the mooring of Port Reval at Eldfisk Ester (2/7-E) failed
(2007).
The mooring line was a combination of chain and steel wire rope. The connection between the wire
rope and chain was done by means of a closed socket construction as shown in the Figure 13-13.



Fig. 13-13: The wire rope/chain connection

The installed mooring line failed. As is shown in Figure 13-14 the closed socket construction failed.

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Fig. 13-14: The failed closed socket construction

Investigations have indicated that (courtesy of Noble Denton):
1) The terminations were improperly manufactured
2) Wire brush was not sufficiently opened up/unwound leading to insufficient surface contact area
between wires and resin
3) Manufacturer had no specific procedure for the termination preparation.

2) Method of Calculating breaking strength of an unit rope (CRBS

- ISO 2408:2004: method for ropes with d s 60 mm
1000
t
2
min
K R d
F = in kN
where:
F
min
is CRBS in kN
d is nominal diameter of the rope in mm
R
t
is rope grade of a wire in Newton per square mm
K is CRBS factor for a given rope class
where
K are factors for the various classes:
Class 6 x 36 or 6 x 19 unit rope with steel core K = 0,346
Class 8 x 36 or 8 x 19 unit rope with steel core K = 0,346

For other classes reference is made to ISO 2408
- EN 12385-4:2002: method for with d > 60 mm

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3 2
min
000615 , 0 592 , 0 55 , 8 d d d F + = in kN

where:
F
min
is CRBS in kN;
d is nominal diameter of the rope in mm.

The calculated values are close to the values of a steel wire rope as given in ISO 2408, see Table 13-
5.

6 Strand-ISO 2408 8 Strand-ISO 2408
6*26WS/ 6*31WS/ 6*36WS/ 6*41WS
Warrington Seale constructions
8*26WS/ 8*31WS/ 8*36WS/ 8*41WS
Warrington Seale construction
Fiber core Steel core Steel core
Grade 1766 Grade 1766 Grade 1962
K=0,346
Diameter

Break
strength
Weight Break strength Weight Break
strength
Weight Break
strength
Weight Break
strength
Weight
mm kN N/m KN N/m KN N/m KN N/m KN N/m
60 2200 2444
82.55 4389
84 4531

3) Some properties wire ropes
Cabled-laid sling
Cable-laid slings shall be constructed and used in accordance with IMCA M 179
[1]
.
Cable-laid slings are formed from wire rope constructed of six unit ropes laid over one core unit rope.
For a 6 strand wire rope the breaking strength of each part of a sling is usually taken as 7 times the
calculated unit rope breaking strength, F
CRBS
, including the core rope with a factor to account for the
spinning losses in cabling. For the spinning loss factor normally 0,85 is taken. The calculated rope
breaking strength (CRBS) of a cable-laid sling, F
CSBS
, is given by Equation (1):

F
CSBS
= 0,857 F
CRBS
(1)
where
F
CSBS
is the calculated breaking strength of a sling;
F
CRBS
is the calculated breaking strength of a unit rope.

The detailed method of calculating the F
CRBS
of a unit rope is given in References [1] and [2].

Termination efficiency factor
The breaking strength of a sling ending in a termination, F
s,br
, shall be taken as F
CSBS
multiplied by a
termination efficiency factor E
T
as given by Equation (2):

F
s,br
= E
T
F
CSBS
(2)
- for hand splices, including fibre slings, E
T
= 0,75
- for resin sockets, E
T
= 0,90
- for swage fittings, e.g. for super loop, E
T
= 0,90
- for steel ferrules (mechanical termination), E
T
= 0,75



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The above given termination factors are given as guidance. The termination efficiency factor shall be
applied as given in the certification by the fabricator.

Bending efficiency factor
Where a wire rope sling is bent around e.g. a crane hook, the breaking strength of the sling shall be
taken as F
CSBS
(or F
CGBS
) multiplied by a bending efficiency factor E
B
as given by Equation (3):

F
s,br
= E
B
F
CSBS
(3)
where
F
s,br
is the breaking strength of the sling;
F
CSBS
is the calculated breaking strength of the sling;
E
B
= 1-0,5/(D/d);
d is the nominal diameter of the sling ;
D is the minimum diameter over which the sling is bent.

The termination efficiency factor E
T
and the bending efficiency factor E
B
shall not be applied
simultaneously. The factor resulting in the lowest value of sling breaking strength shall be used.
A sling eye shall not be bent around a diameter less than the sling diameter to avoid excessive sling
eye deformation.

Sling safety factors and the WLL
For wire rope cable-laid slings the minimum safety factor f shall be f = 2,25.
The WLL (working load limit) of a sling, is the maximum force that the sling is designed for and is
given by Equation (4) or (5):

if E
T
> E
B
F
s,WLL
= F
CSBS
E
T
/ f (4)
if E
T
< E
B
F
s,WLL
= F
CSBS
E
B
/ f (5)

where
F
CSBS
is the calculated breaking strength of a sling;
E
T
is the termination efficiency factor;
E
B
is the bending efficiency factor;
f is the appropriate minimum safety factor.

References
[1] The International Marine Contractors Association Guidance on The Use of Cable Laid Slings
and Grommets IMCA M 179 August 2005
[2] ISO International Standard ISO 2408:2004 Steel wire ropes for General Purposes Minimum
requirements
[3] EN 12385-4 Steel Wire Ropes Safety; Part 4: Stranded ropes for general lifting applications,
November 2002

4) Some remarks on the FOS
The factor of safety (FOS) is often related to the safe working load (SWL) or working load limit
(WLL). The SWL or WLL is the maximum load that safely can be applied to a rope. The SWL or
WLL is determined by dividing the minimum breaking strength (MBS) of the component by an

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applicable FOS.

The FOS or Design Factor being the ratio between the MBL of the rope and the working load limit
(WLL) tells at what percentage of its ultimate strength a wire rope is operating. The FOS takes into
consideration both normal rope wear and potential stresses in various applications. The best practice
in determining an adequate design factor is to analyze the specific conditions involved in each
individual installation. The following example shows how to determine the Design Factor:
If a rope is working under a max. operating load of 10,000 lbs and is having an ultimate strength of
50,000 lbs the factor is 5 which means it is operating at 20% of its ultimate strength. In the figure
below the definition of the ultimate strength is given, where "1" =the ultimate strength.

Stress vs. Strain curve typical of aluminum.
- 1 Ultimate Strength
- 2 Yield Strength
- 3 Proportional Limit Stress
- 4 Rupture
- 5 Offset Strain (usually 0.002)



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13.5 Library of particulars of synthetic ropes

13.5.1 Introduction
Synthetic ropes have many applications in the offshore industry including stationkeeping systems,
offloading hawser, tails for vessel mooring lines and installation adds (spring lines)

For synthetic fibre ropes three basic constructions are used in different combinations depending on
the requirements, see Figure 13-15. These are:
1) parallel;
2) braided;
3) laid constructions.

Fig. 13-15: The three basic synthetic rope constructions
The following comments are made on the three basic constructions:
1) The interaction between the fibres or strands will be low for parallel constructions giving high
strength efficiency. However, handling is difficult for these ropes due to the risk of misaligning the
fibres.

2) For braided ropes half the strands have a clock orientation and the other half has a counter clock
wise orientation. The interaction between the strands is a point contact. This gives a rotation-free rope
with excellent handling characteristics. However, the point contact between the strands influences
fatigue and strength.

3) A laid rope typically will have all strands oriented in one direction introducing line contact
between the strands, see figure below. This gives an excellent fatigue, both in tension and bending.
However these ropes will rotate under load. Similar to steel wire ropes, this rotation problem can be
overcome in a laid rope by using non-rotating designs. However these are then sensitive to incorrect
handling.










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The constructions with line contact (parallel) and cross point (braided) contacts are given in Figure
13-16.


Fig. 13-16: The strand contacts

The synthetic fibres (yarn) most frequently used in the ropes are:
- Polyester
- Aramid
- HMPE (high modulus polyethylene)
- Nylon.
These fibers have the following features:
- Polyester fibers (specific gravity 1.38) have high strength and moderate extension under
load. The material is acid resistance but degraded by alkalis. Polyester is unaffected by
water.
- Aramid fibers (specific gravity 1.45), unlike the others, are not thermoplastic material and
will tolerate high temperatures. They have an extremely high strength to weight ratio and a
very low extension under load.
- HMPE fibers are naturally buoyant with a specific gravity of 0.98. They are the strongest
fibers currently available and have a very low extension under load. Polypropylene is
resistant to most chemicals but has a relatively low melting point. The low friction
characteristics of HMPE fibers produces ropes with excellent fatigue performance, both in
bending and when subjected to cyclic tension.
- Nylon fibers (specific gravity 1.14) have high strength and high extension under load, this
fibre produces ropes with the greatest ability to absorb shock loads. It is resistant to
alkaline chemicals but degraded by acids. Nylon is affected by water.

Each combination of construction and yarn may have different characteristics and properties, which
should be taken into consideration in particular when handled and subjected to load.

Fibre rope material properties and aspects to be considered during planning and engineering shall
include at least:
- rope construction, rope material, protective cover and particle ingress protection;



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- MBL (minimum breaking load);
- splicing and termination;
- fatigue resistance;
- load-elongation properties: initial permanent elongation and stiffness;
- fabrication tolerances (length);
- weight, submerged and in air;
- hoop actions;
- cyclic actions;
- compression actions (lack of tension);
- bending radii (winch drums inner diameter, guiding pins, stern roller, etc.);
- bending combined with tension;
- minimum tension and over-bending;
- heat and UV radiation;
- methods for stopping off for loads;
- potential mechanical wear and damage (sharp steel edges, vessel deck, stern roller, handling
equipment);
- contact with chemicals (oil, solvent, etc.);
- contact with sea floor and exposure to water borne particles to be avoided and is prohibited if
the rope does not have a particle ingress protection. Such a rope shall be discarded if it has
been dropped on the sea floor;
- attachment of buoyancy elements;

13.5.2 Properties of synthetic ropes
There are three kinds of ropes used in offshore industry i.e. polyester, polypropylene and nylon. The
ropes are manufactured both as superlines and as conventional ropes. The superline polyester, Kevlar
and nylon ropes are in effect multi-rope ropes. The ropes comprise a number of parallel 3 strand
core ropes half of which are S twist and Z twist, all contained within a protective sheathing.



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An example of the construction of the ropes is shown in following Figure 13-17.


Fig. 13-17 Construction of ropes

The superline polyester ropes have a high degree of flexibility, are non-rotating and can be supplied
with a range of surface friction characteristics. When supply with standard on tenuous filament
braided sheath, the friction coefficient against mild steel is approximately 0.2. Because the fibres
absorb no water polyester ropes remain flexible in wet and dry conditions with no strength loss on
wetting. Because of the high degree of flexibility polyester ropes can be worked over sheaves and
pulleys with no special restriction on D/d ratio. The superline polyester ropes offer much higher
tensile strength than conventional polyester or nylon ropes as shown in the Table 13-9. The tensile
strength of conventional 3-strand and 8-strand plaited polyester, polypropylene and nylon ropes and
double braided nylon ropes are given in Tables 13-10.
.
The performance of superline polyester and Kevlar ropes is shown in Figure 13-18. The superline
polyester ropes stiffen less than many conventional ropes on repeat loading since the ropes exhibit
less delayed stretch and creep. The tension/tension fatigue resistance of superline polyester ropes is
excellent. It is about 1 million cycles between reference tension and one-third breaking load. The
ropes have good resistance to flex fatigue at D/d ratios exceeding 8/1.

The superline Kevlar M ropes are non-rotating and can be supplied with a range of surface friction
characteristics. With standard polyester sheaths friction coefficient against mild steel is approximately
0.2. The ropes are less flexible than superline polyester ropes and should not be worked over sheave
or pulley system at D/d ratio less than 16/1. The Kevlar M ropes offer exceptionally high tensile
strength as shown in Table 13-9.
The low speed stretch performance of Kevlar M ropes is shown in Figure 13-18. It is noted that the
Kevlar M ropes show little delayed stretch and creep so that the curves for worked ropes are similar
to those for first loading. The stretch resistance for the ropes is of very high order. The fatigue
resistance of properly terminated the ropes in tension and the tension fatigue is good. It is about 1
million cycles between reference tension and one-third breaking load. However, the precautions must
be taken to ensure that terminations are made by approved methods. The flex fatigue resistance of the
ropes is at D/d ratios under 16 and safety factors less than 5/1.

The superline nylon ropes are in effect multi-rope ropes. The ropes comprise a number of parallel 3
strand core ropes, half of which are S twist and half Z twist, all contain within a protective sheathing.
The ropes have high degree of flexibility, are non-rotating and can be supplied with a range of surface
friction characteristics. When supplied with standard continuous filament braided sheath, the friction
coefficient against mild steel is approximately 0.2. Because the ropes have high degree of flexibility
they can be worked over sheaves and pulleys with no special restrictions on D/d ration.



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The superline nylon ropes offer much higher tensile strength than conventional double braid or 3-
strand/8-strand plaited nylon or polyester ropes as show in Table 13-10. However, when wet, all
nylon lopes can lose up to 15% of dry strength as show in Figure 13-19. The nylon ropes stiffen less
than many conventional ropes on repeat loading, since the nylon ropes exhibit less delayed stretch and
creep. Equally, the superline nylon ropes stiffen less than double braid nylon rope with increasing
load rate, so that the stretch of worked superline nylon ropes at wave period, actually exceeds that of
double braid nylon. The slow-speed tension/tension fatigue resistance of superline nylon ropes is very
good, equating at worst to 4x104 cycles between reference tension and one-third breaking load. That
is over twice the fatigue life expected from double braid or 8-strand plaited nylon ropes. The ropes
have a good resistance to flex fatigue at D/d ratios exceeding 8/1, in common with conventional
synthetic ropes.


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Super polyester Super Kevlar M Super Kevlar F Super Nylon
Multi-rope core Multi-rope core Wire rope construction
circular braided circular braided size 2/3 pu coated
multifilament outer multifilament outer size 31/2/22 braided
multifilament outer
Break
strength
Weight
in air
Break
strength
Weight
in air
Break
strength
Weight in
air
Break
strength
Weight
in air
Diameter
mm inch kN N/100m kN N/100m kN N/100m kN N/100m
16 2
69 181 120 186 121 196 72 149
18 2.3
85 229 151 235 90 188
20 2.5
100 276 182 284 181 314 105 228
22 2.8
121 334 220 343 127 276
24 3
147 399 265 412 216 397 154 330
28 3.5
186 542 363 559 195 448
32 4
235 714 471 736 417 618 247 590
36 4.5
334 904 598 932 350 748
40 5
373 1079 716 1109 391 892
44 5.5
451 1305 863 1344 785 1226 474 1079
48 6
549 1530 1030 1579 577 1265
52 6.5
638 1805 1207 1864 1153 1834 669 1491
56 7
736 2139 1422 2207 1315 2276 772 1766
64 8
961 2717 1815 2806 1746 3012 1010 2246
72 9
1207 3424 2276 3532 2256 3904 1265 2825
80 10
1501 4287 2845 4415 2806 4621 1579 3541
88 11
1815 5189 3443 5346 1903 4287
96 12
2158 6170 4101 6357 4101 6426 2266 5101
104 13
2531 7240 4817 7456 4817 7554 2659 5984
112 14
2874 8378 5474 8633 5474 8829 3021 6916
120 15
3296 9614 6288 9908 6288 10104 3463 7946
128 16
3679 10987 6995 11282 7387 11576 3865 9074
136 17
4150 12361 7897 12753 8339 13047 4356 10251
144 18
4562 13930 8672 14323 9339 14568 4787 11478
160 20
5513 17168 10467 17658 11399 18050 5788 14225
168 21
6082 18933 11537 19424 12567 19914 6377 15598
176 22
6514 20748 12380 21386 13391 21778 6838 17168
Table 13-9 Minimum breaking strength of superline ropes (H&T Marlow)













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Polypropylene Polyester Nylon
(Nelson)
3-strand/8-strand 3-strand/8-strand 3-strand/8-strand Double braided
Dia-
meter
Circumference Break
strength
Weight Break
strength
Weight Break
strength
Weight Break Weight
strength
mm cm inch kN N/m kN N/m kN N/m kN N/m
40.4 12.7 5 190 7 234 13 294 10 353 10
44.5 14.0 5.5 230 9 279 15 351 12 412 12
48.5 15.2 6 267 10 329 18 412 15 491 15
52.6 16.5 6.5 309 12 384 21 479 17 589 18
56.6 17.8 7 353 14 439 25 549 20 677 20
60.6 19.1 7.5 404 16 489 28 627 23 765 23
64.7 20.3 8 457 18 568 35 706 26 883 26
72.8 22.9 9 574 23 707 41 883 33 1069 32
80.9 25.4 10 706 28 876 50 1079 41 1354 41
88.9 28.0 11 848 34 1040 60 1285 49 1638 50
97 30.5 12 1001 41 1226 72 1511 59 1913 60
105.1 33.0 13 1177 48 1422 84 1766 69 2276 72
113.2 35.6 14 1324 56 1619 98 2060 79 2619 82
121.3 38.1 15 1521 64 1864 113 2354 91 2992 94
129.4 40.6 16 1717 73 2109 129 2649 104 3335 106
145.5 45.7 18 2158 92 2649 163 3335 131 4120 135
161.7 50.8 20 2649 114 3237 200 4022 163 - -
169.8 53.3 21 2845 126 3581 221 4415 180 5592 182
177.9 55.9 22 3139 137 3924 242 4905 197 - -
186 58.4 23 3434 150 4316 265 5397 215 - -
194 61.0 24 3728 164 4611 287 5788 234 7456 241
218.3 68.6 27 - - - - - - 9614 308
242.6 76.2 30 - - - - - - 11772 376

Table 13-10 Minimum breaking strength of conventional polypropylene, polyester and nylon ropes
(TERMSIM base)

For deepwater application the taut mooring system may be used. In order to select the suitable
materials for deepwater mooring lines, axial stiffness is a prime factor for selection. Having
determined suitable candidate material, the construction of the fibre rope must be addressed. Ropes
for this application must satisfy a number of criteria, some of which are necessarily consistent with
each other. The construction must:

- Be highly efficient in utilizing the strength of the constituent fibres;
- Be robust and yet flexible for offshore handling;
- Be durable for long term (20 years +) exposure underwater;
- Have an efficient method of termination;
- Be capable of being made in large diameters and long lengths.


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Fig. 13-18: Performance of superline polyester and Kevlar
New rope : First loading to break
Worked rope : Loaded five times to 50% breaking load,
rested 24 hours, then loaded to break.



Fig. 13-19: Performance of superline nylon ropes


13.5.3 Summary of the properties of synthetic ropes
A summary of the properties of synthetic ropes are given below:

- Polyester must be handled with care but not as much as Kevlar. The handling vessel deck must
be clear of anything that can be potential hazard the rope. For more information and technical



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specification for buying high strength polyester ropes, see ISO 18692 Fibre ropes for
offshore stationkeeping polyester.

- It is not necessary to use hangers during installation to avoid touching the sea floor and to
maintain polyester ropes under tension.

- Although a cover to protect against soil ingress is used, it is still recommended to avoid the
touch on seabed. Breaking of the polyester rope can be caused by sand ingress.

- The breaking of steel wire rope is mainly caused by fatigue due to tension and twisting. Avoid
the use of the polyester parallel construction together with 6-strand steel wire ropes.

- The depth of nearest surface end of polyester rope must be below 100 m to avoid the ingress
and growing of sea life inside the rope.

- There is no significant tension oscillations caused by VIV.

- It must be avoided that handling of steel wire ropes are near the mooring area. All of the
polyester rope breakings are caused by collision with steel wires.

- HMPE ropes cannot be used for permanent moorings due to excessive creep.

- Safety factors for polyester ropes:
- 25% over the API RP 2SK safety factor
- now 10% is applied

- Breaking of top chain: Kenter link working at fairlead. Most of the breaking of chain is caused
by corrosion and fatigue.

*all above is quoted from the presentation of Mr. Ronaldo Rossi Rosa (Petrobras/Cenpes)- Fiber
mooring experience, 17th FPSO Research Forum, April 5, 2006.

Other properties are given below.

Elongation of polyester ropes under load
The initial elongation under load is a function of the rope construction. It is non-reversible and occurs
on a first loading, see Figure 13-20.


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Fig. 13-20: Elongation of polyester rope under loading

The under lying cause is the free-space between filaments in a yarn. This free-space is reduced when
the fibers start bedding in, see Figure 13-21. This causes a reduction in diameter of the yarns while
the length of the filament does not change. Because of the helical structure this results in an overall
lengthening. This lengthening is a function of the rope construction (3-strand laid, 8-strand braided,
etc.) and initially free-space between the filaments.


Fig. 13-21: Bedding-in of fibres

The basic load response of polyester rope is, in common with other synthetic fibres, non-linear due to
visco-elasticity of the material. The elongation of the rope has two components, recoverable and non-
recoverable. The axial stiffness of the rope can thus have different values depending upon load level,
strain range and previous load history.
For the purpose of mooring analysis it is normal to define upper and lower boundaries to the possible
range of stiffness values in order to address different design considerations as is shown in Figure 13-
22.




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Fig. 13-22: Stiffness values of polyester

Fatigue of polyester ropes
Fatigue in a polyester ropes have been extensively tested. As an illustration in Figure 13-23 the
fatigue graph is shown of a steel wire rope and a polyester rope. In the graph the number of cycles (on
log scale) is plotted against the ratio of tension to break strength (log scale). The maximum number
of cycles was 10,000,000,000.





Fig.13-23: Fatigue in polyester and steel wire rope



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Creep of polyester ropes
As an illustration the creep of polyester is shown in Fig. 13-24. The creep is shown during a period of
7 days under a load of 35% of the break strength.



Fig. 13-24: Creep of polyester




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13.6 Mass, displacement, material density and axial stiffness for synthetic and steel wires

Mass
Mass per unit length for nylon, polyester, polyethylene, 6x19 wire with fiber core and 6x19 wire with
wire core, where d is the specified rope diameter:
Mass per meter= 0.6476 d^2 tonne/m for nylon ropes
Mass per meter= 0.7978 d^2 tonne/m for polyester ropes
Mass per meter= 0.4526 d^2 tonne/m for polypropylene ropes
Mass per meter= 3.6109 d^2 tonne/m for wire ropes with fiber core
Mass per meter= 3.9897 d^2 tonne/m for wire ropes with wire core

Outer diameter OD for displacement volume
The line type outer diameter, OD, is set as follows:
OD= 0.85 d for nylon ropes
OD= 0.86 d for polyester ropes
OD= 0.80 d for polypropylene ropes
OD= 0.82 d for wire ropes with fiber core
OD= 0.80 d for wire ropes with wire core

These outer diameters are effective diameters that give the line type a displacement volume per unit
length that equals the estimated displaced volume per unit length of the rope. The line then has the
appropriate buoyancy. Note that this effective diameter is less than the specified rope diameter,
because there are gaps between the fibers and so not all of the specified rope diameter contributes to
the buoyancy.

Material density
The displaced volume per unit length of the rope is calculated according to V=tOD^2/4 and m=V*
equals the rope mass per unit length, where is the average density of the rope material.

The following rope material densities in tonne/m^3 were assumed:
Nylon 1.14
Polyester 1.38
Polypropylene 0.91
Wire with fiber core 6.87
Wire with wire core 7.85

The average material density for the wire with fiber core was estimated by assuming a ratio of 6:1
between the wire and fiber volume, with the fiber taken to have the same density as (fresh) water.

Axial stiffness
The expressions for axial stiffness are calculated in different ways for the two groups of fiber and
wire ropes.
For fiber ropes the load/extension characteristics depend on previous load history, whether the rope is
wet or dry, and the rate of application of the load. To reflect the likely working environment of the
rope we use data associated with ropes that have been tested under the following conditions:


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-the rope has been pre-worked loaded to 50% of the breaking load and then rested for 24 hours (this
causes the rope to bed down so that its elasticity behavior is more consistence and repeatable

-subjected to slowly varying loads (for loads varying at wave frequency, stiffness should be about
twice the value shown)

-a wet rope pre-soaked in water (this is most significant for nylon ropes which suffer a loss of
performance when wet)

-the average performance is used when the mean extension is 10% (by taking the tangent of the stress-
strain curve at 10%).

Incorporating all of the factors indicated above we can produce values of axial stiffness for a range of
rope diameters. The following expressions for axial stiffness of fiber ropes are achieved:

-Axial stiffness = 1.18 x 10^5 d^2 kN for nylon ropes
-Axial stiffness = 1.09 x 10^6 d^2 kN for polyester ropes
-Axial stiffness = 1.06 x 10^6 d^2 kN for polypropylene ropes

For a wire rope we assume a value for Youngs modulus for the 6x19 strand group, of:

-E = 1.03x 10^8 kN/m^2 for wire ropes with fiber core
-E = 1.13x10^8 kN/m^2 for wire ropes with wire core

and on an assumed metallic area of:
A= 0.455 (td
2
/4) m^2 for both wire ropes.

Both these quantities have been obtained from the HER Group Marine Equipment & WS Rope
Handbook. Note that for wire ropes with a wire core the additional axial stiffness is accounted for in
the enhanced Youngs modulus. This leads to:

- Axial stiffness = 3.67 x 10^7 d^2 kN for wire rope with fiber core
- Axial stiffness = 4.04 x 10^7 d^2 kN for wire rope with wire core

13.7 Library of particulars of chains

13.7.1 Introduction
Chains are widely used in a variety of mooring applications, most obviously in mooring. Aspects of
chain moorings to be considered during planning and engineering shall include, as appropriate:
- chain elements shall have a valid certificate that is associated with a unique identification
number on the chain element;
- recording of the position in the chain cable where the chain elements with its unique
identification number are positioned;
- size of gypsies (windlass wildcats), as well as winch pull and brake capacities, should be
checked to be suitable;
- twist in the chain elements shall be avoided;



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- ultimate actions shall be checked to be compatible with allowable reactions, throughout all
phases of the installation period;

13.7.2 Properties of chains
The definition of the chain dimensions are given in the figure below. The chain link can be either
studlink or studless. The nominal diameter D of a chain is the diameter of the metal bar that forms the
links. In the figure below the numbers without brackets concern the dimensions of a studless chain,
while the numbers between brackets and in italic give the dimensions of a studlink chain.




Based on extrapolation and interpolation of the available diameters the breaking strength, stiffness
and the weight can be approximated as follows in which D is specified in meters:



Designation Symbol unit studless studlink
Diameter of chain D m
mass per meter m te/m 19.9*D^2 21.9*D^2
Length of link 4*D 4*D
Number of links in meter chain N 1(4*D) 1/(4*D)
mass per link m/N te 79.6*D^3 87.6*D^3
Density of steel te/m^3 7.8 7.8
Weight per meter chain W kN/m 195.22*D^2 214.8*D^2
Weight per chain link kN 780.8*D^3 859.4*D^3
Volume per meter chain m^3 2.551*D^2 2.807*D^2
Volume per chain link (m/N)/ m^3 10.2*D^3 11.2*D^3
Young's modulus E kN/m^2 5.44X10^7 6.40*10^7
2 cross-sectional areas of bar m^2 *D^2/2 *D^2/2
Min. breaking load Fb kN c*D^2(44-80*D) c*D^2(44-80*D)
Outer diameter of equivalent line OD m 1.80*D 1.89*D
Under water weight per meter chain Wu kN 167*D^2 186.6*D^2
Axial stiffness EA kN 0.854*10^8*D^2 1.01*10^8*D^2
Normal drag coefficient Cd 1.17 1.21
Axial drag coefficient Ca 0.08 0.07
Friction coefficient sea floor*) Cf 0.4-0.8 0.4-0.8

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*) typically dependent on the seabed

in which:
c = 27.4 RQ4 (DNV/ABS)
c = 22.3 grade R3
c = 24.9 grade R3s
c = 21.1 RQ3 (DNV, API, ABS)
c = 19.6 grade 3 (IACS)
c = 13.7 grade 2 (IACS)

Results of the chain properties are given in the next table.


.Chain size Anchor chains Mooring chains Characteristics
Grad2 Grad3 NV K3 RIG
ORQ/RQ3
R3 R3S NV K4
RIG
RQ4

Diameter Break
strength
Break
strength
Break strength Submerged
weight
Mass
in air
Stiffness EA
C 13.7 19.6 21.1 22.3 24.9 27.4
mm inch KN kN kN kN kN KN N/m kg/m kN
20.5 0.807 244 349 376 397 443 488 78.5 9.2 36260
22 0.866 280 401 431 456 509 560 90.5 10.6 41770
24 0.945 332 475 511 541 604 664 107.7 12.6 49700
26 1.024 388 555 598 632 706 776 126.4 14.8 58330
28 1.102 449 642 691 730 815 897 146.5 17.2 67650
30 1.181 513 734 790 835 932 1026 168.2 19.7 77660
32 1.260 581 832 895 946 1057 1163 191.4 22.4 88360
34 1.339 654 935 1007 1064 1188 1308 216.1 25.3 99760
38 1.496 810 1159 1248 1319 1473 1621 269.9 31.6 124600
40 1.575 894 1279 1377 1456 1625 1789 299.1 35.0 138100
42 1.654 982 1405 1513 1599 1785 1964 329.7 38.6 152200
44 1.732 1074 1536 1654 1748 1951 2147 361.9 42.4 167100
46 1.811 1169 1672 1800 1903 2124 2338 395.5 46.3 182600
48 1.890 1268 1814 1952 2063 2304 2535 430.6 50.5 198800
50 1.969 1370 1960 2110 2230 2490 2740 467.3 54.8 215700
52 2.047 1476 2111 2273 2402 2682 2952 505.4 59.2 233300
54 2.126 1585 2268 2441 2580 2881 3170 545.0 63.9 251600
56 2.205 1698 2429 2615 2764 3086 3396 586.1 68.7 270600
58 2.283 1814 2595 2794 2953 3297 3628 628.8 73.7 290300
60 2.362 1933 2766 2978 3147 3514 3867 672.9 78.8 310700
62 2.441 2056 2941 3166 3347 3737 4112 718.5 84.2 331700
64 2.520 2182 3121 3360 3551 3965 4364 765.6 89.7 353500
66 2.598 2311 3306 3559 3761 4200 4621 814.2 95.4 375900
68 2.677 2443 3495 3762 3976 4440 4885 864.3 101.3 399000
70 2.756 2578 3688 3970 4196 4685 5156 915.9 107.3 422800
73 2.874 2786 3986 4291 4535 5064 5572 996.0 116.7 459900
76 2.992 3001 4293 4621 4884 5454 6001 1079.6 126.5 498400
78 3.071 3147 4503 4847 5123 5720 6295 1137.2 133.2 525000
81 3.189 3373 4825 5194 5490 6130 6745 1226.3 143.7 566200
84 3.307 3604 5156 5550 5866 6550 7208 1318.8 154.5 608900
87 3.425 3841 5495 5916 6252 6981 7682 1414.7 165.8 653200
90 3.543 4084 5842 6289 6647 7422 8167 1514.0 177.4 699000



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92 3.622 4249 6078 6544 6916 7722 8497 1582.0 185.4 730400
95 3.740 4501 6439 6932 7326 8180 9001 1686.9 197.6 778800
97 3.819 4671 6683 7195 7604 8490 9343 1758.6 206.1 811900
100 3.937 4932 7056 7596 8028 8964 9864 1869.1 219.0 862900
102 4.016 5108 7308 7868 8315 9285 10217 1944.6 227.8 897800
105 4.134 5377 7693 8282 8753 9773 10754 2060.7 241.4 951400
107
108
4.213 5559 7953 8561 9048 10103 11118
11292
2139.9
1995.4
250.7
237
988000
855884
111 4.370 5928 8481 9130 9650 10775 11856 2302.9 269.8 1063000
114 4.488 6210 8885 9565 10109 11287 12420 2429.1
2218.2
284.6
259.9
1121000
921532
117 4.606 6496 9294 10005 10574 11807 12993 2558.6 299.8 1181000
120 4.724 6786 9709 10452 11047 12334 13573 2691.5 315.4 1243000
122 4.803 6982 9989 10753 11365 12690 13964 2782.0 326.0 1284000
124 4.882 7179 10271 11057 11686 13048 14358 2873.9 336.7 1327000
127 5.000 7478 10698 11516 12171 13591 14955 3014.7 353.2 1392000
130 5.118 7779 11130 11981 12663 14139 15559 3158.8 370.1 1458000
137 5.394 8496 12155 13085 13829 15441 16992 3508.1 411.0 1620000
142 5.591 9017 12900 13887 14677 16388 18033 3768.9
3472.7
441.6 1740000
1189000
147 5.787 9544 13655 14700 15536 17347 19089 4038.9 473.2 1865000
152 5.984 10078 14418 15522 16405 18317 20156 4318.4 506.0 1994000
157 6.181 10617 15189 16352 17282 19297 21234 4607.1 539.8 2127000
162 6.378 11160 15966 17188 18166 20284 22320 4905.3 574.7 2265000
167 6.575 11707 16749 18030 19056 21278 23414 5212.7 610.8 2407000
172 6.772 12256 17535 18876 19950 22276 24513 5529.5 647.9 2553000


In the table below the mooring chains are shown as are used for the mooring systems in the different
fields.

Chain
size
Mooring chains

diameter NV K3
RIG/RQ/RQ3
R3 R3S NV K4 RIG
RQ4 Field
mm inch

133.5 R4 studless Genesis
146 R4 studless terra nova
151 R4 studless Diana
159 R3S studless Shiehallion
162 R4 studless Diana
171 R4 studless Holstein
178 R4 studless terra nova
189 R4 studless Holstein
206 R4 studless Holstein

New chain qualities R4S and R4S+ are available based on new high resistance steels with heat
treatment of double quenching and tempering.

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What is obtained?
-reach the 1000 MPas level on tensile strength
-increase to R4 chains break load by 16%
-maintain the R4 chains fatigue level
-develop fracture mechanics parameter
-allow designers to choose between weight reduction or safety protection
further
-mega shackles for 171-206 mm chain available

13.7.3 Fatigue of chains in relation to steel wire ropes
For long term moorings, it is a certification requirement to demonstrate by calculation that the
mooring line will meet the fatigue life requirement.
Fatigue assessment is usually carried out according to API RP 2SK (1997) using the load spectrum as
required. Fatigue rarely poses a design problem with mooring ropes. The comparative fatigue curves
as shown below are derived from API RP 2 SK (1997). Whilst tension range plays an important role
in causing fatigue damage in ropes, a high mean tension can have a significant effect. The curves for
the 6-strand and spiral strand steel wire ropes are those for a mean tension equal to 30% of the rope
breaking strength.



13.7.4 Corrosion/wear allowance of chain
Corrosion / wear allowance of 12mm (=30 year * 0.4 mm@year) on the diameter is typically assumed
for both anchor and platform chain. This allowance is accounted for by adjusting the breaking
strength of these segments by the ratio of worn to unworn sectional area. Weight and stiffness of the
unworn section are retained. Current industry practice (API RP 2SK and POSMOOR) is to increase
the diameter by 0.2 mm to 0.4 mm per service in the splash zone and the dip zone respectively.


13.8 Safety factors
The design forces of individual lines should be based on the maximum actions and motions obtained
from the analyses performed.
The calculations should account for the change of geometry of the mooring pattern after excursion



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due to relevant excitations.
The mooring system should be checked for suitability in intact conditions, for redundancy check and
transient conditions (if relevant).
The intact condition is the condition in which all mooring lines are intact and all thrusters, if any, are
working.

The redundancy check is the condition in which the structure has a new mean position after a single
line breakage or a failure of one or more thrusters.

The transient condition is the condition in which the structure undergoes transient motions between
the intact and redundancy check conditions, including the possibility of overshoot, as a result of a
single mooring line breakage or a failure of one or more thrusters as appropriately assessed by a
FMEA study.

The design safety factors and line tension limits that shall be applied in the quasi-static or dynamic
mooring analyses shall comply with the requirements set forth in subclause 10.2 of ISO 19901-7 and
reproduced in the table below.
Design safety factors (derived from ISO 19901-7)
analysis condition analysis method
line tension limit
(% of MBS)
design safety factor
Intact Quasi-static 50 2,00
Intact Dynamic 60 1,67
Redundancy check Quasi-static 70 1,43
Redundancy check Dynamic 80 1,25
Transient Quasi-static or dynamic 95 1,05

In order to confirm or compare the safety factors of the different societies for the loads in the chain
mooring use can be made of the data in the following table.
The following safety factors have been applied in the analysis, according to API, which seems the be
the same as the ISO standard for the dynamic analysis condition

Condition Safety factor Design Weather
Intact 1.67 100-year
Damage (single line broken) 1.25 100-year



In the tables below a comparison is given between the safety factors as required by the
regulation/classification societies.




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CHAIN
Body Code Tension safety factor
Intact Damage Transient
API MODU (quasi-static) 2 - -
API FPS (dynamic analysis) 1.67 - -
BV MODU (quasi-static) 2 1.4 -
FPSO (quasi-static) 2 1.4
DnV POSMOOR FPSO 1.8 1.25 1.1
(dynamic analysis) 1.50 1.10 1.00
Lloyds MOU (quasi-static) 1.8 1.25 -
FPSO (quasi-static) 1.85 1.35 1.1
NMD
MODU (quasi-static) 2 1.4
1
NPD
MODU (quasi-static) 2 1.4
-
ABS
MODU (quasi-static) 1.8 1.25
1.1

FPSO (quasi-static) 2 1.67
-

FPSO (dynamic analysis) 1.67 -
1.05


The safety factors as presented by NPD (Norwegian Petroleum Directorate) are shown below.

Required safety factors according to NPD
The 100 year condition is 100 years return period for waves and wind and 10 year for current
Condition Environmental Required Required
condition safety Factor Safety Factor
Steel Fiber ropes
Intact System 100 year 2.5 2.75
Transient motion, 100 year 1.2 1.32
One line Failure
Equilibrium Position, 100 year 1.65 1.65
One line Failure
Transient motion, 100 year 1.2 1.32
Two line Failure
Equilibrium Position, 100 year 1.65 1.65


13.9 References
13-1) rosjean, F et al.: Synthetic Fiber Ropes mooring: technical status and stiffness prediction,
CMOO4, Oct. 2005

13-2) Francois, M. and P. Davis: Fibre rope deep water mooring: A practical model for the analysis
of polyester mooring systems ((IBP24700), Rio Oil and Gas Conference Oct. 2000

13-3) Francois, M.: Fibre ropes for stationkeeping: Engineering properties and qualification
procedures, OCEAN 2005.




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13-4) Davies, P., T. Huard, F. Grosjean, M. Francois: Creep and relaxation of polyester mooring
lines, 2000, OTC 12176

13-5) Bosman, R.LO.M. and J. Hooker: The elastic modulus characteristics of polyester mooring
ropes, 1999, OTC 10779

13-6) Davies, P., M. Francois, F. Grosjean, P.Baron, K. Salomon, D. Trassoudaine: Synthetic
mooring lines for depthy to 3000 meters, 2002 OTC 15379

13-7) Davies, P., E. Chailleux, A.R. Bunsell, F. Grosjean, M. Francois: Prediction of the long term
behavior of synthetic mooring lines, 2003, OTC 15379

13-8) Casey, N.F. and S.J. Banfield: Factors affecting the measurements of axial stiffness of
polyester deep water mooring loads under sinusoidal loading{, OTC 17068, 2005

13-9) Grosjean, F., P. Davies, M. Francois: Synthetic fibre rope mooring: technical status and
stiffness prediction Fourth International Conference on Composite Materials For Offshore
Operations, Houston, October 2005

13-10) Chain catalogue, Ramnas

13-11) Chain catalogue, Vicinay, Cadenas, S.A., 1993

13-12) Steel wire catalogue, De3n Hann wire ropes

13-13) Catalogue of synthetic ropes, Hawkens and Tipson Rope makers, 1976

13-14) Hawser Test Report, Data on large synthetic ropes in used conditions, OCIMF, April 1982

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14 RISERS

14.1 Introduction
All offshore production facilities use risers. Risers can serve dry and wet trees. As shown in Figure
14-1 the FPSO's need risers for the wet trees.






















Figure 14-1
Risers in relation to wet versus dry trees

In this chapter the risers will be dealt with. An example of the mooring lines and the riser lay-out of a
FPSO in intermediate deepwater are given in Figure 14-2. Note that the risers are located in the
corridors in-between a bundle of mooring lines to avoid collision between the risers and the mooring
lines.

_________
Wet Trees
Dry Trees
Caissons
Posted Barge
Jackets
Tower
TLP
HRP
Spar
MFBarge
FPSO
Semi FPS
Spar
PRODUCTION PLATFORMS



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Figure 14-2
Example of the mooring line and riser lay-out of a FPSO in intermediate water depth

Risers may be exposed to low pressure/low temperature (LPLT) and high pressure/high pressure
(HTHP).
Further dependent on the water depth the following types of riser constructions can be distinguished:

-a flexible riser
-a steel catenary riser
-a riser bundle.

For the design of the risers use can be made of several codes of practice and qualification as for
instance:
API RP 2RD (steel risers for FPS and TLP)
API RP 1111 (steel pipe lines)
DNV OS F201 (offshore standard for metallic risers)
API B and API 17J (flexible risers)

The codes gives guidance for the design, manufacturing process and testing, transportation,
installation and commissioning and inspection, maintenance and repair.

Section 28.2 will discuss the flexible risers and section 28.3 the steel catenary risers (SCR's).
In the sections 28.4, 28.5 and 28.6 the application of risers in shallow water, intermediate and in
deepwater will be discussed respectively.

14.2 Flexible risers
With the production of oil from floating moored structures the concept of the underwater hoses as
used for the CALM and SALM systems were adapted for deeper waters. The design of the risers was
adopted for safe operations over long length between the well heads and the vessel.
The flexible risers have a composite wall structure in which armouring is placed in a helix shape. The
composite wall structure combines a small bending stiffness and high volume stiffness.

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Flexible pipes are available with a bonded and a non-bonded wall structure:

- Non Bonded Structure sliding between the different cylindrical layers is possible.
- Bonded Structure: no sliding between the layers but deformation of all layers.

An example of the non-bonded structure is given in Figure 14-3.




Figure 14-3
Typical non-bonded structure

The advantage of the non-bonded risers is that the internal friction due to the shift of the layers
prevents large resonance motions as may be caused by vortex shedding (VIV).
Flexible risers are used in different configurations:
-Lazy S: the configuration of the riser is intermediately supported by means of an earth fixed
buoyancy cradle
-Steep S: in this form the riser is connected to the manifold at the seabed and pre-tensioned at the
top end. From the top end the riser continues as a long jumper hose.
-Lazy wave: the form is modeled by means of buoyancy beads along a part of the risers. If the riser
makes an upward curvature from the seabed it is called the lazy wave.
-Steep "wave": the form is modeled by means of buoyancy beads along a part of the risers. If the end
of the riser is connected to a PLEM with a more or less vertically directed manifold the form of
the riser is called a steep wave
As mentioned before especially non-bonded flexible risers have a considerable internal damping. The
advantage is that the internal damping for instance prevent large resonance VIV motions of the riser.
What is the origin of the damping?
Laboratory tests on full-scale flexible risers as presented by Ref. [14-1] show a significant hysteresis
effect for the bending mode. The hysteresis in the bending moment effectively acts as a damper,
dissipating energy. The hysteresis effect for the bending mode originates from the friction between
the different layers of a non-bonded riser. In practice this friction results in a higher (holding) bending
stiffness. Up to a certain point the friction is able to prevent slip between the layers. With increasing
bending moment slippage starts gradually till full slip of the layers occurs. In that case the bending
resistance of the riser fully depends on the bending stiffness of the individual layers. After reversal of
the load the friction acts in the opposite direction and thus resulting in a hysteresis effect (see Figures
14-4 and 14-5).




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Figure 14-4
Bending hysteresis



Figure 14-5
Bending hysteresis test

The mathematical formulation of the bending hysteresis is:

Fr s
Fr s
Fr s
Fr h Fr s
s
Fr h Fr s
: for
: for
: for
EI ) ) t ( ( EI
) t ( EI
EI ) ) t ( ( EI
) t ( M
k k < k
k k < k
k + k > k

k k + k
k
k + k k
=
with:

Fr
= M
Fr
/EI
h

M
Fr
= friction moment
EI
s
= sliding bending stiffness
EI
h
= holding bending stiffness
k
s
= curvature slip.

In this formulation the influence of the bending hysteresis is expressed by the curvature slip which
represents the accumulated slip between the layers. Although usually the hysteresis for torsion and

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axial load is not of the same magnitude (Ref. [14-1]), a similar expression for torsion and axial load
can be formulated.

14.3 Steel catenary risers
With the increase of the water depth the length of the risers were considerable like the costs. In deeper
water the use of steel pipes as risers with diameters up to 28 inches are applied as an economic
solution.
In deepwater most configurations are:
-SCR (free hanging steel catenary risers)
-LWR or SWR (lazy wave or steep wave steel riser)

In the design of the steel catenary risers in general the horizontal motions are restricted to 10% of the
water depth, unless otherwise described. The motion design criteria is shown in Figure 14-6.


Figure 14-6
Design criteria steel catenary and lazy wave risers

The steel catenary risers in deep water may suffer from VIV phenomenon. In areas with high current
speeds are present as for instance loop-current or soliton currents, VIV may occur and consequently
introduce due to the high frequency vibrations serious fatigue problems.

All mentioned riser systems (underwater hoses, flexible bonded or non-bonded and steel risers) must
be designed so that the following items are within acceptable limits:
- Fatigue life
- 3-Dimensional behavior
- Axial Tension
- Curvature
- Torsion
- Compression

In Table 14-1 a review is given on the comparison of flexible risers and SCR systems for FPSO
applications.






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parameter Flexible riser SCR

Status of technology
Well established, particularly for
shallow water
New technology, well established
material/performance data

Riser compliance (range of
feasible vessel offsets)
Very compliant Reduced compliant


Water depth limitations
Reduced internal diameter for
deeper water
Limited application in shallow water.
Large range of diameters possible
in deep water



Severity of the environment
Feasible in very hostile
environments
Limited application in hostile
environments

Internal pressure limitations Some limitations at larger ID's Feasible for high pressure

Cross-section design Complex construction Simple construction

Procurement cost High Low

Installation cost Low to medium Medium to high

Reusability Yes
Unlikely. Some ancillary
components may be reusable

Table 14-1: Comparison flexible risers and SCR's

14.4 Riser systems in shallow water
For the flexible underwater hose functioned as a riser system in shallow water, reference is made to
the CALM and SALM systems as are shown in chapter 3 of Part 1.

In the figures below the riser systems of two FPSO's in shallow water are presented. For the soft-yoke
system the flexible risers are located above water, see Figure 14-7 and 14-8.



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(Courtesy APL)
Figure 14-7: Risers applied to a soft-yoke system in shallow water

For the design of risers attached to an external turret, attention has to be paid for not-touching the
seafloor and not-taut due to the WF motion in heave direction and the LF tanker motions in the
horizontal plane. Further attention has to be paid to the possible high out-of-plane bending moments
due to cross-current, see Figure 14-8.


(Courtesy SOFEC0



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(Courtesy SOFEC)

Figure 14-8: Risers applied to an external turret in shallow water

14.5 Riser systems in intermediate water depth
Types of flexible riser configurations (high pressure-low/high temperature) as applied in intermediate
water depth are given in the Figure 14-9.






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Figure 14-9: Types of flexible riser configurations in intermediate water depth.

14.6 Riser systems in deep water
In deep water and with many well heads, FPSOs are normally applied. The risers are subjected to the
low frequency vessel motions, the wave frequency vessel motions, the wave loading and current loads
on the riser and the high frequency vortex induced vibrations (VIV). For a turret moored FPSO all
risers have to be connected to the turntable. In case a large number of risers they may clash with each
other. Collision of risers may result in damage and should be avoided.

To prevent the mentioned phenomena (VIV and collision) the oil and gas production risers, the gas
and water injection risers (and umbilicals) serving for instance a set of neighboring wellheads are
bundled into multibore hybrid towers or in a single leg hybrid riser or in a TLR system, see Figure 14-
10. A multibore hybrid tower may consist of the structural member combined with foam
incorporating the different risers and umbilicals.

The tower, single leg and TLR will continue from the seabed to 200 m under the water level. From
the top of the tower, the single leg or the TLR the connection with the vessel is made by means of
jumper hoses being the flexible risers. Hybrid risers, also known as free-standing risers, offer a
versatile solution for deepwater production systems where other traditional approaches such as steel
catenary or unbound flexible risers are technically unfeasible or uneconomic.




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14-10: Example of the multibore, single leg and tension leg hybrid risers

The hybrid riser systems (multibore hybrid tower, single leg hybrid, tension leg riser)
have all in common the following advantages:

Reduces riser loads on turret
In case of the TLR decoupled the SCR's from FPSO motions
Allows for pre-installation of riser system

Some pictures of the multibore hybrid tower system and the TLR system are given in the Figures 14-
11 and 14-12.


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Figure 14-11: the multibore hybrid tower system (Girassol FPSO)




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Figure 14-12: the TLR system (courtesy SOFEC)




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In Figure 14-13 a FPSO is shown installed in 10, 000 ft water depth. In this case the risers are SCR's.
To prevent the problems with the fatigue, the SCR's are installed as coated risers provided with
strakes, see section 30.6.



14-13 a FPSO is shown installed in 10, 000 ft water depth, the SCR are provided of coating and
strakes


14.7 References
14-1) Skallerud, B: "Stiffness properties and damping behavior of flexible pipes", Proc. 18th Flexible
pipe technology seminar, Trondheim, 1992
Hurricane
current profile
Loop
current profile
Riser
Mooring line (polyester-taut)
V
csurface
=7 ft/s
V
csurface
=3.5 ft/s
10,000 ft
~9798 ft
~9798 ft



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15 HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES ON SLENDER BODIES

15.1 Introduction
In this chapter the hydrodynamic forces on slender bodes will be discussed. The hydrodynamic forces
on a slender body can be divided in several regions. The relative importance of viscous, mass and
diffraction forces are shown in Figure 15-1.


Figure 15-1: The hydrodynamic force regions

In this chapter the region with the viscous force will be dealt with. In section 29.2 the hydrodynamic
forces on circular slender members in a stationary flow will be discussed. In section 29.3 the
hydrodynamic forces on non-cylindrical slender members in a stationary flow are considered. In
section 29.4 the hydrodynamic forces on a circular slender member in a non-stationary flow are
studied.

15.2 Hydrodynamic forces on circular cylindrical slender members in a stationary flow
For stationary cylinders in current use can be made of the Cd-Reynolds number curve and the
Strouhal Number-Reynolds number graph, see Figure 15-2 and 15-3. Cd and Strouhal numbers are
dependent on the flow regime (Reynolds number). The definitions of different flow regime are given
in Figure 15-4.

\The Reynolds number Re and Strouhal number S are defined as follows:

U.D
R
e
=
and


U.T
D
S
s
=

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in which:
D = diameter of the cylinder or characteristic length of the body in m
U = undisturbed stationary current velocity in m/s
v = kinematic viscosity coefficient of water =1.18831 * 10
-6
m
2
.s
-1

(temperature dependent!)
T
s
=Strouhal natural period in s (or fs being the Strouhal frequency in Hz)

The resistance force in a fluid can be described as:

U U DC
2
1
F
D d
=
in which :

F
d
=Normal resistance force in kN
=Mass density of water=1.025 kN.s
2
.m
-4
or ton. m
3
C
D
=Normal drag coefficient
D =Diameter of cylinder in m
U =Normal undisturbed fluid velocity in m/s


Figure 15-2: Cd-Re and the Strouhal-Re relation for 10
4
<Re<2*10
6
and for a smooth cylinder,
Ref. [15-1]; in the figure fb=fs*D and V=U and S=fb/V*10



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Figure 15-3: S-Re relation for 40<Re<10
7 and
for a smooth cylinder, Ref. [15-2]






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Figure15-4: Regimes of fluid flow across a smooth circular cylinders, Ref. [15-2]


The flow regime is also dependent on the roughness of the cylinder wall. The definition of the
roughness is often given by the roughness number:

Roughness number = k/D

in which k stands for the grain diameter and D for the diameter of the cylinder or characteristic
cross-sectional dimension of the roughness on the body surface.

However the circumference of the cylinder is is provided of uniform sand grains of diameter k, the
roughness is defined as k/D. The physical roughness, however, seems to be 0.5 K/D, as is indicated in
Figure 15-5.







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Fig. 15-5 Definitions of roughness

As is shown in the Figures 15-6, 15-7 and 15-8 the effect of the roughness significantly influences the
drag coefficients Cd.



k/D= 0.0003
Shih
k/D= 0.0012 Roshko
k/D= 0.01 Roshko
k/D <=0.0000253 Shih
k/D= 0.000137 Shell [ Ref.
1]
k/D= 0.0000994 Shell
[R f 1]

Fig. 15-6: Cd as function of Re and the roughness, Ref. [15-3] and [15-4]

k ~1.6 mm; D=200 mm; k/D= 1.6/200= 8*10^-3
Physical roughness most probable 4 *10^-3
k

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Fig. 15-7: Measurements of Roshko, Achenbach and Guven, Ref. [15-5]


Fig. 15-8: Drag coefficients for a range of surface roughness, Ref. [15-6]










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15.3 Hydrodynamic forces on non-cylindrical slender members in a stationary flow
In this section the resistance coefficients and the Strouhal frequencies are considered for non-circular
cylinders in a stationary flow. In the Figures 15-9, 15-11, 15-12 and 15-13 the Cd- and S-values as
function of Re and slender member form are given and derived from Ref. [15-1].

height object = 2T, length object=B
left side: (a) r/b
0
=0.021 or r/T=0.042, (b) r/b
0
=0.083 or r/T=0.166, (c) r/b
0
=0.25 or r/T=0.5
right side: : (a) r/b
0
=0.021 or r/T=0.042, (b) r/b
0
=0.083 or r/T=0.166, (c) r/b
0
=0.25 or r/T=0.5

Figure 15-9: the Cd- and S-values as function of Re

In this respect the configurations of the edges are also important. The details are given in Figure 15-
10.









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Figure 15-10: Definitions corner radii and widths and heights



B/T=4 B/T=1
height object = 2T, length object=B
r/b
0
=0.042 or r/T=0.084, (b) r/b
0
=0.167 or r/T=0.335, (c) r/b
0
=0.333 or r/T=0.666
(a) r/b
0
=0.021 or r/T=0.042, (b) r/b
0
=0.083 or r/T=0.166, (c) r/b
0
=0.167 or r/T=0.334
(b)
Figure 15-11: the Cd- and S-values as function of Re
2T
B or b
0
2T
B or b
0
B/T=1 B/T=2
r
r
V
r/b
0
= 0.25 or
r/T = 0.25
r/b
0
= 0.15
or
r/T = 0.30



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B/T=2 B/T=2
height object = 2T, length object=B
left side: r/b
0
=0.015 or r/T=0.03, (b) r/b
0
=0.118 or r/T=0.236, (c) r/b
0
=0.235 or r/T=0.47
right side:(a) r/b
0
=0.021 or r/T=0.042, (b) r/b
0
=0.167 or r/T=0.166, (c) r/b
0
=0.333 or r/T=0.666
Figure 15-12: the Cd- and S-values as function of Re

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B/T=4 B/T=1

B/T=2
Figure 15-13: the Cd- and S-values as function of Re




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15.4 Hydrodynamic forces on a circular cylindrical slender member in a non-stationary flow
So far we have seen that the Reynolds number and the roughness number are variables in the
resistance coefficients in a stationary flow. For a non-stationary flow more parameters are present:

Keulegan-Carpenter number KC (=UmT/D for ambient oscillatory planar flow with velocity Um
sin((2t/T)t + c) past a fixed body).
For a harmonically oscillating flow around a fixed cylinder of diameter D, we may write KC=2tA/D,
where A is the amplitude of the oscillation of the fluid far away from the body. KC actually expresses
the ratio between the traveled distance of a free stream fluid particle and the body diameter. Note that
the circumference L of a circle with radius R will be L=2R.

Relative current number r =Uc/Um when the current velocity Uc is in the same direction as the
oscillatory flow velocity Um sin ((2t/T) + c).
Reduced velocity U
R
=U*T/D for an elastically mounted cylinder with diameter D and the natural
period T exposed to a current speed U.
The KcRe number | (=Re/KC= (UD/)/(D/UmT)=D
2
/(vT)) is used to characterize the flow in case of
a combined steady and oscillatory flow.

Further the factors which influence the flow are:
-body form,
-free-surface effects
-sea-floor effects
-nature of ambient flow relative to the structures orientation.

Morisons equation is often used to calculate wave loads on circular cylindrical structural members of
fixed offshore structures.
If viscous effects can be neglected than based on potential theory it can be proven that Cm=2. If
viscous matters, both the Cd and the Cm coefficient will depend on the characteristics of the flow.
If fluid acceleration can be neglected, Morisons equation is a reasonable empirical formulation for
the time average force.
Considering deep water regular sinusoidal incident waves and assuming Cm and Cd to be constant
with depth (which is not realistic) the mass-force decays with depth according to e
2tz/
an d the drag
forces decays like e
4tz/
and is even more concentrated in the free surface.
The application of Morisons equation in the free-surface zone requires accurate estimates of the
undisturbed velocity distribution under a wave crest.
Note that at the position of the free surface at the cylinder is affected by wave runs up on the upstream
side of the cylinder and a wave depression on the downstream side..
We should note that Morisons equation cannot predict at all the oscillatory forces due to vortex
shedding in the lift direction, i.e. forces orthogonal to the wave direction and in the cross-sectional
plane

Theory of the wave forces acting on a moving circular cylinder
For the predicting forces on a slender members use can be made of two-dimensional potential theory.

As an example a calculation of heave motion of a circular cylinder will be given and it is assumed that
no other motion is possible while the motions are small (linearization), see Figure next page.


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3 3
X x m =


in which:
3
x

=heave acceleration
m = mass of the cylinder and
X
3
=total vertical force

) ( ) ( ) (
*
3
*
3 3
*
3
, , ,


+ + = x a x b x h c P x m

in which:
P = ch
c = gtD
2
/4
b = linearized damping coefficient
a = added mass coefficient
,
*
=,
a
e
-kh
cos(et) (assuming that x
3
<<h)
or
* * *
3 3 3
) ( , , , c b a cx x b x a m + + = + + +



in which: c,* = the undisturbed Froude-Krilov force

For the calculation of surge motion of the cylinder the following procedure can be followed, see
Figure 15-14. It is assumed that the cylinder can perform only a surge motion and that is kept on
station by a horizontally directed spring:

1 1
X x m =


in which: m=mass cylinder and X
1
=total horizontal force or:
h
x
c dh
D
dh x a dh x x D C x dm
d
1
2
1 1 1 1
4
) ( ) (
2
1
+ =
t




or

h
x
c dh
D
dh x a dh x x D C dF
d
1
2
1 1 1
4
) ( ) (
2
1
+ =
t



in which:
= mass density of water
Cd = resistance coefficient
D = diameter cylinder
c = spring coefficient


,
= wave elements velocity and acceleration respectively at the mid point of the strip
h = length of slender body



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Figure 15-14: wave loads in surge direction
1)


V
means the force due to pressure gradient in wave (Froude-Krilov force), see Figure 209-15:

K=ma
Figure 15-15: The Froude-Krilov force in surge direction

or
}}} }}}
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=

V
t
u
V
t
u
dx dx dx
x
p
dx dx dx K
3 2 1
1
3 2 1
= Froude-Krilov force

where : V =volume

The Froude-Krilov force is caused by the undisturbed wave pressure force, which is independent

2)


a
means the inertia force, see Figure 15-16:
Ap
Ax

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Figure 15-16: The inertia force

In terms of kinetic energy we will find:
2
2
2
2 1
2
2 1 2 1
2 2
)
4
(
2
1
) )) , ( ( )) , ( ((
2
1
2
1
2
1

t


D
x x v x x u dx dx dmV a
}}
= + = =


The wave force on a fixed cylinder will be
} }
+ + =
h h
d
dh V a dh C D F
0
1
0
1
) (
2
1



or expressed in the added mass coefficient C
m
:

} }
+ =
h
m
h
d
dh V C dh C D F
0
1
0
1
2
1



which means that according theory Cm=2.

The formulation is called the Morisons equation.

The force on a moving cylinder will be:
} } }
+ + = + +
h
1
2
m
h
0
2
m
h
d
x dh.
D .
(C dh
D
C dz x x C D cx x a m
0
1 1
0
1 1 1 1
4
) 1 .
4
.
) ( ) (
2
1
) (


t

t

n which the first term is the drag force, the second term the Froude-Krilov force and the third term the
added mass force.

Positive force direction is often defined in the wave propagation direction.

Both the added mass C
m
and the C
D
, however, seems to be strongly dependent on the KC-number.

Morrison s equation can be applied to inclined members. To demonstrate this let us consider a
cylinder inclined in a parallel to the wave propagation. The approach would be to decompose the
undisturbed velocity and accelerations into components normal to the cylinder axis and components



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parallel to the cylinder axis, and then use Morisons equation with normal components of velocity and
acceleration. The force direction will be normal to the cylinder axis. In the potential flow case, it can
be proven that this is the correct expression. In the viscous case it means we use the cross-flow
principle. Actually what is proposed for an inclined cylinder is not different from the vertical cylinder
case. In the inclined case there is also an undisturbed tangential velocity and acceleration component
in the fluid. This effect can be taken into account.

Application Morisons equation in waves:

} }
+ + =
h
2
m
h
1/2 2 2
d
dy V
D
C dy ) ( C D dF
0
1
0
1
4 2
1

t
,

} }
+ + =
h
2
m
h
1/2 2 2
d
dy V
D
C dy ) ( C D dF
0
1
0
3
4 2
1
,
t
, ,



in which the velocities and acceleration are in the midpoint of the strip.

Furthermore applied in a sea state the Cm and Cd-values will be Kc dependent. The force will be
more complicated. But the assumption is correct.

When waves and current are acting simultaneous, the combined effect should be considered. The
normal approach is to add vector wise the wave-induced velocity and the current velocity in the
velocity term of Morisons equation. One should aware that Cm and Cd-values are also influenced by
the presence of a current.
In the following sections attention will be paid to the mentioned different flow regimes.

Theory of wave forces on a fixed cylinder
An in-stationary flow can be defined as

t * sin * a t * sin U U
M
= = e


In stationary flow the flow characteristics are defined by the Reynolds number, but is also often used
in in-stationary flow and defined as:

.D a.

.D U
R
M
e
e
= =


while for in-stationary also another non-dimensional parameter, being the Keulegan-Carpenter
number and defined as follows:

D
a
2..
D
.T a.

D
.T U
K
M
C
= = =
e

in which:
U
M
= ambient oscillatory planar flow with velocity U
M
sin ((2t/T) + c) past a body

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a = maximum amplitude of flow motion
e = frequency of motion
T = period or oscillating period
D = diameter of riser

The horizontal force dF on a strip of length dz of a vertical rigid circular cylinder, which is the called
the Morison equation, is given as follows:
dz U C D
4

dz U U DC
2
1
dF
m
2
D

+ =

in which U and U

are the undisturbed fluid velocity and acceleration in the midpoint of the strip. The
positive force direction is often defined in the wave propagation direction.

As shown the inertia coefficient is defined as:

C
m
= C
M
+ 1

and the coefficient theoretically amounts to C
M
=1.

The mass and drag coefficients C
m
and C
D
are flow characteristic dependent and have to be
determined by experiments.

Due to the vortex shedding the cylinder in the oscillating current will be exposed to an oscillating
force directed perpendicular to the undisturbed current direction denoted as the lift force.

The lift force is defined as follows:
U U DC
2
1
F
L
=
in which C
L
= lift coefficient.


As is shown in Figure 15-17 both the coefficients C
M
, C
D
and C
L
are dependent of K
C .



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Fig. 15-17: The coefficients C
m
, C
D
and C
L
as function of K
C
, Ref. [15-7)


15.5 References
15-1) Delany, N.K. and Norman E. Sorensen: "Low-speed drag of cylinder of various shapes",
NACA, Washington, November 1953

15-2) Blevins, R.D.: "Flow-induced vibration", 1977, ISMB: 0-442-20828-6

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15-3) Allen, D.W. and D.L. Henning: Vortex-induced vibration tests of a flexible smooth
cylinder at supercritical Reynolds numbers, Proceedings of the 7
th
ISOPE 1997

15-4) Roshko, A: Experiments on the flow past a circular cylinder at very high Reynolds
number, J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 10, pp. 345-356

15-5) Gven, O., et al., Surface roughness effects on the mean flow past circular cylinders,
Iowa Inst. of Hydraulic Research Dept. No. 175, Iowa City, 1975

15-6) Hoerner, S.F.: Fluid-Dynamic Drag, 1965

15-7) Sarpkaya, T.: "Forces on cylinders and spheres in a sinusoidal oscillating fluid",
Transactions of the ASME, March 1975




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16 RISER ANALYSIS

16.1 Computation method according to lumped mass model
In this section the computation method according to the lumped mass model has been presented. The
mathematical model for the simulation of the three dimensional behavior of the mooring lines and
risers is based on the lumped mass method. The space wise discretization of the lines and riser is
obtained by lumping the mass and all forces to a finite number of nodes, see Ref. [16-1] and [16-2].

To derive the governing equations of motion for the j-th lumped mass, Newton's law is written in
global co-ordinates:

) ( ) ( )]) ( [ ] ([ t t t
j
j j
F x a A

= +


in which:

] [
j
A
= inertia matrix
)] ( [ t
j
a
= time dependent added inertia matrix
= time
) (t

x

= acceleration vector (x, y, z)
) (t
j
F

= nodal force vector



The nodal force vector consists of:

1) Axial tension resulting from the displacement and orientation of adjacent line elements
2) Weight, which is assumed to be constant over the element
3)Fluid forces, originating from element motions and due to current. The relative motion concept
according to the Morison equations is used
4) Sea floor reaction forces are modeled with linear springs and dampers. Seabed friction can also be
included (Coulomb friction)

In Figure 16-1the physical representation of the lumped mass model is shown.


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Figure 16-1: The physical representation of the lumped mass model

An example of the motions of a mooring line due to for instance the low frequency horizontal motions
is given in Figure 16-2.

Figure 16-2: Example of the low frequency motions on the mooring line


The lumped mass model is a non-linear time-domain program. The non-linear analysis includes the
following features:



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- large excursions of vessel
- large motions of the riser
- nonlinear material behavior
- contact problems (e.g. seabed)
- slack and snatch problems or large tension problems.

Assuming that all nodal force contributions are formulated in terms of node positions, velocities and
accelerations, the motion equations are solved by a Newark algorithm which has been adapted for
variable time steps.
t t t o t o t t t
t t t o t o t t t t t
A A + + + = A +
A A + + + A = A +
)} ( ) ( ) 1 {( ) ( ) (
)} ( ) ( )
2
1
{( ) ( ) ( ) (
.. .. . .
2
.. .. .
j j j j
j j j j j
x x x x
x x x x x


Newark originally proposed as an unconditionally stable scheme the constant-average-acceleration
method: =1/2 and =1/6.

Concerning the discretization aspects the choice of nodes and elements along the line or riser is of
importance from the point of view of accuracy and computational efficiency. The line discretization
should be such that:

- the geometry is represented accurately, the first check can be made on the static
configuration
- mass and lumping is acceptable
- the angles between two successive elements remain within approximately 20 degrees
- the fluid forces may be assumed as constant over the element.

For the theory of the wave induced forces on a fixed and moving cylinder reference is made section
15.4.

16.2 Hydrodynamic loads on an inclined member moving in waves
Fluid forces in the local co-ordinate system due to perpendicular velocity u
n
and tangential velocity u
T

in the middle of lumped mass element J with orientation |
J
and in the inclined plane O
J
(local and
global transformations) are shown in Figure 16-3, see Ref [16-1].


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Figure 16-3: review of local and global transformations.

The total hydrodynamic loads on an inclined member moving in waves are:

1) The inertia load (due to the wave acceleration in the undisturbed wave field) and the Froude-
Krylov force (due to the pressure gradient in the undisturbed wave field):

Normal added mass
( ) L D

In
C
n
a =
2
4
1
Tangential added mass
( ) L D

It
C
t
a =
2
4
1


Normal inertia + Froude-Krylov force
dt
n
du
L D

In
C
In
F =
2
4

Tangential inertia + Froude-Krylov force
dt
T
du
L D

It
C
It
F =
2
4


2) Drag forces proportional to the relative fluid velocity squared:

Normal drag force
dt
n
dx
n
u
dt
n
dx
n
u L D
Dn
C
Dn
F |
.
|

\
|
=
2
1





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Tangential drag force
dt
t
dx
T
u
dt
t
dx
T
u L D
Dt
C
Dt
F
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1


All coefficients are based on the nominal diameter.

3) The added mass due to the body acceleration:

In which:
= mass density of water
C
In
= mass coefficient in normal direction
C
It
= mass coefficient in tangential direction
C
Dn
= drag coefficient in normal direction

C
Dt
= drag coefficient in tangential direction

AREA = projected area of element (D.L for cylinders)
VOLUME = volume of element, ((t/4).D
2
.L for cylinders)
u
n
and u
T
= fluid velocity normal and tangential to the lumped mass element

dt
du
n
and
dt
du
T
= fluid acceleration normal and tangential to the lumped mass element
dt
dx
n
and
dt
dx
T
= body velocity normal and tangential to the lumped mass element
D = cylinder diameter
L = cylinder length

Both for tangential and normal fluid forces, as well as for the added mass, the same reference area
(D.L) and volume (t/4.D.L) are used.

The coefficients as given in Table 16-1 are usually used in the computations neglecting the KC-
number and Reynolds-number dependency:




description chain wire Risers*)
Vc in m/s
,<1.25 >1.25
drag normal Cdn 2.25 1.1 1.0 2.1
drag tangential Cdt 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4
added inertia coefficient normal Cin 3.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
added inertia coefficient tangential Cit 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.1
*) without vibrations Cdn=1.3 and Cdt=0.2

Table 16-1: Coefficient used for chain, wires and risers., Ref[16-2] and [16-4]


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16.3 Coefficients for friction on the seabed

The following generalized seabed friction coefficients for chain and wire are proposed in Table 16-2.

description chain wire/riser
friction coefficient normal Cfn 1 0.6
friction coefficient tangential Cft 1 0.6
Table 16-2: Coefficient of friction for chain, wire and riser

The seabed friction coefficients depend, however, upon the actual ocean bottom at the anchoring
location. Generalized friction factors for chain are given in Table 16-2. The starting friction factors
may be used to compute the holding power of the chain. The sliding friction factors may be used to
compute forces on the chain during development, see Table 16-3.

Ocean Bottom Friction factors
Starting Sliding
Sand 0.98 0.74
Mud with sand 0.92 0.69
Firm mud 1.01 0.62
Soft mud 0.90 0.56
Clay 1.25 0.81

Table 16-3: Starting and sliding friction coefficients



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16.4 Example of large scale tests and computation on a SCR
The riser program has been applied to large-scale model tests with the configuration of a SCR, Ref.
[16-3]. The configuration of the SCR is shown in Figure 16-4 (the dimensions are given in feet).
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Configuration of SCR
Location of pup #6
Location of pup #5
Location of pup #4
Location of pup #3
Location of pup #2

Figure 16-4: Configuration lay-out of the SCR

At some locations along the riser the tension and the bending moments (in-plane and out-of-plane)
were measured. Further the tension at the top of the riser was measured. The top of the riser was
oscillated in heave direction only. The tests were carried out in calm water. The particulars of the
measured and the computations results are presented in Table 16-4.

SCR
Mode of motion heave
Amplitude 3 ft
Period 10s/3 s
Length of riser 376.7 m
Meas./comp. signal
Tension pup # top and 4
Bending in-plane pup # 4
Bending out-of-plane pup# 4
Pup distance from anchor 103.5 m
Table 16-4: Data of the Instrumented SCR
The time domain plots of the measured and computed results are given in Figure 16-5. In the
computations the following coefficients were used: Cin=2; Cdn=1.3; Cdt= 0.4.


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A=3 ft and T=10 s A=3 ft and T=3 s

Figure 16-5: Measured and computed results

The basic outer diameter of the riser was 0.0381 m while with foam the diameter was 0.12 m. The
wall thickness was 0.3175 cm. The riser was manufactured from aluminum.

Comparing the results it can be concluded that in general the amplitudes of the measured and
computed forces and moments correspond well. The bending moment in-plane of pup # 4 shows a
shift in the mean. The shift in the mean must be due to deviations in the static configurations and /or
the zeroing of the measurements.




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Deviation of the SCR between the measured and computed values may be caused by the friction on
the seabed or the digging-in process in the soft clay of the seabed. In the model the spring of the soil
was taken of be 9ft/lbs/lbs, while the damping was considered to be critical.

Concerning the VIV (Vortex induced vibrations) it can be mentioned that for the oscillating period of
10 s the VIV had a lower amplitude than for the oscillating period of 3 s. The amplitudes of out-of-
plane bending moments are relatively small. Due to the short periods of the VIV, the riser will be
suffered from the fatigue significantly.
The computations in this report are carried out using the MARIN program DYNFLX.


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16.5 Vortex Induced Vibrations
Because of the relatively large internal damping of flexible risers, the VIV as may occur in a current
field are considerably suppressed. Fatigue of flexible risers due to VIV is a minor issue. For SCR
which normally consists of a steel pipe it is observed that the high frequency VIV is significant and
jeopardize the fatigue live of the riser.
Nowadays for the application of SCR in deepwater with high current the following design
requirements are applied:
- SCR are coated and provided of well designed strakes
- sufficient spacing of risers to avoid collision in high currents

An example of the application of strakes on risers is given in the figure below.
varying drag coefficient of the two risers

















The strakes disrupt or prevent the regular vortex street, but increases the drag. Application of well
designed strakes on the SCR makes the fatigue life of the riser as a minor issue.




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16.6 References
16-1) Van den Boom, H.J.J.: "Dynamic behavior of mooring lines", BOSS Conference, Delft, 1985
16-2) "Computer program DYNFLOAT-Theory and user's guide"-version 2000_0, MARIN,
Wageningen,
16-3) Wichers, J.E.W. and Chunqun Ji: "Highly compliant rigid risers-JIP-comparison between large
scale model tests and MARIN DYNFLEX simulation", MARIN Report No. 14621, September 1999
16-4) Wichers, J.E.W. and P.V. Devlin: Effect of coupling of mooring lines and risers on the
design values for a turret moored FPSO in deepwater of the Gulf of Mexico, Proceedings 11
th

ISOPE Conference, Stavanger, 2001
16-5) Wichers, J.E.W. and P.V. Devlin: Bench mark model tests on the DeepStar theme structures
FPSO, SPAT and TLP, OTC # 16582, 2004





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17 CD AND CL OF MOORING ELEMENTS

17.1 Cd and Cl of chains

17.1.1 Introduction
Checking results of model tests by means of computations needs for the mooring lines the knowledge
of for instance the normal and tangential drag coefficients on model scale. Further in order to compute
the full scale motions of a moored object and the associated forces in the mooring lines in which
chains are incorporated, the prototype normal and tangential drag coefficients of the chains have to be
known also.

In this section information on the coefficients for model and prototype chains will be given. A review
of the chains as used during the model tests are given in Figure 17-1.


Figure 17-1: Review of types of chains as used during model tests

17.1.2 Test set-up, sign convention and definitions of the coefficients
The resistance forces in normal and tangential direction of the chain and in the plane of the current are
denoted as the drag and lift forces respectively and were determined by towing tests by using full
scale chain parts.
For the full scale measurements two types of test set-up were used. In one set-up the chain was free-
hanging. During towing the chain turned under an angle and the top-chain tension T (including still
water pre-tension) and the top angle were measured for each steady towing velocity, see Figure 17-
2.




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Figure 17-2: Test set-up-sign for free-hanging chain

The tested chains have nominal diameters of d=0.034 m (L=3.03 m), d=0.053 m (L=3.07 m), d=0.076
m (L=3.80 m) and d=0.08 m (L=2.53 m), while the chains were towed with Vc=0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00,
2.50, 3.00 and 3.50 m/s.
The definitions to determine the hydrodynamic coefficients are as follows:
Drag F Tsin
x
Lift F G Tcos
z
= = o
= = o


F
x
is the horizontally directed drag force on the chain, while F
z
is the vertically directed lift force on
the chain.
The normal and tangential forces are:
Fn Gsin
Ft T Gcos
= o
= o


and the normal drag coefficient
Fn
C
dn
0.5 * * (V * cos ) ^ 2 * d* L
c
=
o


and the tangential drag coefficient
Ft
C
dt
0.5 * * (V * sin ) ^ 2 * d* L
c
=
o

in which:

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T = chain tension (kN)
d = nominal diameter of the chain (m)
L = length of the chain (m)
V
c
= towing speed (m/s)
G = underwater weight of chain (kN)
o = angle chain due to resistance (deg)
Fn = resistance force normal to chain (kN)
Ft = resistance force tangent to chain (kN)
= specific density of sea water =1025 kg/m^3

and the Reynolds number is defined as follows:
Re = V*d/v

where:
v = kinematic viscosity = 1.18831 * 10^-6 m^2. s^-1

The results of the tests in terms of Cdn and Cdt as function of Re are given in Figure 17-4.

In the other test set-up, see Ref. [17-1], the chain is attached to a PS- and SB-type of strut 1.829 m
distance apart (= length of chain). The chain is in a horizontal position and directed perpendicular to
the tow direction, see Figure 17-3.




Fig. 17-3: Test set-up according to Ref.[17-1]

Only the total resistance force Fn was measured. The Cd has been determined according to the
following formula:
Fn
C
dn
0.5 * * V ^ 2 * d* L
c
=


in which:
d = nominal diameter of the chain
L = lift force or length of the chain
V
c
= towing speed



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Fn = drag (tow) force
= specific density water

The test conditions and the results are presented in Table 17-1.

Length stud Vc Cnd Re
m m inch N/m m/s diameter
1.829 0.0508 2 542.5 0.2572 2.38 1.100E+04
1.829 0.0508 2 542.5 2.5465 1.77 1.089E+05
1.829 0.0381 1.5 310 0.2572 2.40 8.246E+03
1.829 0.0381 1.5 310 2.5465 1.86 8.165E+04
1.829 0.0254 1 137.3 0.2572 2.28 5.498E+03
1.829 0.0254 1 137.3 2.5465 2.34 5.443E+04
1.829 0.01905 0.75 77.5 0.2572 2.27 4.123E+03
1.829 0.01905 0.75 77.5 2.5465 2.47 4.082E+04
Diameter


Table 17-1: Test series of chain diameters according to Ref. [17-1]

The results of both test series have been plotted in Figure 17-4 and 17-5.

0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06
Re
C
d
n
D=0.053 m D=0.034 m D=0.08 m Ref 3-1 d=0.076 m -12 links

Fig. 17-4: Normal drag coefficients as function of Re for different chain diameters (Ref
3-1, must be read as Ref. [17-1]


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0,00
0,10
0,20
0,30
0,40
0,50
0,60
0,70
0,80
0,90
1,E+03 1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06
Re
C
d
t
D=0.08 m D=0.053 m D=0.034 m


Fig. 17-5: Tangential drag coefficient as function of Re for different
chain diameters

17.1.3 Discussion results and conclusions
The derived drag coefficients are compared with the results as are presented in
Figure 17-6. The results of Figure 17-6 were derived from Ref. [17-2].
The symbols (0/90), (45/45), (5/85) as indicated in Figure 17-6 concern the angle in degrees of the
flow relative to the plane of the links.





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Legend:

reference line is the Cd for an circular cylinder (Schlichting)
model chain d = 1.05 mm, towing tests
x model chain d = 1.05 mm, towing test with lead beads
+
stud-link chain d = 65 mm, towing tests (45/45 - 5/85)
- stud-link chain d = 30 mm, towing tests
stud-link chain d = 30 mm, oscillating tests KC = 163-306
^ stud-link chain d = 65 mm, towing tests (0/90 - 45/45)

Fig. 17-6: Drag coefficient of chain, referring nominal diameter derived from Ref. [17-2]

The following conclusions can be drawn for chain resistance:
1) For 10,000 <Re < 100,000, the Cdn-coefficients vary between 1.5 to 2.5.
2) For Re > 100,000 the magnitude of the drag coefficient seems to depend on the diameter of
the chain and the Reynolds number: In all tested chain diameters the drag coefficients curves
up at higher Reynolds numbers. For the smaller chain diameter the degree of curvature is
stronger than for the larger diameter chain.
3) Comparing the results on model scale as is given in Figure 18-6 it is shown that in the
range 100 <Re< 10,000 the drag coefficients may be around Cdn~2.5; it can be concluded
that the model chain hardly suffer from scale effects.
Cdn

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4) At high Reynolds numbers the friction coefficient measured along the chain varies
considerably. The spread is may be due to inaccuracy at small current velocities at
which small angles of the chain are measured

It must be mentioned that during the model tests no or hardly VIV motions were observed.
Further due to the uniform current loading over the length of the chain, the chain was always in a
straight line during all towing tests.
For a review of the sensitivity in changing the Cd coefficients of chains on the motions of a FPSO and
the forces in the mooring lines, reference is made Ref. [17-3].

17.2 Cd and Cl of mooring lines

17.2.1 Introduction
If the results of model tests will be checked by means of computations then the need exists to know
the hydrodynamic drag and lift coefficients on model scale for the mooring lines. In order to compute
the full scale motions of a moored object and the associated forces in the mooring lines, also the
prototype hydrodynamic coefficients have to be known.

In this section information on the coefficients for model and prototype for mooring lines will be
given. All data are derived from Ref. [17-2] and [17-4]. All data in the literature, however, is
restricted the drag coefficients only.

17.2.2 Results
A review of the drag coefficients of steel wire ropes on model scale Reynolds numbers is given in
Figure 17-7. If the model steel wire rope is in the range 150 <Re< 500, being the model scale range,
and the diameter of the wire is between 2.1- 3 mm, then the drag coefficients will be Cd~1.1-1.2. If
diameters of 1.0 mm or smaller and a current speed of 0.10 m/s or less will be used, then Re< 150. At
Re< 150 the flow regime becomes laminar and consequently a strong increase of the drag coefficients
may occurs and the scale effects become dominant.

In Figure 17-18 the drag coefficients of several types of steel wire ropes are given (spiral type and
stranded steel wires) and derived from Ref. [17-4]. The drag coefficients were measured in Re =
10,000 and Re = 50,000. At Re = 10,000 a 5-strand steel wire has a Cd = 1.04 and spiral type rope has
a Cd=1.19, while for Re = 50,000 a 7-strand steel wire will have a Cd = 1.06.

In Figure 17-9 the results of drag coefficient as measured on a 3 (78 mm) steel wire for 30,000 <Re<
200,000 are presented. The drag coefficients vary between 0.9< Cd<1.1. This is close to the values as
given by Hoerner.

Finally in Figure 17-10 the results from all previous figures are plotted for comparison of the Cd-
values.

For a review of the sensitivity in changing the Cd coefficients of steel wires on the motions of a FPSO
and the forces in the mooring lines, reference is made Ref. [17-3].



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Legend:
o
reference line is the Cd for a circular cylinder (Schlichting)
x wire D = 1.1 mm
- wire D = 3 mm
wire D = 2.1 mm
wire D = 0.65 mm


Fig. 17-7: Drag coefficients of model wire lines, derived from Ref. [17-2]



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Fig. 17-8: Drag coefficients of cables Re = 10
4
and Re = 5* 10
4
according to Ref. [17-4]


o reference line is the Cd for a circular cylinder (Schlichting)
x steel wire line, towing tests, D = 78 mm, with end plates
steel wire line, towing tests, D = 78 mm, L/D = 44


Fig. 17-9: Drag coefficients of prototype steel wires, see Ref. [17-2]




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Cd for a circular cylinder, Ref. Schlichting
o wire D=1.1 - 38 mm, free fall tests
- wire D= 0.65 - 3.0 mm, towing tests
steel wire D= 78 mm, towing tests (w/o endplates; L/d=44)
Cd, stranded wire etc. according to Hoerner, see Ref. 31.7.

Fig. 17-10: Summary of wire line drag coefficients, as derived from Ref. [17-2]

17.2.3 Conclusions
The following conclusions can be drawn:
1) The drag coefficient Cd for steel wires for 200 <Re< 200,000 (all in the sub-critical regime
comparing with Schlichting) will vary between 0.9-1.2.
2) For 50,000 <Re< 200,000, the Cd varies between 0.9 and 1.1.
3) In the range 200<Re<200,000 a steel wire does hardly suffer from scale effects.
4) For Re < 200, the Cd-values may create large scale effects.

17.3 References
17-1) Sarpkaya, T.: "Forces on cylinders and spheres in a sinusoidally oscillating fluid",
Transactions of the ASME, March 1975.
17-2) FPS 2000 - Mooring and Positioning, summary report Part 1.5, Title: Mooring line
damping - summary & recommendations, MARINTEK report, 1992
17-3) Wichers, J.E.W. and P.V. Devlin: Effect of coupling of mooring lines and risers on the
design values for a turret moored FPSO in deepwater of the Gulf of Mexico, Proceedings 11
th

ISOPE Conference, Stavanger, 2001
17-4) Hoerner, S.F.: Fluid-Dynamic Drag, 1965

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18 PARTICULARS OF VLCC'S

18.1 Introduction
In this section the particulars of the VLCC's are given. In 18.2 the nomenclature and definitions are
given. In section 18.3 the dimensions of the crude tankers and product tankers and bulk carriers are
presented.

18.2 Nomenclature and definitions
Deadweight tonnage (DWT): the vessel's lifting capacity in units of weight expressed in long tons =
2240 lbs = 1.016 ton = 9963 N that a vessel will lift when loaded in salt water to her summer
freeboard marks.
(1 lbs=4.448 N)
Deadweight includes: crew, passengers, luggage, provisions, fresh water, furniture, coal in bunkers,
fuel oil in tanks and so on.
A 200 kDWT VLCC can carry =200,000*9963 N= 1992600 kN= 198170 m^3 (203124 ton)
Light weight=234994 m^3 (for total displacement 198170m^3 = 36824 m^3 or 370265 kN (37745
ton)
Total displacement mass =203124+37745=240869 ton.
1 m^3 seawater=1015 kg = 1.025 ton = 10.055 kN
Displacement: the number of tons of water displaced by a vessel afloat. The sum of the light weight
and the dead weight is equal to the displacement.
In accordance with Archimedes" principle, displacement and weight are equivalent quantities for
floating bodies. The displacement of a vessel is the weight of water displaced at a given draft, and
also the weight of the vessel and its contents.
Some general ratios for ships are:
-for VLCC: total displacement(ton)/DWT=1.12-1.5 from 1000 to 10 kDWT
-for LNG and container vessels: total displacement(ton)/DWT~1.3 to 1.4.

The definitions of the motions of the vessel in the CoG are shown in the figure below. In the same
figure the definition of the wave direction is given.


In the tables below the nomenclature of the vessel properties are given as used in this book.





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symbol description unit
A
L
Longitudinal (broadside) wind area m^2
A
T
Transverse (head-on) wind area m^2
A
HL
Above water longitudinal hull area m^2
A
HT
Above water transverse hull area m^2
B Beam m^2
C
B
Block coefficient
C
M
Prismatic coefficient
FB Freeboard m
L
BP
or L
PP
Length between perpendiculars m
L
OA
Length overall m
MD Moulded depth m
r Bilge radius m
T Draft (average) m
UKC Underkeel clearance m
WD or h or d Water depth m

description unit
C
Xc
Longitudinal current force coefficient
C
Yc
Lateral current force coefficient
C
XYc
Current yaw moment coefficient
C
Xw
Longitudinal wind force coefficient
C
Yw
Lateral wind force coefficient
C
XYw
Wind yaw moment coefficient
F
Xc
Longitudinal current force N
F
Yc
Lateral current force N
F
Xw
Longitudinal wind force N
F
Yw
Lateral wind force coefficient N
M
XYc
Current yaw moment Nm
M
XYw
Wind yaw moment Nm
Vc Current velocity m/s
Vw Wind velocity m/s

c
Current angle of attack measured from longitudinal axis of ship degrees

w
Wind angle of attack degrees

c
Density of salt water (1025 kg/m^3) kg/m^3

w
Density of air (1.28 kg/m^3 for air) kg/m^3




18.3 Example of main particulars and stability data for a 200 kDWT VLCC
The lines and the small body plan of the 200 kDWT VLCC are given in the figures below. In Tables below the
stability data and the main particulars of a 200 kDWT VCLCC are presented. If needed the free surfaces in the
holds has to be taken into account in the stability data.

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Main stability data symbol unit quantity
water plane area *) A m^2
Displacement-volume *) m^3
Vertical center of gravity from keel KG m See table below
Vertical center of buoyancy from keel*) KB m
water plane intertia about x-axis*) Ixxwp m^4
Water plane inertia about y-axis*) Iyywp m^4
density sea water tonne/m^3 1,025
gravity g m/s^2 9.81
Displacement-weight **g kN
Czz=A**g kN/m
BMx=Ixxwp/ BMx m
BMy=Iyywp/ BMy m
GMx=BMx+KB-KG GMx m
GMy=GMy=BMy+KB-KG GMy m
C=*GMx kNm/rad
C=*GMy kNm/rad
*) these data are derived in DIFFRAC using the facet distributio of the VLCC

designation symbol unit full intermediate ballast
Loading condition 100% 60% 25%
Draft of percent of loaded draft 100% 70% 40%
Length between perpendiculars Lpp m 310 310 310
Breadth B m 47.17 47.17 47.17
Depth H m 28.04 28.04 28.04
Draft (evenkeel) T m 18.9 13.23 7.56
Wetted area (DIFFRAC) S m
2
22,804 18,670 13,902
Length beam ratio L/B 6.57 - -
Beam draft ratio B/T 2.5 - -
Displacement volume V m
3
234,994 159,698 88,956
Mass m ton 240,869 163,690 91,180
Block coefficient=V/ Lpp*B*T C
b
0.85 - -
Prismatic coefficient C
m
- -
Center of buoyancy forward section 10 FB m 6.6 m 9.04 10.46
Center of gravity above base KG m 13.32 11.55 13.32

.







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18.4 Dimensions of crude tankers and product tankers and bulk carriers
In the following section the dimensions of crude, product and bulk carriers are shown. The results are
MARIN data over the period 1970 to 2005. The red points (average and extrapolated data) are the
data over the period 1970-1985. The bleu colored points are crude and product tankers over the period
1985 to 2005. The green colored points are bulk carriers over the same period.

10
100
1000
10,000 100,000 1,000,000
displacement [m^3]
k
D
W
T


0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
10,000 100,000 1,000,000
displacement [m^3]
L
p
p

[
m
]





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0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
10,000 100,000 1,000,000
displacement [m^3]
B

[
m
]


0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
10,000 100,000 1,000,000
displacement [m^3]
T

[
m
]


In chapter 19 and 20 the wind and current forces on tankers are presented.

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19 WIND LOADS ON VLCC'S AND FPSOS

19.1 Introduction
In this section the wind force coefficients on VLCC's and FPSO's are dealt with. The wind force and
moment formulations on tankers are presented in 33.2 and derived from Appendix A of MEG3, see
Ref. [19-1]. In connection with the wind force formulations in 33.2.1 the wind areas are given. The
wind areas are derived from formulations as given in the TERMSIM manual Ref. [19-3] and are
compared with recommended older OCIMF wind areas.

The MEG3 wind and current coefficients are derived from scale models for tankers sizes > 150
kDWT. The coefficients can be used for tankers down to 16 kDWT and even smaller if there is
geometric similarity. The similarity for wind concerns the FB/B ratio and for current the similarity
should comply with the ratio B/T, see MEG3-A1 of Ref. [19-1].

A general source of wind coefficients on various types of vessels are given in Ref. [19-2].

19.2 Wind loads on VLCCs

The formulation of the wind loads on VLCCs are given below.

X
wind
=
T wr Xx wr a
A C V ) ( 5 . 0
2
u
Y
wind
=
L wr Yw wr a
A C V ) ( 5 . 0
2
u
N
wind
=
PP L wr XYn wr a
L A C V ) ( 5 . 0
2
u

where:
X
wind
= the fore-and-aft force (front and tail) in kN
Y
wind=
the lateral force in kN
N
wind
the yawing moment in kNm

a
= density of air =0.00128 ton/m^3
V
wr
= a characteristic air speed in m/s
C
Xw.
= wind force coefficient in surge direction
C
Yw.
= wind force coefficient in sway direction
C
XYw.
= wind force coefficient in yaw direction

wr
= relative angle of the wind with respect to the tanker heading
A
T
= transverse (head-on) wind area including superstructure in m^2
A
L
= longitudinal (broadside) wind area including superstructure in m/s^2
L
PP
= L
BP
=length of tanker between perpendiculars in m.

The sign conventions of the wind loads and wind directions as used for VLCCs and FPSOs are
given in the figure below.



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The longitudinal, lateral and yaw moment wind coefficients are presented in the figures below. For
the definitions of the bow form see 34.2 and are derived from Ref. [19-1].



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19.2.1 Wind areas of VLCC's

The wind areas per VLCC size ids given in the table below.

tanker size tanker particulars bridge dimensions total 100% total 40%
kDWT V Lpp B T Cb H l b h A
L
A
T
A
L
A
T

m3 m m m m m m m m^2
10 14,634 124.2 17.6 8.8 0.76 11.6 28.89 15.10 7.33 554 159 1210 252
20 26,341 159.3 22.5 10.0 0.73 13.1 31.49 19.80 8.01 751 229 1707 364
30 38,049 182.5 26.2 10.8 0.74 14.2 33.21 23.35 8.46 898 286 2081 456
50 61,463 214.7 31.9 11.9 0.75 15.6 35.59 28.82 9.08 1124 381 2657 608
70 83,902 237.1 36.0 13.0 0.76 17.1 37.25 32.76 9.70 1327 464 3177 745
90 105,366 255.6 38.9 14.0 0.76 18.4 38.61 35.54 10.27 1518 536 3665 862
125 144,390 280.4 43.2 15.6 0.76 20.5 40.45 39.67 11.17 1822 654 4447 1059
150 171,707 294.7 45.8 16.7 0.76 21.9 41.51 42.17 11.79 2031 737 4984 1196
200 225,366 318.1 50.1 18.4 0.77 24.2 43.24 46.30 12.75 2385 879 5897 1432
250 279,024 337.0 53.5 20.0 0.77 26.3 44.64 49.56 13.65 2721 1012 6765 1654
300 332,683 352.9 56.4 21.3 0.78 28.0 45.81 52.34 14.39 3014 1130 7525 1850

The definitions/nomenclature of the symbols are given below, see also the TERMSIM manual, see
Ref. [34-3].
V= displacement in m^3
B= beam in m
Cb= block coefficient
T= draft in m
H= MD= moulded depth of VLCC=1.313*T in m
FB=H-T=free board in m
l=lateral (side) length of the (aft) super structure in meters=Lpp*0.074+19.7
b=transverse (frontal) length of the (aft) superstructure in meters=0.96*B-1.8
h=height of the superstructure in meters=0.43*H+2.36
T(40%)=0.40*T(100%).

FB (100%)=H-T(100%)
FB(40%)=H-T(40%)

in which FB(40%)/FB(100%)= 2.92

resulting in the following total wind areas:
A
L
(100%)=FB(100%)*Lpp+l*h
A
F
(100%)=FB(100%)*B+b*h
A
L
(40%)=FB(40%)*Lpp+l*h
A
F
(40%)=FB(40%)*B+b*h


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In the figures below the calculated total wind areas in longitudinal (broadside or side) and in
transverse (=head-on or front) direction have been compared with data originating from older OCIMF
data (only tanker hull and aft house wind area (2)).







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It must be noted that the calculated areas according to the TERMSIM manual (Ref [19-3) concern the
ratio FB(40%)/FB(100%)=2.92, while the old OCIMF data uses a ratio FB/FB
LD
=3.1. This means that
the calculated wind areas are somewhat smaller than the wind areas according to the TERMSIM
manual.

19.3 Wind loads on FPSO's

19.3.1 Introduction
An example of a FPSO as installed in a wind tunnel is given in this section. Note that the scale is in
the order of 1:200. The scale number is usually applied in wind tunnel test. The set-up in the wind
tunnel is given in the figure below.
Note that not only the wind forces on the FPSO can be determined in a wind tunnel but also the
current loads on the vessel.


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19.3.2 An example of wind tunnel results on a FPSO
As an example below the wind coefficients are given of a typical FPSO. The results are derived from
the wind forces as measured in a wind tunnel. For the nomenclature reference is made to section 33.2.


-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360
headi ng ( OCIM F) [ deg]
C
x

[
-
]

-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360
headi ng ( OCIM F) [ deg]
C
y

[
-
]




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-0.12
-0.09
-0.06
-0.03
0.00
0.03
0.06
0.09
0.12
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360
headi ng ( OCIM F) [ deg]
C
n

[
-
]


19.3.3 Wind tunnel tests at full scale Re number
It is sometimes suggested that the wind speeds in the wind tunnel should be increased such that the Re
in the model test should be equal to the real life value. In the following it will be shown that this is
generally not possible.

Let us assume that the Re numbers are equal in the model test and in real life and further that the
model scale is and that the kinematical viscosity of air v (=/) is the same in both cases.

The wind force on the model is:
f
w
= **v
w
2
*a*C
D

The wind force on the real structure is:
F
w
= **V
w
2
*A*C
D


Equality of Re implies:

v
w
*l/v = V
w
*L/v

v
w
= V
w
* L/l= V
w
*

Substitution in the expression for f
w
and remembering that areas scale with the square of the scale
factor leads to:

f
w
= **(V
w
* )
2
*(A/
2
)*C
D
= F
w


From the above it is seen that if the Reynolds number of the wind tunnel test is made equal to that of
the real life structure, the wind force is the same. This means that the model must be strong enough to
withstand the full scale wind force. This is generally not possible.

19.4 References
19-1) OCIMF: "Mooring Equipment Guidelines", 3rd edition (MEG3), issued by the OCIMF,
reprinted 2009

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19-2) Blendermann, W.: "Wind loading of ships-collected data from wind tunnel tests in uniform
flow", Institut fr schiffbau der Universitt Hamburg, Bericht Nr. 574, December 1996.
19-3) TERMSIM II MARIN, Theory and user guide, October 2010















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20 CURRENT LOADS ON VLCCS AND FPSOS

20.1 Introduction
In section 20.2 the current force coefficients are given as derived from Ref. [20-1].
In section 20.3 the results of current force coefficients on a 200 kDWT tanker exposed to different
current speeds are shown. By means of these measured data scale effects can be studied.
In section 20.4 the current coefficients are shown measured with tankers with and w/o bulb and
tankers with different L/B ratio's being 6.57 and 5.0.
In section 20.5 conclusions and remarks are given.

20.2 Current coefficients of VLCCs
In the figure below the flow stream and force distribution along a body in an ideal and a real fluid are
shown
Applying potential theory to a symmetrical tanker hull in shallow water will result in the forces as
indicated in the figure below. The moment as given in the figure is called the Munk-moment. Further
no longitudinal force is present which observation is often called the paradox of d'Alembert.
In a real current, however, viscosity is involved. The velocity leads to modifications of the flow due
to friction and stream separation alongside the hull. The real Munk-moment as a result of viscosity is
shown in the same figure.



The formulations of the current loads and moment on VLCCs are as given below:

X
current
=
PP cr cx cr w
L T C V ) ( 5 . 0
2
o
Y
current
=
PP cr cy
2
cr w
L T ) ( C V 5 . 0 o
N
current
=
2 2
) ( 5 . 0
PP cr cn cr w
L T C V o
where:

w
= density of water=1.025 ton/m^3
V
cr
= instantaneous relative current velocity with respect to the tanker velocity
C
c.
= current force coefficients

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o
cr
= relative angle of the current with respect to the tanker heading
T = draft of tanker
L
PP
= length of tanker between perpendiculars.

The current force coefficients in longitudinal direction are dependent on the bow configuration. The
definition of the bow configuration is given in the figures below.

Bow form definitions:


-conventional bow -cylindrical bow


The sign conventions of the current loads are defined in the figure below.




















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The current force coefficients for the sway and yaw direction have been given in the figures below
and derived from MEG3, Ref. [20-1]. From experience it is known that the current force coefficients
in surge direction are somewhat questionable and it recommended to use for shallow water the
coefficients as given in section 20.4.


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In the next section the effects of the different current speeds on the current force coefficients of a 200
kDWT tanker are presented.




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20.3 Current coefficients on a 200 kDWT VLCC

For the determination of the current coefficients on a 200 kDWT VLCC in 82.5 m water depth and
exposed to different current speeds reference is made to Ref. [20-2]. The particulars of the 200
kDWT VLCC (w/o bulb) and the lines and body plan are given in the table and figures below.

designation symbol unit full intermediate ballast
Loading condition 100% 60% 25%
Draft of percent of loaded draft 100% 70% 40%
Length between perpendiculars Lpp m 310 310 310
Breadth B m 47.17 47.17 47.17
Depth H m 28.04 28.04 28.04
Draft (evenkeel) T m 18.9 13.23 7.56
Wetted area S m
2
22,804 18,670 13,902
Length beam ratio L/B 6.57 - -
Beam draft ratio B/T 2.5 - -
Displacement volume V m
3
234,994 159,698 88,956
Mass m t 240,869 163,690 91,180
Block coefficient C
b
0.85 - -
Prismatic coefficient C
m
- -
Center of buoyancy forward section 10 FB m 6.6 m 9.04 10.46
Center of gravity above base KG m 13.32 11.55 13.32
The tanker was provided with bilge keels; Rudder applied; Model scale 1: 82.5





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The 200 kWDT VLCC was provided of the bilge keels as are shown in the figure below. The bilge
keels were connected to the vessel between section 6 and 14.

The current force coeficients for the loaded condition of the 200 kDWT tanker has been determined
by towing with 3 different speeds viz. Vc= 1.03, 2.06 and 2.57 m/s, while for ballast condition only
one speed was applied viz. Vc=1.03 m/s.
The current coefficients have been presented in the figures below.

The nomeclature used in the figures are as follows: C1c=C
Xc,
C2c= C
Yc,
C6c= C
XYc
and (c-x6)=
c









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For the discussion of results and conclusions, see section 20.5.


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20.4 Current force measurements carried out with different VLCC forms and sizes

20.4.1 The different models
In this section the current force coefficients of 3 types of 200 kDWT tankers having different L/B
ratio's and bow forms are presented. In the table below the main particulars of the 3 different VLCC's
and the test conditions are given.

Model size model scale bow form L/B load Vc WD/T(100%) kind of
kDWT number tested condition m/s tested flow
200 #1 82.5 with bulb 6.57 100% 2.06 1.10, 1.20, 1.50 towing
200 #1 82.5 with bulb 6.57 40% 2.06 1.10, 1.50 towing
200 #2 82.5 w/o bulb 6.57 100% 2.06 1.10, 1.20, 1.50 towing
200 #2 82.5 w/o bulb 6.57 40% 2.06 1.10, 1.50 towing
200 #3 82.5 cylindrical 5.0 100% 2.06 1.10, 1.20, 1.50 towing


20.4.2 The effect of shallow water on the current force coefficients for hull forms
The nomenclature used in the figures are as follows:
C
X
=C
Xc,
C
Y
= C
Yc
and C
n
= C
XYc

and the sign convention and current directions are the same as mentioned in section 11.4 unless it is
mentioned different.

WD/T=1.1 for the fully loaded VLCC (T=18.9 m)

WD/T=1.1*)
-0,15
-0,10
-0,05
0,00
0,05
0,10
0,15
0,20
0,25
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
cur r ent angle in deg
C
x
w/o bulb L/B=6.57 with bulb L/B=6.57 w/o bulb L/B= 5









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0,00
0,50
1,00
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
cur r ent angle in deg
C
y
w/o bulb L/B=6.57 with bulb L/B=6.57
w/o bulb L/B=5 OCIMF-WD/T=1.1


-0,4
-0,3
-0,2
-0,1
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
cur r ent angle in deg
C
n
w/o bulb L/B=6.57 with bulb L/B=6.57
w/o bulb L/B=5 MEG3-WD/T=1.1


*) MEG3:
-w/o bulb L/B=6.57 and L/B=5 cylindrical bow
-with bulb L/B=6.57conventional bow

WD/T=1.2 for the fully loaded VLCC
WD/T=1.2*)
-0,1
-0,05
0
0,05
0,1
0,15
0,2
0,25
0,3
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
cur r ent angle in deg
C
x
w/o bulb L/B=6.57 with bulb L/B=6.57 w/o bulb L/B=5


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0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
cur r ent angle in deg
C
y
w/o bulb L/B=6.57 with bulb L/B=6.57
w/o bulb L/B=5 OCIMF-WD/T=1.2

-0,40
-0,30
-0,20
-0,10
0,00
0,10
0,20
0,30
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
cur r ent angle in deg
C
n
w/o bulb L/B=6.57 with bulb L/B=6.57
w/o bulb L/B=5 MEG3-WD/T=1.2


*) MEG3:
-w/o bulb L/B=6.57 and L/B=5 cylindrical bow
-with bulb L/B=6.57conventional bow

WD/T=1.5 for the fully loaded VLCC
WD/T=1.5*)
-0,15
-0,1
-0,05
0
0,05
0,1
0,15
0,2
0,25
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
cur r ent angle in deg
C
x
no bulb L/B=6.57 with bulb L/B=6.57 no bulb L/B=5




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0
0,25
0,5
0,75
1
1,25
1,5
1,75
2
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
cur r ent angle in deg
C
y
no bulb L/B=6.57 with bulb L/B=6.57
no bulb L/B=5 OCIMF-WD/T=1.5

-0,3
-0,2
-0,1
0
0,1
0,2
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
cur r ent angle in deg
C
n
with bulb L/B=6.57 no bulb L/B=5.0
MEG3-WD/T=1.5

*) MEG3:
-w/o bulb L/B=6.57 and L/B=5 cylindrical bow
-with bulb L/B=6.57conventional bow

20.5 Conclusions and remarks
In section 34.3 the effect of different current speeds on the current coefficients was investigated for a
fully loaded 200 kDWT VLCC (scale 1:82.5) for a water depth draft ratio of 4.37, see Ref. [ 20-2].
The current velocities amounts to 1.03, 206 and 2.57 m/s full scale. From the results it can be
concluded that the coefficients will not be effected by different current velocities on model scale.

From the results of section 34.4 it can be be concluded that the L/B ratio and bow form has a
significant effect on the current force coefficients in shallow water, especially in surge direction. As a
resume the current force coefficinets on the loaded 200 kDWT tanker with L/B=6.57 and for
WD/T=1.2, 1.5 and 3.0 are presented in the figure below.


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The effect on the lateral current force coefficients is given in the figure below. It is shown that at
smaller WD/T ratio's the lateral current force coefficnets increase exponentially.



The reason for the exponential high lateral current is due to the circulation of the current around the
vessel as is indicated in the figures below.










-0.1
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
current angle in deg
all lines concern conventional bow-types
C
x
c
WD/T=1.2 WD/T=1.5 WD/T=3



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In the figure below an example is given of the measured points (crosses) and fitted line (=straight
line) as should be used in the computations. The data input points were determined by means of
Fourier analysis. The results show that the input data should be the measured points and not the un-
accurate points as found from the Fourier analysis. As a remark it will be stated that results obtained
from Fourier analysis can give wrong data.


20.6 References
20-1) OCIMF: "Mooring Equipment Guidelines", 3rd edition (MEG3), issued by the OCIMF,
reprinted 2009
20-2) Wichers, J.E.W., 1988, A Simulation Model for a Single Point Moored Tanker, PhD, Delft
University of Technology.

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21 FIRST ORDER WAVE FORCES AND HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS

21.1 Introduction
First order wave forces on monohulls and the ensuing wave frequency hydrodynamic reaction forces
(added mass and damping) are well covered by results of frequency domain 3-D diffraction codes
based on linear potential flow. Many results of correlations between computations and measurements
from model tests are available which confirm the applicability of these methods.

In terms of the hydrodynamic reaction forces at wave frequencies, major discrepancies are still found
between computations and measurements of roll motions which are attributed to the neglect of
viscous components in the roll damping of monohull vessels. Linear 3-D diffraction computation
invariably overestimate the roll motions at the natural frequency of roll by an order of magnitude.
Adding some form of estimate of the roll damping results in a better estimate of the roll motions.
However, it should be noted that, for instance, transverse wave drift forces are also incorrectly
estimated around the natural period of roll. Adding a linearized estimate of the viscous damping to the
roll damping may improve the roll motion prediction but this does not automatically mean that the
wave drift force prediction is also improved. This indicates that a simple viscous roll damping term
does not cover the physical process adequately, see also chapter 25.

21.2 Wave forces and coefficients on a 200 kDWT VLCC in shallow and deep water

21.2.1 Introduction to linear hydrodynamics (wave frequency motions)
In order to calculate the hydrodynamic properties of a moored vessel in waves we need a thorough
mathematical description together with underlying assumptions.





In the analysis of the motions of a floating body in waves we will closely follow a linearized analysis
of a free surface flow.

Assuming that the flow is irrotational and without viscosity we write the pressures and velocities in
terms of a potential flow:

domain fluid the Inside 0 = A| (1)

as boundary values:



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Free surface conditions (linearized):

0 0 = = z at g
z tt
| | (2)

This free surface condition is for zero speed and linearized free surface flow conditions.

Body boundary conditions

0 =
c
c
|
n
(3)

(No fluid is allowed through the body surface)

At the sea floor

d z floor sea the at
n
= =
c
c
0 | (4)

Conditions at infinity

The outgoing free surface waves should decay appropriately.

The problem is now formulated as a linearized potential flow problem in 3-D.

Due to the linearity of the potential flow we can write the potential in terms of fluid reaction flow and
fluid diffraction flow, meaning:

j j
j
d
t x | | | |

=
+ + =
6
1
0
) , ( (5)
In the figure below the incident wave, the diffracted wave and the radiated waves are shown.



For a pure harmonic motion we write:

t i
e x t x
e
| |

= ) ( ) , ( (6)


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The potential with a subscript j is the potential flow describing the flow due to a unit motion
j
in an
otherwise still water free surface. The subscript 0 respectively d stands for the undisturbed incoming
and diffracted potential due to waves on a restrained body.

Nowadays accurate methods are available to describe the 3-D flow around a moored floating object in
waves, see for instance the diffraction type of methods, based on source sink type of techniques given
in Ref. [21-1]. The program is called DIFFRAC.

The computer program DIFFRAC is used for determining the RAO's of the first order wave
forces/moments, the matrices of the hydrodynamic reaction coefficients (and the RAO's of the first
order motions) and the matrices of the QTF's of the second order wave drift forces. The matrices of
the wave drift forces present both the mean and slowly oscillating wave drift forces, see chapter 36. In
order to perform the computations the hull is represented by a large number of facet elements. An
example of the facet distribution on the hull of a LNG carrier is given in the figure below.

DIFFRAC is based on the velocity potential. If the velocity potential is known in the fluid around the
vessel (as computed by DIFFRAC) the fluid pressure in a point is determined by Bernoulli's equation;
) (
2
2
1
3 0
t C gX p p
t
+ V = | |
By splitting Bernoulli's equation in a first order and second order equation, the first order wave forces
and the hydrodynamic reaction forces, see Ref.[21-1], and the second order wave drift forces, see
chapter 36, can be computed respectively.

In the following section some results of the potential diffraction theory is given.

21.2.2 First order wave forces and hydrodynamic reaction forces
As an example the 3-D potential theory has been applied to a 200 kDWT VLCC. The main particulars
and stability data of the fully loaded 200 kDWT VLCC are given in the table below.

Main particulars of VLCC
200 kDWT
Length between perpendiculars Lpp m 310.00
Breadth B m 47.17
Depth H m 28.04
Draft T m 18.90
Length beam ratio L/B 6.57
Beam draft ratio B/T 2.50
Displacement V m3 234,994



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Block coefficient Cb 0.85
Midship section coefficient 0.995
Prismatic coefficient 0.855
Waterplane coefficient Cw
Centre of gravity above base KG m 13.32
Metacenter height transverse MGt m 5.78
Metacenter height longitudinal MGl m 403.83
Gyradius transverse kxx m 14.77
Gyradius longitudinal kyy m 77.47
Gyradius yaw k m 79.30

In words using the 3-D diffraction potential theory, the first order wave forces/moments (6 directions)
can be determined by keeping the vessel in a fixed position at the correct draft and water depth under
a wave direction and apply a regular wave with unit wave amplitude
a
and frequency . In the
program the associated pressures on the facets will be computed and by summing up the pressures,
the forces and moments for in-phase and out-of-phase, the total wave forces/moments and the
associated phase angles with regard to the wave (the RAO's) can be determined.
The hydrodynamic reaction coefficients will be computed by oscillating the vessel in each of the 6
modes of motion with an unit amplitude of motion and a frequency. For each mode by summing the
pressures on the facets, the in-phase forces/moments deliver the added mass coefficients, while the
out-of-phase gives the (potential) damping coefficients. The matrices of the added masses and
damping are derived for the unit amplitude for the linear motion. For rotational motions the unit
amplitude is one radial.

In the figures below the added mass and the potential damping are computed for the loaded 200
kDWT VLCC in two different water depths (shallow water h=28.35 m and deeper water h=378 m).
In the figures below the wave force, the added mass coefficient and the potential damping in heave
direction are compared for WD=28.35 m and 378 m. The magnitudes of a33 and b33 are kN/m and
kNm/rad respectively.

0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
140000
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
Frequency i n rad/s
w
a
v
e

f
o
r
c
e

X
3
3

i
n

k
N
/
m
WD=28.35 m WD=378 m


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0.0E+00
2.0E+05
4.0E+05
6.0E+05
8.0E+05
1.0E+06
1.2E+06
1.4E+06
1.6E+06
1.8E+06
2.0E+06
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
Frequency i n rad/s
a
d
d
e
d

m
a
s
s

h
e
a
v
e
-
a
3
3
WD=28.35 m WD=378 m


0.0E+00
5.0E+04
1.0E+05
1.5E+05
2.0E+05
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
Frequency i n rad/s
d
a
m
i
n
g

h
e
a
v
e
-
b
3
3
WD=28.35 m WD=378 m


From the results it can be concluded that the wave forces and the added mass and damping
coefficients are rather sensitive for the WD/T ratio especially for the longer wave periods.

The diffraction program generally gives the following output in the wave frequency domain:
- the number of frequencies N for 0.05 1.5 rad/s in steps of 0.05 rad/s (30)
- the number of wave directions N for 0
0
180
0
(symmetrical) in steps of 15
0
(13).

21.3 Example of forces/moment in the cross section of a FPSO at the internal turret

The location where the internal turret will be built-in in the vessel will be a structurally weakened
cross section, especially if the turret has a large diameter.
The safety in terms of structural strength should be investigated. Using the wave frequent part of
DIFFRAC the investigation can be carried out. The following example concerns the determination of
the vertical force and bending moment in the cross section at the location of the turret with the vessel
in head waves.




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It is assumed that the response amplitude operator (RAO) of the forces and moments acting in the
cross section are linear. The assumption has to be proven that linearity exists. Therefore the model of
the FPSO has been instrumented at two cross sections to measure the internal forces and moments.
The figure showing the instrumentation is given in the figure below.



Model tests have been carried out in irregular and regular waves as head waves. Only the heave force
and the pitch bending moment were investigated. The irregular seastate consist of Hs=4 m, Tp=9.5 s
(=1), Vw=19.1 m/s and Vc=0.l5 m/s. The regular head waves are given in the table below.


dir H T
deg m s rad/s
180 2.53 18.0 0.349
180 2.28 16.0 0.393
180 2.60 14.0 0.449
180 2.63 13.0 0.483
180 2.57 12.0 0.524
180 2.66 11.0 0.571
180 2.71 10.0 0.628
180 2.56 8.0 0.785
180 2.15 6.0 1.047


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The RAO's of the heave force and bending moment as derived from the measurements are given in
the figures below.







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Because different procedures were applied to calculate the RAO's, it can be concluded that the heave
force and bending moment are linear related to the waves.

The heave and pitch bending moment can be computed using the 3-D diffraction theory. In the 3-D
diffraction program for each wave frequency and the unit wave, the in-phase and out-of-phase
pressures on the facets due to the wave and the unit motions of the vessel reaction are stored. Further
it is assumed that the mass and the inertia are known about the CoG of the vessel part before the cross
section where the turret is located. By means of the program as described in Ref. [21-2], the in-phase
and out-of-phase forces and moment in the cross section can be computed. Having these parts the
response amplitude operator can be determined.







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21.4 References
21-1) Oortmerssen, G. van: "The motions of a moored ship in waves", PhD thesis, Delft, 1976
21-2) Wichers, J.E.W. and W.C. de Boom: "The dynamic loads for the strength design of moored
offshore structures under storm conditions", OTC 3249, Houston, 1978



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22 SECOND ORDER WAVE FORCES-WAVE DRIFT FORCES

22.1 Introduction
In section 22.2 briefly the theory and an example are given of the application of the wave drift forces.
In section 22.3 the matrices of the wave drift forces on a 200 kDWT VLC is given for both deepwater
and shallow water. In section 22.4 the explanation will be given for the significant higher wave drift
transfer functions in shallow water.

22.2 Theory and an example of the mean wave drift force acting on a 200 kDWT VLCC
On one side we have the first order wave forces/moments acting on the vessel, while on the other side
we have the second order wave drift forces. The second order wave forces are briefly explained
below.
In general the wave drift forces consist of the following 5 parts as given below, see Ref. [22-1]:

I. pressure due to first order relative wave elevations at the water line
II. pressure drop due to first order velocity
III. pressure due to product of gradient of first order pressure and first order motions
IV. contribution due to products of first order angular motions and inertia forces
V. second order potential.

The expression of the mean wave drift force in a regular wave on a tanker from pressure integration
techniques on each facet as a result of the contributions I through IV respectively (without the second
order potential) is given below:

) ( ) (
2
2
1
2
2
1
g t
S S
r
WL
x M dS n x dS ndl g F + V V =
} } }
o | | ,
In shallow water we have the second order potential in terms of the wave set-down and is explained in
the next section 22.4. This is deleted in the present explanation.

To elucidate the contributions of I and II an example is given below. The example concerns a VLCC
in regular beam waves of which the penetration depth of the waves corresponds to the draft of the
vessel. The resulting first order wave force on the weather shell side per meter length is zero. No
wave action is present on the base of the vessel, while no wave are assumed to be present at the lee
side (diffraction around the ship's ends are not taken into account). Due to this wave condition it is
assumed that the vessel will not move making the contributions III and IV zero.

In the picture below the incoming wave creates a full standing wave against the weather side shell of
the vessel as shown below.

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The wave drift forces of contribution I per meter vessel in sway direction will be:
= +
+ + = + =
}
} }
t
e e ,
t
t
e e ,
t
e ,
2
0
2
) cos( 2 (
2
1
2
1
2
0
)) cos( 2 (
2
1
2
2
1
0
2
)) cos( 2 (
2
1 1
) 2 (
2
t d t
a
g
t d t
a
d g gd
T
dt t
a
d g
T
X

2 2
2
1
2
0
)) 2 cos(
2
1
2
1
(
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
0
2
)) (cos(
2
2
2
2
2
1
a
g gd
t d t
a
g
gd
t d t
a
g
gd
,
t
e e
t
,

t
e e
t
,

+
+ + =
= + =
=
=
}
}


in which:
=specific density of sea water (1.025 ton/m^3)
g=earth acceleration
d=draft of vessel

The resulting wave drift force component I will be a pressure force
2 ) 2 (
2 a
g X , = (hydrostatic forces
at wave and lee side
2
2
1
gd compensate each other).

In the picture below the wave velocities from the full standing wave against the wave side shell of the
vessel is shown.




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The wave drift forces of contribution II per meter vessel in sway direction will be:
2 2
2 2
0
2 2 2
0
2
0
2
2 2
0
2
0
2 2
2 2
2
1
) 1 (
2
) 2 cos
2
1
2
1
( )) (sin(
2
0 0
2
2
1
2
1
0 0
2
2
1 1 ) 2 (
2
a
kd a
d
kz
a
d
kz a
d
kz a
g e
k
dz e
d t dz e t d t dz e
d
t dzd
T d
dzdt
T
X
,
e ,
e ,
e e
t
e ,
e e
t
e ,
t t
t
e ,
t
,
= =
= = =
} } } }


}
} } } }

= =

=



in which:
g
k
t
kz
e
a
t
=
=
2
sin 2 ) (
e
e e, ,


k=wave number =2/
=wave length
z=vertical co-ordinate in water line (positive is upwards)

The result is that the resulting wave drift force component II will be a suction force
2
2
1 ) 2 (
2 a
g X , = .

Suppose the loaded VLCC has the following dimensions: L
pp
=300 m and draft d=20 m and water
depth WD=24 m.
What is the total wave drift force on the beam when the VLCC is exposed to regular waves with
a
=1
m and T=5 s?

The wave length = 39 m with a wave penetration depth of 19.5 m. The breaking factor of deep water
waves amounts to 2
a
/1/7, which means that the considered waves are non-breaking waves.

The total mean wave drift force amounts to

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kN g
pp
L
a
g
pp
L
a
g
a
g X 1508 300 * 1 *
2
1
2
2
1
)
2
2
1
2
(
) 2 (
2
= = = = , , ,

in which:
=1.025 ton/m^3
g=9.81 m/s^2

This means that 2 ocean tug boats (bollard force= 750 kN) can keep the VLCC in position as is shown
in the figure below.



22.3 Matrix of the second order wave forces on a loaded 200 kDWT VLCC
In the figures below the plots of the first 3 diagonal (including the main diagonal) of the slowly
oscillation wave drift force acting on the 200 kDWT VLCC in head waves are presented.
In deep water the magnitudes of the QTF's for 0.4<<1.5 rad/s are approximately the same. In
deepwater the slowly oscillating QTF's for <0.4 rad/s increases to some extend since the waves are
effected by the seabed.
The main diagonal of the QTF's in deepwater and in shallow water in head waves are approximately
the same. The side diagonals being the QTF's of the slowly oscillating wave drift forces with the
mean wave period of the wave group with wave group frequency =0.05 rad/s and =0.1 rad/s,
increase exponentially at the longer wave periods in shallow water. The excitation of the slowly
oscillating wave drift force are extremely high, see for the explanation section 22.4.














with the wave drift QTF in kN/m^2

wave dir. 180 deg - water dept h 94.5 m
0.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
wave frequency in rad/s
w
a
v
e

d
r
i
f
t

f
o
r
c
e

i
n

k
N
mu = 0 rad/s Series2 mu = 0.1 rad/s



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with the wave drift QTF in kN/m^2

In the tables below examples are shown of the matrices of the wave drift forces in surge and heave
direction for the 200 kDWT VLCC for WD=22.84 m and WD=94.5 m. The matrices concern the real
(in-phase) and imaginary part (out-of-phase) of the wave drift forces for 2 directions *2 parts*2 water
depths=8 matrices.
Real 0.200 0.250 3.000 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.550 0.600 0.650 0.700 0.750 0.800 0.850 0.900 0.950 1.000
0.200 -39 -50 -150 -444 -754 -790
0.250 -63 -98 -187 -388 -544 -477
0.300 -151 -185 -221 -307 -352 -265
0.350 -226 -208 -167 -193 -225 -138
0.400 -210 -151 -104 -145 -167 -76
0.450 -162 -137 -115 -144 -129 -23
0.500 -190 -165 -120 -113 -62 40
0.550 -187 -128 -70 -61 -17 59
0.600 -129 -77 -44 -52 -10 68
0.650 -98 -68 -51 -50 9 -94
0.700 -103 -72 -49 -27 -87 -85
0.750 -100 -60 -35 -85 -83 -82
0.800 -87 -48 -83 -82 -80
0.850 -83 -82 -80 -79
0.900 -80 -79 -77
0.950 -77 -77
1.000 -76
symmetry-surge-WD=22.68 m


Imag 0.200 0.250 3.000 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.550 0.600 0.650 0.700 0.750 0.800 0.850 0.900 0.950 1.000
0.200 0 2,576 3,539 3,202 2,144 730
0.250 0 1,686 2,331 2,072 1,283 208
0.300 0 1,178 1,620 1,380 722 -47
0.350 0 861 1,152 908 427 -73
0.400 0 639 838 677 335 -54
0.450 0 518 701 559 229 -144
0.500 0 436 552 390 97 -178
0.550 0 349 427 296 53 -164
0.600 0 301 365 234 -10 -191
0.650 0 271 309 154 -80 -189
0.700 0 242 252 91 -114 -150
0.750 0 219 210 44 -131 -108
0.800 0 203 178 -4 -137
0.850 0 192 143 -44
0.900 0 180 114
0.950 0 169
1.000 0
symmetry-surge-WD=22.68 m


wave dir. 180 deg - water depth 28.35 m
0.0
100.0
200.0
300.0
400.0
500.0
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
wave f r equency in r ad/s
w
a
v
e

d
r
i
f
t

f
o
r
c
e

i
n

k
N
mu = 0 rad/s mu = 0.05 rad/s mu = 0.1 rad/s

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Real 0.200 0.250 3.000 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.550 0.600 0.650 0.700 0.750 0.800 0.850 0.900 0.950 1.000
0.200 -2 -2 -3 -4 -7 -13
0.250 -5 -5 -5 -2 -1 3
0.300 -9 -10 -7 -2 8 28
0.350 -15 -18 -14 0 25 52
0.400 -30 -37 -25 3 42 61
0.450 -61 -63 -37 18 55 50
0.500 -90 -85 -27 31 51 51
0.550 -117 -88 -19 44 66 43
0.600 -123 -89 3 65 63 27
0.650 -122 -56 32 65 40 -83
0.700 -81 -39 23 43 -82 -78
0.750 -84 -44 25 -78 -73 -73
0.800 -82 -31 -73 -73 -72
0.850 -73 -73 -72 -72
0.900 -72 -72 -72
0.950 -72 -72
1.000 -72
symmetry-surge-WD=94.50 m



Imag 0.200 0.250 3.000 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.550 0.600 0.650 0.700 0.750 0.800 0.850 0.900 0.950 1.000
0.200 0 121 218 287 305 239
0.250 0 103 186 228 199 70
0.300 0 90 150 151 61 -135
0.350 0 70 96 41 -118 -283
0.400 0 40 13 -111 -251 -295
0.450 0 -12 -100 -211 -262 -87
0.500 0 -61 -157 -219 -103 78
0.550 0 -96 -162 -113 6 102
0.600 0 -64 -118 -82 32 100
0.650 0 -98 -99 20 94 32
0.700 0 -61 -31 32 24 -18
0.750 0 -48 -23 28 16 -21
0.800 0 -37 -1 31 -8
0.850 0 -25 6 19
0.900 0 -22 14
0.950 0 -17
1.000 0
symmetry-surge-WD=94.50 m



Real 0.200 0.250 3.000 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.550 0.600 0.650 0.700 0.750 0.800 0.850 0.900 0.950 1.000
0.200 -2,204 -36,850 -26,320 -17,190 -9,188 -2,764
0.250 -2,769 -25,110 -18,090 -11,590 -5,658 -1,152
0.300 -2,611 -17,860 -12,780 -7,806 -3,414 -184
0.350 -1,974 -13,000 -9,151 -5,427 -2,043 347
0.400 -1,418 -9,756 -6,889 -3,909 -1,145 601
0.450 -1,145 -7,733 -5,386 -2,833 -538 722
0.500 -1,115 -6,242 -4,196 -1,946 -48 784
0.550 -856 -4,965 -3,201 -1,247 250 692
0.600 -613 -4,030 -2,488 -758 394 560
0.650 -493 -3,367 -1,950 -382 479 -323
0.700 -426 -2,847 -1,495 -82 -291 -268
0.750 -355 -2,418 -1,113 -268 -245 -228
0.800 -291 -2,078 -245 -228 -211
0.850 -245 -228 -211 -194
0.900 -211 -194 -178
0.950 -178 -169
1.000 -161
symmetry-heave-WD=22.68 m






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Imar 0.200 0.250 3.000 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.550 0.600 0.650 0.700 0.750 0.800 0.850 0.900 0.950 1.000
0.200 0 -1,074 -2,617 -3,071 -2,528 -1,897
0.250 0 -782 -2,012 -2,400 -2,111 -1,627
0.300 0 -737 -1,720 -2,070 -1,821 -1,111
0.350 0 -650 -1,493 -1,724 -1,250 -542
0.400 0 -589 -1,235 -1,197 -736 -170
0.450 0 -433 -876 -798 -458 -10
0.500 0 -374 -757 -641 -314 111
0.550 0 -380 -667 -485 -148 225
0.600 0 -347 -550 -342 -28 261
0.650 0 -313 -454 -242 58 251
0.700 0 -290 -376 -158 127 215
0.750 0 -272 -304 -81 178 143
0.800 0 -258 -241 -15 193
0.850 0 -245 -193 43
0.900 0 -237 -149
0.950 0 -232
1.000 0
symmetry-heave-WD=22.68 m



Real 0.200 0.250 3.000 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.550 0.600 0.650 0.700 0.750 0.800 0.850 0.900 0.950 1.000
0.200 250 -1,653 -1,198 -858 -611 -422
0.250 192 -1,046 -805 -624 -481 -330
0.300 115 -769 -641 -536 -408 -193
0.350 17 -665 -593 -492 -291 -9
0.400 -99 -655 -578 -404 -117 168
0.450 -212 -662 -524 -263 69 207
0.500 -276 -636 -431 -106 145 175
0.550 -294 -592 -336 -12 186 125
0.600 -285 -552 -264 66 199 57
0.650 -279 -506 -184 122 171 -213
0.700 -246 -459 -133 144 -202 -190
0.750 -224 -427 -84 -190 -178 -171
0.800 -202 -387 -178 -171 -163
0.850 -178 -171 -163 -155
0.900 -163 -155 -147
0.950 -147 -143
1.000 -138
symmetry-heave-WD=94.50 m


Imar 0.200 0.250 3.000 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.550 0.600 0.650 0.700 0.750 0.800 0.850 0.900 0.950 1.000
0.200 0 -22 -77 -144 -215 -293
0.250 0 -19 -75 -159 -269 -413
0.300 0 -27 -106 -234 -414 -577
0.350 0 -52 -181 -386 -573 -598
0.400 0 -105 -315 -505 -589 -333
0.450 0 -179 -349 -481 -349 5
0.500 0 -115 -275 -293 -86 100
0.550 0 -85 -180 -163 -10 108
0.600 0 -35 -168 -125 39 98
0.650 0 -109 -152 -44 87 62
0.700 0 -94 -104 -3 89 21
0.750 0 -85 -86 19 85 -15
0.800 0 -80 -68 40 72
0.850 0 -75 -54 56
0.900 0 -74 -40
0.950 0 -74
1.000 0
symmetry-heave-WD=94.50 m


The results clearly indicate the large surge and heave QT forces occur in shallow water especially at
the longer wave periods.

22.4 The slowly oscillating wave drift forces in shallow water (the set-down)
In this section contribution V of the wave drift forces are explained. The second order potential is
associated with the orbital motions of the waves. In the picture below the orbital motion of the
specified wave in shallow (h=15m) is given.

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From the figure it can be seen that the orbital motions in shallow water are elliptical at the surface
(z=0 m) and at the bottom only a horizontal motion (z=-15m) is left. In deep water, however, the
orbital motions remain circular and decrease with the exponential function. Since the factor between
displacement and velocity relates to e, a similar picture can be derived for the velocities.

In deep water with the circular orbital motions the second order potential is negligible small. In
shallow water with the elliptical orbital or horizontal motions, the magnitude of the second order
potential is large and introduces the set-down as is shown in an regular wave group in the figure
below.

The expression of the mean wave drift force in shallow water due to the contribution of the second
potential being contribution V is given below, see also Ref. [22-1] and [22-2].

}}
+ =
O
t t
S
d w
dS n F ). (
) 2 ( ) 2 (
| |
in which

) 2 ( ) 2 (
,
d w
| | = second order low frequency incoming and diffracted wave potential

For a 125,000 m^3 LNG carrier the relative magnitude of the various contributions to the vertical drift
forces was calculated for the case of zero forward speed in head waves =180
0
with WD/T=1.2, see
Ref. [22-2]. The results are shown in the table below. The tables are called the matrices of the wave
drift forces. It is shown that the contribution V (the set-down) dominates extremely the slowly
oscillating wave drift forces in this shallow water.

Shallow water causes wave group set-down: direct long wave excitation force.




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The main diagonals of the matrices represent the mean wave drift force amplitudes for the wave
frequencies
i
=
j
in kN/m^2.
The wave drift forces in the side diagonals of the matrices are formed by two regular waves with
frequencies
i
and

j
with amplitudes
ai
=
aj
= 1 m. These two waves form a regular wave group with
group frequency =
i
-
j
according to
) sin( ) sin( ) sin( ) , (
2 2 2 1 1 1
2
1
2 1
c e , c e , c e , e e , + + + = + = =

=
t t t
i
i i i
.
Examples of wave groups with frequency =
i
-
j
= 0.05 rad/s with the mean wave frequency
=0.649 rad/s (Tmean= 9.68 s) and =0.471 rad/s (Tmean=13.34 s) are shown in the figure below.
The period of the wave group amounts to Tg=125.6 s.



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The amplitude of the wave drift forces for each combination of regular waves with the same
difference frequency and different mean wave frequency are given in a side diagonal.
In the shown matrices we have the diagonals with =0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 rad/s. Note that all
matrices are symmetrical about the main diagonal.

The contribution of the parts I through IV to the vertical drift forces is small in shallow water. This
due to the fact that contribution I is zero because of the integration along the waterline, contribution II
depends on the square of the velocities of the water particulars which is largest at the vertical sides of
the ship, contribution III depends on the vertical gradient of the pressure in the waves, which is small
in shallow water and contribution IV depends on the motion amplitudes which are not considered
large with limited UKC.
Contribution V involves the contribution of the second order wave potential
) 2 (
w
| and the diffracted
wave potential
) 2 (
d
| and as mentioned earlier is extremely large in shallow water.

The computed vertical wave drift force can be translated into the time domain by using impulse
response techniques, see Ref. [22-1]. The quadratic impulse response function can be formulated as
follows:

2 1
) (
2 1
2
2 1 2
. ) , ( )
2
1
( ) , (
2 2 1 1
e e e e
t
t t
t e t e
d d e T h
i i +
+

+

} }
=


with the convolution integral:

2 1
) (
2 1 2 1
2 ) 2 (
. ) ( ) ( ) , ( )
2
1
( ) (
2 2 1 1
e e e , e , e e
t
t e t e
d d e T t F
i i +
+

+

} }
=

In the figure below the time trace of the waves and the associated set-down are presented.



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In the figure below the time trace of the calculated and measured set-down and the measured and
calculated low frequency heave motions are shown.



As can be noticed in the transfer functions the main diagonal of the matrix of contribution V is zero.
This means that the set-down will be in phase with the envelope of the wave registration.
Note that the set-down not only strongly affects the wave drift forces in heave direction but also in
pitch, surge, sway and yaw directions. This will be shown in chapter 38.

22.5 References
22-1) Pinkster, J.A.: Low frequency second order wave loads on floating bodies. PhD thesis, Delft,
1980.
22-2) Huysmans, R.H.M. and R.P. Dallinga: "Nonlinear ship motions in shallow water", International
workshop on ship and platform motions, Berkeley, 1983

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23 SECOND ORDER REACTION FORCES - WAVE DRIFT DAMPING

23.1 Introduction
In the simulation of the FPSO in head waves, head current and head wind the associated damping
should be taken into account. The damping in still water and in current are presented in chapter 26.

A similar procedure can be applied in a wind field as was done for a current field.
The second order wave drift damping is a part of the wave drift forces as was discussed in the
previous chapter. The wave drift force consisted of 4 contributions. The sped dependent contribution,
however, is missing. This contribution described the changes of the low frequency wave drift forces
due to the slowly oscillating vessel. As such it is not really a damping factor since it is also related to
the excitation. Extinction tests in waves however showed that the wave drift damping can be related
to damping if the vessel making extinction motions in regular waves.

In section 23.2 the experimental explanation of the wave drift damping is given. In section 23.3 it is
shown that the wave drift damping is related to the wave drift forces (proportional with the squared
wave height) . In section 23.4 the transfer function is explained and the mean waved drift damping as
function of the wave spectrum is given.

23.2 Experimental determined wave drift damping.
To measure the wave drift damping extinction tests have been carried out in regular waves. For this
test the loaded 200 kDWT VLCC was used. The test set-up for the extinction tests is given in the
figure below.




Exposed to regular waves the decay curve was measured. In the same condition the extinction curve
was measured in still water. An example of the extinction test is presented in the figure below.



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The results show that the decay increases much more in the regular wave than in still water.
As shown in the picture below the damping increases significantly with increasing wave height and
the damping is linear.



In what sense the wave drift damping is related to the wave drift forces? This will be shown in the
next section.

37.3 The quadratic transfer function of the wave drift damping
In the figure below the results of the extinction tests in several waves varying the frequency and the
wave height.

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The results learn that the damping per frequency is linear with the square of the wave height and
therefore called the wave drift damping.
The wave drift damping quadratic transfer function can be written as

2
1
) 2 (
1
2
) 1 ( ) 2 (
1
) ( ) , 0 , (
) (
a a
B
x
x X
D
,
e
,
e
e =
c
c
=


in which:
2
) 1 ( ) 2 (
1
) , 0 , (
a
x X
,
e
= quadratic transfer function of the wave drift force in regular waves
) 1 (
x
= first order vessel motions
) 2 (
1
x

= low frequency surge velocity


) 2 (
1
) 1 ( ) 2 (
1
) , 0 , (
x
x X

c
c e
= change of the wave drift force as function of the low frequency surge
velocity (=definition of damping)

The total or velocity dependent wave drift force can be written as follows:

) 2 (
1 1
) 1 ( ) 2 (
1
) 2 (
1
) 1 ( ) 2 (
1
) ( ) , 0 , ( ) , , ( x B x X x x X

e e e =


The quadratic transfer function of the wave drift damping is given in the figure below (note that 1 tf=
9.81 kN). In a regular wave
a
= 1m and T=12.57 the wave drift damping amounts to B
1
/
a
=43.7
kNs/m^3.




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23.3 The mean wave drift damping coefficient in a wave spectrum
Knowing the transfer function of the wave drift damping, the wave drift damping coefficient can be
determined in a similar way as the mean wave drift forces:

e e e
,
d D S B ) ( ) ( 2
0
1
=
}



in which:
D(e) = B(e)/,
a
2


Some examples are given of the effect of the wave drift damping on the surge motions of the 200
kDWT VLCC in head waves. The applied wave spectra are given in the figure below.

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The results of the model tests and the computations are presented in the table below.

model tests measured calculated in frequency domain
wave spectrum with w/o Sx1(=0) mean
wave drift damping wave drift
No. Hs Tp c11 x1 x1 damping
m s kN/m m m m kN^2s kNs/m
1 12.50 14.1 133 13.5 14.5 25.1 1.28E+07 478
2 9.40 13.7 102 10.38 10.5 15.4 4.80E+06 271
3 7.50 13.6 7.2 9.0 1.65E+06 139
4 12.50 12.0 18.4 32.8 2.19E+07 527
5 9.80 12.0 126 12.8 13.4 20.9 8.86E+06 337
6 6.10 11.4 66 6.74 5.5 6.6 9.00E+05 104

In the figure below the measured and calculated standard deviation of the surge motions
x1
as
function of Hs are presented. The results clearly show the importance of the application of the mean
wave drift damping in the equations of motion.




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24 THE WAVE GROUP SPECTRA AND THE WAVE DRIFT FORCES
As shown in the previous section a wave group consisting of ,
1
and ,
2
with the frequencies e
1
and e
2

and phase angles c
1
and c
2
respectively can be written as follows, see Ref.[22-1]:
) sin( ) sin( ) sin( ) , (
2 2 2 1 1 1
2
1
2 1
c e , c e , c e , e e , + + + = + = =

=
t t t
i
i i i

The frequency associated with the envelope is equal to = e
2
- e
1
being the difference frequency of the
regular wave components.

The wave elevation in amplitude modulated form can be written as:

( ) ( ) ( ) t A t sin t , = e +c

in which:
e= (e
1
+ e
2
)/2
c = (c
1
+ c
2
)/2

As shown in the figure below the envelope of the wave group becomes:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
2 2 2
1 j i j i j
i 1i 1
A t cos t
= =
(
= , , e e + c c
(


The square of the envelope is:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
1 j i j i j
i 1j 1
A t cos t
= =
= , , e e + c c
or

( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 2
A t 2 cos t = + + , , , ,

in which: = e
2
- e
1


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The low frequency part of the squared wave height (t), being
l
:

,
1
= 1/2 A
2


In accordance with the definition of a spectrum the spectral densities are:

S
,
(e) de = 1/2 ,
a
2


S
A2
() de = 1/2 A
2

In accordance with the definition of a spectrum the spectral densities of the square of the wave envelope
will be:

S
A2
() de = 1/2 (2,
1
(e
1
) ,
2
(e
1
+ ) )
2


which will yield for the regular wave group with ,(e
1
) and ,
2
(e
2
):
{ } e e e e e , e , e
, ,
d S d S d S
A
) ( 2 ) ( 2 2 )) ( ) ( ( 2 ) (
1 1
2
1 2 1 1
2 1
2
+ = + =

or for all the wave groups with the frequency-difference in a wave spectrum the spectral density
amounts to:
}

+ =
0
) ( ) ( 8 ) (
2
e e e
, ,
d S S S
A


As was indicated in the previous section the slowly oscillating wave drift force associated the wave
group consisting of the two waves with frequencies and + will be T(,+).




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The total spectral density of all the slowly oscillating wave drift forces with the side diagonal over
all possible wave groups with group frequency in the wave spectrum amounts to:
e e e e e
, ,
d S S T S
F
) ( ) ( ) , ( 8 ) (
2
0
2
+ + =
}


where:
2
1
2 2
)} , ( ) , ( { ) , ( e e e e e e + + + = + Q P T
in which:
P = matrix of the wave drift forces in phase with the wave group
Q = matrix of the wave drift force out-of-phase with the wave group

More information on the P and Q matrices are given in section 36.3.

The mean wave drift force in the wave spectrum will be:

e e e e ,
,
d T S T F
ii
N
i
i
) , ( ) ( 2
0
1
2 ) 2 (
}

= =

These facts are also illustrated in the figure below. As explained in the previous section the side
diagonals of wave drift matrix in shallow water are much higher than in deep water. The spectral
density of the slowly oscillating wave drift forces are schematically indicated in the figure below. If
the natural surge frequency of the moored vessel is =
x
=2/T
x
, then the spectral density ) (
2

F
S is
the spectral density acting on the vessel in surge direction.

In the figures below the relation between the mean wave drift force and the spectral density of the
wave drift forces are elucidated. The form of the wave spectral actually will determine the magnitude
of the low frequency excitation.




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25 ANALYSIS OF DECAY TESTS IN SURGE AND ROLL DIRECTION

25.1 Introduction
Of the ship motions the motions of a moored FPSO in surge and roll direction are lightly damped.
These motions are characterized by resonance motions. From a view of computations it is important
to determine experimentally the associated damping values.

When the system behavior is almost linear, the linear (equivalent) damping can be derived as follows
for instance in surge direction:

The linear surge motion x(t) during a free extinction test can be described by, assuming a linear
mooring system:

0 = . + + ) (
. ..
x C x B x A m
x x
+

Where m =mass FPSP
A = added mass at the natural frequency
B
x
= linear damping coefficient
C
x
= linear spring coefficient

The natural period of this system assuming a low damping can be calculated as:

x
x
C
A m
T
+
= t 2

For such a system the critical damping B
cx
is defined as:

CX X
B 2 (m A) C = +

If the damping is equal to, or larger than, the critical damping, no overshoot of dynamic amplification
occurs in the system. To determine the degree of damping in a system, the damping is sometime
expressed in % as a ratio | of the linear damping coefficient B and the critical damping B
C
:

cx
x
B
B
= | x 100%
The surge and roll damping can be either linear or non-linear with the velocity. The methodology to
determine experimentally in both methods are presented in section 25.2 for roll damping. But a
similar procedure can be applied to determine the surge damping.






25.2 The logarithmic decrement method (linear roll damping)




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From decay test of a vessel in roll direction the natural roll frequency and the roll damping
coefficients can be derived. An example of a decay motion in roll direction is given below.



where:
|(t) = time trace of motion |
|
n
= motion amplitude of n-th oscillation
T
|
= natural period of motion | (assuming low damping)

In the following the theory on the determination of the roll damping is given. Both the theory on the
roll damping of a linear and a non-linear system has been presented.

Assuming a linear (uncoupled) system the roll motion |(t) during a free extinction test can be
described by:

0 = .
c
+ .
b
+ .
a
. ..
| | |
|| || ||


where:
a
||
= total inertia (ship inertia + added inertia) in mode |
b
||
= linear damping coefficient in mode |
c
||
= restoring coefficient in mode |
| =roll acceleration
| =roll velocity

With the solution for the roll angle during the decay:

t) sin + t cos (
e
= ) (
2 1
t
a
2
b
e
e |
| | ||
||
C C t



in which C
1
and C
2
are constants depending on the start condition

and where:


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a
2
b
-
a
c
=
2
(

||
||
||
||
| e


If the damping of the system is low, the natural frequency will approximately correspond to the
natural frequency of the un-damped system:

a
c
||
||
| e
=

where

|
|
t
e
T
* 2
=

in which T
|
=natural roll period.

The ratio of two subsequent amplitudes of the decay curve will be:

e
=
e
=
.
.
1 N+
N o
e
t
||
||
|
|
n a
b


in which o is called the logarithmic decrement.


Assuming linearity of the damping with the linear roll velocity, the logarithmic decrement is constant
and the value of the decrement can be determined from:

N
ln - ln
=
1 N+ 1
| |
o

in which N is the number of oscillations.

The linear damping coefficient becomes:

t
o
|| ||
||
a
.
c
=
b

or
n
c
te
o
||
||

=
b

or in terms of critical and relative damping:

-the critical damping will be



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t e
| ||
|| ||
2
. . . . 2
. 2 2 =
T GM g c
c a
Bcrit
A
= = -

in which: A = displacement in tonnes = *V

and

-the relative damping in percentage of critical damping amounts to:

% 100 *
2
% 100 * %
t
o
||
= =
crit
crit
B
b
B


To determine experimentally the logarithm decrement the roll amplitudes can be plotted on a
logarithm scale as function of the number of oscillations as shown in the figure below. If a straight
line will be achieved the system has a linear damping.



If the plot of the logarithmic decrement does not show a straight line, the system has also a non-linear
damping. From this plot the quadratic term cannot be determined. For the determination of the linear
and quadratic roll damping the procedure can be followed as described in section 39.3 below.

25.3 The P and Q method (linear and quadratic roll damping)
During a free extinction test the motion |(t) of the non-linear (uncoupled) system can be described as
follows:

0 = .
c
+ | ' | . ' . + ' . + " .
a
2 1
| | | | |
|| ||
B B
TOT



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in which:
a
||
= total inertia (ship inertia + added inertia) in mode | at the natural roll frequency
B
1TOT
= linear damping coefficient including radiated damping in mode | at the roll frequency
B
2
= quadratic damping coefficient in mode |
c
||
= restoring coefficient in mode |
| = roll acceleration
| = roll velocity

The linear and quadratic damping coefficients are found in the following way:

From the subsequent single (negative or positive) or double amplitudes the relative decrement can
be established. The relative decrement is defined as:

2
=
1
1
N N
N N
| |
| |
o
+

+
+


In case of a perfectly linear damping the relative decrement is independent of the roll amplitude (and
constant). In the more general case the non-linear damping component leads to a relatively fast decay
of the larger amplitudes.

Referring to the figure below, the linear and quadratic damping terms are defined as follows:

|
||
|| ||
t t
|
T
a
* p *
*
c * a
* p
*
B
* p ) ( B
crit
a TOT
2
2
2
2
0
1
= = = =

and
||
|
e t |
a * q * *
*
*
d
dB
B
n
n
8
3 1
32
3
2
= =


where the derivative is defined as given in the following picture.













To determine experimentally the values of p and q, the points of the decay tests are plotted on the
decrease of motion amplitude divided by the mean motion amplitude versus the mean motion
n
n
d
dB
|
B TOT 1
a
| roll amplitude
B



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amplitude and the p&q figure will be obtained as is given below. Having the p&q figure the
values of p and q can be determined.




















In terms of critical and relative damping the following equations apply:

-the critical damping will be
t e
| ||
|| ||
2
. . . . 2
. 2 2 =
T GM g c
c a
Bcrit
A
= = -


and

-the relative damping in percentage of critical damping amounts to:

% 100 * %
crit
el
crit
B
B
B =


in which:

B
el
= equivalent linearized damping

180
* *
3
16
*
2 1
t
|
|
T
B B B
a
TOT el
+ =

in which |
a
is given in degrees.


In summary the above shown results are summarized in the following picture.

q
|
p + q*|
p
) (
2
1
1 N N
| | +
+
) ( *
2
1
1
1
N N
N N
| |
| |
+

+
+

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Note that for the surge damping in a head current field, also the above mentioned method can be used.
An example is given below. The results also shows that the damping in surge direction is linear with
the low frequency surge velocity (p=constant).



deg ....... )
180
( * * * *
180
* * *
: *
deg ... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........
180
* * *
deg .... ..........
180
* * * )
180
* *
3
16
* (
:
180
* * *
8
3
* 2
:
2 2
2 1
2 1
2
1
+ =
=
= + =
=
=
=

in B B M
Timedomain
in B M
or
in amplitude roll
T
B B M
B t coefficien damping linearised Equivalent
a q B
T
a
p B
ts coefficien Damping
a a a a TOT B
a a B
a a
a
TOT B
TOT
el
el
|
t
e | |
t
e |
|
t
e |
|
t
e |
t
|
t
|
||
|
||



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25.4 An example on the forces on the bilge keels due to the roll motions
In this section an example is given how to estimate the forces acting perpendicular to the bilge keels
during the roll motions. For the estimate the following data are assumed:
The measured maximum roll amplitude during the 3-hour storm was asumed to be
amax
=14.37
0
.
-The natural period of the moored FPSO was assumed to be T

=12.3 s (

=0.511 rad/s).
-At midship the bilge keel heights amounts to 1.2 m (hbk); the force on the bilge keel at midship per
meter length is required (Fps or Fsb)
Some particulars of the FPSO are assumed to be: KG=14.46 m, B=54.5 m; a=30.9 m; o= 27.9
0
;
r=29.53 m. For the definition of the distances and angles, see figuire below.







The question is what is the force perpendicular to the bilge keel per meter length, Fsb or Fps, exposed
to
amax
=14.37
0
and

=0.511 rad/s).

The estimate has been carried out following the theory of Ikeda
1
.
Theory on the computations of the bilge keel loads
It is well known that the real velocity induced by the roll motions will differ from the undisturbed
local velocity at the bilge. The undisturbed velocity can be determined from the product of the roll
velocity and the distance from the rotation point (assumed to be G) to the bilge.
Following the data in the figure shown above, the undisturbed velocity the velocity tangential on the
bilge keel can be calculated as follows:

) cos( . ). cos( . . o | c e e | + = a t U
a

where
a
| = the roll amplitude,
e = the angular roll frequency
c = phase angle to match the equation with the measurements
a = the distance from the bilge keel to the centre of gravity
| = angle between bilge keel and keel line (=45 deg)
o = angle between line a and keel line


1
Ikeda, Y., Himeno, Y., Tanaka, N., On eddy making component of roll damping force on naked hull, Journal of the Society of Naval
Architects of Japan, 1978

a
r
Fps Fsb
o
K
G

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The figure below shows the velocity increment f as function of bilge keel radius of the 2D flow
velocities around the bilge of the ship (for OG=0 and OG=1/2T) using CFD computations for an
arbitrary vessel. With bilge keels the bilge radius is assumed to be R=0.0 m. Note that O is the axis in
the water plane area@ vertical central plane.
velocity increment
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
bi l ge radi us [m]
i
n
c
r
e
m
e
n
t

[
-
]
OG=0
OG=1/2T



The force perpendicular on the bilge keel is assumed to be, see Ref. [1]:

2 2
1
( ) | |
2 4
i
F t A Cd f U U h Cm f U M U
t
= + +


in which:
A= Hbk*Lbk
Hbk=h= height of the bilge keel
Lbk= length of bilge keel
Cd= drag coefficient
U= ambient velocity at the location of the bilge keel of the vessel
Cm= inertia coefficient added mass
M = total mass of the bilge keel
f = velocity increment factor to be assumed 2, see figure above.

In the determination of the Cd and Cm values in an oscillatory flow the Kc number is involved. Ikeda
et al., 1978, Ref.[1] show and experimentally determined relationship between the Cd value and the
Kc number.
The relationship between Cd and Kc according to the Ikeda formulation is as follows:
22.5
2.4 Cd
KC
= +

while the Kc number as defined as follows:

BK
a
BK
a
BK
amax
C
H
.r

2.H
.r.T .

H 2.
.T U
K
|
e |
| |
= = =
where:
T =natural roll period in s
H
bk
=bilge keel height in m



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r =rotation arm with regard to either O or G in m
u
a
=roll amplitude in radians

The Cd-Kc relationship as obtained from Ikedas paper, Ref. [1], and which was verified later by CFD
calculations is presented in the figures below.


Fig. 6: The Cd-Kc relationship

Applying the mentioned data as given before:
-
amax
=14.37
0
=0.2508

rad.
-T

=12.3 s (

=0.511 rad/s).
-Hbk=1.2 m
-KG=14.46 m, B=54.5 m; a=30.9 m; o= 27.9
0
; r=29.53 m.







The question is what is the force perpendicular to the bilge keel per meter length, Fsb or Fps, exposed
to
amax
=14.37
0
and

=0.511 rad/s).
Applying the information as given in 5.2), the undisturbed velocity U
amax
will be:
U
amax
=.
a
.r=0.511*0.2508*29.53=3.78 m/s

and with Hbk=1.2 m, T=12.3 s the Keulegan-Carpenter number will be

4 . 19 ) 2 . 1 * 2 /( 3 . 12 * 78 . 3 = = =
BK
max
C
H 2.
.T U
K
|
and a resistance coefficient of Cd~4 is taken.
a
r
Fps Fsb
o
K
G

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The bilge keel load per meter F
bk
will be:
m kN U .U .A.Cd.f
2
1
Fbk
2
/ 141 2 )^ 78 . 3 ( * 4 * 4 * 1 * 2 . 1 * 025 . 1 * 5 . 0 = = =
in which f=2.0

25.5 Some remarks on the external roll damping induced by the bilge keels
The roll damping acting on a hull of a FPSO can be distinguished in a part due to the hull form, the
bilge keels and the rudder configuration. For the hull form the roll potential (radiated) damping due to
roll including coupling terms can be determined by 3-D potential theory (DIFFRAC) computations.
For the contributions of the viscous friction of the hull, the bilge keels and the rudder effects use can
be made of the classical roll prediction programs, see Ikeda Ref [1].

The total roll damping at zero speed can be written as follows:
B
||0
= B
F0
+ B
R0
+ B
E0
+ B
BK0
+ B
S0
in which
B
F0
= Friction damping (viscous)
B
R0
= Radiated damping or wave damping (potential)
B
E0
= Eddy damping
B
BK0
= Bilge keel damping
B
S0
= Skeg/rudder damping

B
F0
= Friction damping is caused by the friction shear on the hull for zero speed. Friction damping is
scale effect sensitive.
B
R0
= Radiated damping for zero speed is the roll damping, which can be calculated by means of 3-D
diffraction theory. B
R0
is always a linear damping.
B
E0
= Due to the roll motions of the vessel shedding of eddies from the bilges, bow and stern may
occur.
B
BK0
= B
BKN0
+ B
BKH0
+ B
BKW0
= total damping due to the bilge keels.
in which:
B
BKN0
= damping as a result of the normal force on the bilge keel.
B
BKH0
= damping caused by the change of hull pressure due to the presence of the bilge keels
B
BKW0
= damping caused by the radiated wave due to the presence of the bilge keels (mostly
negligible).
B
S0
= skeg or rudder damping

This example concerns the 200 kDWT tanker as used for the DeepStar (h
bk
=0.7 m)
Theme Structures study, see Part 4 and will be dealt with in the following paragraphs. The example is
based on the Ikeda-Tanaka-Himeno method. An example is given below.

Total roll damping: B
44v
= 530,000 kNms/rad
Friction damping: B
F
= 7,000 kNms/rad
Eddy hull damping: B
E
= 60,000 kNms/rad
Wave damping: B
W
= 73,000 kNms/rad

Bilge keel damping:
Eddy Hull Drag: B
BKH
= 280,000 kNms/rad
Drag: B
BKD
= 110,000 kNms/rad
Eddy Hull Drag + Drag: B
BK
= 390,000 kNms/rad



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The damping components over the 20 sections are shown in the figure below




















From literature and the given example (bilge keel height 0.70 m) the following features of the roll
damping can be found:
- eddy hull is small (11%)
- bk drag damping is about 21% of the total damping
- the bk induced eddy damping is large (53%)
- total contribution of bks is almost 74 %
- wave damping is only 14%
Conclusion:
It can be concluded that the roll damping moment is strongly caused by the bilgekeels as an result of
the interaction pressures change on the hull shell above the bilge keels and the interaction pressures
change on the base aside of the bilge keels being 53%. Note that the bilge keel drag damping itself is
only 21%.

25.6 Internal roll damping associated with FPSOs
It has been experienced that extra roll damping is caused by a relative small filling of the holds. A 5%
filling seems to work like an ART (anti roll tank). It is much more effective at small roll angles than
at large angles.
Further as with an real ART at lower frequencies and higher frequencies the 5% filling ART
becomes inefficient.
By means of experiments it can be shown that the external roll damping for Hbk=0.35 m
amounts to 32,000 kNms/rad, while the internal damping was 30,000 kNms/rad. It was found
that the internal damping is ~ 4 times larger than the external damping.


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An example for the partially filled holds is given in the figure below.



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26 VISCOUS FORCES INDUCED BY SLOWLY OSCILLATING SURGE MOTIONS

26.1 Introduction
Performing computer simulations on a moored floating structure knowledge of the low frequency
viscous reaction forces is important. The fundamentals of the importance of the viscous terms are
explained in this Chapter. For detailed information, see Ref. [26-1].
The mean wave drift force, inducing a mean displacement, is determined by the wave spectrum, while
the low frequency wave drift forces, responsible for the low frequency motions, are associated with
the wave grouping. The wave spectrum and the wave group spectrum are shown in Figure 26-1.



Figure 26-1
Wave spectra and the associated wave group spectra wave train

To explain the fundamentals we consider a tanker exposed to irregular head waves and moored by
means of a mooring system with a linear load-deflection curve as is indicated in Figure 26-2.

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Figure 26-2
Tanker moored in a linear mooring system in head waves


Exposed to a wave train, represented by a wave spectrum and a wave group spectrum, the tanker is
subjected to wave frequency surge, heave and pitch motions, a mean surge displacement and low
frequency large amplitude surge motions. As an example the time traces are given in Figure 26-3.

Figure 26-3
Time traces of tanker motions in an irregular (head) wave train.

In order to explain the low frequency large amplitude motions, which will determine the strength of
the mooring system, we consider the equation of motion in surge direction excited by the low
frequency wave drift forces. The equation and the associated basic response function are given below.

2
1
) ) ((
1
) (
2 2 2 2 ) 2 (
) 2 (
e e b m c X
x
t X cx x b x m
v a
a
v
+
=
= + +


in which:
m
v
= virtual mass (ship mass and added mass at natural surge frequency)
b = damping
c = spring constant
X
(2)
(t) = time trace of the low frequency wave drift forces



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Considering the response function, see Figure 26-4, at the natural frequency the motions are
dominated by the damping. The sharp peak implies that we are dealing with a light damped system.
To determine to peak values of the low frequency motions it is of importance to know the low
frequency damping values. These damping values are explained below.
Before we focus ourselves on the damping first some related quantities will be dealt with.
The related quantities are:

the mean displacement:

c
X
x
) 2 (
1
=


in which the mean wave drift force divided by the spring corresponds to the mean displacement of the
tanker in surge direction.

For a sharply shaped response function the standard deviation can be approximated by:

) 2 (
1
2
2
X
S
bc
t
o =

in which:
o = standard deviation of low frequency motions
) 2 (
1
X
S = spectral density of wave drift forces at natural frequency of the system

The maximum low frequency motions may be determined by determined by the Longuet-Higgings
formulation:

n
a
T
duration
N
N x x
=
+ = ln 2
max
o



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Figure 26-4
Response function of light damped mechanical system


Actually the damping consists of a part derived from potential theory and a part originating from
viscosity, as is shown schematically in Figure 26-5.




Figure 26-5
Potential and viscous damping on a floating structure

In more detail the different damping contributions are given in Figure 26-6.


Figure 26-6
The origin of excitation, damping and inertia forces


Referring to Figure 26-6 the mean drift forces, the wave drift damping and the inertia forces can be
determined by means of potential theory. The mean current forces, the hydrodynamic damping, the
wind forces and the wind damping are from viscous origin. For the viscous terms nowadays no
satisfactory theoretical solution exists. These values depend still on experimental data.




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26.2 Surge damping on a FPSO hull in calm water
The importance of the viscous contribution is shown in Figure 26-7. Figure 26-7 shows the viscous
damping and added mass coefficients as function of the oscillating frequency in surge direction of a
loaded 200 kDWT VLCC and a LNG carrier in calm water and in relatively deep water (WD/T>5).

In this Figure it is shown that the damping due to potential theory is nearly zero, while viscosity,
however small, dominates the damping. 3-D diffraction computations show that potential damping
(radiation damping) are negligible small for e< 0.5, where e is the frequency of oscillation in rad/s.


Figure 26-7
Low frequency damping and added mass at low frequencies (1tf=9.81 kN)-]

In Table 26-1 the potential damping in surge direction has been presented for different WD/T ratios
and for frequencies 0.05 and 0.1 rad/s. The results confirm the negligible potential damping in
relatively deep water, but shows that in shallow water the potential damping (radiation damping) can
be large!

200 kDWT loaded tanker (T=18.90 m)
WD/T period potential viscous
damping damping
rad/s s kN/m/s kN/m/s
1.16 0.05 215
0.10 62.8 1345
3 0.05 31
0.10 62.8 234
5 0.05 11 206
0.10 62.8 89 412
10 0.05
0.10 62.8

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20 0.05 1
0.10 62.8 8

Table 26-1: Potential and viscous damping

The formulations as given below concern the equations of motion in surge direction and show the
surge extension. One formulation takes into account the viscous current formulation related to the
surge velocity of the tanker. The other one uses the measured still water damping coefficient in surge
direction B
11
, as derived from Figure 26-8.

0 ) (
2
1
)) ( (
1 11
2
1 1 1 1 11
= + + x c x LTC x a M
cr c


or
0 )) ( (
1 11 1 11 1 1 11
= + + x c x B x a M






Fig. 11 Results of decaying surge motions in still water Ref. [A5-1]















Figure 26-8
Linear surge damping coefficient in still water as function of the surge frequency and the wetted
surface S
(S=(3.4*^1/3+0.515*L
pp
)^1/3, where =displacement in m^3)

For the computations with the following input has been used:
-200 kDWT loaded tanker in 82.5 m water depth;
-linearly moored in surge direction with C11=556 kN/m and 2462 kN/m;
-For the current coefficients in surge direction the following coefficients were used: C
1c
(180
0
) =-0.032
and C
1c
(0
0
) = 0.038;
-For the still water damping coefficient B11=230 and 404 kNs/m were derived from Figure 26-9.

The results of the computations in terms of the extinction curves are presented in Figure 26-9.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
0.E+00 1.E+05 2.E+05 3.E+05 4.E+05
frequency*S^3/2 [m^3/s]
B
1
1

[
k
N
s
/
m
]
55 kDWT (80% loaded)
250 kDWT (100%
loaded)
200 kDWT (100%
loaded)
LNG carrier 125000 m3



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Figure 26-9
Results of decaying surge motion in still water

For the same conditions physical extinction tests were carried out. The results of the model tests are
also given in Figure 26-9. Comparing the measured and calculated results it can be concluded that for
the determination of the surge damping in calm water the relative current concept is not applicable.

26.3 Surge damping on a FPSO hull in current
In this section the surge damping in a current field will be discussed. The equation of the decaying
motion can be written as follows:

0 ) ( )) ( (
1 11 1 1 1 11
= + + x c t X x a M
c



in which

c c c c
V x V x LT C t X + + =
1 1 1
2
1
1
) ( ) (


Assuming that the low frequency surge velocity does not exceed the current velocity (V
c
>>
1
x ), than
the relative current formulation can be written as follows:

) (
2
) (
2
1 1
1
1
1
x O x
V
X
X t X
c
c
cx
c

+ + =


where


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2
1
2
1
1
c c
c V LT C X =
=the steady current force in surge direction

or
.
1 1
1
1
) ( x b X t X
c
c
c
+ =


where the linear damping term is left after neglecting higher order contributions. The damping
coefficient is then independent of the tanker motion and defined by the steady current force:
c
c
c
V
X
b
1
1
2
=


in which
c
X
1
=steady current load on FPSO in surge direction in kN
V
c
=current speed in m/s

For steady current loads on FPSOs, see chapter 34.

In practice, this approach is useful as current is often present, while its magnitude tends to be larger
than the slow drift velocities: a typical current speed would be 1 m/s, while a typical slow drift speed
can be of the order of 0.1 m/s.

If the current velocity decreases then the current load and the current damping will decrease. If the
current is low then the damping can come in the so-called "twilight" zone. The "twilight" zone is
defined as the zone where the slow drift speed of the vessel become equal or less than the current
speed. For the twilight zone where the slow drift speed is of the same order as the current speed or
lower, a procedure is applied as shown in Figure 26-10, where b represents the linear damping
coefficient as given above. Application would imply that b
1c
0 as V
c
0; this is obviously not the
case, since a ship experiences damping in calm water as discussed in calm water. Therefore, the calm
water damping is taken as the lowest limit for the linear damping coefficient.

Figure 26-10: Definition of the "twilight" zone for the surge damping coefficients




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26.4 Total surge damping of a typical FPSO
Damping is important to estimate the magnitude of the resonance motions. For moored FPSOs we
can distinguish the first order wave frequency resonance motion in roll direction and the second order
low frequency resonance motion in surge direction.
The reasons for the resonance motions are the presence of the 1
st
order wave exciting roll moment and
the 2
nd
order wave drift forces and the relatively small hydrodynamic damping values at the natural
frequencies of the system.

In the previous sections the surge damping has been presented for still water and in current. The surge
damping of a FPSO consists, however, of several parts. The parts of the surge damping for FPSO in
surge direction are:
-wave frequency radiated damping (first order potential theory)
-still water or current damping (viscous damping)
-wind damping (viscous damping)
-wave drift damping (2
nd
order potential theory)

For a typical turret moored FPSO in weather conditions of Hs = 8.0 m, Tp = 12.0 s, current Vc = 2
knots and wind Vw=28 m/s (all parallel directed), the surge damping in head waves will be composed
of:
Wind 50 kNs/m (5%)
Current 200 kNs/m (18%)
Wave drift 230 kNs/m (21%)
Mooring/riser system 620 kNs/m (56%)

The table shows that the damping introduced by the mooring/riser system is significant relative to the
damping induced by the weather conditions.

In the next chapter some attention is paid to the resonance roll motions of FPSO's.

26.5 References
26-1) Wichers, J.E.W., 1988, A Simulation Model for a Single Point Moored Tanker, PhD, Technical
University Delft


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27 SOME REMARKS ON ROLL AND PITCH

27.1 Introduction
Due to the wave exciting moment in roll direction in beam or bow/stern quartering waves roll motions
occur, which can be large due to the relatively low roll damping. The roll motions can hamper the
proper function of the process equipment at deck.
As is known the major contribution to the roll damping of a FPSO is introduced by the bilge keels.
Note that not the bilge keels it selves, but the effect of the vortices shedding from the bilge keels are
changing the pressures on both the side shell and base increasing the roll damping considerable, see
section 25.4.

An example of the roll damping is given for a typical spread moored FPSO. For a typically spread
moored FPSO moored by means of 4*3 anchor chains in 90 m water depth, the roll damping in beam
waves will be composed of:
-wave frequency radiated damping (first order potential theory)
-viscous damping due to the bilge keels
-damping originating from mooring/riser system

The particulars are given in the table below.

Vessel particulars Data
Length (L
BP
) 288 m
Breadth 50 m
Depth 25.5 m
Draft Loaded
Draft Light
16.8 m
6.8 m

The roll damping values of the typical FPSO computed by the MARIN programs DIFFRAC,
ROLDAMP and DYNFLOAT are given in the table below.

programs deg 0 rad/s 0.5 rad/s 1 rad/s 1.5 rad/s
3-D potential theory DIFFRAC kNms/rad 170,000 170,000 170,000 170,000
viscous roll damping ROLDAMP kNms/rad 700,000 960,000 1,200,000 1,500,000
mooring lines/risers DYNFLOAT kNms/rad 50,000 90,000 140,000 200,000
TOTAL kNms/rad 920,000 1,220,000 1,510,000 1,870,000

The table shows that the damping introduced by the bilge keels is significant large relative to the 3-D
potential and mooring lines/risers damping. Further the viscous roll damping and the mooring
lines/risers roll damping are dependent on the oscillating roll angle. The bilge keel amounts Hbk=
1.00 m.










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The results of the above mentioned table are displayed in the figure below, showing the damping
dependency on the roll angle.


27.2 Some remarks on the roll and pitch response
Typically RAOs are calculated for a grid of wave frequencies (normally Ae = 0.05 rad/s). When
RAOs are sharply peaked, it is possible that the highest peak is missed in the calculation. An
example is shown in the figure below. The solid line shows the RAO for roll, as it is normally
calculated with Ae = 0.05 rad/s. The dotted line shows the same RAO when the resolution of the
frequency axis is increased to Ae = 0.001 rad/s.

In this figure the RAO is plotted in a dimensionless from.
k k,
|
|
|
RAO
RAO
a
a
non
= =
dim

where: k=2t/L is the wave number (in deg/m).

In this non-dimensional format, the magnitude of peak (Q) of the RAO is also a measure of the
relative damping (| = b/b
C
).

Q
=
2
1
|
In the above figure this leads to the following results: Q = 14.6 | = 3.4%.

Due to the inaccuracy of the way the highest peak is determined, this will only give a rough estimate
of relative damping. However, reversing the calculation will give an idea on how high the response in
the RAO will be.





0
400,000
800,000
1,200,000
1,600,000
2,000,000
0 0.5 1 1.5
r oll angle [ deg]
r
o
l
l

d
a
m
p
i
n
g

k
N
m
s
/
r
a
d
pot viscous mooring/riser total

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For a vessel like a typically FPSO maximum pitch response is not always found in head seas. Due to
the long length of the vessel maximum wave excitation in head seas occurs at wave periods that are
normally not encountered. Instead, maximum pitch response is found when maximum wave
excitation coincides with the natural period for pitch. Maximum wave excitation typically occurs
when the vessel length is between 60-80% of the wavelength. In this situation the bow is on a wave
crest and the stern in a wave trough (see figure below).









0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
5
10
15
Q = 14.6
Wave period [s]
R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

[

]
Dimensionless roll response (MPM = 1), ballast condition
wavelength
wave crest
wave
trough
wave crest
apparent wavelength
wavelength



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From diffraction results it can be seen that for the typically FPSO the maximum wave excitation
occurs for a ratio between vessel length and wavelength of Lpp/ ~ 0.75. This means that, with a
vessel length and in head seas, wave excitation is highest in waves of approximately 384 m length.
This corresponds to a wave period of 16.5 seconds.
For bow quartering waves, the apparent wavelength increases with 1/cos() in which =wave
heading. Maximum excitation will occur when the ratio between apparent wave length and vessel
length equals approximately 75%. Based on the ratio between wave length and vessel length we can
now determine the wave period where maximum excitation occurs as function of vessel heading.
The table below shows the wave periods where maximum excitation occurs for different vessel
headings.

Heading
[deg]
Apparent
wave length
[m]
Actual
wave length
[m]
Wave period
[s]
180.0 384 384 16.5
202.5 384 355 15.7
225.0 384 271 13.4
247.5 384 146 9.7

This table shows that for headings 225 and 247.5 the wave periods with maximum excitation. For
an heading 247.5 the maximum wave excitation is very close to the natural period for pitch, which
further increases the pitch response.

27.3 Example of excitation force resonance peak in ship motions (pitch)
The figures below show RAOs for pitch (solid line) for wave direction 180 and 247.5 (intermediate
condition). In each figure the wave spectrum of the 100-year
return condition is plotted (dash-dot line). The figures clearly show that pitch response for wave
direction 247.5 (near beam seas) is much larger than for 180 (head seas), due to the fact that
maximum wave energy coincides with the maximum of the response function.
This example shows that for FPSO type vessels maximum pitch motions do not necessarily occur in
head seas or near head seas. Highest pitch motions may well occur in seas that are close to the beam.

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The main properties are presented in the table below:
Properties Ballast Intermediate Fully loaded unit
Lpp 288.0 288.0 288.0 m
Breadth 50.0 50.0 50.0 m
Draft 6.8 11.0 16.8 m
Displacement 85,666 141,838 219,006 tonnes

It must be noted that the response operator or transfer function cannot be used to determine the natural
period of the system. The cause can be for instance:
-The wave exciting force in minimal at the natural period of the (lightly) damped motion
-The motion is heavily damped.


0 0.5 1 1.5
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
Wave frequency [rad/s]
P
i
t
c
h

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

[
d
e
g
/
m
]
RAO

, wave direction 180, intermediate condition


Max wave excitation

0
pitch
SDA

= 0.6
100yr wave
0 0.5 1 1.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
0 0.5 1 1.5
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
Wave frequency [rad/s]
RAO

, wave direction 247.5


Max wave excitation

0
pitch
SDA

= 2
W
a
v
e

s
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

[
m
2
s
]
0 0.5 1 1.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
Pitch 1
st
order wave moment (180
0
and 247.5
0
)
Wave spectrum



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28 EQUATIONS OF MOTION IN FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAIN

28.1 Introduction
In this chapter the equations of the wave frequency motion of a FPSO are dealt with. In section 42.2
the equations in the frequency domain are presented. By means of these equations the RAO of the
vessels motion can be determined. All coefficients and wave forces/moments are obtained from the 3-
D potential theory. In section 29.3 the equations of motion in the time-domain are shown. All
coefficients and wave forces/moments are obtained from the 3-D potential theory. In principle both
equation should lead to the same results

28.2 Equations in the frequency domain
The differential equations which describe the motions of the free floating ship in response to simple
harmonic waves can be found from Newtons law of dynamics:

x
dx
M k
6
1 j
j
kj
dt dt
d
=
(
(

=


in which
-X
k
is the total external force in the k
th
mode, consisting of the hydrostatic restoring forces, the
hydrodynamic reaction forces and of the wave exciting forces.
and
-M
kj
is the inertia matrix. Since the origin of the system of axes coincides with the centre of gravity of
the ship in its rest position, the inertia matrix will be as follows.



(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(


I I
I
I I
6
5
4
m
m
m
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
64
46
kj
M


where:
m = mass of the ship
I
k
= moment of inertia in the k
th
mode of motion
I
kj
= product of inertia

or
) cos( (
. ..
)
x
t X M
ak
j
x
kj
C
j
x
kj
b
j
x
kj
a
kj

6
1 j
+ - =

=
+ +
+ e for k=1,.6 and j=1,.6
The matrices of the hydrodynamic coefficients and the RAO's of the wave forces/moments are given
below. The RAO's of the wave forces/moments consist of an amplitude and a phase angle.


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(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
66 65 64 63 62 61
56 55 54 53 52 51
46 45 44 43 42 41
36 35 34 33 32 31
26 25 24 23 22 21
16 15 14 13 12 11
a a a a a a
a a a a a a
a a a a a a
a a a a a a
a a a a a a
a a a a a a
kj
a

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
66 65 64 63 62 61
56 55 54 53 52 51
46 45 44 43 42 41
36 35 34 33 32 31
26 25 24 23 22 21
16 15 14 13 12 11
b b b b b b
b b b b b b
b b b b b b
b b b b b b
b b b b b b
b b b b b b
kj
b

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

A
A
-
=
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 M 0 fa * A 0 0
0 0 M 0 0 0
0 fa A 0 A 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
L
T
G
G
C
kj




(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
) (
) (
)
) (
) (
) (
) (
6 a6
5 a5
4 a4
3 a3
2 a2
1 a1
X
X
( X
X
X
X

ak
X

The definition sketch of the RAO and phase angle of the vessel motions are given in the figure below.
For each wave frequency () the wave () is described as a sinusoidal wave according to:
) . cos( . ) ( t t
a
e , , =


It is assuming that the resulting vessel motion (u) has the same frequency and sinusoidal
characteristic, but with a different amplitude and phase ():
) . cos( . ) (
u a
t u t u c e + =

Applied to the wave loading the definition is the same as for the motion, if for the wave loading for
instance in surge direction is taken:
) . cos( . ) (
1 1 1
c e + = t X t X
a





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The definition of the vessel motions are given in the figure below.


An example of such RAO is shown in the figure below.

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28.3 An example of the motions of the 200 kDWT tanker in 82,5 m water depth

Below the typical RAO's are given for the motions in 6 degrees of freedom in head and beam waves
for the loaded 200 kDWT tanker in 82.5 m water depth.

Studying the motion behavior the following comments can be given:

Resonance dominated behavior (roll in beam waves)
The roll in beam waves shows a large peak at 0.45 rad/s (T=14 s). This frequency corresponds to th
natural frequency for roll in this loading condition. For ship type floating structures the roll motion is
low damped and therefore the maximum response is found at the resonance frequency. This is called
resonance dominated response.

Excitation dominated behavior (pitch in head seas)
For pitch in head waves, a small peak is observed at 0.6 rad/s (T=10.5 s), which is the natural
frequency for pitch. Due to the length of the vessel the pitch motion is highly damped. The large
vertical motions at the bow and stern of the vessel result in the radiation of the waves, which dissipate
the energy from the pith motion.
The relatively higher damping for pitch in head seas results in a lower resonance peak than for roll in
beam seas.
However, if the wave length i approximately equal to the ship length (at 0.4 rad/s), the excitation for
pitch can be become large. This happens because the bow is in a wave crest when the stern is in a
trough at the same time. The difference in pressures ate th bow and stern will result in a considerable
pitch moment. Because this type of motion is caused by wave excitation, it is called excitation
dominated response, see also section 28 of Part 2.



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28.4 Equations of motion in the time domain
Computer programs (like MARIN's TERMSIM Ref. [28-3] and DYNFLOAT Ref. [28-4] have been
developed as a program for the time domain simulation of moored vessel. The programs integrate the
non-linear equations of motion for the moored vessel, taking into account the inertia, added inertia,
wave making damping and hydrostatic restoring forces, mooring line forces, fender forces, friction
forces etc. using the following formulas:




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6 ..... 2 , 1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
6
1
. ..
= = + + +

}

k t F x C d x t K x m M
k j kj
t
kj
j
kj kj
t t t

where:
x
j
= motion in j-th mode
F
k
(t) = arbitrarily in time varying external force in the k-th mode of motion
M = inertia matrix
m = added inertia matrix (frequency independent)
K = matrix of retardation functions
C = matrix of hydrostatic restoring forces.
F =first order wave forces

The inertia matrix consists of the mass of the ship and the distribution of the masses with respect to
the centre of gravity (radii of inertia).

Viscous roll damping is included because the underlying numerical model (linear diffraction analysis)
is based on non-viscous flow (potential flow).

As derived above, the frequency-independent coefficients of inertia and the impulse response function
or retardation functions can be computed from the velocity potential. Following Ref. [1] and [2] the
following relationships exist between the time domain and the frequency domain quantities:

}
}

=
=
0
0
cos ) ( ) (
sin ) (
1
) (
tdt t K b
tdt t K m a
kj kj
kj kj kj
e e
e
e
e

where:
a
kj
=frequency-dependent added mass coefficient
b
kj
=frequency-dependent damping coefficient
e =circular frequency

From these relationships the retardation functions may be found by inverse Fourier-transformation:
e e e
t
td b t K
kj kj
cos ) (
2
) (
0
}

=
and the matrix of the frequency-independent added mass inertia coefficients:
t et t
e
e d K a m
kj kj kj
}

+ =
0
sin ) (
1
) (
Apparently the retardation functions and the coefficients of added inertia can be derived from the
frequency-dependent damping values and the added mass at one frequency. Checks have to be carried
out if the computed K
kj
(t) and m
kj
have sufficiently accuracy, see Ref. [3].

28.5 References
28-1) Cummins, W.E.: The impulse response function and ship motions, Department of the Navy,
David Taylor Model Basin, Washington D.C., Report No. 1661, October 1962.

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28-2) Ogilvie, T.F.: Recent progress towards the understanding and prediction of ship motions, fifth
symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Bergen, 1964
28-3) Handbook of Ocean Engineering John Herbich.
28-4) Marin TERMSIM program
28-5) MARIN DYNFLOAT program



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29 EQUATIONS OF LOW FREQUENCY MOTION OF MONOHULL

29.1 Introduction
For the formulation of the equations of low frequency (LF) vessel motion of a moored vessel
references are made to Ref.[29-1] through [29-5]. According to Ref. [29-1] the following formulation
can be written:

6 6
2 6 1 2
1 6 2 1
) (
) (
X x I
X x x x M
X x x x M
=
= +
=




in which:
M, I = vessel mass and moment of inertia

Assuming an ideal and irrotational fluid, the total forces exerted on the vessel due to the low
frequency motions will be, see Ref. [29-3]:

) (
) (
) (
6 1 2 62 2 1 11 22 6 66 6
6 26 6 1 11 2 22 6 1 2
2
6 26 6 2 22 1 11 6 2 1
x x x a x x ) a (a x a x I
x a x x a x a x x x M
x a x x a x a x x x M



+ =
= +
+ + =


where
=
kj
a
added mass coefficients at low frequency

To compensate the paradox of d'Alembert, the equations of motion including the viscous
hydrodynamic reaction forces will be:

hydro
hydro
hydro
F x x x a x x ) a (a x a x I
F x a x x a x a x x x M
F x a x x a x a x x x M
6 6 1 2 62 2 1 11 22 6 66 6
2 6 26 6 1 11 2 22 6 1 2
1
2
6 26 6 2 22 1 11 6 2 1
) (
) (
) (
+ + =
+ = +
+ + + =





The complete equations of motion of the low frequency motion can be formulated as follows:

tug moor wave wind hydro
tug moor wave wind hydro
tug moor wave wind hydro
wdd
F F F F F x b x x x a x x ) a (a x a x I
F F F F F x b x a x x a x a x x x M
F F F F F x b b x a x x a x a x x x M
1 1 1 1 6 6 66 6 1 2 62 2 1 11 22 6 66 6
1 1 1 1 2 2 22 6 26 6 1 11 2 22 6 1 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 11
2
6 26 6 2 22 1 11 6 2 1
) (
) (
) ( ) (
+ + + + + + + =
+ + + + + + = +
+ + + + + + + + + =





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wind
i
F = wind force in i direction (i = 1, 2, 6)
hydr
i
F = viscous hydrodynamic reaction force in i direction (i = 1, 2, 6)
wave
i
F = wave drift force in i direction (i = 1, 2, 6)
moor
i
F = mooring force due to mooring system in i direction (i = 1, 2, 6)
tug
i
F = tug force in i direction (i = 1, 2, 6)
b
11
=linear surge damping coefficient
b
wdd
=linear surge wave drift damping coefficient
b
22
, b
66
=linear sway and yaw damping coefficient

In the figures below the frequency dependent hydrodynamic coefficients for the both the added mass
and the damping coefficients as derived from potential theory are presented. The coefficients concern
the loaded 200 kDWT VLCC (T=18.9 m).














a11
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
frequency [rad/s]
a
d
d
e
d

m
a
s
s

WD/T=5 WD/T=3 WD/T=1.2



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The results show that for e < 0.05 rad/s (T > 2 minutes), the added mass is assumed to
be constant.
The added mass are presented in kN/m/s^2 for the surge and sway motions and in kNm^2/rad/s^2 for
the yaw motion.

Below the damping coefficients are presented as derived from potential theory. The potential damping
are presented in kN/m/s for the surge and sway motions and in kNm/rad/s for the yaw motion.





a22
0
100,000
200,000
300,000
400,000
500,000
600,000
700,000
800,000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
frequency [rad/s]
a
d
d
e
d

m
a
s
s

WD/T=5 WD/T=3 WD/T=1.2
a66
0
500,000,000
1,000,000,000
1,500,000,000
2,000,000,000
2,500,000,000
3,000,000,000
3,500,000,000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
frequency [rad/s]
a
d
d
e
d

m
a
s
s

WD/T=5 WD/T=3 WD/T=1.2

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From the results it can be concluded that the potential tends to zero for e<0.05 rad/s (T> 2 minutes).
It is recommended that the potential damping as computed for the lowest frequency (e<0.05 rad/s)
will be incorporated in the equations of motions. The terms will be:
b11
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
frequency [rad/s]
p
o
t

d
a
m
p
i
n
g
WD/T=5 WD/T=3 WD/T=1.2
b22
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
140,000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
frequency [rad/s]
p
o
t

d
a
m
p
i
n
g
WD/T=5 WD/T=3 WD/T=1.2
b66
0
100,000,000
200,000,000
300,000,000
400,000,000
500,000,000
600,000,000
700,000,000
800,000,000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
frequency [rad/s]
p
o
t

d
a
m
p
i
n
g
WD/T=5 WD/T=3 WD/T=1.2



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2 66
2 22
1 11
x b
x b
x b



The associated viscous damping, however, are larger. These viscous distribution due to the low
frequency motions in the real fluid are determined by means of model tests, see figure below.
By means of a low frequency large stroke oscillator the (non-linear) low frequency viscous reaction
coefficients in surge, sway and yaw direction have been determined in calm water and in a current
field.



In section 29.2 and 29.3 the theory and the measurements are presented for both still water and in a
current field.

29.2 Theory still water in shallow and deep water
The equations of the low frequency motion with the hydrodynamic terms for still water in the ship-
fixed system of co-ordinates, as derived from Ref. [29-1], are presented below.


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SW
SW
SW
X x x a x x ) a (a x a x ) a I (
X x x ) a (M x a x ) a M (
X x a x x ) a (M x ) a M (
6 6 1 62 2 1 11 22 2 62 6 66
2 6 1 11 6 26 2 22
1
2
6 26 6 2 22 1 11
+ = + +
+ + = + +
+ + + = +





in which the viscous terms in still water are defined as follows:
}
}
+ + =
+ + =
=
FP
AP
SW
FP
AP
SW
SW
ldl l x x l) x x C(l)( T X
dl l x x l) x x C(l)( T X
x B X
6 2 6 2 6
6 2 6 2 2
1 11 1
2
1
2
1


were:
B
11
= still water damping coefficient in surge direction
= specific density of water
T= draft of tanker
AP, FP= distance to Aft perpendicular-CoG (negative) and distance Fore perpendicular-CoG
(positive) respectively
C(l)= Transverse resistance coefficient as function of position along the center line of the
tanker

The still water damping coefficients and the transverse resistance coefficients were determined from
oscillation tests in still water using the LF large stroke oscillator at different water depths, using
various LF oscillation periods and strokes in both sway and yaw direction.
The transverse cross flow resistance coefficients were determined by means of low frequency large
stroke oscillator in sway (X22, X62) and yaw (X66, X26) mode of motion obtaining 4 equations
deriving 4 coefficients (and turns out frequency independent and KC constant).

The other symbols represent:
M=mass tanker
a
11
, a
22
, a
62
, a
66
, a
26
= added mass in surge direction, sway direction, yaw direction due to sway, yaw
direction and sway direction due to yaw respectively.

The added mass coefficients are determined by means of 3-D potential theory for e 0 rad/sec.

The measured transverse resistance coefficients as function of position along the center line of the
tanker in deep and shallow water are given in the figure below.







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It can be concluded that the transverse resistance coefficient is strongly dependent on the water depth.

29.3 Theory in a current field in shallow and deep water
The equations of low frequency motion with the hydrodynamic terms in a ship-fixed system of co-
ordinates in current fields, as derived from Ref. [29-1] and Ref. [29-2], are described below.

dyn stat
dyn stat
dyn stat
X X x a x ) a I (
X X x x ) a (M x a x ) a M (
X X x x ) a (M x ) a M (
6 6 2 62 6 66
2 2 6 1 11 6 26 2 22
1 1 6 2 22 1 11
+ + = + +
+ + + = + +
+ + + = +





in which the static current load contributions are computed according to:

2
6
2
2
1
6
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
cr cr c stat
cr cr c stat
stat
)V ( TC L X
)V ( LTC X
cr
)V
cr
(
c
LTC X
=
=
=

with:
L=length between perpendiculars
C
1c
, C
2c
, C
6c
= current resistance coefficients in surge, sway and yaw direction according to Ref. 2

cr
=relative current angle of incidence
V
cr
=relative current velocity
-1
0
1
2
3
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
sections (0=App; 20=Fpp)
C
(
l
)
WD/T=4.4 WD/T=1.6

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The OCMIF current coefficients were used to calculate the static current loads.

The dynamic current load contribution, which consist of a potential part and a viscous part, is
assumed to be:
D dyn
D C C dyn
D C C dyn
x X
x x ) x ( )V a (a X
x x ) x ( )V a (a X
6 6
2 6 6 11 22 2
1 6 6 11 22 1
cos
sin
=
+ =
+ =


in which:
] /V x L X /V L x X
x x L X x L X x V X x V X [ T L . X
] /V x L X /V L x X
x x L X x L X x V X x V X [ T L . X
x ) x ( )V a *(a . X
cr
/V r
cr
/V r
r r
r
cr r V cr Vr D
cr
/V r
cr
/V r
r r
r
cr r V cr Vr D
C C D
3
6
2
6
2 3
6
6
6 6 6
2
6
6
6 6 6 6
3
6
3
6
2
2
2 3
6
2
6 6 2
2
6
2
6 2 6 2
2
2
6 6 11 22 1
3 3
2
3 3
2
5 0
5 0
sin 6 0



' + '
+ ' + ' + ' + ' =
' + '
+ ' + ' + ' + ' =
=


in which for deep water:
Q X
cr cr cr cr Vr
) 3 cos 06634 . 0 2 cos 00683 . 0 ( 3 cos 02654 . 0 2 cos 03996 . 0 06435 . 0
2
+ + + = '
cr r V
Q X sin ) * 1309 . 0 2207 . 0 (
2
+ = '
cr
r
Q X sin ) * 1527 . 0 3285 . 0 (
2
2
= '
Q X
cr cr cr cr r r
) 3 cos 10804 . 0 2 cos 00838 . 0 ( 3 cos 03886 . 0 2 cos 01484 . 0 02157 . 0
2
+ + = '
cr
V r
Q X 3 cos ) * 03286 . 0 01168 . 0 (
/ 2
3
+ = '
cr
V r
Q X sin ) * 05801 . 0 0664 . 0 (
/ 2
3
+ = '
and
Q X
cr cr cr cr Vr
) 2 cos 01994 . 0 cos 03072 . 0 02981 . 0 ( 2 cos 0225 . 0 cos 00656 . 0 05695 . 0
6
+ + + + = '
cr r V
Q X sin ) * 01847 . 0 00722 . 0 (
6
+ = '
cr
r
Q X sin ) * 01069 . 0 03753 . 0 (
2
6
= '
cr r r
Q Q X cos ) * 035002 . 0 019122 . 0 ( * 00512 . 0 01706 . 0
6
+ = '
cr
V r
Q X cos ) * 009023 . 0 007587 . 0 (
/ 6
3
+ = '
cr
V r
Q X sin ) * 00391 . 0 00982 . 0 (
/ 6
3
+ = '
in which, see Ref. [29-1]:



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40 100
40
T T
T T
Q

=

where:
T
100
= loaded draft
T
40
= draft at 40% of loaded draft.

In the figure below a typical example is shown of the importance of the viscous part in the dynamic
current load distribution in for instance yaw direction.




















If we compare the static load contribution with the dynamic load distribution for current direction
135
0
being X6stat (135
0
) = 150,000 kNm versus X6D(135
0
) = 240,000 kNm (WD/T=1.6) then the
importance of the damping moment X6D is shown.

29.4 Twilight zone
In the formulation as applied to the equations of motion it is assumed that the current damping as
function of current velocity in surge, sway and yaw direction cannot be lower than the associated
damping values in still water, see also section 40.4. In the computation procedure the two damping
values e.g. in surge direction will be compared and if the current damping will be lower in current,
then the still water damping value will be taken. At each time step the same will be carried out in the
sway and yaw direction. The regions were the current damping will be close or below the still water
damping is called the twilight zone in terms of damping values.

29.5 Coupled equations of motion
Having all the input of the wave frequency and the low frequency equations of motion for instance for
a turret moored FPSO, see also chapter 42, simultaneous computations can be carried out. It is shown
that the motions of the vessel are not only strongly be effected by the presence of the mooring lines
and risers but also by the low frequency generated damping on the mooring lines and risers. To
Vc=1.03 m/s-yaw ampl i tude=16.2 deg-frequency=0.0179
rad/s (T~ 6 mi nutes)
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
400,000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
current angle [deg]
X
6
D

[
k
N
m
]
WD/T=4.4 WD/T=1.6

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incorporate the damping in the time domain computations of the mooring lines and the risers the
equations of motion are coupled. In each time step in the computations the damping of the complete
system will be taken into account to affect the motions of the FPSO. The procedure has been
incorporated in the computer program DYNFLOAT of MARIN, see Ref. [29-6]. The computational
scheme is given in the figure below.


29.6 References
29-1) Wichers, J.E.W., 1988, A Simulation Model for a Single Point Moored Tanker, PhD, Delft
University of Technology.

29-2) Wichers, J.E.W.: Comparing different maneuvering models for the FPSO horizontal plane
behavior, OMAE 2001 Symposium, Rio de Janeiro, 2001

29-3) Norrbin, N.H., 1970, Theory and observation on the use of a mathematical model for ship
maneuvering in deep and confined water, Proceedings of the 8
th
Symposium on Naval
Hydrodynamics.

29-4) Sphaier, S.H., Fernandes, A.C. and Correa, S.H., 2000, Maneuvering model for the FPSO
horizontal plane behavior, Proceedings of the 10
th
International Offshore and Polar Engineering
Conference.

29-5) Takashina, J., 1986, Ship Maneuvering Motion due to Tugboats and its Mathematical Model,
Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol. 160, pp. 93-104.

29-6) Computer program DYNFLOAT-theory and users guide-version 2000_0, MARIN,
Wageningen



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30 FPSO IN SHALLOW/DEEPWATER UNDER STORM CONDITIONS

30.1 Introduction
In Ref. [30-1] to [30-7] exercises have been carried out with a FPSO in several water depths. In order
to study the effects on the motions and the mooring line forces and riser forces as function of water
depth, the same FPSO has been installed in 4 different water depths. Each mooring system consists of
4 bundles of 4 mooring lines and 4 production risers, 4 gas production risers, 2 water injection risers
and 2 gas injection risers and 1 gas export riser (total 16 mooring lines and 13 risers).

The particulars of the FPSO are given in Table 30-1.

Designation Symbol Unit Quantity
Production level bpd 120,000
Storage bbls 1,440,000
Vessel size kDWT 200
Length between perpendiculars Lpp m 310
Breadth B m 47.17
Depth H m 28.04
Draft T m 18.9
Displacement D tonnes 240,869
Center of buoyancy forward of section 10 FB m 6.6
Center of gravity above base KG m 13.32
Metacentric height transverse GMt m 5.78
Metacentric height longitudinal GMl m 403.83
Transverse radius of gyration in air Kxx m 14.77
Longitudinal radius of gyration in air Kyy m 77.47
Yaw radius of gyration in air Kzz m 79.3
Roll period in water Tf s 13.9
Wind area frontal Af m
2
1,012
Wind area side including bulkward As m
2
4035
Turret in centerline behind Fpp (20.5% Lpp) - m 63.55
Turret elevation below tanker base - m 1.52
Turret diameter - m 15.85
Bilge keel length (station 7 to 14) Lbk = 108.5 m; height Hbk = 0.825 m
Rudder attached; no propeller

Table 30-1: Main particulars and stability data of the FPSO

In section 44.2 the input for the weather conditions and the mooring and riser systems are presented.
For the 4 water depths the lay-out of the mooring lines and risers are shown. The applied water depths
and the type of turret are shown in Table 30-2.





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Water depth ft 10,000 3,000 310 93
Water depth m 3,048 914.4 94.5 28.35
Turret system internal internal internal external

Table 30-2: The applied water depth and the turret systems

For the exercise only computations were carried out. The computations were carried out with the
MARIN program DYNFLOAT. The resistance coefficients as used for the mooring line parts and the
risers are given in Table 30-3.

Chain Rope/Wire Riser
Drag normal Cdn 2.45 1.2 1.0*)
Drag tangential Cdt 0.65 0.3 0.4
Added inertia coefficient normal Cin 2 1.15 1.0
Added inertia coefficient tangential Cit 0.5 0.2 0.2
Coulomb friction over seabed CFN 1 0.6 0.6
Coulomb friction over seabed CFT 1 0.6 0.6
*) Cdn1.41 for the lumped gas and water injection risers

Table 30-3: The applied coefficients

Each computation lasts for 3 hours exclusive the transient time of a half hour.

In section 44.3 the results of the computations are presented in terms of statistical results. In section
44.4 the results will be discussed. In section 44.5 the sensitivity of forces and motions as function of
the resistance coefficient Cdn will be studied and discussed.

30.2 Input data
In Table 30-4 the weather conditions are presented. In Figure 30-1 the associated vertical current
profiles are shown.

In Table 30-5 the particulars of the mooring system in 3048 m, 914.4 m, 94.5 m and 28.35 m water
depth are given. In Table 30-6 the particulars of the risers are presented (note that the water and gas
injection risers are lumped by 2 risers). In Table 30-7 the orientation of the risers with regard to East
are defined.

In Figure 30-2 the mooring and riser systems in 3048 m, 914.4 m, 94.5 m and 28.35 m water depth
are presented. In Figure 30-3 the mooring and riser lay-outs in 3048 m, 914.4 m, 94.5 and 28.35 m
water depth and definition of the weather conditions are shown.












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Description unit
water depth m 3048/914.4/94.5 28.35
Waves
Hs m 12.19 7.1
Tp s 14 14
peak enhancement 2.5 2.5
wave direction deg 180 180
Wind
1 hour mean speed @ 10 m m/s 41.12 41.12
wind spectrum type API API
wind direction deg 210 210
Current
0 m-surface m/s 1.07 1.07
61 m m/s 1.07 1.07
91 m m/s 0.09 0.09
seabed m/s 0.09 0.09
current direction 150 150

Table 30-4: Review of the applied weather conditions

-300
-250
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
0 0.5 1 1.5
current speed m/s
W
D

b
e
l
o
w

s
u
r
f
a
c
e

i
n

m
deep water
WD = 94.5 m
WD = 28.35 m


Fig. 30-1: The vertical current profiles

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Designation Unit Internal Internal Internal External
Water depth ft 10,000 3,000 310 93
Water depth m 3,048 914.4 94.5 28.35
Pre-tension force kN 1,691 1,201 503.7 490.8
Pre-tension angle deg 50 53
Number of lines 4*3 4*3 4*3 4*3
Angle between lines deg 5 5 5 5
Length of mooring line m 4,267 2,088 1,900 2,800
WD/Length ratio 1.4 2.28 20.1 84.8
Radius chain stoppers m 7 7 7 7
Segment 1 (ground): Chain K4 studless
Length at anchor point m 122 914.4 50 50
Diameter inch 4 3.5 4.5 6-3/8
Diameter mm 101.6 88.9 114 162
Mass kg/m 215 164.80 284.6 575
Weight in water N/m 1,838 1,406.90 2,429.1 4,905.3
Stiffness AE kN 1,037,720 794,484 1,121,000 2,266,000
Mean breaking load (MBL) kN 8,669 6,512 12,420.5 22,328
Segment 2: wire polyester spiral strand
Length m 4,053.8 1,127.80 1,600 2300
Diameter inch 7.09 3.5 4.5 6
Diameter*) mm 180 107.95 137 152.4
Mass kg/m 21.7 42 70 120
Weight in water N/m 55.6 349.75 539.6 941.0
Stiffness AE kN 240,192 689,858 1,200,000 2,100,000
Mean breaking load (MBL) kN 9,576.4 6,418 12,263 21,582
Segment 3 (top): Chain K4 studless
Length m 91.44 45.7 250 450
Diameter inch 4 3.5 4.5 6--3/8
Diameter mm 101.6 88.9 114 162
Mass kg/m 215 164.80 284.60 575
Weight in water N/m 1,837.5 1,406.89 2,429.10 4,905
Stiffness AE-average kN 1,037,720 794,484 1,121,000 2,266,000
Mean breaking load (MBL) kN 8,669 6,512 12,420.50 22,320
*)Sheathing thickness included

Table 30-5 Particulars of the mooring system in 3048 m, 914.4 m, 94.5 m and 28.35 m water depth.




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Designation # Top tension OD AE mass W(dry/wet) Cdn
inch kN kg/m N/m
Water depth m 3,048 914.4 94.5 28.35
Liquid production risers kN 4 3,714 1,113 122 49 17.5 1.83E+07 196.4 1927/1037 1
Gas production risers kN 4 2,033 610 67 27 15.2 1.08E+07 174.1 1708/526 1
Water injection risers kN 2 6,725 2,020 221 88 20.9 1.86E+07 285.7 2803/1898 1.41
Gas injection risers kN 2 4,519 1,353 148 59 11.3 3.14E+06 184.5 1810/1168 1.41
Gas export riser kN 1 1,530 454 50 20 13.5 8.60E+06 138.4 1358/423 1
Radius riser connection
points on turntable m 4.88 4.88 4.9 4.9
Connection level
below tanker base m 1.52 1.52 1.5 1.5
Total length of risers m 6096 1829
Table 30-6: Particulars risers (note that the water and gas injection risers are lumped by 2 risers)


Designation Number of riser/angle in degrees
Liquid production risers LP
#
13/0
#
14/90
#
15/180
#
16/270
Gas production risers GP
#
17/45
#
18/135
#
19/225
#
20/315
Water injection risers WI
#
21/165
#
22/337.5
Gas injection risers GI
#
23/30
#
24/210
Gas export risers GE
#
25/300
0=riser running in East direction
90=riser running in North direction

Table 30-7 Orientation of the risers with regard to East


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Fig. 30-2: Mooring and riser systems in 3048 m, 914.4 m, 94.5 m and 28.35 m water depth

914.4 m = 3000 ft
Hurricane
current profile
Riser
Mooring line
V
csurface
=3.5 ft/s
94.5 m = 310 ft
28.35 m = 93 ft
10 m



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Fig. 30-3: Mooring and riser lay-outs in 3048 m, 914.4 m, 94.5 and 28.35 m water depth and
definition of the weather conditions

30.3 Results of the computations
The results of the computations are presented in this section. In Figure 30-4 the static load-
displacement curves are presented. For each water depth the static load was carried out in the
direction of the negative surge, see Figure 30-3. The heaviest loaded line was L#2. In the static load
the restoring force (=Fx turret) and the force in the mooring line L#2 are presented as function of the
surge displacement.

In Table 17-8 the statistical results of the motions and mooring forces (turret and mooring lines) and
riser forces are presented for the systems in the 4 water depths.

Risers
Mooring lines
N
L1
L2
L3
R17
R14
R15
R16
R13
R18
R19
R20
R21
R22
R23
R24
R25
+x
+y
E
L9
L8
L7
L6 L5 L4
L12 L11 L10
150
0
- current
180
0
- waves
210
0
- wind

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0
4000
8000
12000
16000
0 20 40 60 80 100
displacement in m
F
o
r
c
e

i
n

k
N
Fx-94.5 m L#2-94.5 m L#2-914.5 m Fx-914.4 m
Fx-28.35 m L#2-28.35 m Fx-3048 m L#2-3048 m


Fig. 30-4: Static load displacement curves for water depth of 3048 m, 914.5 m, 94.5 m and 28.35 m





























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Hs=12.19 m
WD=3048 m-pol.-4"
Hs=12.19 m
WD=914.4 m-spiral-3.5"
unit Fpre-t mean st.dev. min max Fpre-t Mean st.dev. min Max
x
1
-motion turret m -21.1 9.5 -60 -43.7 15.5 -97 -8.3
X
2
-motion turret m 5.4 1.7 13.1 15.4 2.8 7.5 25
Heave turret m 0 2.5 10 0 2.5 -9.4 10
Roll deg 0 0.6 2.5 0 0.6 -2.9 3.1
Pitch deg 0 1.2 4.4 0 1.2 -4.3 4.4
Yaw deg 8.98 1.89 14.9 8.96 2.2 2.3 15.97
Force in L#2 kN 1691 2464 377 4071 1,201 1767 355 493 3508
Force in L# 8 kN 1691 1150 251 1943 1,201 864 208 0 1968
X-force turret kN 2697 2148 12954 2688 1358 -1438 9135
Y-force turret kN -1460 874 -7618 -1455 570 -5438 -60
Z-force turret kN 62209 -62793 11339 -154390 25149 -25589 5158 -66537 -1332
Liquid prod. R#13 kN 3714 3762 876 11513 1113 1185 282 0 3841
Gas prod. R#20 kN 2033 2086 840 9307 610 668 258 0 3374
Gas export R#25 kN 1530 1564 643 7212 454 484 196 0 2433
Hs-12.19 m
WD=94.5 m-spiral-4.5"
Hs=7.1 m
WD=28.35 m-spiral-6"
unit Fpre-t Mean st.dev. min Max Fpre-t Mean st.dev. min Max
x
1
-motion turret m -9.6 6.4 -30.6 12.0 -3.6 9.4 -39.2 30.4
x
2
-motion turret m 5.6 2.3 -2.3 13.3 1.7 2.3 -6.7 10.2
Heave turret m 0 2.09 -7.55 8.27 0 2.3 -7.6 8.7
Roll deg 0 0.42 -2.4 2.4 0 0.6 -4.4 4.3
Pitch deg 0 1.02 -3.6 3.6 0 0.54 -1.9 1.7
Yaw deg 7.6 1.8 -0.4 12.1 -4 1.0 -8.6 -1.0
Force in L#1 kN 503.7 1268 700 188 6625 472 2504 3124 0 23379
Force in L#2 kN 503.7 1223 671 240 6455 472 2458 3078 0 23223
Force in L#5 kN 503.7 382 57 0 684 472 608 236 0 2034
Force in L#8 kN 503.7 344 124 0 1661 472 1062 1758 0 16766
Force in L#11 kN 503.7 783 169 97 1773 472 971 413 0 3664
X-force turret kN 2361 2319 -4480 18890 4053 12230 -50779 70250
Y-force turret kN -1490 729 -5979 282 -765 1532 -8739 7399
Z-force turret kN -4726 -5156 578 -10060 -1825 -5449 -6928 1562 -14530 -2125

Table 30-8: Statistical results of the motions and mooring forces (turret and mooring lines) and riser
forces

30.4 Discussion on the results
Static load-displacement curve
From the results of the static load-displacement curve it can be concluded that for the deepwaters
being 3048 m and 914.4 m, the turret force and mooring line force are linearly related to the
displacement. The polyester system in 3048 m water depth is more than 2 times stiffer than the spiral
steel wire rope system.
The systems related to the 94.5 m and 28.35 are already typically shallow water systems. The static
load-displacement curve for the turret force and mooring line # 2 show exponentially increase of the
forces with increasing surge motion.


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Mooring line forces and motions
In Table 30-9 a summary is given of the results in Table 30-8. From the results it can be concluded
that due to the stiffer polyester system in 3048 m water depth, the maximum forces in the mooring
lines are higher than for the spiral steel wire rope system in 914.4 m water depth. The maximum
excursion increases from -60 m for the polyester system to -97 m for spiral steel wire rope system.
The excursions are important for the management of the risers. Due to the long length of the risers in
3048 m water depth, the dynamic forces seem to be much higher than for the risers in 914.4 m water
depth.

mooring line in kN surge motion in m
Condition Max Fbr SF mean s.d. Max
Hs=12.14 m-3048 m-polyester 4,071 8,669 2.1 -21.1 9.5 -60
Hs=12.14 m-914.4 m-spiral 3.5" 3,508 6,512 1.9 -43.7 16 -97
Hs=12.14 m-94.5 m- spiral 4.5 " 6,625 12,263 1.85 -9.6 6.4 -30.6
Hs=7.1 m 28.35 m-spiral 6" 23,379 21,582 -3.6 9.4 -39.2

Table 30-9: summary of maximum mooring line forces and excursions

Considering the maximum mooring line loads for the water depth of 3048 m, 914.4 m and 94.5 m
water depth it can be concluded that the loads comply with the safety factors.
The results show that for the water depth of 28.35 that in spite of 6" spiral steel wire ropes and 63/8"
chains and lowering the significant wave height Hs from 12.14 m to 7.1 m the safety factor failed.
The results show that the design of the mooring system in shallow water is difficult.

The wave drift force excitation in deep and shallow water
In the Figures 30-5, 30-6 and 30-7 the quadratic transfer function of the wave drift force in regular
waves with unit wave height (= 0 rad./s), in a regular wave group with unit wave heights and
frequency =0.05 rad/s (T=126 s) and in a wave group with unit wave heights and frequency =0.1
rad/s (T=62.8 s) are shown. In Figure 17-5 a typical water depth is taken of 378 m water depth. The
wave drift force excitation hardly differ from the wave drift excitation in 94.5 m. It can be noted,
however, that the longer waves in a water depth of 94.5 m (=0.25 rad/sT=25 s=1.56*T^2=493
m) start to act as shallow water waves increasing the QTF
.

Comparing the QTF's in 94.5 m and 28. 35 m water depth a dramatic difference can be observed, The
QTR of the side diagonals increase considerably for > 5 rad/s. The QTF is completely dominated
by the set-down increasing the QTF dramatically. In shallow water the design of a mooring system is
completely dominated by the magnitude of the wave drift forces, see section 36.4.




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wave directi on 180 deg - water dept h 378 m
0.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
wave f requency in rad/s
w
a
v
e

d
r
i
f
t

f
o
r
c
e

i
n

k
N
mu= 0 rad/ s mu = 0.05 rad/s mu = 0.1 rad/s

Fig. 30-5: QTF of wave drift forces in 378 m water depth
wave dir. 180 deg - water depth 94.5 m
0.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
wave frequency in rad/s
w
a
v
e

d
r
i
f
t

f
o
r
c
e

i
n

k
N
mu = 0 rad/s mu = 0.05 rad/s mu = 0.1 rad/s

Fig.30-6: QTF of wave drift forces in 94.5 m
wave dir. 180 deg - water depth 28.35 m
0.0
500.0
1000.0
1500.0
2000.0
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
wave frequency in rad/s
w
a
v
e

d
r
i
f
t

f
o
r
c
e

i
n

k
N
mu = 0 rad/s mu = 0.05 rad/s mu = 0.1 rad/s

Fig. 30-7: QTF of wave drift forces in 28.35 m water depth



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30.5 Sensitivity of forces and motions to Cd-parameters
In this section some study has been performed related to scale effects. The study has been focused on
the system in the water depth of 914.4 m. The mooring system consists of spiral steel wire rope and
top and bottom chains. The spiral steel wire rope has a D=3.5" and a length of L=1128 m. The top
chain has a diameter D=3.5" and a length of L=45.7 m. Due to the current and the LF motions scale
effects can occur. In order to discern scale effects the Cdn's of the spiral steel wire and the risers are
changed as shown in Table 30-10.

case
O I II O I II O I II
chain steel wire risers
Cdn 2.45 2.0 2.0 1.2 1.0 2.0 1.0*) 1.0 2.0
Cdt 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4
Cin 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.0
Cit 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
CFN 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
CFT 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

Table 30-10: Review of the changed Cdn coefficients

The results are presented in Table 30-11.

914.4 m (1000 ft) pre- Case O: Cd=1.2 Case I: Cd=1.0 Case II: Cd=2.0
tension mean st.dev. max mean st.dev. max mean st.dev. max
x-motion turret m -43.7 15.5 -97 -42.1 16.2 -96.4 -42.7 14.1 -88.5
y-motion turret m 15.4 2.8 25 16.6 4.1 30.5 16.9 3.5 28.6
Yaw deg 8.96 2.2 15.97 12 2.6 21.2 12 2.5 20.3
Force in L#2 kN 1,201 1767 355 3508 1743 351 3433 1750 337 3458
Force in L#8 kN 1,201 864 208 1968 876 201 1985 867 215 1997
X-force turret kN 2688 1358 9135 2480 1363 9065 2478 1299 10493
Y-force turret kN -1455 570 -5438 -1673 693 -6017 -1673 693 -6298
Liquid production R#13 kN 1,112 1185 282 3841 1182 292 3921 1193 414 5313
Gas production R#20 kN 609 668 258 3374 669 268 3451 696 402 5135
Gas export R#25 kN 454 484 196 2433 484 202 2514 501 279 3485

Table 30-11: Results scale effects

From the results it can be concluded that the change in resistance coefficients will decrease all
standard deviation, but the difference is relatively small. Seen the conclusions in chapter 31, it can be
concluded that scale effects are small.





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30.6 References
30-1) Mamoun Naciri and Jerome Andrews (SBM), B.Buchner and T. Bunnink and R. Huijsmans
(MARIN): Low frequency motions of LNG carriers moored in shallow water, Proceedings of
OMAE 2004 Conference, 23
rd
International Conference, June 2004, Vancouver, Canada.

30-2) Wichers, J.E.W. and P.V. Devlin, Effect of coupling of mooring lines and risers on the design
values for a turret moored FPSO in deep water of the Gulf of Mexico, 11
th
International Symposium
on Offshore and Polar Engineering ISOPE Stavanger, Norway June 17-22, 2001

30-3) Kim, M.H, Ward E.G., Haring, R.E, Wichers, J.E.W. (2000). DeepStar 4401B Project,
Comparative analyses of theme structures for water depths of 3,000 feet to 10,000 feet, Summary

30-4) Bauduin, Christian, Jean-Loup Isnard and Sipke Schuurmans, Deep water mooring systems-
Methodology of analysis applicable to FPSOs-Present issues, 11
th
International Symposium on
Offshore and Polar Engineering ISOPE Stavanger, Norway June 17-22, 2001

30-5) Wichers, Johan and Paul Devlin: Benchmark model tests on the DeepStar Theme Structures
FPSO, SPAR and TLP, OTC Paper # 15346, Houston 2004

30-6) Yong Luo and Severine Baudic (SBMIMODCO), Peter Poranski (FMC SOFEC Floating
Systems Inc.) , Johan Wichers (MARIN USA Inc.), Carl Trygve Stansberg and Harald Ormberg
(MARINTEK): DeepStar study on prediction FPSO responses model tests versus numerical
analysis, OTC paper # 15349 (16585), Houston 2004

30-7) Ward, E.G., Hansen, V.L., Kim, M.H. and Wang, L: "Model-the-Model: Validating analysis
models for Deepwater structures by model test", Paper # 16586, Proc. OTC 2004, Houston, TX, USA



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31 ANALYSIS TO GENERATE TIME SERIES

31.1 Introduction
Signal analysis can be divided in the following domains:
-time domain
-frequency domain
-probability domain.

Time domain traces can be generated according the following methods:
-Generating of time domain traces using random phase model.
Known for instance the spectral density of the waves and the transfers functions of the 1
st
and 2
nd

order wave forces time traces can be generated of
- Wave elevation
- 1
st
order wave forces/moments
- 2
nd
order wave forces/moments
The procedures are presented in section 33.2.

-Generating of time domain traces using convolution integrals
Known for instance the spectral density of the waves and the transfers functions of the 1
st
and 2
nd

order wave forces time traces can be generated of
- Wave elevation
- 1
st
order wave forces/moments
- 2
nd
order wave forces/moments
The procedures are presented in section 33.3.

-Frequency domain computations
Known for instance the spectral density of the waves and the transfer functions of the 1
st
and 2
nd
order
wave forces the following can be determined:
- spectral density of the 1
st
order wave forces/moments
- mean wave drift forces
- spectral density of the 2
nd
order wave forces/moments

The procedures are presented section 33.4.

-Signal analysis
On the time traces of signals (e.g. wave and motion) obtained from either model test or full scale
measurements or time domain computations, signal analysis can be applied.

The signal analysis can comprise:
-statistical analysis
-spectral analysis

The procedures are presented in chapter 34 and 35.

By means of the time traces the statistical properties in the probabilistic domain can be analyzed.
These analysis will be dealt with in chapter 36.




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31.2 Generating of time traces using the random phase model

31.2.1 Generating of wave elevation in the time domain
In the following the linear theory in terms of spectral components of a wave spectrum is applied to
simulate an irregular wave train.
The wave is computed using the wave spectral density function together with a random phase. The
wave elevation of an irregular wave can be described by a Fourier series:

=
+ =
N
i
i i ai
) t cos( ) t (
1
c e , ,

for i=1,,N

in which:
,
ai
= wave amplitude
e
I
=wave frequency
c
I
=random phase angle (uniformly distributed between 0 and 2t rad)
I =wave frequency index
N =number of discrete frequency components
t =time

The amplitudes of the wave components are found from:

i i ai
S e e ,
,
A = ) ( 2
for i=1,.,N
where:
S
,
(e
i
) =wave spectral density
Ae
I
=small frequency interval with a mean frequency e
i


In this theory only the phase is the stochastic parameter. The other parameter being the amplitude is
the deterministic parameter. The amplitude is a function of the frequency and the direction. This 2-D
function is called the amplitude spectrum. The probabilistic density of the phase angle, however,
seems to be uniformly distributed between -t and +t.
These combinations of one stochastic and one deterministic parameter (phase and amplitude
spectrum) can be used to determine all the statistical properties of waves (if not too steep).
In this random phase model attention has to be paid to cyclic reproduction and the Nyquist-frequency.

31.2.2 Cyclic reproduction of the registration
For the random seas a wave train with specified length (or duration) is calculated from the energy
spectrum. Due to the Fourier representation of the random waves, the time trace will always be cyclic.
The number of frequency components is taken such that the period of this cycle is equal to the
duration of the tests (normally 3 hours full scale). This means that for longer duration of the
tests/computations a larger number of frequency components (N) and thus a smaller value of the
frequency bandwidth (Ae) are used.



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For a 3-hours simulation the frequency bandwidth will be Ae= 2t/(3*3600) = 0.000582 rad/s. This
means that the number of frequency components N between 0 and 2 rad/s will be
N=2/0.000582=3436.
If the wave spectrum covers the frequency range 0.3 and 1.5 rad/s the number of non-zero amplitudes
amounts to 1.2/0.000582=2062. With this approach no cyclic affects or repeatability of the wave train
during the 3 hours simulation will occur.

31.2.3 Nyquist-frequency
The Nyquist-frequency is the frequency component of which the amplitude can still be identified at a
sample time At. The Nyquist-frequency is defined as e
N
=t/At rad/s.

An example of the sample time for a sinus type signals is given in the following figure. Note that the
frequencies fs=f Hz, fs=2f Hz and fs>2f Hz corresponds to or At
s
=T s , At
s
=1/2T s and At
s
<1/2T s
respectively, where T is the period of the frequency component of the Nyquist-frequency.





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Note that frequency components larger than the Nyquist-frequency the resolution for amplitudes and
frequencies is inadequate. The detection of the amplitudes and frequencies will be aliased about the
Nyquist-frequency.

31.2.4 Generating of 1st and 2nd order wave forces in the time-domain
Having the time trace of the wave registration and the transfer function of the 1
st
and 2
nd
order wave
force, the 1
st
and 2
nd
order wave force can be generated following the procedure as given below.

-the 1
st
order wave force registration will be:
) cos( . )). ( ( ) (
1
) 1 (
) 1 (
i i i ai
N
i
ai
ai
t
F
t F
,
c c e , e
,
+ + =

=

in which:

) (
) 1 (
e
,
ai
ai
F
=1
st
order wave load transfer function
i ,
c =phase angle transfer function

Having the time trace of the wave registration and the transfer function of the 2
nd

wave force the 2
nd
order wave force can be generated flowing the procedure given below. The square
of the envelope of the irregular wave train will be:

= =
+ =
N
i
j i
N
j
j i j i
t t A
1 1
2
)} ( ) {cos( ) ( c c e e , ,

It can be assumed that the quadratic transfer function of the second order wave force for each wave
direction with regard to the vessel is known. For each combination of the unit wave heights ,
i
and ,
j

with e
I
and e
j
, the quadratic transfer function consists of an in-phase part P
ij
(real part) and an out-of-
phase part Q
ij
(imaginary part). As an example the transfer function for a 200 kDWT fully loaded
VLCC in head waves and moored in 28.35 m water depth is given on the next page. The quadratic
transfer function can be computed by means of 3-D potential theory (with an additional viscous
damping part for roll).

The time-domain registration of the second order wave drift force using a random phase model will
be:

= =
+ + + =
N
i
j i j i ij j i
N
j
j i ij j i
t Q t P t F
1 1
) 2 (
)]} ( ( ) sin[( )] ( ) cos[( { ) ( c c e e c c e e , ,

The 1
st
and 2
nd
order wave force train will be:


= =
=
+ + +
+ + + = +
N
i
j i j i ij j i
N
j
j i ij j i
i i i ai
N
i ai
ai
t Q t P
t
F
t F t F
1 1
1
) 1 (
) 2 ( ) 1 (
)]} ( ( ) sin[( )] ( ) cos[( {
) cos( . ). ( ) ( ) (
c c e e c c e e , ,
c c e ,
,
,



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The formulations can be used as the excitation forces in the computations model of a moored floating
structure exposed to irregular waves.

Inphase P and out-of-phase Q component of the QTF of the wave drift force in 28.35 m water depth
(wave direction 180
0
-FPSO 200 kDWT)

31.3 Generating of time traces using the convolution integral

31.3.1 Generating of 1st and 2nd order wave force registration
Having the transfer function of the first order wave force H
1
(e), the registration of the first wave
force in an irregular sea ,(t) using the impulse response function follows the procedure to generate the
1st order wave forces are described below.

The transfer function of the first order wave force H
1
(e) is defined as follows:

( )
( )
( ) e
, e
e
e
, a
a F
F
S
S
H
) 1 (
1
) ( = =


The linear impulse or response function will be:

e e
t
t
et
d e H h
i
. ) (
2
1
) (
1 1

+

}
=

Real 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 85.00 0.90 0.95 1.00
0.20 -20.4 -27.7 -76.7 -226.2 -402.8 -486.7
0.25 -29.1 -39.3 -82.9 -193.8 -301.8 -317.2
0.30 -57.1 -78.8 -107.2 -174.6 -227.0 -181.3
0.35 -110.7 -120.2 -118.3 -141.9 -143.2 -83.9
0.40 -141.0 -130.4 -102.5 -94.4 -89.4 -33.9
0.45 -146.9 -126.8 -88.4 -81.7 -61.6 7.3
0.50 -149.9 -131.8 -95.0 -66.7 -19.4 49.0
0.55 -168.7 -141.6 -77.4 -30.2 23.6 70.5
0.60 -158.0 -100.4 -32.8 1.3 34.3 60.8
0.65 106.2 -63.4 -22.3 -3.2 28.7 -92.1
0.70 -93.3 -65.0 -27.6 2.6 -86.5 -82.4
0.75 WD=28.35 m -97.7 -59.1 -15.4 -82.4 -78.2 -77.2
0.80 -86.5 -43.2 -78.2 -77.2 -76.1
0.85 -78.2 -77.2 -76.1 -75.0
0.90 -76.1 -75.0 -73.9
0.95 -73.9 -73.7
1.00 -73.5
Imag 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 85.00 0.90 0.95 1.00
0.20 0 1498 2140 2061 1510 704
0.25 0 983.5 1404 1311 869.5 256.6
0.30 0 681.6 956.3 838.6 472.9 -10.02
0.35 0 483.8 653 529.4 218.8 -123.3
0.40 0 348.2 457.9 327.3 98.24 -100.6
0.45 0 263 323.9 223.3 66.66 -79.6
0.50 0 207 263.4 175.6 19.65 -106
0.55 0 179.6 193.4 90.65 -21.6 -67.7
0.60 0 129.4 135.6 83.12 14.8 -39
0.65 0 118.2 137.8 83.06 -19.8 -80
0.70 0 116.9 119.9 44.46 -51.3 -67.5
0.75 0 108.5 103.3 24.77 -57.9 -49.5
0.80 0 107.3 95.04 2.933 -70.3
0.85 0 107.9 79.25 -23.4
0.90 0 103.9 69.2
0.95 0 101.5
1.00 0



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or the inverse Fourier transform will be:

( ) ( ) t t e
et
d e h H
i
. .
0
1 1

}
=


with the convolution integral:

( ) ( ) t t , t d t h t F ) ( .
0
1
) 1 (
=
}



The transfer function H
1
(e) can be derived from the frequency-domain 3-D potential theory
computations or from signals in the time-domain.

Derivation of the quadratic impulse response function to compute the second order wave drift forces
in the time domain will be obtained by the following procedure. Use will be made of the following
algorithms:
-Two components of the wave spectrum with the frequencies e and e+ actually representing a wave
group with the frequencies e and e+:
( ) ) ( e e
, ,
+ S S

-The spectral density of the wave drift force belonging to this wave group with the difference
frequency

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ e e, S
F
2

By means of cross-bi-spectral analysis or 3-D potential theory, the complex quadratic transfer
function can be determined:

) , (
2
e e + H
or
) , ( ) , (
2 1 2 1 2
e e e e T or H
in which e
2
= e
1
+

An example of the quadratic transfer function of the wave drift force T(e
1,
e
2
) for a loaded 200
kDWT VLCC exposed to head waves in 28.35 m water depth is given in the table below.


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The quadratic impulse or response function can be formulated as follows:

2 1
) (
2 1 2
2
2 1 2
. ) , ( )
2
1
( ) , (
2 2 1 1
e e e e
t
t t
t e t e
d d e H h
i i +
+

+

} }
=


or the inverse Fourier transform is:

( )
2 1
) (
2 1 2 2 1 2
. ) , ( ,
2 2 1 1
t t t t e e
t e t e
d d e h H
i i +
+

+

} }
=


with the convolution integral:

( ) ( )
2 1 2 1 2 1
0
2
0
) 2 (
) ( ) ( , t t t , t , t t d d t t h t F =
} }


or
2 1
) (
2 1 2 1
2 ) 2 (
. ) ( ) ( ) , ( )
2
1
( ) (
2 2 1 1
e e e , e , e e
t
t e t e
d d e T t F
i i +
+

+

} }
=


Time domain computation method for the first order and second order wave drift forces:

( )
2 1 2 1 2 1
0
2
0 0
1
) 2 ( ) 1 (
) ( ) ( , ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t t t , t , t t t t , t d d t t h d t h
t F t F t F
+ =
= + =
} } }



These formulas are the Kernels of Volterra to model linear and quadratic effects in physics. The
formulations can be used as the excitation forces in the equations of motion of a moored floating
structure.

Ampl 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 85.00 0.90 0.95 1.00
0.20 20.4 2118.7 3027.4 2923.5 2173.1 1108.2
0.25 29.1 1391.4 1987.3 1864.1 1266.2 482.0
0.30 57.1 967.1 1356.7 1198.7 706.3 181.9
0.35 110.7 694.7 931.0 762.0 341.0 193.5
0.40 141.0 509.4 655.6 472.4 165.2 146.2
0.45 146.9 393.0 466.5 326.2 112.6 112.7
0.50 149.9 321.0 384.4 257.1 33.9 157.7
0.55 168.7 290.8 284.3 131.7 38.6 118.9
0.60 158.0 208.7 194.6 117.6 40.2 82.1
0.65 106.2 178.8 196.2 117.5 40.0 145.9
0.70 93.3 177.6 171.8 62.9 112.9 126.0
0.75 97.7 164.4 146.9 89.5 113.2 104.1
0.80 86.5 157.8 155.5 77.3 125.2
0.85 78.2 171.0 135.5 82.0
0.90 76.1 165.0 122.6
0.95 73.9 161.4
1.00 73.5



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31.4 Frequency domain computations

31.4.1 Review of the theory of harmonic analysis
An irregular signal f(t) can be represented by means of Fourier series:
( ) kt sin
b
+ kt cos
a
= f(t)
k k
= k
0 = k



in which the first term (k=0) represents the mean value and the other terms represent the particular
harmonic component. The coefficient a
k
can be obtained by multiplying above equation with cos (nt)
and integrating over the interval 0 to 2t:

|
|
.
|

\
|
} }

}
t t

t
dt nt cos kt sin
b
+ dt nt cos kt cos
a
= dt nt cos f(t)
2
0
k
2
0
k
0 = k
2
0


All terms of the sum yield the result 0, except the term:

dt nt cos kt cos
2
0
}
t
for n=k

from which a
n
can be determined:
dt nt cos f(t)
1
=
a
2
0
n
}
t
t


The coefficients b
n
can be obtained in an equivalent way by multiplying with sin (nt) and integrating:
dt nt sin f(t)
1
=
b
2
0
n
}
t
t


The solution of above integrals is performed in a numerical way by integrating over the complete
measuring time:
kt cos
f
N
2
=
a n
N
1 = n
k



and:
N
n k
n= 1
2
= sin k t
b f
N


in which f
n
is the magnitude and N is the number of samples used for the numerical integration.

31.4.2 Frequency domain analysis derived from known wave spectrum

In this section frequency domain analysis are applied to a known wave spectrum and the known linear
and quadratic transfer functions of the wave forces.


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The spectrum from the 1
st
order wave force amounts to:
( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
e e
,
e e e
, ,
S
F
S H S
a
a
F
(
(

= =


To compute the spectrum of the 2
nd
order wave forces we have to know the formulation of the wave
grouping being , see section 4.5:
e e e
, ,
d S S S
G
) ( ) ( 8 ) (
0
+ =
}


having the distribution
0
2
0
2
1
) (
m
G
e
m
G P

=

in which
e e
,
d S m ) (
0
0
}

=

The mean wave drift force in the wave spectrum will be:

e e e e ,
,
d T S T F
ii
N
i
i
) , ( ) ( 2
0
1
2 ) 2 (
}

= =

and the spectral density of the 2
nd
order wave drift force amounts to:

e e e e e
, ,
d ) ( S ) ( S ) , ( T { ) ( S
F
+ + =
}

2
0
8
2

where:

2
1
2 2
)} , ( ) , ( { ) , ( e e e e e e + + + = + Q P T


The total spectral density of the 1
st
and 2
nd
wave loads are:
( ) e e e e e e e e
, , ,
d S S H S H S
F
) ( ) ( , 8 ) ( ) ( ) , (
2
2
0
2
1
+ + + =
}


Actually we have here the Fourier transforms of the Kernels of Volterra.

32 SIGNAL ANALYSIS IN TIME DOMAIN-STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

32.1 Introduction
Time series can be obtained from model tests, full scale monitoring or results of time domain
computations.

To analyze the signals the following analysis can be applied:



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-Statistical analysis
-Spectral analysis.

Time domain registrations or realizations of a signal are defined as random processes. These random
processes are assumed to be stationary and ergodic.
Of the last two terms the definitions are as follows:
Stationary process= a random process is stationary when each translations in time does not affect
the statistical properties of the process.
Ergodic process= a stochastic process is called ergodic, when one realization is sufficient to
satisfy the statistical properties.

The statistical and the spectral analysis are presented in the next sections.

32.2 Statistical analysis
For the statistical analysis the signal has to be digitized. It must be noted that for deck wetness (green
water) and slamming, the number of events and number of encounters should be reported
independently, as well as overall statistics.

An example of the digitized signal will have the following time domain registration:

Mean
+ Crest
- Trough
A MAX-
A MAX+
2A MAX
Time


For each signal the following statistical quantities are determined:

-mean value :

=
=
N
i
i
u
N
u
1
1


-standard deviation :

=
N
i
i
u u
N
1
2
) (
1
1
o

-significant maximum:
+
3 / 1
u i.e. the mean of the one-third highest crest to zero values

-significant minimum:

3 / 1
u i.e. the mean of the one-third highest trough to zero values

-significant double amplitude (2u)
1/3
i.e. the mean of the one-third highest peak to peak (crest to
trough) values

In Gaussian single-peaked records (2u)
1/3
is around 95-98 % of 4o.

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-number of maximum values:
+
N

-number of minimum values:

N

-number of zero-up-crossings:
) (u
N

-maximum value : max u
max
=
+
being defined as crest to zero

-minimum value : min u
min
=
+
being defined as trough to zero

-largest double amplitude (2u)
max
being defined as from crest to the following trough

-the average zero-up-crossing period: Tz

33 SIGNAL ANALYSIS IN THE SPECTRAL DOMAIN-SPECTRAL ANALYSIS

33.1 Spectral analysis
In order to determine the spectral density of a signal we need the auto-correlation function.
If u(t) represents the signal as a function of time, the auto-correlation function R
u
(t) is determined by:

( ) ( ) ( )

+ =
}

dt t u t u
T
R
T
T
u
. .
1
0
lim
t t

in which:

t = time lag
T = duration of the registration

The spectral density function S
u
(e) is obtained by Fourier transformation of
R
u
(t), thus:
( ) ( ) t t
t
e
et
d e R S
i
u u
. .
2
0

}
=

A Fourier transformation transforms a function in the time-domain to a function in the frequency-
domain.

Note:
Actually the auto-correlation function described the general dependency of the values of a stochastic
process ,(t) by considering ,(t) and ,(t+t). The auto-correlation determines the average value of the
product over a distance t:




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( ) )} t ( u ). t ( u { E , t R
u
t t + =

in which E{ } is the statistical expectation value (=mean value).

A random stationary and Gaussian process can be completely described by means of the mean value
M
uu
and the auto-correlation function R
uu
(t):

( )
( ) ( ) ( ) dt t u t u
T
R
dt t u
T
M
T
T
uu
T
uu
}
}
+ =
=


0
0
.
1
.
1
lim
lim
t t


The form of the auto-correlation function and spectral density is dependent on the bandwidth of the
signal as is shown in the figure below.

wide-band noise R(t) fast to 0 wide spectrum

Time function q(t) Auto-correlation R(t) Spectrum S(e)

With a sample time At (sec), the number of samples will be N=T/At. In digitized form the realization
of the random process will be (u
1
, u
2
, u
N
). The auto-correlation function will be estimated
according to:


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=
+

=
j N
k
j k k j
u u
j N
R
1
1
for j=0, 1, 2, 3N

and the approximation of the spectral density will be:

(

+ +
A
=

=
1
1
0
. cos .
. .
cos . 2
m
j
m j d
d R
m
j d
R R
t
S t
t
t
for d=0, 1, 2, 3m

in which m is the number of time lags or spectral lines in the auto-correlation function and the
spectrum.
Using m spectral lines and a sample time At, S
d
will be calculated for the frequencies
t t m t m t m A A A A
=
t t t t
e ....... ,.........
3
,
2
, , 0
in which
N
t
e
t
=
A
. is called the Nyquist-frequency.

33.2 Spectral analysis on wide-band noise signal - effect of the sample time

In the picture below a wide-band noise signal is given. Actual the signal consists of a wave frequency
and a low frequency part.



If the sample time At = 0.4157 s is applied the associated Nyquist-frequency will be
e
N
=t/At=t/0.4157=7.56 rad/s. If the number of spectral lines is chosen to be m=90 than the
frequency bandwidth amounts to Ae=e
N
/m=7.566/90=0.084 rad/s.
Using the above mentioned analysis properties the spectral density of the total signal will be as is
presented in the figure below.
From the results of the spectral density of the total signal a low frequency and a wave frequency part
can be distinguished. The spectral density indicates that low frequency spectral energy is present but
does not show the correct distribution of the low frequency energy, since the spectral energy of the
low frequency part should be concentrated around the low frequency natural period of the system.




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What is the effect of the choice of the sample time (=Nyquist-frequency) and the number of spectral
lines (Ae=frequency bandwidth) on the total and low frequency filtered signal on the form of the
spectrum?

For comparison of the spectral density function the auto-correlation has been applied for the sample
times and number of spectral lines as given in the table below.

t

m
s rad/s rad/s
0.4157 7.55 90 0.0840
0.4157 7.55 250 0.0302
1.6628 1.89 90 0.0210
1.6628 1.89 250 0.0076

The results have been given in the figure on the next page. The results show that for the filtered low
frequency signal a relatively large sample time can be applied and the number of spectral lines should
be relatively large to distinguish clearly the peak of the low frequency resonance frequency.


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33.3 Linear transfer function or RAO
To determine the linear transfer function or the Response Amplitude Operator we need the auto-
correlation function of the wave and the for instance a first order motion u.

( ) ( ) ( )

+ =
}


t t , , t
,
d t t
T
R
T
.
1
0
lim

and
( ) ( ) ( )

+ =
}


t t t d t u t u
T
R
T
u
.
1
0
lim


having the characteristics of the time-domain registrations in terms of the aut-correlation functions, by
means of the Fourier transformation we obtain the spectral densities:

( ) ( ) t t
t
e
et
, ,
d e R S
i
. .
2
0

}
=

and

( ) ( ) t t
t
e
et
d e R S
i
u u
. .
2
0

}
=

Having the spectral densities the RAO can be determined. The spectral densities are defined as:

( )
( )
2
2
2
1
2
1
a
a u
d S
u d S
, e e
e e
,
=
=


The amplitude response operator is calculated by dividing the spectrum of the measured signal by the
undisturbed incident wave spectrum and taking the square root:

( )
( )
( ) e
, e
e
e
, a
a u
u
S
S
H = = ) (


where:
H(e) = Response Amplitude Operator
S
u
(e) = spectral density of the output signal
S
,
(e) = spectral density of the wave elevation , (input spectrum)




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Associated with the amplitude responses are the phase responses. The phase response can be
determined as follows:

Starting with the convolution integral
( ) ( ) t t , t d t h t u ) ( .
0
=
}


in which h(t) = impulse response

we may write

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
) (
) ( ) (
)} ( ) ( { } ) ( {
) ( ) ( ) (
0
0
0
t of function n correlatio auto R where
d t s R h t s R
d t u s E h t u s E
d t s u h t u s
u
,
t t t
t t , t ,
t t , t ,
,
,
,
=
+ =
=
=
}
}
}


The cross-spectral density will be :
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
e
e
e
e e e
,
,
,
,
, ,
S
S
H
and
S H S
u
u
u u
=
=


Where H
, u
is the complex transfer function with real part the amplitudes and the imaginary part the
phases.

When by means of the spectra the RAO and by means of the cross-spectral density function also the
phase response is determined, the complete information on the response characteristic of the signal is
known.
The RAO curve will be with the following unit:

(
(

amplitude wave meter


response of unit basic


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The reference wave used in the calculation of the transfer functions is normally the wave at the
location of the model without the model in the basin.

The definitions are given in the figure below.


Note that the out-of-phase or quadrature component is wrong defined in the figure above. The out-
of-phase or quadrature component is defined as 90
0
and not -90
0
.

33.4 Coherence function
In order to apply spectral technique, linearity should be checked for the input-output relation e.g. ,(t)
and u(t). In order to obtain the properties of a linear system of two processes being ,(t) and u(t) we
need both the earlier mentioned average values and the auto-correlation function of both ,(t) and u(t)
and the cross-correlation function.
The cross-correlation function is defined as:
)} ( ) ( { ) , ( s u t E s t R
u
,
,
=
in which E{ } is the notation for the statistical expectation (average)

or

}

+

=
0
) ( ) (
1 lim
) ( dt t u t
T T
R
u
t , t
,





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This cross-correlation function is a measure for the dependency between the two processes ,(t) and
u(t). In case we have ,(t) = u(t) we have the auto-correlation function.

By means of the Fourier transformation of the cross-correlation function the cross spectrum can be
determined:

( ) ( ) t t
t
e
et
, ,
d e R S
i
u u
. .
2
0

}
=

In general the cross-spectral density consists of a real part and an imaginary part or an amplitude and
phase part:

( )
) (
) (
e |
, ,
,
e e
u
i
u u
e A S

=

in which

A
, u
(e) =cross-amplitude

|
, u
(e) =cross-phase

with the property: |S
, u
(e)| s S
,
(e).S
u
(e)

The coherence function is defined as:

( )
( )
( ) ( ) e e
e
e
,
,
,
S S
S
u
u
u
.
2
2
=


Since |S
, u
(e)| s S
,
(e).S
u
(e) we will have now:

( ) 1 0
2
s s e
, u


If the system is linear the coherence function ( ) 1
2
= e
, u


In practice the coherence function will be ( ) 1 0
2
s s e
, u
, because of the following possible reasons:
-systematic errors in the spectral estimates of S
,
, .S
u
and S
, u
;.
-noise on the signal;
-non-linearitys of the system.


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33.5 Results of spectral analysis
Based on the proven linearity and the available amplitude response operator the following properties
of the considered signal u for an arbitrary wave spectrum S
,
(e) can be determined:

- the standard deviation:

u u
m
0
= o in which

( ) ( ) e e e
,
,
d S
u
m
a
a
u
. .
2
0
0
)
`

=
}


and

,
o
0
m = in which

( ) e e
,
d S m .
0
0
}

=
and the significant wave height

,
,
0 3 1
4 m
/ w
=

further
- the significant amplitude:
0 3 / 1
2 m u =

- the expected maximum value u
aMPM
as a function of the number of wave oscillations N
o
=T/T
2
(T=
duration of the registration in s)

( ) { ( ) }
2 / 1
0
2 / 1
0
3 / 1
ln . 29 . 0 ln .
2

+ = N N
u
u
aMPM


Also the following spectral parameters are often derived in terms of Hz:

-peakedness parameter:

Qp= ( )
}
2
2
0
2
f S f df
m

-m
0
zeroth order spectral moment: m
0
= ( )
}
f S df
-m
1
first order spectral moment: m
1
= ( )
}
f S f df
-m
2
second order spectral moment: m
2
= ( )
}
f S f df
2

-m
3
third order spectral moment: m
3
= ( )
}
f S f df
3




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-m
4
fourth order spectral moment: m
4
= ( )
}
f S f df
4

- skewness:
3
3
1
o

m
= (expected 0 for a Gaussian process)
- kurtosis: 3
4
4
2
=
o

m
(also called excess of kurtosis, expected 0 for a Gaussian process)

and
- spectral band with parameter:
2 / 1
4 0
2
2
)
m . m
m
(1 =
c = 0 than spectrum is narrow
c = 1 than spectrum is broad

or the spectral parameters in rad/s become for ,(t) (or u(t)):
spectrum the of width the indicates quantity
T
m
T
crests wave between period mean
m
m
m
T
period g sin cros up zero average
m
m
T
period wave mean
m
m
T
d ) ( S m
d ) ( S m
d ) ( S m
=
= =
= =
= =

=
}
}
}
2
4
2
2
2
0
2
2
1
0
2
1
0
4
4
0
2
2
0
1
t
t
t
e e
,
e
e e
,
e
e e
,
e


Based on these properties, the motions in any arbitrary wave spectrum (with a specified peak period
T
P
, significant wave height H
S
and peakedness factor ) can now be calculated with spectral analysis.
Based on linear theory it is assumed that for each wave period the relation between the input wave
amplitude and motion amplitude is always the same (namely the value of the RAO). If the wave
amplitude increases with a certain factor, the motions increase with the same factor. This linearity
allows us to multiply the RAO of the motions by the wave spectrum, as shown in the figure below.


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34 SIGNAL ANALYSIS IN THE PROBABILITY DOMAIN

34.1 Introduction
Concerning the interpretation of the distribution functions of certain quantities, for instance for
extrapolation to longer storm duration (in a stationary weather condition), distinction has to be made
for systems with a linear response to the waves and with a non-linear response to the waves. The
probability techniques will be reviewed in the next sections.

34.2 System with a linear response to waves

34.2.1 Introduction
In general the quantities wave frequency surge, sway, heave, pitch, roll including linear viscous
damping) and yaw of the tanker are considered to have a linear response to the waves (neglecting
possible effects due to a non-linear mooring system). For sake of completeness the statistical
evaluation of these quantities according to the traditional lines are briefly described below.

34.2.2 Distribution of the elevation (samples) of the signal
In general a registration having a linear response to the waves will have a Gaussian distribution of the
sampled values. The probability density function in an infinity long time series can be described as:
0 u
m 2
2
u (u
e
0 u
m 2
1
p(u)
)
=
in which:
u0
m = o = root-mean square value or standard deviation of signal u
u = mean value
and the cumulative probability will be:
}

= <
u
du p(u) ) u P(u
while the probability of exceedance will read:
}

= >
u
du p(u) 1 ) u Q(u
By plotting the distribution function on a normal probability paper a straight line will be achieved if
the elevations are Gaussian distributed.

34.2.3 Distribution of the peaks of the signal
The probability that a number N
1
out of a total sequence of N oscillations will exceed a single
amplitude
a
u is treated by regarding each oscillation as an independent event. In that case we arrive
at a binomial distribution:

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| | | | 1
N N
)
a
u
a
Q(u 1 1
N
)
a
u
a
Q(u
1
N
N
/N
1
)N
a
u P(

> > =
|
|
.
|

\
|

If N
1
equals N this probability function, peaks at the most probable maximum. The function Q(u
a
>
a
u ) is the probability of exceedance function and gives the probability that u
a
exceeds
a
u .
The form of the distribution function of the peak values u
a
of a registration will depend on the width
parameter c of the spectrum. The parameter c is defined as follows:
2
)
2
/T
m
(T 1 =
in which:
T
m
= 2t (m
u2
/m
u4
)
T
2
= 2t (m
u0
/m
u2
)
In which T
m
is the mean period of the peaks and T
2
is the zero up-crossing in the limit case for a
Gaussian process which is governed by white noise (each frequency component is equally probable)
the parameter c will go to 1. In the other limiting case we identify a very narrow banded process
where Tm nearly equals T2 which leads to an c of 0 (this is nearly a regular wave).
For a theoretical stochastic narrow band process with the width parameter of c = 0, the peak values
follow the density distribution function (Rayleigh distribution), which can be written as follows:
0
2
2
0
. ) (
u
a
m
u
u
a
a
e
m
u
u p

=

and the cumulative distribution is
0
2
2
0
1 ) ( ) (
u
a
a
m
u
u
a a
a
a
e du u p u u P

= = <
}
and the probability of exceedance:
}

= = >
a
u
a u
m
u
a a
a
a
e du u p u u Q
0
2
0
2
) ( 1 ) (

or in normalized form based on the root-mean square value it will read:
2
2
a
e ) ( Q
a
q
q

=
in which:
o
q

=
a
a
u





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Normal distribution paper Rayleigh distribution paper
Gaussian distribution/linear scale Log/linear scale
o = q c = o / u ; 1
a
2
Rayleigh distribution c = 0
1 = c : Gaussian distribution
0 = c : Rayleigh distribution


From these distribution functions one is able to derive the most probable maximum (MPM) by the
following, assuming infinity long time series (N is large):
) N ln( m u
u aMPM
2
0
=
This value can readily be obtained from the graph by finding the value of u
a0
for which the following
holds:
N
) u u ( Q
_
a a
1
= >
An important observation from this graph can be made in the sense that the MPM will be exceeded
with a relatively low return point (1/N). The probability, however, that an higher maximum is
encountered will be higher than the MPM is 63.2%.
First the definition of the MPM in a stationary sea state during a period of 3-hours for a linear system
has to be given. As an example of a linear system, the pitch motion of a vessel versus wave height can
be given. The system is linear if the pitch angle is linear proportional with the wave height, which is
assumed to be.
The definition of the MPM value of a linear system is as follows:

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if for instance a free-floating vessel in head waves has been exposed to 100 runs during 3-hours with
each run having a different wave seed but the same wave spectrum, then 100 maximum pitch angles
will be obtained.
If the 100 maximum pitch angles will be presented in a distribution curve, the measured distribution
curve of the extremes should be in accordance with the theoretical curve of Longuet-
Higgins/Cartwright. The theoretical distribution curve will have a form as given in the figure below.













The pitch angle where the highest probability p(u
amax
) occurs is called the MPM pitch angle. This
angle is often used in the design of the vessel. It must be noted, however, that 63 values of the
maximums of the 100 wave records of 3-hours are larger than the MPM value (therefore we have a
safety factor). According to the theory of Longuet-Higgins/Cartwright the MPM can be calculated.
Note that same counts for all other linear related signals.

34.2.4 Weibull distribution
The cumulative distribution of a randomly selected peak value A
k
is written as P[A
k
<A], or simply as
P[A]. Thus Q[A]=1-P[A] is the exceedance probability at the given level A.
The analysis indicates whether large extreme values are simply results of statistical uncertainties, or
results from more systematic trends.
In the diagrams Weibull scaled axes are used in order to have the tail of the distributions emphasized.
This is achieved by logarithmic axis for A, and the P[A]-axis plotted as ln [ -ln(1-P(A))].

The Weibull distribution is described as:

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
G
u A
G
A P
o
1
exp 1 ] [
in which:
u

= mean value of record [u
i
]
o =standard deviation of u
i
G =shape parameter describing the slope of the Weibull curve

The line will appear to be a straight line in the plot.

For G=2, the Weibull distribution becomes the Rayleigh distribution. G=1 gives the exponential
distribution. The effect of the slope parameter is given in the figure below.


p(u
amax
)
u
amax
[deg]
mpm
63.2% 36.8%



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Weibull distribution paper
Log(log)/log-scale; Rayleigh distribution c = 0
P(q
a
) = 1 Q(q
a
)

The most probable maximum value in case of a Rayleigh distributed signal (c=0) with N is
given by:
) ( ln 2 .
0 . . max
N m u
u pr m a
=
This value corresponds to the value found for a u is solving:
N
u u Q a
a
1
) ( = >
which means that it can easily be derived from a plot of the probability of exceedance function
) ( a
a
u u Q > .
Although the average frequency with which the most probable maximum is exceeded may be small
(1/N), the probability that the actually encountered maximum in an ensemble is larger than the most
probable maximum amounts to 63.2 per cent.
G=1
G=2
G=3
G=4

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Comparing the results presented in the different types of distribution paper, it will be clear that the
Weibull distribution paper is often preferred for the extrapolation of the most probable maximum
value as function of number of oscillations.

3-Parameter Weibull fit
The values A MAX. + and A MAX. - in a statistical output represent the measured maximum and
minimum values as observed during a certain test period. For design purposes, however, the so-called
most probable maximum (MPM-) value is often applied. This is a statistically more reliable
maximum value. The most probable maximum is defined as follows:
MPM
1
P ( X > X ) = 100%
N


in which:
P = probability of exceedance, [-]
X = variable, e.g. a mooring line load
X
MPM
= most probable maximum (MPM-) value for variable X
N = number of oscillations in test duration for which the value X
MPM
is determined

The MPM-value is the extreme value with the probability to occur once during the duration of the test
(P = 1/N). The MPM-value, therefore, will depend on the test or storm duration or the number of
oscillations N; a longer duration will lead to a higher most probable maximum. The n umber of
oscillations N are derived from the statistical analysis (data reduction).

From the time trace the MPM-value can be determined using the distribution of the extremes (crests
or trough values) plotted on Weibull paper. The highest measured extreme is deleted from the
Weibull plot, since for this value no probability of exceedance can be determined. The MPM
probability (1/N) is determined based on a linear fit of the upper part of the distribution in the Weibull
plot. Instead, extreme with the same probability (1/N) is determined based on a linear fit of the upper
part of the distribution in the Weibull plot.

The linear fit can be described by the 3-parameter Weibull fit and is defined as follows:

x -
-

P(x) = e
| |
|
\ .


in which:
P(x) = probability of exceedance of value x
= scale parameter
= shape parameter, describing the slope of the Weibull curve
= location parameter

The values of , and are determined using a least-squares fitting procedure through the peak
values obtained from a measured signal. The highest 50% or a smaller percentage of the peaks can be
used in the fitting procedure. The above formulation can be used to determine the probability of
exceedance P for a given peak value x.

Alternatively, the distribution can be represented as follows:



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x(P) = + -ln(P)

This formulation can be used to determine the peak value for a given probability of exceedance. The
MPM-value is defined as the peak value with a probability to occur once during the storm duration
(or: P = 1/N). Therefore, if a 3-parameter Weibull fit is available, the MPM-value can then be found
as follows:

MPM
1
x = + -ln
N
| |

|
\ .


Example of 3-parameter Weibull fit
As an example, for a 3 hour storm duration the MPM-value of the line load F CHAIN 5 is determined
from a typically model test. From the results the following data are obtained:

N = 966 (3 hour storm duration, from the table with statistical results)
P = 0.1035 % (= 1/N*100%)
= 1159.3 (value can be found at the top of the Weibull plot)
= 1.3473
u = 124.66

Using the above data an MPM-value for F CHAIN 5 of 4972 kN is calculated.

Note that the 3-parameter fit is based on the points above the 10% exceedance level (100 points). In
this case the majority of the points will be in between 10% and for instance 1% and the fit will be
dominated by these points and the effects of the last extremes points (which can strongly deviate for a
non-linear system) will be small on the fit.


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34.2.5 Distribution of the extreme values
If a higher confidence is requested than the most probable maximum the statistics on the extremes is
required. For narrow band spectra (c ~ 0) the probability of exceedance of the extremes
) u u ( Q . max a
. max a
> can be written in the following form:



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0
2
ln
0
2
2
)
. max
(
1 ) (
. max
. max
u
m
N
u
m u
a
u
e
a
a
e u u Q

= >

or in a normalized form based on root-mean square value:
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
N
e
e Q
ln
2
2
. max
1 ) (
. max
q
q

In the figures on the next page the probability distribution functions of the normalized extreme values
q
max.
as function of the number of oscillations have been presented.

The influence of the width c of the spectrum on the normalized extreme values q
max.
in a registration
is shown in the following diagram. In this diagram it is shown that also for small values of c the
mentioned distribution function will approximately hold true.

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34.2.6 Summary on statistics of linear systems responses

The time trace in the figure below gives a short review of the statistical quantities as the probability of
exceedance for the elevation, peaks and extreme values.

Below the numerical values of the statistical quantities have been given.

Gauss: ELEVATION (Probability density function)



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% * e ) ( p
) (
100
2
1
2
2
1
o
,
t
o
,

=

Rayleigh: AMPLITUDE (probability of exceedance)
% . Q gives
% * e ) ( Q
/ a a
_
) (
a
_
a
a
_
53 13 2
100
3 1
2
1
2
= = =
= >

o , ,
, ,
o
,

Longuet-Higgings/Cartwright: EXTREMES (probability of exceedance)
% * ) e ( ) ( P
y
e
max a
100 1

= ,
% . % )* e ( ) ( P
N ln
T
T
N
N ln ) ( y
e
aMPM
_
aMPM
max a
2 63 100 1
2
2
1
0
2
2
= =
+ =
=

,
o , ,
o
, ,


34.3 Systems with non-linear response to waves

34.3.1 Introduction
A non-linear response of a system to the waves can be caused for instance by:
1. The non-linear load-excursion relationship of the mooring system (anchor chain force versus
horizontal excursion).
2. Dynamics in the anchor chain due to the wave frequency displacements at the locations of the
vessel attachment points of the chain.
3. The slowly oscillating wave drift force excitations, which are proportional to the square of the
wave heights.
As an example for such a system the anchor chain force will be dealt with in this section. In general
an anchor chain force will show the following registration.


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In order to apply a statistical evaluation to such kind of quantities, results of model tests and
computations (M-T-M) are used
In the design of a mooring system one often works with the most probable maximum (MPM) of e.g. a
mooring line force based on 3 hours stationary storm condition. In MARINTEK the MPM values are
determined using Weibull is described below.



The similar procedure is applied by MARIN but the upper level (upper tail) can be varied up to the
probability level of e.g. 0.9 dependent on the direction of the end tail in the Weibull curve. The
procedure is based on the 3-parameter Weibull plot as described in Appendix A in this report.

If the system is linear and the model tests and computations are carried out with different wave seeds
(keeping the spectral density of the spectrum the same) the MPM values will be approximately the
same.
If the system is non-linear and the model tests or computations will be carried out with different wave
seeds the MPM values of the mooring loads and offset will vary.

The questions is now how to handle the maximum values out of a set of different wave seeds to arrive
at a correct design value. The procedures will be described in the next sections.



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34.3.2 Spreading of maximum mooring line forces and offsets
Below the figures are given of the distribution of the maximum versus MPM values for the tests in
collinear condition with Hs=15.9 m and Hs=17.5 m for both the in-line and in-between for the force
in the heaviest loaded mooring line and the offsets. In the force figures the red-line indicates the
allowable force based on FoS=1.67 and chain quality R3S (9,813 kN). In the offset figures the red
line indicates the offset of 80 m.

in-line collinear Hs=15.9-17.5 m
8000
10000
12000
14000
8000 10000 12000 14000
max line f or ce [ kN]
m
p
m

l
i
n
e

f
o
r
c
e

[
k
N
\
i n- bet ween c o l l i near Hs =15.9 - 17.5 m
8000
10000
12000
14000
8000 10000 12000 14000
max line f or ce [ kN]
m
p
m

l
i
n
e

f
o
r
c
e

[
k
N
]


in-line collinear Hs=15.9 -17.5 m
60
70
80
90
100
60 70 80 90 100
max off set [ m]
m
p
m

o
f
f
s
e
t

[
m
]
i n-bet ween col l i near Hs=15.9 -17.5 m
60
70
80
90
100
60 70 80 90 100
max of f set [ m]
m
p
m

o
f
f
s
e
t

[
m
]


The figures clearly shows the variation of the MPM values.
To understand the procedure how to determine the design value for a non-linear system first the
procedure for a linear system will be explained. As an example of a linear system, the pitch motion of
a vessel versus wave height can be given. The system is linear if the pitch angle is linear proportional
with the wave height, which is assumed to be.
The definition of the MPM value of a linear system is that if for instance a free-floating vessel in head
waves has been exposed to 100 runs during 3-hours with each run having a different wave seed but
the same wave spectrum, then 100 maximum pitch angles will be obtained. If the 100 maximum pitch
angles will be presented in a distribution curve, the measured distribution curve of the extremes

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should be in accordance with the theoretical curve of Longuet-Higgins/Cartwright, which is the same
as the GUMBEL curve. The theoretical distribution curve is given in the figure below.













The pitch angle where the highest probability p(u
amax
) occurs is called the MPM pitch angle. This
angle is often used in the design of the vessel. It must be noted, however, that 63 values of the
maximums of the 100 wave records of 3-hours are larger than the MPM value (therefore we have a
safety factor).

A turret moored FPSO, however, is a non-linear system. The main cause of the non-linearity is often
the restoring force-surge displacement called the static load displacement curve, see the figure below.
static load displacement curves
0.00E+00
1.00E+04
2.00E+04
3.00E+04
4.00E+04
5.00E+04
6.00E+04
7.00E+04
8.00E+04
0 50 100 150
di spl acement [m]
r
e
s
t
o
r
i
n
g

f
o
r
c
e

[
k
N
]
in-line
in-between


Due to the non-linear system the maximum values and the MPM value per wave seed test may vary.
In this case the MPM value can only be determined by constructing the probability distribution of the
measured maximum values as derived from the 3-hours stationary test series with wave seeds or tuned
computations with wave seeds.
For the construction of the distribution curve of the extremes both the maximum values as measured
for the in-line and in-between tests derived from the model tests have been applied. The values for
the measured maximum line forces per wave seed test have been given in the table below.



p(u
amax
)
u
amax
[deg]
mpm
63.2% 36.8%



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line force offset
# Test# max max
kN max
in-line
1 3032 9266 70.2
2 3033 12315 82
3 3034 10242 74.8
4 3035 10838 69.6
5 3036 9600 66.2
6 7111 11117 81.3
7 3831 8890 72.3
8 3041 10678 73.4
9 3042 12022 74.4
10 3043 13018 82.6
11 3044 10187 67.9
12 3046 9969 70.3
13 3745 10029 68.9
in-between
14 3232 10783 81
15 3233 8138 70.8
16 3234 13357 88.8
17 3235 9336 77.2
18 3236 9595 71.7
19 3237 9928 72.3
20 3241 10756 75.3
21 3242 11935 81.8
22 3243 11547 91.1
23 3244 8981 71.8
24 3246 10103 76.4

In spite of the restricted numbers of data and with the simplified assumptions an attempt has been
done to construct the distribution curve. The result is given in the figure below.

distribution extremes
0
10
20
30
40
50
8000 10000 12000
maxi mum ML forces Famax [kN]
p
(
F
a
m
a
x
)

[
%
]
expected distribution measurements


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By means of the non-linear maximum values the expected distribution of the extremes has been
constructed. Where the highest probability occurs the MPM design value is taken. To have a reliable
MPM values more simulations should be carried out. The same counts for the offset values.

34.3.3 MPM according to DnV
The advice of DNV in Ref. [34-1] is restricted. According to article 207, see below, the extreme
values distribution will for increasing number of maxima approach a Gumbel distribution. The MPM
value of the Gumbel distribution corresponds to the 37% percentile (i.e. 63% probability of
exceedance). Actually article 204, 205 and 207 refers to the extreme values distribution as discussed
in the previous section.


In the same article DNV refers to API-RP-2SKL and ISO 19901-7. Both the API and ISO document
apply the expected 3-hour extreme which corresponds to the 57% percentile (43% probability of
exceedance), see figure below.


Note that the design values denoted as expected is larger than the MPM values of the extremes.




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34.3.4 MPM according to BV
For the determination of the design values for the mooring loads and offset for a non-linear system
BV is clearly described, see Ref. [34-2]. The description of the procedure is given in article 5.1.1 of
Ref. [34-2] and is given below.

In simple words BV advises that for 30 computer simulations or more the design value is taken to be
the mean of the maxima. Note that the mean values of the maxima will be larger than the MPM value.




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34.4 References

34-1) DET NORSKE VERITAS, Position mooring, Offshore standard DNV-OS-E301

34-2) Bureau Veritas, Classification of mooring systems for permanent offshore structures, July
2008, Guidance Note NI 493 DTM R01 E



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35 SIDE-BY-SIDE AND TANDEM OFFLOADING

35.1 Introduction

Historical developments:
-Tankers/LNG carriers are offloaded moored to jetties
-Start F(P)SO-systems: offloaded side-by-side (examples : Afrikia, Jepco North Jemen)
-Later all F(P)SO-systems are offloaded in tandem
-Now FSRU-systems are again offloaded side-by-side (Floating Storage and Regasification Unit);
using loading arm more easier than large offloading boom
and
-what are the theoretical developments?

35.2 Side-by-side offloading




Similar as tanker moored to jetty, but now both tankers are weathervane:
-two-body: wave frequency motions (interaction)
-two-body: wave drift forces (interaction)
-current loads on two bodies (interaction)
-low frequency damping on two bodies (interaction)

side-by-side current coefficients on offloading vessel

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High current forces/moment can occur.






1) Jacknifing effects with high loads in bow breasting lines and in aft fender
Shallow water





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2) Possible ship handling problem-
Maneuvering approach to the FPSO: danger for collision




Only possible in benign weather conditions



Motions and fender/line forces can be computed for (see ISOPE paper 2001, Ref.[35-1] and [35-2])
-offloading tanker side-by-side moored to turret moored tanker
-only irregular waves
first order motions and low frequency forces/moments of both vessels

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Surface lid between both vessel to suppress numerical anomalies
Simple linear viscous terms (still water) between both vessels.



Surface lid between the shuttle and FPSO to suppress the numerical anomalies


Two vessels FPSO and shuttle tanker:

(

=
(

-
(

+
(

-
(

+
(

-
(

2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
22
11
2
1
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
F
F
x
x
C
C
x
x
B
B
x
x
M
M





where:
m = inertia and added mass matrix
B = linear low frequency potential damping matrix
C = matrix of hydrostatic restoring forces
x = motion vector
F = vector of external forces such as:
- low frequency drift forces
- wind forces
- non-linear viscous damping forces
- interaction forces between two bodies (i.e. bow hawser forces)
- hydrodynamic reaction forces including current forces
- tug forces.



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35.3 Tandem offloading


(Maui-B)

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-Approach FPSO similar as for SPM-buoy maneuver
-Tug to ensure stability and sufficient gap between moored offloading tanker and FPSO
Turret moored FPSO
-Both tankers weathervane
Spread moored FPSO
-tandem offloading in benign environment: only offloading tanker weather vanes
Benign weather conditions





























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Turret moored FPSO

Spread moored offloading

- Benign weather condition; take into account squall winds (Ref. [35-3]
- Interaction effects of wind and current are determined by wind tunnel tests




















450 300 150 0 -150 -300 -450
-750
-600
-450
-300
-150
0
150
300
450
Tandem Mooring Simulations
FPSO100 % - Offtake Tanker 40 %- Sudden wind squall
Swell: Hs=0.6 m Tp=15 s Dir=180 deg
Wave : Hs=1.0 m Tp= 6 s Dir=135 deg
Wind :10-20 m/s Dir=135 deg - Current : 1 kn Dir= 90 deg
TEST NO. 9
Waves
135
o
Wind
135
o Current 90o
Swell
180 o
YE in m
XE
in
m
0 10 20 30 40 [minutes]
20 m/s
10 m/s
Weather
condition Hs Tp dir Hs Tp dir speed dir Speed dir
m sec deg m sec deg m/s degr Knot deg
V 1 6 135 0.6 15 180 0-20*) 135 1 90
wind waves
*) 0-20 m/s increase in 10 minutes decrease in 20 minutes from 20
swell wind Current
2 tug @ 2*500 kN
Typical wind squall

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Wind and current shielding in wind tunnel (Ref. [4])




Data base different positions of shuttle w.r.t FPSO


35.4 References
35-1) Huijsmans, R., J. Pinkster and J.J. de Wilde: Diffraction and radiation of waves around side-
by-side moored vessels, ISOPE 2001, Stavanger

35-2) Buchner, B., A.W. van Dijk and J.J. de Wilde: Numerical multiple-body simulations of side-
by-side mooring to an FPSO, ISOPE 2001, Stavanger

35-3) Wichers, J.E.W. and A.W. van Dijk: Investigations of FPSO-tandem offloading systems under
sudden wind squall and current fluctuations, 9
th
SNAME Offshore Symposium, Houston, 2000

35-4) Brugts, H., J. van Doorn, T. Bunnik and B.Buchner: A new method to optimize the operability
of Deepwater Offloading Operations,



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36 SPM

36.1 Introduction

Dedicated offloading SPM systems for deep water FPSO's in west Africa. Midflow transport lines
supported by beads




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Loop Salm coutesy of SOFEC


36.2 Hawser data
Hawsers to moor VLCCs to offloading or loading CALM buoys are generally nylon ropes. Nylon
ropes are less stiff materials and construction and well in absorbing high impact loads.
For station keeping systems with taut or semi-taut mooring systems, however, stiff to very stiff fibres
and stiff constructions are generally used.

Hawsers are of the typical following products:
Nylon/Polyester double braid
Nylon/polyester parallel constructions
Nylon/polyester 3-strand or 8-strand wire construction.

The properties of the hawsers are given in Table 2-10. The load-elongation curves for the different
materials and constructions are given in the table below. The curves count for used ropes. The curves
are based on static load displacement tests on full scale broken in ropes. No dynamic stiffness of
hawser is incorporated. Since the mooring forces are mainly dominated by the low frequency motions
of the VLCC the wave frequency loads are considered to be low and will not dynamically affect the
hawser.




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36.3 The fishtailing behavior of a SPM in uniform current (Ref. [36-1])





Using MARIN program TERMSIM, see Ref. [36-2]

36.4 References
36-1) Wichers, J.E.W., 1988, A Simulation Model for a Single Point Moored Tanker, PhD, Delft
University of Technology.

36-2) MARIN, "TERMSIM II-theory and user guide", October 2010




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37 MODEL TESTING OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

37.1 Introduction
For the global performance verification of the shallow, deep and ultra deep water systems often model
tests are carried out.
Nowadays, however, more and more attention is paid to computations. The need for reliable computer
programs for mooring systems in deep and ultra-deep water becomes more and more important, since
most of the model basins cannot accommodate the complete lay-out of the mooring and risers system.
In section 37.2 the scale laws are explained. In the sections 37.3 and 37.4 the model testing in shallow
and deep water are discussed.

37.2 Scale laws
Both in coastal and offshore engineering some problems are subjected to model studies. In the
planning of model studies the aim always is a geometrical similarity or a dimensional proportionality
of the processes to be investigated. Scaling in the aero- and hydrodynamics can be carried by
performing dimensional analysis with the fundamental quantities length, mass and time. A number of
derived forces are needed in the mathematical description. The following fundamental forces can be
considered:

a. inertia force
- non-stationary
t
v
M
c
c
:: L
3
v/T
- stationary
x
v
Mv
c
c
:: L
3
v.v/L
b. viscous ( shear ) force
t= dv/dz
Fvisc = t.A :: v/L.L
2
=vL
c. pressure force :: p.L
2

d. gravity force :: gL
3

e. surface tension force
L
R
.
1
. o
:: oL

In order to be independent of the units, the quantities are combined to dimensionless numbers; in
aero- and hydro-dynamics the most important numbers are designated as the Newton inertial force
group, the ratios between inertial forces and forces of other physical origin. In modeling, the
following numbers can be distinguished:

* Strouhal Number (Str) = ( stationary/ in-stationary inertia forces)
-1

= (v.T/L)
-1
* Reynolds Number (Re) = stationary inertia force/ viscous force
= v.L/v
* Euler Number (Eu) = stationary inertia force/ pressure force
= v
2
/p
* Froude Number (Fr) = stationary inertia force/ gravity
= v
2
/gL

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* Weber Number (We) = stationary inertia force/ surface tension force
= v
2
L/o
in which:
L= characteristic length
T= time
v= velocity
p= pressure force per unit area
R= radius of curvature of the surface
o =capillary surface tension

and further:
for sea water with a temperature of 14 degrees centigrade
w= density of water = 1.025 ton.m^-3
v= kinematical viscosity = 1.18831* 10-6 m2.s-1
(1.36* 10-6 m2.s-1 at 100 C)
= dynamical viscosity = *v
for air with a temperature of 18 degrees centigrade:
a= density of air = .00128 ton.m^-3=1.28 kg.m^-3
v= kinematical viscosity= 1.3* 10-5 m2.s-1
(1.7* 10-5 m2.s-1 at 300 C)

Euler concerns compressibility of air and water, while Weber becomes important for very small
model scales. In practice in hydrodynamics we deal with Strouhal, Reynolds and Froude. Applying
Strouhal, Reynolds and Froude to a model scale dynamical similarity cannot be satisfied.
Since current and waves are related to gravity forces, the Froude number is the most important one.
Applying the Froude number for the scale law in modeling, scale effects are introduced because of
the Strouhal and the Reynold Numbers.











William Froude (28 November 1810 in Devon 4 May 1879 in Simonstown, South Africa)

An example of Froude scaling at a scale =40 is given in the table below.










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Quantity Model Prototype Ratio
Linear dimensions 1 m 40 m
Areas 1 m
2
1,600 m
2

2
Volumes 1 m
3
64,000 m
3

3
Time 1 s 6.32 s
Velocities 1 m/s 6.32 m/s
12.29 knots
Accelerations 1 m/s
2
1 m/s
2
1
Angles 1 deg 1 deg 1
Angular velocities 1 deg/s 0.1581 deg/s / 1
Mass 1 kg 65.6 tonnes ( *
3
) / 1,000
Forces 1 N 643.5 kN ( *g *
3
) / 1,000
Moments 1 Nm 25,741 kNm ( *g *
4
) / 1,000
*) =1.025 tonne/m^3 and g=9.81 m/s^2

37.3 Shallow water model testing
It is known that the design of a mooring system is more difficult in shallow water than in deepwater.
The reason is that the wave drift forces and the current loads on the moored vessel are much larger in
shallow water than in deepwater. Therefore sometimes model tests with the moored vessel are carried
out in shallow water.

During model tests in shallow water basins for instance at MARIN and MARINTEK, it was found
that the computed mooring forces did not agreed well with the results of experiments. The measured
mooring line loads were much higher than the computed mooring line loads. It was found that
parasitic LF incident free waves are present during model tests as is shown in the figure below. The
mentioned waves are:
- WF incident waves
- Incident bound waves (set-down)
- Incident free waves (false)
- Reflected free waves (false)
- WF reflected waves (false)


WF incident
LF incident free
WF reflected
LF incident bound (setdown)
LF reflected free





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The parasitic (LF) incident free waves (and the incident reflected waves) are mainly caused by the
"flat" wave maker and the steep ramp in front of the wave generator. By means of the shallow water
initiative HAWAI JIP MARIN (2004-2007) it was achieved that mathematically the parasitic waves
can be removed from the total wave excitation (using the so-called "wave splitting technique").
In reality however the reflected WF waves may be present. Nowadays it is considered that the results
of computations in shallow water are more reliable than the results of model tests.


37.4 Deepwater model testing

37.4.1 Introduction
For the global performance of deepwater floating structures the factors of importance for shallow and
deep and ultra deep water involved in model testing are given in the table below.

The design process for floaters moored in shallow and deep or ultra deepwater is shown in the figure
below.










Factors Involved in Model Testing
Model not completely scalable.
Must truncate mooring and riser
systems.
Completely scaled
model
Modeling testing
approach
Necessary must model-the-
model to adjust model test
results from truncated model to
full depth system
Not important Analysis tools
Basin depth
Viscosity (risers)
Factors
Inadequate Adequate
Important Not important
Deep & Ultra-Deep Water Shallow Water
Model not completely scalable.
Must truncate mooring and riser
systems.
Completely scaled
model
Modeling testing
approach
Necessary must model-the-
model to adjust model test
results from truncated model to
full depth system
Not important Analysis tools
Basin depth
Viscosity (risers)
Factors
Inadequate Adequate
Important Not important
Deep & Ultra-Deep Water Shallow Water
Global Performance of Deepwater Floating
Structures



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Deepwater oil and gas fields are defined as water depths ranging from 500 to 3000 m. The upper limit
of 500 m is taken as the available water depth in most of the model basins, where the full water can be
simulated with reasonable model scale. The model scale applied for testing of FPSO's with permanent
or disconnectable mooring system are in between 40< <85.

The following particular areas of experimental investigation can be distinguished:
Motions -slow-drift forces in extreme waves with current
-viscous damping
-motion coupling effects
Mooring -Dynamic line tension in extreme wave groups
-Dynamic coupling to vessel motions
Risers -Steady drag forces
-VIV
Rel. wave/ Green water -Probability of green water/negative air gap
-Impact loads & structural responses
Extreme responses -non-Gaussian processes

If the water depth is too large to be simulated in an offshore basin then the riser/mooring system has
to be truncated, see next section.

37.4.2 Truncation
If the water depth is too large for the model basin then the mooring lines and the risers have to be
truncated.

The model tests on reduced water depth comprises numerical reconstruction & extrapolation (hybrid
verification) according the following principles:
- Calibration/check of numerical code-coupled analysis (Model-the-Model)
- System identification; in particular: slow drift excitation and damping (scale effects)
NUMERICAL
MODEL
PREDICT
VALIDATE
MODEL
TEST
COMPLETE
SYSTEM
FINAL
DESIGN
NUMERICAL
MODEL
PREDICT
VALIDATE
MODEL TEST
TRUNCATED
SYSTEM
FINAL
DESIGN
SCALING
DIRECTLY
Shallow water: numerical model not always
necessary
Deep & Ultra deep water - numerical model
always necessary
COMPENSATE FOR
SCALE EFFECTS

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- Final full-depth simulation with calibrated code (coupled analysis

The design of a truncated system should be satisfied the following items for a FPSO:
- Horizontal restoring force characteristics
- Quasi-static single-line characteristics; this implies that at the attachment points of the mooring line
(and riser) the pre-tension force and the pre-tension angle should be as close as possible as for full
depth. The static load-displacement curve for the truncated and full depth mooring line (or riser)
should be as close as possible for the expected range of excursion of the FPSO
- Representative damping levels; this means that if the mooring line has a turret chain then the turret
chain has to simulated in the truncated system to have a part of the required damping of the mooring
line. Also the risers have to be simulated.

It must be noted that in general the mooring system dominates the horizontal restoring force
characteristic of the system. The effect of the risers on the horizontal restoring force characteristic is
relatively small.

37.5 Modeling of metocean conditions in a laboratory basins

MODELLING OF WAVES:
Modeling of waves-items of particular interest can be as given below:
Wave spectrum, Gauss distribution of the wave elevations, wave group spectrum and distribution of
the wave groups
Non-linear effects (crests, wave heights, kinematics and maximum crest versus steepness during e.g. 3
hours)
Extreme waves
Repeatability
Minimum scale of reproduction

MODELLING OF CURRENTS:
Modeling of current-items of particular interest can be as given below:
Vertical profile (magnitude and direction)
Homogenous and constant current velocity: turbulence

MODELLING OF WIND
Modeling of wind-items of particular interest can be as given below:
Make sure that the wind field is homogenous over a sufficient height above the still water level in the
basin
Calibration of the wind force on the FPSO (and tandem/side-by-side offloading tanker)
Calibration over wind loading over the required range of area in the basin
Calibration of the wind force spectrum










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37.6 Review of model basins

37.6.1 MARINTEK
1980: Deep water offshore basin 50*80*10 with no pit-movable floor- multi-flap on one side, fixed
board flap on the other side,
Current generated in longitudinal length of the basin underneath moveable floor (poor current
generation).
Wind simulated by means of portable set of wind fans
Besides deepwater basin MARINTEK has also a towing/sea-keeping basin.

37.6.2 Lab Oceanico
2003: Deepwater offshore basin 30 x 40 x 15 with pit total depth 25 m-poor movable floor, multi-
flaps on one side,
Current generated in longitudinal length of the basin.
Wind simulated by means of portable set of wind fans

37.6.3 MARIN
2000: Deep water offshore basin 36*45*10 m with pit total depth 40 m-movable floor, multi-flaps on
both sides,
Current generated in longitudinal length of the basin.
Wind simulated by means of portable set of wind fans



Sea-keeping basin 40 x 170 x 5 m- multi-flaps on both sides-high speed carriage)

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Besides offshore and sea-keeping basin MARIN has also a high speed basin, towing basins and a
shallow water basin.



37.6.4 Jiao Tong Offshore Basin Shanghai
2007: Deep water offshore basin 40 x 50 x 10 with pit total depth 40 m-movable floor, multi-flaps on
both sides, current-copy of the offshore basin of MARIN, but larger.

37.6.5 Oceanic-St. Johns New Foundland
The offshore basin measures 75 x 32 m with adjustable water depth from 0.5 m to 3.2 m.
Regular and irregular waves generated from 2 sides (multi-flaps on both sides).
Current generated in longitudinal length of the basin.
Wind simulated by means of portable set of wind fans




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37.6.6 Offshore Model Basin-Escondido
OMB-Escondido-general status: restricted possibilities

37.6.7 OTRC College Station
The offshore basin measures 45.7 x 30.5 x 5.8 m with a central pit length 9.1 m and width 4.6 m.
Adjustable depth of the square pit from 5.8 to 16.8 m.
Regular and irregular waves generated from one side (multi-flaps).
Current generated locally homogenous, steady flow in the vicinity of the model by means of multi-
port jet manifolds.
Wind simulated by means of portable set of windfans

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38 ENGINEERING OF THE MOORING INSTALLATION PLAN

38.1 General
This chapter provides requirements, guidance and recommendations for the installation of mooring
systems including foundations for FPSO's. The systems considered are of a spread mooring type and
single point mooring type.

All moorings of FPSO's have been designed according to ISO 1991-7
2
or API RP 2SK
3
.
The engineering aspects for the mooring lines and anchors are briefly discussed below.
The safety factors for the mooring components are given in Table 38-1.

Table 38-1 Design safety factors
analysis condition analysis method
line tension
(% of BMS)
design safety
factor
Intact Quasi-static 50 2,00
Intact Dynamic 60 1,67
redundancy check Quasi-static 70 1,43
redundancy check Dynamic 80 1,25

If drag anchors will be used then the holding capacity should be sized to have an UHC (ultimate
holding capacity) greater than:
1.5 times the maximum force calculated in the line at the anchor point, in the intact condition;
1.0 times the maximum force calculated in the line at the anchor point, in the redundancy check
condition.

If anchor piles, suction piles and VLA's will be used then the holding capacity should be sized to have
an UHC greater than:
2.0 times the maximum force calculated in the line at the anchor point, in the intact condition;
1.5 times the maximum force calculated in the line at the anchor point, in the redundancy check
condition.

Where drag anchors are used, the mooring lines should generally be designed to avoid any uplift at
the anchor for the maximum forces calculated in the redundancy check conditions. Consideration
may, however, be given to certain types of drag anchors which can accept a limited uplift under
extreme conditions, provided that they have been tested and proven under similar conditions.
Connections, such as mooring brackets on the structure, should be sized for an ultimate strength not
less than 1,3 times the required breaking strength of the weakest component in the mooring line.

2
ISO 19901-7, under the general title Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries - Specific requirements for offshore
structures: Part 7: Stationkeeping systems for floating offshore structures and mobile offshore units
3
American Petroleum Institute: API RP 2SK, Design and analysis of station keeping systems for floating structure, 3rd
edition, October 2005


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Any component located along the mooring line should have an ultimate strength equal to or larger
than the breaking strength of the line itself.
For the specific case of shackles, or other components defined by their WLL (=working load limit) a
safety factor of 3,3 between the calculated force and the documented breaking strength of the
component is maintained.

The WLL of a shackle, F
sh,WLL
, is defined as:

F
sh,WLL
= (MBS of the shackle) / f

where f is the minimum safety factor for a shackle, f = 3,3
4
.

Other components used to connect or lead the mooring line (e.g. fairleaders, winches, stoppers, etc.)
should have an ultimate strength of a factor 1.3.
38.2 Tensioning of moorings
After laying, drag anchors should be tested to the calculated maximum force generated in the line
under the design environmental conditions, in the intact mooring system as predicted by the chosen
design methodology, see Figure 38-1. The test load should be applied gradually in the line and then
maintained for a duration of at least 15 minutes, see also 10.4.6 of ISO 19901-7.
If this tensioning test is impractical for large anchors, the test load should be individually determined
after considering the actual anchor design and the soil conditions.
In such a case, the test load applied should be as large as is practical, and provisions should be made
in the mooring arrangement to recover any slack in the line in the event of further embedment or drag
after completion of the test and throughout the construction stages of the structure.
When mooring piles or suction anchors are used, proof tests are not normally required as long as the
installation records show that the soil conditions are in accordance with the soil design data. However,
a pull-out test should be undertaken in order to recover the slack in the part of the chain embedded in
the soil during anchor or pile installation.

Fig. 38-1: Proof loading of the anchors


4
The International Marine Contractors Association Guidance on The Use of Cable Laid Slings and Grommets IMCA
M 179 August 2005




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38.3 Mooring components
Mooring lines for catenary or taut moorings are generally composed of several components and
segments with different materials, characteristics, weight and appearance, including
- connectors;
- segments of chain, stud or studless;
- segments of steel wire rope, sheathed or not;
- segments of synthetic wire rope;
- weight or buoyancy elements.

38.4 Installation planning

38.4.1 General
The marine operations shall be considered at the design stage of the mooring system. Regardless of
the type of mooring system to be installed, operations with regards to installing mooring equipment
shall be thoroughly risk assessed, and then designed and planned taking into account the risk
assessment results.
The result shall be documented in a set of installation procedures or instructions for the installation
crew.

38.4.2 Operational aspects
Aspects to be considered in determining the design situations for the marine operations shall include:
- mooring configuration, component specifications and special design features
incorporated to facilitate deployment;
- relevant requirements and regulations from owner or governing authorities to the as-
laid mooring;
- existing installation units, subsea equipment, supporting vessels and other activities
planned or in progress in the field vicinity;
- environmental conditions, such as local seasonal data on magnitude and direction of
wind, waves, swell and current, and hurricanes, if relevant;
- specific design conditions for weather-restricted operations;
- seabed soil conditions at the anchor and mooring line locations;
- a drawing showing the nearby obstacles, especially those on the sea floor.

38.4.3 Mooring equipment documentation
Components and segments in the mooring system shall have a valid certificate and/or design
documentation and should be uniquely identifiable.
The following documentation should be available for the design, planning and execution of the
operations:
- dimensions with tolerances;
- material specifications;
- weight;
- length;
- strength (as certified or otherwise documented);
- special considerations;
- load-elongation properties: initial permanent elongation and stiffness for fibre ropes;
- axial stiffness (wire rope);

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- torque and twist behavior (wire and fibre rope);
- resistance to mechanical and chemical attack;
- fabricators guidelines or instructions if any;
- minimal allowable bending radius (as a function of rope tension as applicable);
- anchor particulars.
Relevant documentation should be available during pre-installation operations and temporary phases.

38.4.4 Pre-installation activities
Activities to be carried out prior to the start of the installation operations shall include:
- inspection and certification of the mooring components;
- survey of mooring line corridors and anchor location area;
- trial fit of components where practical, to verify appropriate tolerances;
- calibration of positioning systems.

ROV surveys shall be performed in search of obstructions that would interfere with the work along
planned mooring line pre-lay routes and the anchor location area. The sea floor survey shall ensure a
pre-lay corridor width of 20 m for each mooring line is free of obstructions. The corridor width shall
take into account the accuracy of the survey procedure being used.
Example: If the accuracy of the survey is 15m on either side of the required corridor, a width of 5m
shall be surveyed to ensure a 20 m width is confirmed obstacle free.
A seabed acoustic array shall be installed on the sea floor at the installation site. Target buoys related
to the positions of the anchor location and the position of the FPS shall be installed.
Instrumentation on the ROV shall be capable of using the survey system to determine the actual
location, radial orientation and verticality.

38.4.5 Sequence of mooring component installation
The anchor and mooring line configuration will dictate the sequence of installation of the segment
components. Efforts should be made to develop a sequence permitting a safe and controlled handling
of the material and personnel, with optimum use of available installation vessels and facilities.
The platform chain end of the mooring line laid on the sea floor shall be terminated with
abandonment and recovery system that will assure it can be easily located and recovered to the
surface without delay or damage (during the hook-up). The location of the termination of each
mooring line on the sea floor shall be recorded. The abandonment and recovery system shall include
a secondary recovery method as a contingency, so that if the primary recovery system is unable to
retrieve the mooring line, the secondary system can be utilized. This termination system shall be
designed such that the mooring line can be retrieved by use of a line lowered from a floating vessel.
The retrieval line attachment to the mooring line shall be designed to be activated by the use of ROV
assisted tools.
The abandonment and recovery system/termination shall be designed to distribute the weight of the
platform chain and its end connection to the sea floor in a manner that they will not become
submerged in the soil below the sea floor.

38.4.6 Post-installation activities
Following the installation of the mooring system a visual post-installation survey of the mooring
system should be performed. The survey should be documented and taped on video. Position of
anchor points should be stated with the level of accuracy offered by the survey system deployed. The
scope of the survey should as a minimum record:
- an as-laid configuration of the mooring lines;



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- a position of anchor point and pre-laid mooring lines;
- the condition, shape and position of any aids for temporary phases, final pick-up or
hook-up (buoys, grommets, etc);
- any damage, twist, etc. that can have occurred during installation.

In the following the installation of fluke anchors, plate anchors, suction anchors and gravity anchors.
In chapter 38 the installation of the chains, steel wire ropes and synthetic fibre ropes will be
discussed.

38.5 Fluke anchor installation

38.5.1 General
Installation of drag embedment fluke anchors, see Figure 38-2, shall in general follow procedures
developed by the anchor manufacturer, with modifications if necessary to suit the actual installation,
and be approved by all parties.
The procedure shall ensure adequate holding capacity of the mooring system by load testing, see also
section 38.2.

Fig.38-2: Drag embedment fluke anchor

38.5.2 Operational aspects
Aspects to be considered during planning and operational execution shall include, as appropriate:

- monitoring of anchor installation;
- line tension during installation;
- line angle outside stern roller;
- anchor drag;
- final installation measurements;
- minimum test tension, holding time 15 minutes;
- final anchor drag;
- final penetration depth (best estimate);
- installation tolerances;
- requirements to as-laid documentation;
- need for ROV assistance to verify position and orientation during deployment.

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38.5.3 Anchor installation vessel
Available bollard pull, winch capacity and MBS of the installation wire onboard the actual installation
vessel(s) should be such as to ensure that the minimum required test load can be applied to the
mooring system.
Friction resistance at the stern roller, weight of mooring lines (in deep waters) and line angle should
be taken into consideration. For the general lay-out of an anchor handling vessel (AHV) see Figure
38-3.

.
Fig. 38-3: A anchor handling vessel

38.6 Plate anchor installation

38.6.1 General
The embedment of plate anchors can be obtained by dragging (like a fluke anchor), pushing, driving
or by the use of suction.
In general the installation shall follow procedures developed by the anchor manufacturer, with
modifications if necessary to suit the actual installation, and be approved by all parties.
The installation procedure shall ensure adequate holding capacity of the mooring system by load
testing, see also subclause 10.4.6 of ISO 19901-7. In Figure 6 a plate anchor is shown. In Figure 38-4
the platform and the AHV for a direct installation of the anchor with the mooring line is installed, see
also Figure 38-5.




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Fig.38-4: A plate anchor Fig. 38-5: An anchor to be installed

In Figure 38-6 the line right hand side is the actual mooring line connected to the platform, while on
the left side the line is shown which belongs to the AHV. In this way the mooring line will not touch
the seabed


Fig. 38-6: Installation of a anchor between the platform and the AHV

38.6.2 Operational aspects
For drag-in plate anchors, see section 38.5. For plate anchor embedment using suction pile, see
section 38.7.
Aspects to be considered during planning and operational execution shall include, as appropriate:
- triggering and rotation of the anchor;
- verification by measurements that the anchor has rotated to its intended installation
position;
- confirmation of anchor holding capacity by full load testing.

38.6.3 Anchor installation vessel
For anchor installation vessels, see 38.5.3.

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38.7 Suction anchor installation

38.7.1 General
Suction anchors should be purpose-built for a specific installation method. The marine operations
shall be considered at the design stage so as to obtain optimum design with respect to logistics,
handling, deployment and insertion of the anchors.
The anchors are normally transported offshore on the installation vessel or on a separate barge. In
case of multi-caisson suction anchors, self-floating transportation can be feasible.
The anchors are either lifted by crane, see Figure 38-7, or launched by skidding from the
transportation vessel and lowered to the sea floor. During lowering there should be free movement of
water between the interior of the anchor and the sea through open valves in the roof of the anchor.
When the mooring line is attached to the anchor before the anchor is launched, the installation
procedure shall ensure that the integrity of the mooring line is maintained throughout the anchor
submergence and insertion.
The anchor penetrates under its own weight to an initial depth. Water evacuation ports shall be large
enough to allow fast water evacuation during penetration by self weight without disturbing the upper
soils.
Further penetration to final depth is accomplished by closing the evacuation valves and pumping
water from the anchor interior to create suction. Soil data shall be used to determine the required
pump capacity (i.e. necessary and allowable under-pressure) to penetrate the anchor to the required
penetration depth.
A remotely controlled hydraulic pump unit can be fixed to the anchor prior to launching.
Alternatively, a pump unit can be subsea docked by pre-rigged guide wires or by ROV.
After installation the mooring line shall be pre-tensioned so as to prevent unacceptable line slacking
from stretching of the embedded section after the floater is hooked up to the mooring system, see also
subclause 10.4.6 of ISO 19901-7.


Fig. 38-7: Suction anchor installation




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A special form of suction anchor is the suction embedded anchor, see Figure 38-8. Actually it is a
kind of a drag anchor but brought in position by means of suction, see for the installation procedure
Figures 38-9.


Fig. 38-8: Suction embedded drag anchor





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Fig. 38-9: Installation procedure of the suction embedded drag anchor
38.7.2 Operational aspects
Aspects to be considered during planning and operational execution shall include, as appropriate:
- anchor weight and dimensions;
- location of padeye (depth below mudline);
- mooring line configuration;
- geotechnical parameters;
- expected self weight penetration depth;
- required suction pressure;
- limiting suction pressure;
- installation tolerances on verticality, orientation of padeye and penetrated depth;
- lifting and repositioning in case of penetration failure;
- requirements to as-installed documentation;
- lifting/lowering capacity of marine equipment;
- requirements for ROV assistance.

38.7.3 Operation control parameters
The following parameters should be considered, monitored and controlled during installation:
- anchor position;
- anchor heading during lowering, upon initial stabbing and once installed;
- penetrated depth;
- inside suction pressure;
- padeye orientation;
- anchor verticality during lowering, upon initial stabbing and once installed;

38.8 Pile anchor installation

38.8.1 General
Pile anchors may be launched, lifted or upended and normally lowered to the sea floor by a crane.
During lowering the pile anchor shall be lowered from the sea surface to the sea floor by a method
that restrains the pile from rotation on the lowering line.



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When the mooring line is attached to the anchor before the anchor is launched, the installation
procedure shall ensure that the integrity of the mooring line is maintained throughout the pile
submergence and insertion.
The pile penetrates to an initial depth under its own weight. Penetration to final depth is accomplished
by the use of a pile hammer mounted on the pile top. Alternatively the pile can be drilled and grouted
in place or the pile can be dropped from a calculated height above the sea floor using gravity to reach
the design penetration. In Figure 38-10 the installed pile anchor has been shown.
After installation the mooring line shall be pre-tensioned so as to prevent unacceptable line slacking
from stretching of the embedded section after the floater is hooked up to the mooring system, see also
subclause 10.4.6 of ISO 19901-7.


Fig. 38-10: Installed pile anchor

Note: However, issues regarding stability of self penetrated piles and the cost of underwater hammering start to come
into view in deeper water. Also, the operating depth of hydraulic hammers is normally limited to about 5,000 ft.
The anchor piles anchoring can be catenary or taut moorings. Anchor piles are used for most all other types of floating
units. They are usually attached to the mooring lines with a padeye located at an optimum location below the pile top. The
padeye location is chosen to strike an optimum balance between the pile length, governed by the axial component of the
mooring load, and the pile cross-section, governed by the bending caused by the lateral component of the mooring load.

38.8.2 Operational aspects
Aspects to be considered during planning and operational execution shall include, as appropriate:

- pile weight and dimensions;
- location of padeye;
- mooring line configuration;
- geotechnical parameters;
- expected self weight penetration depth;
- need for sea floor support frame;
- selection of pile hammer or drilling and grouting equipment;
- installation tolerances on verticality, orientation of padeye and final penetrated depth;

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- potential for pile and connector fatigue during driving;
- need for ROV assistance provided of instrumentation to determine the penetration of
each anchor pile immediately after lowering of the pile.

38.8.3 Operational control parameters
The following parameters shall be considered, monitored and controlled during operations:
- pile position;
- padeye orientation;
- penetrated depth;
- pile hammer, and drilling and grouting equipment performance;
- blow counts;
- pile verticality during lowering, upon initial stabbing and throughout installation until
full penetration is achieved;
- pile refusal;
- pile soak.

38.9 Gravity anchor installation

38.9.1 General
Gravity anchors are deadweight anchors that commonly consist of solid blocks or containment
structures with ballast weight of high-density materials.
Both solid block anchors and containment structure anchors are normally transported on a vessel and
lifted in place by crane. Self-floating containment structures are also used.
The ballast materials can be concrete or steel blocks, scrap metal or rock. Ballast materials are
normally placed at the anchor location after installation of the containment structure and are either
lifted in place or, in case of rock, dumped through a fall pipe from the installation vessel.
After installation the mooring line shall be pre-tensioned to demonstrate adequate holding capacity
and to eliminate unacceptable line slacking after the floater is hooked up to the mooring system, see
also subclause 10.4.6 of ISO 19901-7.

38.9.2 Operational aspects
Aspects to be considered during planning and operational execution shall include, as appropriate:

- anchor weight and dimensions;
- location of padeye;
- tolerances on orientation of padeye;
- need for ROV assistance;
- sea floor bathymetry;
- seabed soil conditions.
-
38.9.3 Operational control parameters
The following parameters shall be considered, monitored and controlled during installation of the
anchors:
- anchor position;
- padeye orientation;
- weight control.




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38.10 Chain Installation

38.10.1 General
Both stud link chain and studless link chain cables are used in mooring systems. The chains shall
always be handled and installed in accordance with guidelines and instructions issued by the
fabricator.

38.10.2 Operational aspects
Aspects to be considered during planning and design shall include, as appropriate:
- chain elements shall have a valid certificate that is associated with a unique
identification number on the chain element;
- recording of the position in the chain cable where the chain elements with its unique
identification number are positioned;
- equipment and tools for stopping off should be adequately sized to sustain
installation actions;
- size of gypsies, as well as winch pull and brake capacities, should be checked to be
suitable;
- twist in the chain elements shall be avoided;
- ultimate actions shall be checked to be compatible with allowable reactions,
throughout all phases of the installation period;
- mechanical damage to chain links shall be avoided.

38.10.3 Post-installed inspection
A post-installation survey shall be performed to verify that the chain elements are not twisted beyond
the allowance criteria and that no mechanical damage has occurred.

38.11 Steel wire rope

38.11.1 General
Steel wire rope can be of various constructions, and each can behave differently when handled and
subjected to a load. In particular, this can apply to bending and torque properties. Wires for long-term
mooring systems can be coated or sheathed. Steel wire rope shall be handled and installed in
accordance with guidelines and instructions issued by the fabricator.

38.11.2 Operational aspects
Aspects to be considered during planning and design shall include, as appropriate:

- wire segments shall have a valid certificate that is associated with a unique
identification number on the wire segment;
- methods for stopping off for actions during installation;
- load-elongation properties (axial stiffness);
- twist and torque of the wire when loaded, and in particular its effect on the adjacent
mooring system elements;
- handling of sheathed wire rope should be planned such that any damage to the wire
sheathing is avoided and, should it occur, can be repaired on deck with adequate
repair kit;

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- minimum bending radii on winch reels, fairleads and over the stern roller should be
respected, in particular near the wire terminations;
- protection from mechanical damage or weld spatters, in particular when the wire is
coated;
- other hazards with respect to the integrity of the wire sheathing;
- avoid kinks or loops during wire handling and in the as-laid configuration;
- fatigue contribution during the pre-installed time period if relevant;
- minimum tension to avoid over-bending.

38.11.3 Post-installed inspection
A post-installation survey should be performed to document the as-installed configuration and to
verify that the wire is not twisted beyond acceptance criteria, not damaged and that no kinks or loops
have occurred.

38.12 Synthetic fibre rope

38.12.1 General
Fibre rope can be of various material(s) and constructions. Each combination can have different
characteristics and properties, which should be taken into consideration in particular when handled,
subjected to action or temporary stored. The guidelines and instructions issued by the fabricator shall
be followed.

NOTE For further information reference is made to Annex D of ISO 18692
5
.

38.12.2 Operational aspects
Rope material properties and aspects to be considered during planning and operational execution:
- rope construction, rope material, protective cover and particle ingress protection;
- MBS;
- load-elongation properties: initial permanent elongation and stiffness for fibre ropes;
- fabrication tolerances (length);
- weight, submerged and in air;
- hoop actions;
- cyclic actions;
- compression actions (lack of tension);
- bending radii (winch drums inner diameter, guiding pins, stern roller, etc.);
- bending combined with tension;
- minimum tension and over-bending;
- heat and UV radiation;
- methods for stopping off for loads;
- potential mechanical wear and damage (sharp steel edges, vessel deck, stern roller,
handling equipment);
- contact with chemicals (oil, solvent, etc.);
- contact with sea floor and exposure to water borne particles to be avoided and is
prohibited if the rope does not have a particle ingress protection. Such a rope shall be
discarded if it has been dropped on the sea floor;

5
ISO International Standard ISO/FDIS 18692:2007 - Fibre ropes for offshore stationkeeping - polyester




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- attachment of buoyancy elements;
- motions and fatigue induced in the temporary phases;
- effects from the environment during installation and the pre-installed time period.

38.12.3 As-installed inspection
A post-installation survey should be performed to document the as-installed condition and
configuration, to verify that no damage has occurred and to compare the actual conditions with the
acceptance criteria.








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Dr. Wichers had more than 40 years of experience in computations and
model testing with floating offshore structures, especially with SPM,
jetty, semi-submersible based FPU and tanker based FPSO design
systems in shallow and deep water, DP, TLP in deep water and
dredging equipment exposed to wind, waves and current. In 1973 he
received his Master Degree of University of Technology Delft, the
Netherlands. He Joined MARIN in 1973 as Project Manager Offshore
Department. After joining MARIN he was involved in model tests and
computations for floating offshore structures. In 1988 he received his
PhD of University of Technology Delft entitled A simulation model for a
single point moored tanker. 1989-1998: Manager of the Seakeeping
and Offshore Project Department of MARIN. 1998-2006: Vice-
President of the Houston affiliation MARIN USA Inc. Houston TX.
2006-2012: President of WMooring Inc., Houston TX. Since November
2007 Fellow of the SNAME