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ANALTICAL TECHNIQUES ASSIGNMENT

COURSE#509
BAUME SCALE
INTRODUCTION
The French chemist Antoine Baum devised the scale for marking hydrometers
DEFINITION
The Baum scale is a measure of a solution's specific gravity, not its concentration.and
The Baum scale is not a temperature scale

DESIGN OF BAUME SCALE OR EQUIPMENT DETAIL:
Designating or conforming to either of the scales used by theFrench chemist Antoine
Baum'e! in the graduation of his hydrometers" of or relating to Baum'e!'s scales
orhydrometers. There are t#o Baum'e! hydrometers. $ne, #hich is used #ith li%uids
heavier than #ater, sinks to &deg! in pure #ater, and to '(deg! in a '( per cent salt
solution" the other, for li%uids lighter than #ater, sinks to &deg! in a '& per cent salt
solution and to '&deg! in pure #ater. )n both cases the graduation, based on the
distance bet#een these fundamental points, is continued along the stem as far as
desired.
QUESTION
Q.1:I o!" at a ate! #a!"$ an% ou! && 'a((on )C( *a!!e(+ ,ome (a*e(e% a+ -a.in' a
,on,ent!ation o/ 00 %e'!ee+ Baum. I ou(% (i"e to "no -at t-e ,on.e!+ion
/a,to! i+ /!om 1%e'!ee+ Baume1 to Mo(a!2 3C-a%4
ANS5ER
CALIBRATION OF A )EA6IER7T)AN75ATER)8DROMETER ON T)E
BAUM9 SCALE.
For li%uids that are heavier than #ater, &*B marks the #ater level of the hydrometer
placed in pure #ater, and '(*B corresponds to the #ater level #hen the scale is placed
in a solution that is '(+ ,a-l by mass. For li%uids that are lighter than #ater, '&*B
marks the level for pure #ater and &*B corresponds to a solution that is '&+ ,a-l by
mass.
)O5 5E GET T)E MOLARIT8 FROM BAUME. CON6ERSION OF BAUME
INTO MOLAR SOLUTION
To get the molarity of the /-l, you'll have to convert degrees Baum to a specific
gravity,and then use the specific gravity to look up the concentration of /-l from
a tablein a handbook. For e0ample, the -1- handbook has tables that relate
specific gravitiesto con centrations for sulfuric acid.
CALCULATE SPECIFIC GRA6IT8 FROM DEGREE BAUME
Note: 2ince all the degrees on a Baum'e! scale are thus e%ual in length, #hile those on
a specific3gravity scale gro# smaller as the density increases, there is no simple
relation bet#een degrees B'e!. and 2p. gr./o#ever, readings on Baum'e!s scale may
be appro0imately reduced to specific gravities by the follo#ing formula 40 in each case
being the reading on Baum'e!'s scale5 6
FORMULA
4a5 for li%uids heavier than #ater, sp. gr. 7 '88 div! 4'88
3 05
4b5 for li%uids lighter than #ater, sp. gr. 7 '88 div! 4'98 : 05
At ;&*F, specific gravity can be calculated from degrees Baum using the follo#ing
formulas6
MUHAMMAD DANISH 1
17-02-07
Pure water 15(w/w)% NaCl
Calibration of a heavierthan-
water hydrometer onthe
Baum !ale"
ANALTICAL TECHNIQUES ASSIGNMENT
COURSE#509
li%uids lighter than #ater6 sp. gr. 7 '8&.4*B : '9&5
li%uids heavier than #ater6 sp. gr. 7 '8(.4'8( 3 *B5
Note that a <ne#< scale called the =erlach scale uses '8;.>? in the heavier3than3#ater
e%uation rather than '8(.
APPLICATION AND USES
Although the Baum scale is almost never mentioned in chemistry courses,
tradesmen often use it as a convenient #ay to check solution concentration. Fo!
e:am#(e$ @. 2. =rade $ne degree Baum is e%uivalent to '.?* bri0 4the measurement
system used in the @nited 2tates5. .
'./$,AB
A honey must have a Baum reading of at least 8C.8D*B at ;&*F. thus baume is used to
kno# about the %uality and purity of honey produced
C.E$$F GATA1
1ecipes for lo#ering the p/ of pool #ater call for C&*B hydrochloric acid. Thus instead
of using normality and molarity,directly baume scale be used for indirect determination of
concentration of solution
9.B1AGA12 A,D G),A
a5baume scale is also used by bre#ers for checking the density of sugar solutions before
fermentation. The Baum measurement system helps #inemakers forecast the finished
#ine's potential alcohol content, #ith '* roughly e%ual to ' percent alcohol #hen the #ine
is fully fermente"
b5A system used by the French and other Auropeans to measure specific gravity #hich
indicates the sugar content of unfermented grape Huice.
)8DROMETER.
An instrument for measuring the specific gravity of li%uids. A hydrometer is a #eight #ith
a vertical scale attached. Ghen placed into a li%uid, the hydrometer bobs upright, and
sinks to a certain level. The specific gravity or solution composition can be read from the
li%uid level on the vertical scale. /ydrometers are often calibrated in degrees Baum.
BAUME SOLUTION
those solution #hich are standarise by baume scale they are called baume solution
represent by
o
Be
.
.
A solution of appro0imately ;I sulfuric acid J used in the lead storage battery.
SODIUM )8DRO;IDE
2odium hydro0ide 4,a$/5, also kno#n as lye or caustic soda, is a caustic metallic base.
An alkali, caustic soda is #idely used in many industries, mostly as a strong chemical
base in the manufacture of pulp and paper, te0tiles, drinking #ater, and detergents
#"$%5-< +o%ium -<%!o:i%e u+e% in ai! ti'-t ,ontaine!2
ANS.Eure sodium hydro0ide is a #hite solid, available in pellets, flakes, granules, and
also (&+ saturated solution. )t is deli%uescent and also readily absorbs carbon dio0ide
from the air, so it should be stored in an ai!ti'-t ,ontaine!. )t is very soluble in #ater
#ith liberation of heat. )t also dissolves in ethanol and methanol, though it e0hibits lo#er
solubility in these solvents than does potassium hydro0ide. )t is insoluble in ether and
other non3polar solvents. A sodium hydro0ide solution #ill leave a yello# stain on fabric
and paper.
MUHAMMAD DANISH 2
17-02-07
ANALTICAL TECHNIQUES ASSIGNMENT
COURSE#509
USE IN C)EMICAL ANAL8SIS
)n analytical chemistry, sodium hydro0ide solutions are often used to measure
the concentration of acids by titration. 2ince ,a$/ is not a primary standard, solutions
must first be standardised by titration against a standard such as K/E. Burettes e0posed
to ,a$/ should be rinsed out immediately after use to prevent 1/!ee=in'1 o/ t-e
+to#,o,".
REFERENCES
General Chemistry Online!
baume - definition by dict.die.net
answer.com(sodium hydroxide)
http://yarchie.net/chem/baume.html
MUHAMMAD DANISH 3
17-02-07