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Chapter 3 p

The Standard Atmosphere


1 Structure Of The Atmosphere 1.Structure Of The Atmosphere
Atmosphere is the air envelope surrounding the earth
Air is a mixture of several gases where Oxygen Air is a mixture of several gases, where Oxygen
represents (21%) ,Nitrogen (78%), and other gases
(1%) of the total volume.
Up to about 90 km altitude, composition of air is the
same (the homosphere)
Above about 90 km, composition varies with altitude
(the heterosphere) as shown in figure.
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
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Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
2
The atmosphere is divided into several layers p y
according to temperature variation with altitude
Why do we study the atmosphere?
For the design and performance determination of any
flying vehicle (airplane, missile, satellite,.etc),
knowledge of the vertical distribution of pressure knowledge of the vertical distribution of pressure,
temperature, and density of air is required.
The properties of the real atmosphere never remain
constant at any particular time or place.
Consequently, a hypothetical model is employed as an
i ti t h t b t d Thi d l i approximation to what may be expected. This model is
known as the standard atmosphere.
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
3
The Standard atmosphere depends on the measurement
f th l f t t ith ltit d bi d of the mean value of temperature with altitude combined
with the hydrostatic equation which gives the variation of
p with the altitude .
2.The Hydrostatic Equation
Fluid element Fluid element
of air at rest
+ve h
G
Force diagram for the hydrostatic equation
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
4
For equilibrium of the air element, the some of For equilibrium of the air element, the some of
the forces in any direction must be zero.
Resolving in the vertical direction: Resolving in the vertical direction:
p(1)(1) (p+dp)(1)(1) (1)(1) g dh
G
= 0
Then - dp g dh
G
= 0
Or dp/dh
G
= - g Hydrostatic equation
Thi ti th t th This equation means that the pressure
decreases with the increase of height.
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
5
What is the altitude?
There are six (6) different altitudes: There are six (6) different altitudes:
1-Geometric Altitude h
G
is the height above sea-level.
2-Absolute Altitude h
a
is the height measured from the
t f th th center of the earth.
h
a
= h
G
+ R
where R is the radius of earth ( R = 6356.766 km) where R is the radius of earth ( R 6356.766 km)
The absolute altitude is important for space flight because
g varies with h
a .
A di t N t l f it According to Newtons law of gravity,
g = g
o
[R/h
a
]
2
= g
o
[R/(R + h
G
) ]
2
where g
o
is g at sea-level where g
o
g
3-Geopotential Altitude h is a fictitious (hypothetical)
altitude used to facilitate the calculations ( h h
G
)
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
6
h
a
h
G
Surface of earth
(Sea level)
R
Definition of altitude
By definition : dp = - g dh
G
= - g
o
dh
Then : dh/dh
G
= g / g
o
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
7
What is the relation between h & h
G
?
dh R
2
/(R h )
2
dh dh = R
2
/(R+h
G
)
2
dh
G
Integrate:
0

h
dh =
0

h
G
R
2
/(R+h
G
)
2
dh
G
The result is: h = [R/(R+h )] h The result is: h = [R/(R+h
G
)] h
G
At h
G
= 6.5 km , h is less than h
G
by about 0.1% only.
At h
G
= 65 km , h is less than h
G
by about 1% only.
G
,
G
y y
The Standard Atmosphere (SA)
It is defined in order to relate flight tests, wind-tunnel
tests and the general design and performance of flying tests, and the general design and performance of flying
vehicle ( aircraft, missile, satellite,.etc ) to a common
reference.
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
8
It gives mean values of p, T, , and other properties as
f ti f ltit d function of altitude.
These values are obtained from experimental balloons
and sounding-rocket measurements with a mathematical and sounding rocket measurements with a mathematical
model of the atmosphere ( based on the equation of
state and the hydrostatic equation).
S l diff t t d d t h i t d t Several different standard atmospheres exist, due to
using different experimental data in the models, but the
differences are insignificant below 30 km (100,000 ft), g ( )
which is the domain of contemporary airplanes.
Definition Of The Standard Atmosphere (SA)
(S ) f The standard atmosphere (SA) is defined by:
1. Conditions at sea-level:
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
9
p
o
= 1.01325 x 10
5
N/m
2
= 2116.2 Ib/ft
2
p
o
T
o
= 288.16
o
K = 518.60
o
R

o
= 1.225 kg/m
2
= 0.002377 slug/ft
2
g
o
= 9.807 m/s
2
= 32.17 ft/s
2
2 A d fi d i ti f T ith ltit d b d 2. A defined variation of T with altitude, based on
experimental evidence, as shown in Figure.
# Given T = T(h), then p = p(h) and = (h) can now be # Given T T(h), then p p(h) and (h) can now be
determined by calculation.
# The atmospheric layers of the SA are either isothermal or
di t l h i Fi gradient layers, as shown in Figure.
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
10
Temperature distribution in the standard atmosphere
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
11
Atmospheric properties variation of SA
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
12
p p p
(A) Calculation in an Isothermal Layer:
h
Tp
h
T,p,
Isothermal Layer
h
1
T
1
,p
1
,
1
Base of Isothermal Layer Base of Isothermal Layer
From the hydrostatic equation: dp = - g
o
dh
Substitute from the equation of state: p = RT
dp/p = - (g
o
/RT) dh (1)
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
13
Integrate:
p
1

p
dp/p = -(g
o
/RT)
h
1

h
dh
Hence, ln (p/p
1
) = -(g
o
/RT) (h h
1
)
( /RT)(h h )
Or : (p/p
1
) = e
-(g
o
/RT)(h h
1
)
= (/
1
) (2)
B ( / ) ( T/ T ) ( / ) Because , ( p/p
1
) = (T/
1
T
1
) = (/
1
)
from equation of state
and T = T
1
(3)
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
14
(B) Calculation in a Gradient Layer:
h T,p, h T,p,
Base of layer
h
1
T
1
,p
1
,
1
The temperature variation is linear,
(T-T
1
)/(h-h
1
) = dT/dh = a
a is the temperature lapse rate ( +ve or ve)
T = T
1
+ a (h h
1
) (4) T T
1
+ a (h h
1
) (4)
Then, dh = dT/a and substitute into Eqn.(1)
dp/p = - (g
o
/aR) dT/T
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
15
Integrate:
p1

p
dp/p = -(g
o
/aR)
T1

T
dT/T g
p1
p p (g
o
)
T1
Hence, ln p/p
1
= - (g
o
/aR) ln T/T
1
Then, p/p
1
= (T/T
1
)
-g
o
/aR
(5)
From equation of state:
( p/p ) = (T/ T ) = (/ )(T/T1) ( p/p
1
) = (T/
1
T
1
) = (/
1
)(T/T1)
Hence, (/
1
) = (T/T1)
-[(g
o
/aR)+1]
(6) , (
1
) ( ) ( )
Where T is calculated from Eq.(4)
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
16
With the Figure of variation of T with h and
Eqs.(2),(3),(4),(5), and (6) a Table of values for the
Standard Atmosphere is constructed and is given in
Appendix A for SI units and Appendix B for English Appendix A for SI units and Appendix B for English
Engineering Units (see textbook Introduction to Flight,
Anderson, pages 709-729)
4 P Altit d h Th ltit d i th St d d 4.Pressure Altitude h
p
:The altitude in the Standard
Atmosphere corresponding to a particular static air
pressure. p
5.Temperature Altitude h
T
:The altitude in the Standard
Atmosphere corresponding to a particular air
temperature temperature.
6.Density Altitude h

: The altitude in the Standard


Atmosphere corresponding to a particular air density.
Prof. Galal Bahgat Salem
Aerospace Dept., Cairo University
17
p p g p y