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Introduction

In real life application, there are different processes of metal deformation used to alter
different metallic structures in microscopic or atomic scales. These different deformations on
very small scales can affect the overall properties of a certain material. This is why it is
important and useful for different kinds of engineers, (especially material engineers), to
determine these kinds of deformities and test how they can change when they are exposed to a
common experimental environments or real life situations.

There are two different types of deformation theories that were employed on this lab. One
of them was the cold working of copper samples, and the other one was the annealing of copper
samples.

Cold working is a type of metalworking done by subjecting metal to enough mechanical
stress to cause plastic deformation, a permanent change in the metal's crystalline structure. It gets
its name because it is done at temperatures below the metal's recrystallization point and alters the
metal's structure through mechanical stress rather than heat. The technique increases a metal's
strength and hardness while reducing its ductility. A number of different processes are used in
the modern metalworking industries that are applied to materials such as steel, aluminum, and
copper. [1]

This type of metalworking strengthens the material through a process called work
hardening or strain hardening. When the mechanical stress on a metal becomes high enough, it
causes permanent crystallographic defects, called dislocations, in the crystalline structure of the
metal's atoms. As the number of dislocations increases, it becomes more difficult for new ones to
form or for the existing defects to move through the crystal structure, making the metal become
more resistant to further deformation. This increases its yield strength and allows it to withstand
greater stress, but it also means that the metal becomes less ductile and that, if the metal is
subjected to too much stress, it will fracture rather than bend. [1]

Cold working is often more cost effective than working metal through heat treatment,
especially for large-volume production, because it produces comparable improvements in
strength while using materials more efficiently and requiring less finishing. The high initial
capital cost of this process, however, makes it less cost effective than heat treatment at smaller
scales. The lower ductility of cold-worked metal also makes it inferior in some applications. Its
higher resistance to deformation makes it less able to give way to forces the metal is not strong
enough to resist, and so if the metal is subjected to too much stress, it can fracture rather than
bend. Some metal production uses both methods at different points in the production process to
impart the desired qualities in the metal. [1]

There are a number of different methods that can be used for cold working. The most
common type is cold rolling, in which the metal being worked is squeezed through narrow gaps
between rotating metal rolls. The movement of the rolls compresses the material, causing
deformation as moves it through the gap. Another method is cold forging, in which metal is
shaped by forcing it into a die with a press or hammer. [1]

If it is desired to know for example the cold work percentage of a sample that has
exposed to rolling, the cold work % will be defined by formula (1).

(1)
Where

represents the initial material length,

represents the initial material. and


represent the final length and Area affected by the rolling process. Figure 1 show a rolling
material used to modify the metal structures.



Figure1. Metal Roller

On the other hand we can define Annealing as Annealing is the commonest of
all the heat treatment pr
ocesses. Every piece
of metal has been annealed at least once a
nd some parts many times in the
process of getting from raw material to part.
Why anneal?
There are two main reasons for annealing.
The first is to soften it and remove
stress. The second is to
homogenise the structure.
Every time a piece of metal is worked it accumulates stress and gets harder.
The harder it gets, the more difficult it
is to work again. Take something as
simple as a coin as an example. The
cast slab of coinage alloy is rolled down
to a plate. It becomes so
hard that it must be anneal
ed before it can be rolled
further. It may undergo several such cy
cles before reaching the correct
thickness. The coin sized blanks ar
e then punched out of the strip. The cut
faces are hard so the blanks are anneal
ed again before they can be minted.
No final anneal is needed as the hardne
ss from minting process helps with
wear in service.
When a metal is cast, the solidificati
on processes result in both macro and
micro segregation of the alloying elem
ents present. Macro segregation needs
to be broken down by mechanical work, but micro segregation can often be
homogenised by annealing.
How is it done?
Annealing is basically a very simple proc
ess. The metal is heated up, held at
temperature for a time, then it is slow
cooled. If the condi
tion of the surface
does not matter or cleaning takes place
later (e.g. casti
ngs) then it can be
done in air. If the surface finish does
matter then a protective atmosphere is
used. Typically this w
ould be nitrogen with a small
hydrogen addition. Steel
is a bit different from the rest of the
metals so it will be addressed separately.