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Tribology International
jornal !o"e#age$ %%%&elsevier&co"'locate'triboint
In(ence o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene strctre on %ear o) joint re#lace"ents
Alastair ,ilgor -. Alistair El/c*
Institte )or 0aterials an+ Processes. T!e 1niversity o) E+inbrg!. E+inbrg! E23 45L. 1,
article in)o
Article !istory$
Receive+ 67 5ly 6889
Receive+ in revise+ )or"
67 Nove"ber 6889
Acce#te+ 69 Nove"ber 6889
,ey%or+s$
Poly"er
:ear
Scanning electron
abstract
Crosslin*ing is *no%n to increase t!e %ear resistance o) ltra;!ig! "oleclar %eig!t #olyet!ylene
(120:PE) se+ as an acetablar c# in total !i# re#lace"ent& T!e sa"e %ear bene/t is not a))or+e+
%!en 120:PE is se+ as a tibial co"#onent& A #rogra""able "lti;+irectional "otion an+ +yna"ic
loa+ tribo"eter !as been se+ to investigate ltra;strctral +evelo#"ent in bot! nirra+iate+ (<PE)
an+ !ig!ly crosslin*e+ (788 *=y) 120:PE (>PE)& To investigate sr)ace anisotro#y in 120:PE. bot!
linear;reci#rocating an+ elli#tical %ear #at!s %ere a##lie+& ?ollo%ing t!ree "illion elli#tical cycles.
crosslin*ing re+ce+ %ear by # to 36@& 1n+er reci#rocating "otion. "ean stea+y state %ear o) <PE
an+ >PE gro#s %as not signi/cantly +i))erent (# A 8&BC6)& Ra"an s#ectra in+icate+ a +e;crystallisation
Done on t!e near sr)ace o) <PE an+ >PE reci#rocating #ins& T!is %as attribte+ to large strain
+evelo#"ent in conjnction %it! slo% la"ellar re"oval an+ rene%al o) ne% sr)ace "aterial in t!e
lo%er %earing s#eci"ens& SE0 i"ages o) )rag"ente+ la"ellae s##orte+ t!is observation&
E 6889 Elsevier Lt+& All rig!ts reserve+&
7& Intro+ction
T!e #erceive+ role o) #in;on;#late %ear testers in ort!o#ae+ic
researc! !as been to ran* "aterial co"binations in ter"s o) t!eir
e)/cacy as bearing co#les F7B]& 0aterials %!ic! s!o% goo+
#er)or"ance (lo% )riction. lo% %ear. goo+ abrasive resistance). in
t!ese #reli"inary investigations %ill t!en be st+ie+ )rt!er on
)ll joint si"lators& Si"lators closely a##roGi"ate t!e #!ysio;
logical con+itions )on+ in t!e natral joint& ?or t!e "ajority o)
cases. t!e bearing "aterial co"bination in se )or total !i#
re#lace"ent (T2R) !as c!ange+ little conce#tally since its
intro+ction in t!e early 73B8s FH]I a !ar+ %earing "etallic'
cera"ic ball co"#onent articlates against a lo% %ear #oly"er
soc*et& T!e #oly"er in Jestion is ltra;!ig! "oleclar %eig!t
#olyet!ylene (120:PE) %!ic! )or"s an eGtre"ely e))ective
bearing co"#onent& T!e +iscovery t!at 120:PE "icron an+
sb;"icron #articles can in+ce a #at!ogenic res#onse in
#eri#rost!etic tisse F978]. casing late;stage )ailre a)ter so"e
787C years !as sti"late+ %or* into n+erstan+ing t!e origins o)
%ear& T!e )ailre "o+e is not KK%earing;otLL o) t!e acetablar
co"#onent bt rat!er %ear;"e+iate+ osteolysis casing loss o)
bony s##ort aron+ t!e i"#lant F3]& Pain +e to "icro;"otion
an+ joint instability reslts in joint revision srgery F77]& Revision
srgery can be tec!nically c!allenging an+ t!e o#erational li)eti"e
o) revise+ co"#onents o)ten being s!orter t!an t!e #ri"ary
i"#lant& T!e increasing n"ber o) yong. active #atients receiving
T2R #laces greater tribological +e"an+s on t!ese bearings&
- Corres#on+ing at!or&
E;"ail a++ress$ Alastair&,ilgorMgoogle"ail&co" (A& ,ilgor)&
8487;BH3N'O ; see )ront "atter E 6889 Elsevier Lt+& All rig!ts reserve+&
+oi$78&787B'j&triboint&6889&77&877
?or a##lications in ort!o#ae+ics. crosslin*ing o) 120:PE
t!rog! eit!er ga""a irra+iation or electron bea" ra+iation in an
inert environ"ent. !as been s!o%n to re+ce %ear in #in;on;#late
tests F767P]. !i# si"lator st+ies F7C]. an+ #reli"inary s!ort;
ter" ra+iogra#! )ollo%;# st+ies F7B.7H]& Irra+iation +oses se+
co""ercially range )ro" C8 to 78C *=y& EG#osing 120:PE to
ra+iation is not a recent +evelo#"ent& As early as 73B9. 120:PE
acetablar co"#onents %ere tra+itionally sterilise+ sing a
co"#aratively lo% 6C *=y +ose o) ga""a irra+iation in air&
D"bleton an+ S!en re#ort early atte"#ts to increase t!e %ear
resistance o) 120:PE by eG#osing t!e "aterial to elevate+ +oses
o) ga""a irra+iation (levels %ell beyon+ t!ose )or sterilisation) to
in+ce #rononce+ c!ain scission. )ree ra+ical )or"ation an+
sbseJent crosslin*ing F79.73]& :ear tests %ere con+cte+ on a
si"#le ring;on;+isc "ac!ine& 2o%ever. in co"#arison to ni;
rra+iate+ "aterial. an increase in coe)/cient o) )riction an+ %ear
rate %as associate+ %it! t!e !ig!ly irra+iate+ s#eci"ens& ?in+ings
%ere attribte+ to ne%ly create+ crosslin*s #reventing t!e
)or"ation o) a stable trans)er;/l" on t!e "etal conter)ace& T!ese
%ear tests %ere. !o%ever. con+cte+ in t!e absence o) lbrication&
It !as since been establis!e+ )ro" #in;on;#late %or* t!at %ear
tests con+cte+ in t!e #resence o) ser" !ave been )on+ to
consistently #ro+ce %orn sr)aces "ore re#resentative o) t!ose
)ro" eG#lante+ co"#onents F4]& ?rt!er"ore. conte"#orary %ear
tests in +ilte bovine cal) ser" !ave consistently s!o%n cross;
lin*e+ "aterial to o))er greater %ear resistance&
Recent !y#ot!eses )or t!e a##arent increase in %ear resistance
o) #olyet!ylene a)ter crosslin*ing are base+ on t!eories o)
retar+ation in t!e re;orientation o) crystalline la"ellar in res#onse
to )riction )orces& Tie;"olecles %it!in t!e inter;crystalline
Please cite t!is article as$ ,ilgor A. El/c* A& In(ence o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene strctre on %ear o) joint re#lace"ents& Tribol Int
(6883). +oi$78&787B'j&triboint&6889&77&877
ARTICLE IN PRESS
6 A& ,ilgor. A& El/c* ' Tribology International ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]
a"or#!os +o"ains give an increase+ resistance to reorientation
F76.68]& :ear o) an 120:PE acetablar c# occrs "ostly on t!e
sr)ace. a reslt o) "icro;a+!esion an+ abrasive %ear "ec!anis"s
F67]& 1n+er re#eate+ cyclic loa+ing an+ )rictional stresses at t!e
articlating sr)ace. an anisotro#ic an+ orientate+ layer +evelo#s
in res#onse to strain acc"lation F66]& T!e +iscovery o)
"icrostrctral align"ent in res#onse to Jasi;linear "otion o)
early %ear screening +evices F64] an+ t!e conseJent strain
!ar+ening F6P] o))ere+ an eG#lanation )or t!e +ivergent %ear rates
#ro+ce+ in early #in;on;#late st+ies %!en co"#are+ to
consi+erable in vivo %ear rates F6C]& 0icrostrctral orientation
in one aGis is t!og!t to #reci#itate accelerate+ %ear )ro" a
#er#en+iclar "otionI t!e cross;s!ear +irection F6P.6B]& T!e
co"#leG. cross;s!earing "otion #at!s )on+ in t!e !i# joint are
a reslt o) ab+ction'a++ction an+ internal'eGternal rotation
abot t!e (eGion'eGtension #at!& Debris #ro+ce+ in res#onse to
"lti;+irectional "otion on a strain !ar+ene+ sr)ace is release+
t!rog! )ractre F66] an+ r#tre F6B] o) "aterial +ra%n ot o)
t!e sr)ace as #articles are incre"entally enlarge+ an+ release+
F6H]& As a reslt o) crosslin*ing. t!e a++ition o) increase+
carboncarbon covalent bon+s bet%een t!e a"or#!os "olecles
is t!og!t to retar+ c!ain "ove"ent an+ #ro+ce a %orn sr)ace
"ore resistant to /blar #ll;ot F7C.69]& ?rictional strain !as also
been #ro#ose+ to #ro+ce a near;sr)ace #lasticity Done F68]& T!is
sb;sr)ace Done. a #recrsor to %ear. !as been s!o%n to occr on
crosslin*e+ s#eci"ens albeit to a s"aller +e#t! beneat! t!e
sr)ace& T!is sggests t!e trans)er o) strain t!rog! inter;la"ellae
co""nication is "ore con/ne+ in crosslin*e+ "aterial& 2o%;
ever. "lti;aGial loa+ing tests reveale+ "ore #rononce+ orienta;
tion in !ig!ly crosslin*e+ #olyet!yleneLs over t!eir conventional
conter#arts. es#ecially in !ig!er "oleclar %eig!t sa"#les.
a++ing to ncertainty as to t!e role o) tie;"olecles an+
interla"ellar co""nication F63]& It !as been re#orte+ t!at
crosslin*ing +oes not #revent "icrostrctral "obility F48]. bt
t!e contribtion o) sc! a #oly"er net%or* to t!e %ear resistance
n+er cyclic loa+ing an+ s!ear stresses is still not clear&
To +ate t!ere !ave been )e% #in;on;#late st+ies on ort!o;
#ae+ic gra+e crosslin*e+ 120:PE F767P.47.46]. an+ )e%er still
on "icrostrctral c!aracterisation F46]& Q!o et al& re#orte+ on
"icrostrctral +is#arity bet%een n"o+i/e+ an+ 788 *=y
ga""a irra+iate+ 120:PE F46]& :ear tests %ere con+cte+ on
a reci#rocating #in;on;+isc "ac!ine. t!e #oly"er #in loa+e+ in a
constant "anner onto a reci#rocating cobalt c!ro"e +isc& 1n+er
average no"inal contact #ressres bet%een 68 an+ 48 0Pa t!ey
attribte+ a )or)ol+ increase in %ear resistance o) t!e crosslin*e+
"aterial to greater resistance to #lastic (o%& Tests con+cte+ on
"otion "ac!ines %it! li"ite+ cross;s!ear angles. "ore re#re;
sentative o) *nee "otion !ave re#orte+ "arginal +i))erences in
%ear rates as )nction o) ra+iation +ose F48]& ?rt!er st+ies on
t!is "aterial !ave been con+cte+ on "ac!ines. %!ic! #ro+ce
li"ite+ translation an+ rotation F7P.47]I #oly"er test #ins are
loa+e+ n+er constant )orce onto a reci#rocating test #late. or
conter;bearing& In sc! cases t!e #in rotates via +rive gears to
o#erate in sync!ronisation %it! t!e oscillating #late& T!e natre
o) t!e rotating #in in!erently creates non;ni)or" tribological
con+itions across t!e %ear sr)ace& Eac! #oint on an increasing
ra+is )ro" t!e #in centre %ill eG#erience a +i))erent %ear #at!.
creating a co"#leG %orn sr)ace& T!is tribological set# is "ore
sitable )or %ear ran*ing bearing co#les n+er constant loa+ an+
sinsoi+al velocity. t!an se+ to #robe "icrostrctral evoltion&
A %ell +esigne+ #in;on;#late tribo"eter !as t!e #otential to o))er
in;sig!t into )n+a"ental %ear "ec!anis"s n+er controlle+
con+itions&
A+vances in #in;on;#late +esign !ave le+ to a n"ber o)
conte"#orary +es*to# "ac!ines ca#able o) #ro+cing conven;
tional 120:PE %ear +ata in %!at is consi+ere+ t!e clinical
range. assesse+ t!rog! linear #enetration rates an+ %ear )actor
co"#arisons F47.44.4P]& Rr !y#ot!esis %as to se a csto" bilt.
novel. #in;on;#late %ear "ac!ine ca#able o) #rogra""able
+yna"ic loa+ an+ "otion to co"#are %ear. to#ogra#!y. an+
"or#!ology in <PE an+ >PE "aterials& T!is novel "lti;
+irectional #in;on;#late tribo"eter %as se+ to investigate
%!et!er crosslin*s ai+ #lasticity "ec!anis"s by i"#roving
interla"ellar co""nication. ai+ing reorientation %!ilst resist;
ing c!ain )ractre& Rr. alternatively. %!et!er cross;lin*s anc!or
t!e resltant "icrostrctre. alleviating align"ent in t!e #re;
)erential sli+ing +irection re+cing ssce#tibility to %ear as a
reslt o) cross;s!ear&
6& 0aterials an+ "et!o+s
6&7& 0aterials
T%o gro#s o) "aterials %ere s##lie+ by S"it! an+ Ne#!e%
Inc& T!e virgin "aterial an+ control gro# %ere ra" eGtr+e+
=1R78C8 bar stoc*& T!e secon+ gro# n+er%ent a sbseJent
ga""a irra+iation +ose o) 788 *=y at roo" te"#eratre& A #ost;
irra+iation above "elt stabilisation #rocess at 7C8 7C Jenc!e+
re"aining resi+al )ree ra+icals )ro" t!e bl*& T!e ro+ stoc* %as
/nally "ac!ine+ into #ins o) C "" +ia"eter an+ #arte+;o)) in
68 "" lengt!s& Elevate+ crosslin* +ensity levels %ere c!aracterise+
t!rog! s%elling eG#eri"ents accor+ing to t!e AST0 stan+ar+ )or
t!e +eter"ination o) s%ell ratio F4C]& T!e s%elling ratio. +escribe+
as t!e vol"e o) a s%ollen #oly"er net%or* +ivi+e+ by t!e vol"e
o) t!e original ns%ollen net%or* F4B] in+icates t!e "aGi""
a"ont o) liJi+ t!at sc! a net%or* can !ol+& T!e ability to
+issolve or absorb t!e solvent an+ s%ell is +e#en+ant on t!e
crosslin* +ensity. t!e strctral integrity n+er eJilibri" s%el;
ling con+itions an+ t!e a)/nity (interaction #ara"eter) bet%een
t!e #oly"er an+ t!e s%elling solvent& It is +i)/clt to #!ysically
"easre t!e vol"e o) t!e s%ollen net%or*& Instea+. "asses %ere
recor+e+ an+ converte+ to vol"e sing a #re+e/ne+ ratio relating
t!e +ensity o) #oly"er to t!at o) t!e solvent at t!e eJilibri"
s%elling te"#eratre& S%elling %as #er)or"e+ on t!ree s#eci"ens
)ro" eac! gro#& Crosslin* +ensity %as t!en calclate+ accor+ing
to t!e "et!o+ o) ?lory an+ Re!ner F4H]&
6&6& :ear tests
In accor+ance %it! AST0 ?H46 F49]. a siG;station %ear;tester
(?ig& 7) %as +esigne+ an+ bilt ca#able o) #rogra""able +yna"ic
loa+ing an+ "otion #ro/les F43]& T!e AST0 stan+ar+ +enotes t!e
clinical relevance o) %ear "et!o+s i"#le"ente+ in conjnction
%it! "ac!ines +esigne+ to evalate si"#li/e+ s#eci"en geo"e;
tries. o))ering gi+elines )or t!e ty#e o) "otion. #in an+ #late
con+itions an+ a##ro#riate test #rotocols&
T!e "ac!ine is a biaGial +evice %it! t%o +egrees o) )ree+o"&
T%o #rogra""able ste##er controlle+ linear sli+es #rovi+e t!e
necessary "ec!anics. allo%ing t!e carriage to translate along t!e
G an+. y aGes an+ inter#olate bet%een t!e t%o& Test #ins are
loa+e+ in+e#en+ently in t!e D;aGis by siG electric coil actators&
T!e arrange"ent is sc! t!at t!e actators are )ree to )ollo% an+
consistently loa+ t!e #oly"er test #ins as %ear occrs& Test #ins
+i+ not rotate relative to t!e #late. ensring a ni)or" %ear #at!
across t!e co"#lete #in contact area& T!e siG test #lates %ere /Ge+
in in+ivi+al lbricant c!a"bers. )or on t!e "otion carriage to
#rovi+e constraine+ "otion in t!e Gy #lane (?ig& 6) an+ t%o
stationary loa+e+ soa* controls&
A sc!e"atic s!o%ing *ey co"#onents an+ a single station are
s!o%n in ?ig& 4& ?or #oly"er test #ins )ro" eac! "aterial gro#
%ere sbjecte+ to linear reci#rocating an+ "lti;+irectional
Please cite t!is article as$ ,ilgor A. El/c* A& In(ence o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene strctre on %ear o) joint re#lace"ents& Tribol Int
(6883). +oi$78&787B'j&triboint&6889&77&877
ARTICLE IN PRESS
A& ,ilgor. A& El/c* ' Tribology International ] (]]]]) ]]]]]] 4
?ig& 7& T!e siG;station %ear test +eviceI s!o%n %it! t!e +st cover li+ o#en
eG#osing t!e )or loa+ an+ "otion stations an+ t%o loa+ only stations&
elli#tical "otion. articlating against "e+ical gra+e cobalt
c!ro"e alloy #lates. #olis!e+ (Se!ler. Al#!a) to an average
)e"oral i"#lant /nis! FP8] o) 8&87 "" Ra (Qygo. NT788)& :ear
#at!s %ere c!osen to a##roGi"ate t!e lengt! o) t!ose )on+ )ro"
gait analysis FP7P4]& Linear reci#rocating (stro*e lengt! 6C "")
an+ elli#tical (68 "" "ajor an+ 78 "" "inor aGes. res#ectively)
%ear #at!s %ere a##lie+ (Table 7)& T!e elli#tical #at! %as a##lie+
to better a##roGi"ate t!e "ore o#en Jasi;elli#tical %ear #at!s
observe+ in vivo& A lo% 6$7 as#ect ratio (AR) o) t!e elli#se %as
se+ to #rovi+e t!is o#en %ear #at!&
Lo%er as#ect ratios !ave been )on+ to restrict la"ellae
align"ent FPP] an+ at t!ese ratios. +iscre#ancies in t!e orienta;
tion so)tening "o+el F6B] sggest so"e o) t!e n+erlying
ass"#tions "aybe overly si"#li/e+ F6H.4P]& A +oble #ea*
+yna"ic loa+ #ro/le FPC.PB] %it! #ea*s 7 an+ 6 o) 3P&C an+ P9&4 N
(corres#on+ing to no"inal contact stresses o) P&H an+ 6&P 0Pa
+ring t!e stance #!ase) %as sync!ronise+ to eac! "otion cycle.
t!e !eel;stri*e occrring at t!e #oint o) "aGi"" (eGion. as
s!o%n in ?ig& P& T!e s%ing #!ase %as #rogra""e+ to accont )or
C8@ o) eac! cycle& Loa+ %as not recor+e+ continosly bt
instea+. +ata collecte+ at t!e beginning an+ en+ o) eac! test
#erio+ t!rog!ot t!e +ration o) t!e %ear test& :ear %as
assesse+ t!rog! gravi"etric analysis every 6C8.888 cycles sing
a 0ettler balance %it! a resoltion o) H8&887 "g& Eac! #in %as
cleane+ an+ +rie+ in a "et!o+ +escribe+ in AST0 ?H46&
SbseJently. #ins %ere %eig!e+ in or+er. eac! )or ti"es. giving
a resltant re#eatability o) H8&8C "g& All tests %ere rn in
ne%born cal) ser" (2arlan Sera lab) +ilte+ 7$7&C %it! RingerLs
soltion to a #!ysiological #rotein concentration o) 66 g'l (78 "l o)
ser"$7C "l o) RingersL soltion #er c!a"ber)& To in!ibit bacterial
gro%t!. 8&6 %t@ so+i" aDi+e %as a++e+& All #in;on;#late stations
%ere lbricate+ in+e#en+ently& T!e ser" %as *e#t at 4HH6 7C
t!rog! PID control&
Table 7
Test #ara"eters&
0aterial
Test
Dration (*")
Cycles (78B)
Stro*e lengt! ("")
Cycle circ")erence ("")
Av sli+ing s#ee+ ("" s<7)
=1R 78C88 *=y
Linear
7C8
4
6C&88

C8&BC
Elli#tical
7C8
4

P3&BH
C8&7H
=1R 78C8788 *=y
Linear
7C8
4
6C&88

C8&BC
Elli#tical
7C8
4

P3&BH
C8&7H
?ig& 6& Detaile+ vie% o) t!e )or loa+ an+ "otion stations& Eac! c!a"ber is
s##orte+ by )or col"ns #rovi+ing )tre ca#acity to "ont strain gages or
install a 4;aGis loa+ cell beneat! eac! c!a"ber )or )riction an+ continos loa+
"easre"ent& 2eating resistors. "onte+ on t!e n+ersi+e o) eac! stainless steel
base #rovi+e necessary energy to !eat c!a"ber lbricant&
?ig& 4& Si"#li/e+ sc!e"atic o) t!e +esign %it! one station s!o%n$ (7) electric coil actatorI (6) loa+ing ar"I (4) #ivot !osingI (P) test #in !ol+erI (C) acrylic c!a"ber %allI
(B) aGis 7I (H) aGis 8I (9) stainless steel collarI (3) CoCr0o test #lateI (78) o;ring sealI (77) T)nol baseI an+ (76) stainless steel base&
Please cite t!is article as$ ,ilgor A. El/c* A& In(ence o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene strctre on %ear o) joint re#lace"ents& Tribol Int
(6883). +oi$78&787B'j&triboint&6889&77&877
ARTICLE IN PRESS
P A& ,ilgor. A& El/c* ' Tribology International ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]
788
98
Loa+ (N
788
98
)
Loa+ (N
) B8
P8
68
("
"
B8
P8
68
;76
8;7876
78;9
?l 9 B
;P
eG;6
ion P 688'E
6Gte ;6 ;PPns
B
ion ;B ;99(";78
";76 76)
?ig& P& Sync!ronise+ loa+ an+ "otion #ro/les )or (a) linear reci#rocating %ear an+ (b) elli#tical %ear&
6&4& Tibrational s#ectrosco#y
Ra"an s#ectrosco#y %as se+ to assess near;sr)ace crystal;
linity be)ore an+ a)ter eac! %ear test& T!is non;invasive. non;
+estrctive analysis tec!niJe !as #reviosly been se+ to
calclate #olyet!ylene crystallinity FPHP3] an+ 120:PE acet;
ablar c# crystallinity FC8C4]& Crystallinity is o)ten se+ to
s""arise t!e "or#!ological constitents t!at )or" t!e bl*
"aterial& C!anges in t!e ratio o) crystalline to a"or#!os
+o"ains can signi)y c!anges in "ec!anical be!avior FCP] !ence.
%ear resistance o) t!e #oly"er F68]& T!e internal Ra"an
vibrational ban+ strctre o) #olyet!ylene is %ell st+ie+
FPH.P3]& T!e 7P7B c"<7 ban+ is associate+ %it! C26 ben+ing in
t!e ort!or!o"bic crystal #!ase an+ t!e 763B c"<7 an+ broa+er
secon+ #ea* aron+ 7484 c"<7 is associate+ %it! a"or#!os C26
t%isting #!ase& Accor+ing to Strobl FP3] #olyet!ylene crystallinity
can be calclate+ )ro" t!e ratio
@Crystallinity A I7P7P UVWI7634 X I748C Y - 8$PBZ
A Renis!a% InTia syste" %as se+ to "easre Ra"an s#ectra at
roo" te"#eratre& EGcitation o) Ra"an ban+s %as ac!ieve+ by a
H9C n" laser ca 48 ":. )ocse+ t!rog! a C8 [ objective& S#ectra
%ere gat!ere+ in con)ocal "o+e to "ini"ise scattering vol"e&
T!e +e#t! resoltion o) t!e syste" %as calclate+ at less t!an
78 ""& De#t! #ro/ling %as #er)or"e+ by )ocsing t!e laser bea"
at increasing +e#t! beneat! t!e sr)ace& Ten scans %ere ta*en at
eac! +e#t!& Scattering vol"e (T) %as a##roGi"ate+ as a cylin+er
o) lengt! (l)O78 "". %it! a cross;section eJal to t!e )ocse+
laser s#ot (+) O7 "".
T A W# - + UPY - 78 A H$9C ""4
Rn eac! #in an+ at eac! scanning +e#t! (sr)ace. sb 76&C. 6C an+
4H&C ""). 78 s#ectra %ere recor+e+& T!ere)ore. t!e vol"e o)
"aterial )ro" eac! #in contribting to t!e crystallinity calclation
#er +e#t! %as OH9 ""4& 2ence. t!e average scattering vol"e
)ro" )or %orn #ins %as O47P ""4 #er +e#t!& 120:PE la"ellae
are ty#ically on t!e or+er o) C8 n" [ 7 "". +e#t! an+ lengt!.
res#ectively& T!e ten scans #er)or"e+ %ill t!ere)ore. incl+e a
sbstantial #o#lation o) crystals in an e))ort to statistically
re#resent t!e bl* "aterial&
6
6&P& Scanning electron "icrosco#y
?iel+ e"ission scanning electron "icrosco#y (2itac!i S;C888)
%as se+ to Jalitatively evalate t!e eGtent o) %ear;in+ce+
la"ellar re;orientation an+ to#ogra#!ical %ear )eatres )ollo%ing
t!e co"#letion o) t!ree "illion %ear cycles& RGi+ising aci+s
!ave !istorically been se+ to etc! c!e"ically resistant se"i;
crystalline #oly"ers to reveal "icrostrctral +etail FCC]& T!e aci+
#re)erentially +i))ses into an+ attac*s t!e +isor+ere+ less tig!tly
#ac*e+ a"or#!os +o"ains FCB]. leaving t!e crystalline tig!tly
#ac*e+ c!ains %it!in t!e la"ellae #ro+ o) t!e sr)ace& A less
oGi+iDing aci+. #er"anganic etc!ant !as been s!o%n to reveal
la"ellar strctres %it! "ore +etail FCH.C9]& T!is tec!niJe !as
#reviosly been a##lie+ to ort!o#ae+ic 120:PE to assess t!e
)riction oriente+ res#onse o) la"ellae a)ter si"#le #in;on;#late
%ear st+ies F46.C3] an+ in !i# si"lator st+ies F68]& :orn #ins
%ere sectione+ in !al) to #er"it se#arate i"aging o) to#ogra#!y
an+ "icrostrctre. ?ig& C&
4& Reslts
4&7& S%elling
S%elling eG#eri"ents clearly +i))erentiate+ <PE )ro" >PE as
s!o%n in ?ig& B& 1nirra+iate+ "aterial (<PE) %as )on+ to s%ell
over 78 ti"es "ore t!an crosslin*e+& T!is %as attribte+ to
elevate+ crosslin* levels re+cing t!e n"ber o) #ossible c!ain
con)or"ations li"iting t!e s%ell;ability. an+ t!e i"#rove+
strctral integrity "a*ing t!e net%or* less #rone to c!ain
stretc! an+ solvent absor#tion& ?ro" ?loryRe!ner net%or*
s%elling "o+el. t!e average "oleclar %eig!t bet%een crosslin*s
%as 649.898 an+ CBB4 g'"ol )or <PE an+ >PE. res#ectively&
4&6& :ear tests
1nirra+iate+ an+ crosslin*e+ %ear vol"e %it! res#ect to
linear reci#rocating sli+ing +istance is s!o%n in ?ig& H& Sot!
gro#s eG!ibit si"ilar %ear rates. %it! t%o eGce#tions& T!e
irreglar accelerate+ %ear rates o) conventional #ins at (i) an+ (ii)
Please cite t!is article as$ ,ilgor A. El/c* A& In(ence o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene strctre on %ear o) joint re#lace"ents& Tribol Int
(6883). +oi$78&787B'j&triboint&6889&77&877
A+
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ARTICLE IN PRESS
A& ,ilgor. A& El/c* ' Tribology International ] (]]]]) ]]]]]] C
:orn sr)ace
:orn sr)ace
:orn sr)ace
SE0 )or to#ogra#!ic in)or"ation
(ri##les. )ol+s. crac*s. +ebris)
Etc! to reveal eGtent o) near;sr)ace
la"ellae align"ent
?ig& C& :orn #in sr)aces %ere sectione+ longit+inally to #er"it to#ogra#!y an+ "or#!ology st+ies&
4C
48
6C
S%elling ratio
68
7C
78
:ear vol"e
(""4)
6&C
6
7&C
7
8&C
8
(i)
(ii)
(7. 6)
8 68 P8 B898788
sli+ing +istance (*")
768 7P8 7B8
C
8
;PE >PE
?ig& B& E))ect o) ra+iation +ose on s%elling ratio&
?ig& H& :ear gra#!s n+er linear reci#rocating "otion o)$ (7) <PE #ins. note at (I)
c!a"ber 7 ran +ry an+ (II) c!a"ber P lbricant level ran lo%. bot! casing
elevate+ %ear rates an+ (6) >PE #ins&
P&88
are a reslt o) lo% lbricant levels +ring t!ose #erio+s& Never;
t!eless. t!e +i))erence in "ean stea+y;state %ear bet%een <PE
an+ >PE n+er reci#rocating "otion %as not signi/cant (St+ent
T;Test # A 8&BC6). ?ig& 9&
?ig& 3 s!o%s t!e vol"e o) <PE an+ >PE "aterial re"ove+ %it!
res#ect to sli+ing +istance n+er "lti;+irectional "otion& T!e
elli#tical %ear #at! #ro+ce+ signi/cantly !ig!er "ean %ear rates
in nirra+iate+ #ins (:els!Ls T;Test #o8&8C)I 788 *=y irra+iation
%as s!o%n to re+ce %ear at t!e co"#letion o) t!ree "illion
elli#tical cycles by 36@&
Secase all gro#s eG!ibite+ an a##roGi"ately linear relation;
s!i# %it! sli+ing +istance. a stea+y;state %ear coe)/cientI a
"easre o) %ear vol"e #ro+ce+ %it! res#ect to nor"al loa+
an+ total sli+ing +istance %as calclate+ accor+ing to Arc!ar+
FB8]& T!e coe)/cient. originally +evelo#e+ )or "etal;on;"etal +ry
sli+ing an+ "o+elle+ on a+!esive %ear is not %it!ot br+en
%!en a##lie+ to so)t;on;!ar+ rbbing in t!e #resence o) #roteins&
2o%ever. it is o)ten a+o#te+ as a %ay o) co""nicating t!e
#robability t!at 120:PE +ebris %ill be release+ )ro" t!e
articlating sr)ace& In t!ese calclations %e a##lie+ t!e average
)orce #er cycle. P6&9H6&9 N (S&D&). calclate+ )ro" integrating
n+er t!e loa+ #ro/le& T!e stea+y;state %ear )actors )or bot!
4&C8
%ear rate
("g'"illion)
4&88
6&C8
6&88
7&C8
7&88
8&C8
8&88
;PE linear >PE linear >PE elli#tical ;PE elli#tical
?ig& 9& Co"#arison o) t!e average %ear rates o) nirra+iate+ an+ irra+iate+
"aterial n+er bot! linear reci#rocating an+ elli#tical sli+ing&
"aterial gro#s sbjecte+ to reci#rocating "otion %ere t%o or+ers
o) "agnit+e lo%er t!an %ear +ata calclate+ )ro" retrieve+ or
ra+iogra#!ic st+ies o) conventional 120:PE (Table 6)& 1n+er
Please cite t!is article as$ ,ilgor A. El/c* A& In(ence o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene strctre on %ear o) joint re#lace"ents& Tribol Int
(6883). +oi$78&787B'j&triboint&6889&77&877
ARTICLE IN PRESS
B A& ,ilgor. A& El/c* ' Tribology International ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]
7P
76
:ear vol"e
(""4)
78
9
(i)
B
P
6
(6)
8
8 68 P8 B898788
Sli+ing +istance (*")
768 7P8 7B8
?ig& 78& <PE crystallinity )or (a) t!ree "illion elli#tical cyclesI (b) control sr)aceI
(c) t!ree "illion loa+ only cyclesI an+ (+) t!ree "illion linear reci#rocating cycles&
(7)
?ig& 3& :ear gra#!s n+er elli#tical "otion o)$ (7) <PE #ins. note at (i) c!a"ber 4
lbricant level ran lo% casing an increase in %ear rate an+ (6) >PE #ins&
Table 6
Co"#arison o) %ear )actors an+ linear #enetration rates&
0aterial :ear #at! :ear )actor
( [ 78<B ""4'N ")
8&84
8&8P
7&B
8&74
6
Penetration
(""'yr)
8&884
8&886B
8&79
8&87
8&7C
<PE
>PE
<PE
>PE
Conventional
Reci#rocating
Reci#rocating
Elli#tical
Elli#tical
Clinical FCB]
elli#tical "otion. t!e %ear coe)/cient an+ linear #enetration rates
)or t!e nirra+iate+ gro# %ere in goo+ agree"ent %it! clinical
+ata. s##orting t!e i"#ortance o) o#en %ear #at!s in #in;on;
#late st+ies& T!e elli#tical >PE %ear )actor %as an or+er o)
"agnit+e lo%er t!an t!at o) t!e nirra+iate+ gro# sbjecte+ to
t!e sa"e "otion. an+ an or+er o) "agnit+e !ig!er t!an eit!er
gro# n+er reci#rocating %ear&
?ig& 77& 2ig!ly crosslin*e+ 120:PE crystallinity )or$ (a) n%orn control (b) t!ree
"illion elli#tical cyclesI (c) t!ree "illion loa+ only cyclesI an+ (+) t!ree "illion
linear reci#rocating cycles&
4&P& Scanning electron "icrosco#y
4&P&7& 1nirra+iate+
Parallel ri##les %ere i"age+ on t!e sr)ace o) t!e "ore ra#i+ly
%earing nirra+iate+ #ins n+er elli#tical "otion. ?ig& 76a&
Tearing. )ol+ing an+ crac*ing %ere all i"age+ at !ig!er "agni;
/cation. ?ig& 76b& Linear reci#rocating #ro+ce+ lig!t scratc!es.
t!e e+ges o) %!ic! %ere )ol+e+. #lastically +e)or"e+ #ro+cing
/brils rnning #er#en+iclar to t!e "otion #at!& Areas o) <PE
%ere re;organise+ into +o"ains rnning #arallel to t!e sr)ace in
t!e +irection o) %ear. ?ig& 76c& In areas %!ere t!is )or"ation %as
!ig!ly +evelo#e+. elongate+ /brils %ere observe+ eGten+ing )ro"
t!e sr)ace. ?ig& 76+&
?ollo%ing etc!ing. +istinct "icrostrctral +evelo#"ents
%ere i"age+ in res#onse to %ear #at!& :orn sr)aces sbjecte+
to "lti;+irectional "otion eG!ibite+ ran+o" la"ellar orienta;
tion an+ si"ilar la"ellar siDe an+ brea+t! to t!at o) t!e n%orn
control sr)ace (?ig& 74a an+ b). t!e %!ite arro% in+icates t!e
#ri"ary elli#tical %ear aGis& 2ig!er "agni/cation con/r"e+
si"ilarities bet%een t!e t%o gro#s. ?ig& 74+ an+ e& Align"ent
an+ la"ellar brea*;# "ec!anis"s %ere less obvios on t!e %orn
elli#tical sr)aces& Evi+ence o) teGtre +evelo#"ent %as "ore
#ro"inent n+er linear reci#rocating "otion& Large +o"ains
o) la"ellae %ere i"age+ orientate+ in t!e +irection o) %ear
(?ig& 74c)& At !ig!er "agni/cation. evi+ence o) la"ellar brea*;#
an+ )rag"entation (?ig& 74)) %as reveale+& T!is %as sbstantiate+
%it! Ra"an +ata %!ic! con/r"e+ lo%er crystallinity in t!e linear
reci#rocating gro#&
4&4& Ra"an s#ectrosco#y
?ig& 78 #lots t!e c!anges in crystallinity o) nirra+iate+
120:PE %it! res#ect to +e#t! o) Ra"an scattering& T!e gro#
sbjecte+ to elli#tical "otion s!o%e+ no statistically signi/cant
c!ange in sr)ace an+ sb;sr)ace crystallinity %!en co"#are+ to
t!e n%orn control. ?ig& 78a an+ b. res#ectively& T!e "ean loa+;
soa* crystallinity %as consistently aron+ C8@. ?ig& 78b& A +ro# in
crystallinity case+ by linear reci#rocating "otion %as a##arent&
T!e average sr)ace crystallinity o) P3&9@ is C@ lo%er t!an eit!er
t!e n%orn control or t!ose sr)aces %orn in a "lti;+irectional
"anner& Lo%er crystallinity in t!is gro# %as consistently )on+
# to t!e "aGi"" +e#t! recor+e+ o) sb;4H&C "". ?ig& 78+&
>PE control crystallinity %as C4&B7H7&98@ %it!in t!e /rst
4H&C "" o) "aterial. ?ig& 77a& A gra+al increase in >PE crystallinity
%as observe+ )or gro#sI ?ig& 77b+ as t!e scattering vol"e
"ove+ +ee#er beneat! t!e sr)ace& 1n+er elli#tical "otion. a
"ean sr)ace crystallinity o) C7&77H7&C3 %as si"ilar to t!at o) t!e
n%orn control sr)ace. C4&7BH7&36@ (ANRTA # A 8&776)& >PE #ins
)ollo%e+ a si"ilar tren+ to t!at o) t!e nirra+iate+ "aterialI
linear "otion reslte+ in t!e largest re+ction in sr)ace crystal;
linity. PH&H9HP&4H7@& T!is %as statistically lo%er t!an t!e >PE
control sr)ace crystallinity (ANRTA #o8&8C)& Lo%er crystallinity
vales %ere consistently )on+ in all crosslin*e+ gro#s&
Please cite t!is article as$ ,ilgor A. El/c* A& In(ence o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene strctre on %ear o) joint re#lace"ents& Tribol Int
(6883). +oi$78&787B'j&triboint&6889&77&877
ARTICLE IN PRESS
A& ,ilgor. A& El/c* ' Tribology International ] (]]]]) ]]]]]] H
?ig& 76& Scanning electron "icrogra#!s o) sr)ace to#ogra#!y a)ter t!ree "illion cycles )or$ (a) <PE elli#tical %ear s!o%ing reglar ri##les across sr)ace& 0ag& 988 [ I (b)
<PE elli#tical %ear %it! tearing. )ol+ing an+ o#ening o) sr)ace crac*s rnning OPC7 across #ri"ary %ear aGis. 0ag& 9888 [ I (c) <PE linear %ear s!o%ing lig!t scratc!ing
an+ /bril tearing. 0ag& 6888 [ I an+ (+) <PE linear %ear s!o%ing origin o) /blar +ebris )ro" !ig!ly teGtre+ sr)ace (see blac* arro%). 0ag& P888 [ & :!ite arro%s in+icate
#ri"ary %ear +irection&
4&P&6& Irra+iate+
T!e "icrogra#!s o) >PE sr)aces %orn n+er elli#tical "otion
%ere !ig!ly s"oot!. in+icate+ by t!e lac* o) contrast #ic*e+ on
t!e ?E;SE0& Sb;"icron +ebris %as also i"age+ on t!e sr)ace.
?ig& 7Pa& In ot!er areas a granlar teGtre %as observe+I t!e bea+s
a##eare+ on t!e or+er o) C88 n" in %i+t!. ?ig& 7Pb& T!is teGtre
%as )on+ !ig!ly +evelo#e+ in so"e regions& Sea+s %ere +ra%n
ot into )ol+e+ elongate+ stran+s rnning across t!e #ri"ary
elli#tical %ear aGis. ?ig& 7Pc& ?inally. s"all #arallel ri##les %ere
consistently i"age+ on >PE linear reci#rocating sr)aces. ?ig& 7P+&
T!e %avelengt!s o) t!ese )eatres %ere a##roGi"ately 7 "". an+
%ere )on+ transverse to t!e +irection o) sli+ing&
?ig& 7C s!o%s "icrostrctre i"ages o) >PE sbjecte+ to t!ree
"illion linear an+ elli#tical cycles in co"#arison to t!e n%orn
control. ?ig& 7Ca& Sot! ?ig& 7Cb an+ c s!o%s a +egree o) sr)ace
la"ellae orientation an+ "obility in res#onse to t!e +i))erent
"otion #at!s. less so n+er t!e elli#tical #at!& La"ellar %ere i"age+
)ol+e+. bent an+ bro*en in res#onse to )riction )orces& ?ig& 7C+ s!o%s.
at !ig!er "agni/cation t!e #ost;irra+iate+ n%orn la"ellar siDe.
s!a#e an+ +istinct lac* o) #re)erential align"ent& In contrast. t!e lo%
%earing sr)aces o) ?ig& 7Ce an+ ) (linear an+ elli#tical %ear.
res#ectively) s!o%e+ increasing signs o) la"ellar brea*;# an+
"icro;+o"ains o) stac* rotation an+ close #ac*ing& T!e +istinction
bet%een linear an+ elli#tical "otion on "icrostrctral +evelo#;
"ent %as )on+ to be less clear in crosslin*e+ "aterial&
P& Discssion
To +ate. )e% st+ies !ave atte"#te+ to lin* "icrostrctral
evoltion an+ %ear rate o) nirra+iate+ an+ irra+iate+ ort!o#ae;
+ic #olyet!ylene& Sc! in)or"ation col+ i"#rove n+erstan+ing
o) t!e role o) crosslin*ing on %ear re+ction an+ +ebris siDe an+
s!a#e& T!e %ear #er)or"ance o) bot! !ig!ly crosslin*e+ an+
conventional #olyet!ylene is inti"ately relate+ to t!e sli+ing
con+itions& T!e eG#eri"ental reslts #resente+ !erein con/r" t!e
notion t!at crosslin*ing re+ces vol"etric %ear in 120:PE.
%!en sli+ing ta*es t!e )or" o) o#en "otion trac*s #ossessing a
cross;s!earing action& Linear;reci#rocating "otion. +e/ne+ as
!aving Dero cross;s!ear F6B]. +i+ not eG!ibit a statistically
signi/cant +i))erence in t!e "ean stea+y;state %ear rates
bet%een t!e t%o "aterial gro#s& T!ese reslts s##ort t!e
/n+ings o) :ang et al& F48] %!o #reviosly investigate+ t!is
"otion +e#en+ant be!avior by %ear testing 120:PE eG#ose+
to 8788 *=y on bot! *nee an+ !i# si"lators& T!e tibial
co"#onents. teste+ on a *nee si"lator %it! li"ite+ cross;s!ear.
%ere )on+ to %ear si"ilarly )or all ra+iation +osages& In contrast.
acetablar co"#onents teste+ on a !i# si"lator %ere s!o%n to
!ave eG#onentially +ecreasing %ear rate %it! increasing ra+iation
+ose& In t!is st+y. >PE %orn n+er elli#tical "otion %as )on+ to
%ear signi/cantly less t!an <PE. s##orting t!e "otion +e#en;
+ant %ear res#onse o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene&
T!e se o) +yna"ic loa+ing in #in;on;#late st+ies !as been
a+o#te+ by )e% investigators& 0ratogl et al& se+ a +yna"ically
loa+e+ (Pal;ty#e. OPPC N #ea* 7. 638 N #ea* 6). bi;+irectional
(78 "" [ C "" rectanglar %ear #at!) tribo"eter to investigate
%ear rate re+ction )or 120:PE %it! a ra+iation +ose o) 788 *=y
in co"#arison to nirra+iate+ "aterial& T!ey re#ort %ear rates
)or nirra+iate+ "aterial as 3&9 "g'"illion cycles re+cing to
7&B "g'"illion cycles )or irra+iate+I an 9P@ re+ction in %ear rate
F76]& T!e %ear rate o) >PE sbjecte+ to elli#tical "otion in t!e
Please cite t!is article as$ ,ilgor A. El/c* A& In(ence o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene strctre on %ear o) joint re#lace"ents& Tribol Int
(6883). +oi$78&787B'j&triboint&6889&77&877
ARTICLE IN PRESS
9 A& ,ilgor. A& El/c* ' Tribology International ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]
?ig& 74& Scanning electron "icrogra#!s a)ter t!ree "illion cycles )or$ (a) <PE control sr)aceI (b) <PE elli#tical %ear\no #re)erential align"ent observe+I (c) <PE linear
reci#rocating %ear\teGtre +evelo#"ent an+ align"entI (+) "agni/e+ control sr)aceI (e) PE la"ellae a)ter t!ree "illion elli#tical cyclesI an+ ()) <PE\reci#rocating
"otion #ro+ce+ )rag"ente+ la"ellae& :!ite arro%s in+icate aGis o) #ri"ary %ear #at!&
?ig& 7P& Scanning electron "icrogra#!s o) sr)ace to#ogra#!y a)ter t!ree "illion cycles )or$ (a) >PE elli#tical %ear s!o%ing "icron an+ sb;"icron +ebris on a !ig!ly
s"oot! %orn sr)ace 0ag& 6C88 [ I (b) >PE elli#tical %ear %it! granlar teGtre. 0ag& 78888 [ I (c) >PE elli#tical %ear. a+!esive +ra%ing ot )ro" initial granlar teGtre.
0ag& 78888 [ I an+ (+) >PE linear %ear s!o%ing ri##le )or"ation #er#en+iclar to sli+ing +irection. 0ag& 9888 [ & :!ite arro%s in+icate #ri"ary aGis o) %ear #at!&
crrent st+y %as )on+ to be 8&6B "g'"illion cycles sbstantially
lo%er t!an t!at o) 0ratogl et al& :ear )actors %ere not re#orte+
)or t!e bi;+irectional tests so a +irect co"#arison bet%een t!e
tribological con+itions. %it! res#ect to sli+ing +istance an+
no"inal loa+ is not #ossible& 2o%ever. t!e sli+ing +istance #er
cycle o) t!e elli#se se+ in t!is %or* is OC8 "" in co"#arison to
t!e total rectanglar sli+ing #at! lengt! o) 48 ""& T!is eJates to
t!e #ins se+ in t!is st+y sli+ing an a++itional 68 *" #er "illion
cycles& ?ro" Arc!ar+Ls eJation. vol"etric %ear is #ro#ortional
to contact )orce an+ sli+ing +istance. t!ere)ore t!e increase+
Please cite t!is article as$ ,ilgor A. El/c* A& In(ence o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene strctre on %ear o) joint re#lace"ents& Tribol Int
(6883). +oi$78&787B'j&triboint&6889&77&877
ARTICLE IN PRESS
A& ,ilgor. A& El/c* ' Tribology International ] (]]]]) ]]]]]] 3
?ig& 7C& Scanning electron "icrogra#!s a)ter t!ree "illion cycles )or$ (a) >PE control sr)aceI (b) >PE linear %ear\+o"ains o) #re)erential align"ent observe+I (c) >PE
elli#tical %ear\+o"ains o) align"ent observe+I (+) >PE control sr)aceI (e) >PE linear %ear\teGtre +evelo#"ent an+ la"ellar )rag"entationI an+ ()) >PE\elli#tical
"otion\+o"ains o) )rag"ente+ la"ellae& :!ite arro%s in+icate aGis o) #ri"ary %ear #at!&
sli+ing +istance se+ in t!e #resent st+y %ol+ be eG#ecte+ to
#ro+ce !ig!er not lo%er %ear rates #er "illion cycles& In
a++ition. 0ratogl et al& e"#loye+ 3 "" +ia"eter #ins onto
%!ic! a !eel;stri*e #ea* contact stress o) OH 0Pa %as a##lie+
eJating to a #ea* )orce o) OPPC NI !ig!er t!an t!e #ea* )orce o)
3P&4 N se+ in t!e #resent st+y& T!e e))ect o) +yna"ic loa+ing on
t!e %ear rate is li*ely to be co"#leG as a++itional "o+es o)
lbrication "ay be eG#erience+ bet%een +i))erent loa+ #ro/les
an+ over statically loa+e+ instr"ents& Detaile+ co"#arison
bet%een t!e static an+ t%o eGe"#lars o) +yna"ically loa+e+
#in;on;#late testing is beyon+ t!e sco#e o) t!is +iscssion&
Recognition o) t!e i"#ortance o) cross;s!ear in t!e %ear o)
cross;lin*e+ 120:PE reslte+ in "lti;+irectional #in;on;#late
st+ies on retro/tte+ linear;reci#rocating "ac!ines& R)ten a
statically loa+e+ #in is rotate+I eit!er at a constant anglar
velocity or oscillate+ over a given arc. bot! sync!ronise+ %it! a
reci#rocating #late& Sc! instr"ents !ave s!o%n )rt!er re+c;
tions in %ear rate o) crosslin*e+ "aterial. albeit to a lesser eGtent&
=alvin et al& re#ort a H4@ re+ction in 788 *=y "aterial rbbing
against a s"oot! conter)ace in co"#arison to nirra+iate+
"aterial F7P]& T!e re+ce+ bene/t in %ear resistance )or cross;
lin*ing )on+ by =alvin et al& "ay reslt )ro" t!e variable
tribological con+itions eG#erience+ at t!e %ear sr)ace& T!e
rotating #in;on;oscillating #late +esign reslts in a continosly
variable %ear #at! along t!e ra+is o) t!e )ace o) t!e #inI eac!
#at! #ossessing +i))erent +egrees o) cross;s!ear& T!ose #oints on
t!e #in sr)ace nearer t!e centre %ill travel in a "ore linear
)as!ion. be sbjecte+ to li"ite+ "lti;+irectionality an+ trace
#at!s %it! !ig!er as#ect ratios& 2ig! AR %ear #at!s !ave been
)on+ to case lo%er %ear rates in conventional 120:PE F44.4P]
%!ic! "ay eG#lain t!e re+ce+ +i))erence bet%een %ear o) non;
crosslin*e+ an+ crosslin*e+ "aterial on t!is "ac!ine& =alvin et al&
re#ort a %ear )actor o) B [ 78<9 ""4'N " )or 788 *=y "aterial
eG#eriencing B87 o) #in rotation against a s"oot! conter)ace&
T!is is an or+er o) "agnit+e lo%er t!an t!e elli#tical %ear )actor
o) 7&4 [ 78<H ""4'N " )on+ in t!is #a#er& 2o%ever. t!ey also
re#ort a %ear )actor o) 6&6 [ 78<H ""4'N " )or t!eir nirra+iate+
"aterial %!ic! is an or+er o) "agnit+e lo%er t!an t!e vale
re#orte+ !erein an+ t!at re#orte+ )ro" clinical st+ies& ?ro" t!is
st+y. a %ear )actor o) 7&B [ 78<B ""4'N " )or nirra+iate+
#olyet!ylene n+er elli#tical "otion is in goo+ agree"ent %it!
#blis!e+ clinical %ear rates o) 6&7 [78<B ""4'N " FB7]& Conven;
tional 120:PE %ill ty#ically be sterilise+ to 48 *=y& T!e "o+est
level o) crosslin*ing ac!ieve+ at t!ese ra+iation +oses +o not
#rovi+e t!e +ra"atic %ear resistance o))ere+ by !eavily irra+iate+
120:PE& Rr non;crosslin*e+ "aterial %ol+. t!ere)ore be
eG#ecte+ to s!o% si"ilar %ear be!avior to clinical +ata. an+ is in
goo+ agree"ent %it! t!e %ear o) conventional "aterial (Table 6)&
2i# si"lator st+ies !ave also s!o%n signi/cant %ear savings
in crosslin*e+ "aterial& 0c*ello# et al& )on+ an 9H@ re+ction in
%ear rate o) 120:PE ga""a irra+iate+ at 3C *=y co"#are+ to
c#s "ac!ine+ )ro" bl* "aterial irra+iate+ at 44 *=y F7C]& T!is
is in goo+ agree"ent %it! t!e 34@ +ecrease in %ear rate o) >PE
re#orte+ in t!is st+y )or sa"#les sbjecte+ to elli#tical sli+ing&
T!is level o) agree"ent bet%een t!e a+vance+ #in;on;#late
tribo"eter +escribe+ in t!is st+y an+ "lti;+irectional joint
si"lators con/r"s t!e vale o) t!e )rt!er +evelo#"ents in
tribo"eter +esign +ring t!e #ast +eca+e&
A conte"#orary #in;on;+isc tribo"eter. +esigne+ by Sai**o
et al& !as been se+ to investigate t!e e))ects o) sr)ace rog!ness
on %ear o) conventional an+ !ig!ly crosslin*e+ 120:PE&
Conventional 120:PE %as ga""a;sterilise+ in nitrogen to
6CP8 *=y an+ t!e !ig!ly crosslin*e+ "aterial. electron bea"
irra+iate+ to 3C *=y F74]& :ear tests %ere con+cte+ sing a
circlatory translating #in;on;+isc +evice (CTPRD)& :ear +ata
%ere correlate+ to conter)ace sr)ace rog!ness sing a #o%er
regression eG#ression& T!e %ear )actor o) conventional an+
crosslin*e+ "aterial %as eG#resse+ as * A C&9H [ 78<C(Ra)8&37
an+ * A H&9H [ 78<C(Ra)6&P3. res#ectively& Rn #olis!e+ sr)aces
eJivalent to sr)aces se+ in t!e crrent st+y ("ean Ra
O8&87 ""). %ear )actors )or conventional "aterial o)
* A 7&6 [ 78<B ""4'N " an+ )or crosslin*e+. 7&3 [ 78<3 ""4'N "
can be calclate+& T!e "ac!ine re#orte+ !erein #ro+ces a
constantly c!anging s!ear vector t!rog!ot t!e elli#tical cycle.
ni)or" across t!e #in sr)ace& T!e CTPRD +evice %as one o) t!e
/rst +es*to# "ac!ines to eGert t!ese tribological con+itions in a
#in;on;+isc +evice. +oing so t!rog! a circlar "otion at t!e #in;
#late inter)ace %!ere. t!e #in re"ains stationary relative to t!e
Please cite t!is article as$ ,ilgor A. El/c* A& In(ence o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene strctre on %ear o) joint re#lace"ents& Tribol Int
(6883). +oi$78&787B'j&triboint&6889&77&877
ARTICLE IN PRESS
78 A& ,ilgor. A& El/c* ' Tribology International ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]
#late& T!ere)ore. bot! conte"#orary "ac!ines accont )or
t!e strain !ar+ening be!avior o) 120:PE. #ro+cing "lti;
+irectional )riction )orces on t!e #olyet!ylene #in sr)ace&
2o%ever. t!e crosslin*e+ %ear )actor )ro" Sai**oLs st+y is t!ree
or+ers o) "agnit+e lo%er t!an t!at )or t!eir conventional
"aterial an+ t%o or+ers o) "agnit+e lo%er t!an t!e crosslin*e+
%ear )actor re#orte+ in t!is st+yI 7&3 [ 78<3 ""4'N " vs&
7&4 [ 78<H ""4'N "& T!is +i))erence "ay be acconte+ )or by
t!e %ea*er rog!ness an+ %ear )actor correlation )on+ )or
crosslin*e+ "aterial. #articlarly %it! a sr)ace /nis! belo% a
vale o) aron+ Ra 8&84 ""& 1n+er t!is sr)ace rog!ness t!ey
re#ort a %ear )actor si"ilar in "agnit+e to or st+y& T!ey
)rt!er )on+ a "ean %ear +ebris siDe generate+ )ro" crosslin*e+
"aterial articlating on s"oot! conter)aces s"aller t!an t!ose
#articles generate+ )ro" conventional "aterial. 8&7H8&8P an+
8&67H8&83 "". res#ectively& At sr)aces arti/cially rog!ene+ to
a##roGi"ate +a"age+ )e"oral co"#onents. t!e "ean +i))erence
in #article siDe %as not signi/cantI bot! "aterials #ro+ce+ "ean
#article siDes a##roac!ing 8&49 ""& T!e rog!ene+ sr)aces. %it!
scratc!es in no #re)erential +irection. "ay #ro"ote an abrasive
%ear regi"e. %!ic! %ol+ +o"inate over an ot!er%ise a+!esive'
)atige regi"e. s!o%n by !ig!er #oly"er %ear rates& T!e e))ects
o) sr)ace rog!ness on %ear %ere )on+ to be "ore #rononce+
in t!e crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene. illstrate+ by a stee#er regression
gra+ient& T!is is not sr#rising i) %e consi+er %ear be!avior in
lig!t o) bl* #oly"er "ec!anical #ro#erties& T!e tog!ness o)
crosslin*e+ "aterial !as been s!o%n to be less t!an t!at o)
conventional "aterialI lti"ate tensile strengt! an+ strain are
+egra+e+ in !ig!ly crosslin*e+ "aterial FCP]& A %ell *no%n
relations!i# bet%een #oly"er bl* "ec!anical #ro#erties an+
resistance to abrasive %ear is calle+ t!e RatnerLancaster
relations!i# FB6]& T!is correlates #oly"er %ear to be inversely
#ro#ortional to t!e tog!ness o) t!e #oly"er (t!e #ro+ct o) t!e
lti"ate stress an+ strain at tensile brea*). s##orting t!e greater
+e#en+ence o) crosslin*e+ "aterial on sr)ace rog!ness )on+ in
t!e Sai**o st+y&
1n+er rog!er conter;sr)ace con+itions %!ic! reslt in
!ig!er crosslin*e+ %ear rates. t!e #oly"er sr)ace is %orn "ore
Jic*lyI a cl"ination o) #log!ing an+ )ractre #ro+cing %ear
+ebris be)ore large #lasticity levels an+ )atige beco"e t!e
+o"inant %ear "ec!anis"& 2o%ever. on #olis!e+ conter)aces
#ro"oting an a+!esive ty#e %ear regi"e. crosslin*e+ "aterial
"ay acc"late larger levels o) #lastic strain in t!e near sr)ace
%it! res#ect to conventional "aterial. +e to a re+ction in
sr)ace trn;over& T!e re+ction can be attribte+ to a++itional
cross;lin*e+ bon+s increasing t!e co!esive strengt! o) t!e
"aterial& As a reslt. larger strain acc"lation "ay increase
t!e occrrence o) +e)or"ation "ec!anis"s in t!e crystalline
+o"ains casing la"ellae )rag"entation& De;crystallisation "ay
reslt in t!e generation an+ release o) s"aller %ear #articles t!an
t!ose release+ )ro" conventional "aterial&
T!e evoltion o) "icrostrctral c!ange in t!e #olyet!ylene is
o) great in(ence to t!e %ear #ro#erties o) t!is "aterial& E+i+in
et al& F68] #resente+ trans"ission electron "icrogra#!s ta*en
)ro" staine+ virgin an+ cross;lin*e+ acetablar c#s a)ter t!ree
"illion cycles on a !i# si"lator& Sections ta*en to "a# t!e "icro;
strctre beneat! t!e sr)ace reveale+ la"ellae re;orientation to a
sb;sr)ace +e#t! o) 3 an+ P "" )or non;crosslin*e+ an+ cross;
lin*e+ "aterial. res#ectively& T!is "o+i/e+ sb;sr)ace Done %as
labelle+ t!e KK#lasticity in+ce+LL layer& In or+er to c!aracterise t!e
+e#t! at %!ic! t!e sb;sr)ace #lasticity layer eGten+s. %e
con+cte+ +e#t! #ro/ling sing a con)ocal Ra"an "icrosco#e&
T!e Ra"an reslts #resente+ !ere re#resent t!e #ercentage o)
crystalline "aterial at t!e sr)ace an+ sb;sr)ace a)ter t!ree
"illion linear an+ elli#tical %ear cycles& 1nirra+iate+ "aterial.
%orn n+er elli#tical "otion %as s!o%n to retain its original
n%orn crystallinity # to t!e investigate+ +e#t! o) 6C ""& T!is
in+icates t!at +e)or"ation "ec!anis"s )or <PE. in res#onse to
"lti;+irectional "otion. "ay be constraine+ to t!e a"or#!os
+o"ains. leaving t!e "ajority o) la"ellae n+a"age+ (?ig& 74b or
e) an+. !ence. #ercentage crystallinity nc!ange+& In contrast.
n+er linear reci#rocating "otion t!e lo%er %earing <PE %as
)on+ to eG#erience +e;crystallisation& ?E;SE0 i"ages yiel+
evi+ence o) crystalline )rag"entation. %it! t!e a##earance o)
s"aller crystals on t!e %orn "icrostrctres (?ig& 74c or ))& T!e
acc"lation o) strain at. an+ beneat!. t!e sr)ace "ay reslt in a
trans)er o) t!e +e)or"ation "ec!anis" )ro" acting #re)erentially
%it!in t!e a"or#!os +o"ains to occrring. in a++ition. %it!in
t!e crystalline la"ellae& Alt!og! a +ro# in nirra+iate+ crystal;
linity %as )on+ in res#onse to reci#rocating "otion (in co"#ar;
ison to t!e n%orn control an+ elli#tical "otion). %e observe+
no statistical c!ange in "ean crystallinity bet%een t!e sr)ace
an+ sb;sr)ace %it!in t!is gro#& T!is sggests t!at t!e +e;
crystallisation Done eGten+s beyon+ t!e "aGi"" sa"#le+ +e#t!
o) 4H&C ""& 2a+ t!e eGtent o) sb;sr)ace +a"age been less t!an
t!is. an increase in crystallinity %it! increasing +e#t! s!ol+ !ave
been observe+ as t!e "icrostrctre retrns to its native
con/gration being no longer a))ecte+ by t!e )rictional )orces at
t!e sr)ace&
E+i+in et al& sggest t!at cross;lin*ing "ay constrain t!e
ability o) t!e crystalline la"ellae to re;orient reslting in a
s"aller #lasticity in+ce+ +a"age layer an+ lo%er %ear rates& In
t!is st+y crosslin*ing !as been s!o%n to #ro+ce noticeable
re+ctions in %ear rate n+er elli#tical "otion& Ra"an s#ectro;
sco#y in+icates t!at in res#onse to sli+ing. bot! sr)ace an+ sb;
sr)ace crystallinity is re+ce+ )or >PE s#eci"ens& 1n+er elli#tical
"otion. t!e /nal sr)ace crystallinity %as lo%er t!an t!e n%orn
control& T!is %as s##orte+ by "icrogra#!s s!o%ing evi+ence o)
areas consisting o) )rag"ente+ la"ellae& Linear "otion case+ t!e
largest +ro# in >PE crystallinity& Crosslin*e+ "aterial %orn %it!
eit!er a linear or elli#tical "otion eG!ibits a tren+ o) increasing
crystallinity %it! +e#t! beneat! t!e sr)ace& T!is sggests t!e
eGtent o) sr)ace stresses an+ strains +i"inis!es as t!e +istance
beneat! t!e sr)ace increases in agree"ent %it! contact
"ec!anics t!eore"s e&g& 2ertD& 2o%ever. neit!er "icrostrctre
a##roac!es t!e crystallinity ratio o) t!e n%orn crosslin*e+
control "aterial& T!is )rt!er in+icates t!at t!e +e;crystallise+
+a"age layer "ay eGten+ )rt!er t!an t!e "aGi"" +e#t! o)
4H&C "" eG#lore+ in t!is st+y& T!e reslts #resente+ !ere in+icate
t!at crosslin*e+ 120:PE eG#eriences a sb;sr)ace +a"age
layer %!ic! contains re;oriente+ an+ )rag"ente+ la"ellae
regar+less o) "otion #at!& 1n+er bot! ty#es o) "otion. a
+e;crystallisation regi"e %as )on+ to eGten+ "ore t!an
4H&C "" beneat! t!e sr)ace& 0ore %ear resistant sr)aces "ay
+evelo# !ig!er levels o) strainI t!e increase+ #erio+ ta*en )or a
given a"ont o) "aterial to be re"ove+ reslts in a greater
c!ance )or strain to acc"late& It %as a##arent t!at t!e slo%er
%earing sr)aces. )ro" eit!er "aterial gro#. eG!ibite+ t!e
greatest +e;crystallisation at t!e co"#letion o) eac! %ear test&
Sro*en la"ellae. #articlarly in t!e !ig!ly %ear resistance
crosslin*e+ "aterial "ay be /nally release+ as sb;"icron +ebris&
?rt!er st+ies. in+icate a larger sb;sr)ace Done %!ic! "ay
eGten+ # to an+ eGcee+ 688 "" beneat! t!e sr)ace FB4]& DryDe*
et al& con+cte+ #in;on;+isc st+ies rbbing 78 "" +ia"eter
#ellets o) 120:PE onto a stainless steel +isc %it! no"inal loa+s
o) 788 an+ 7C8 N& Sli+ing %as in t!e absence o) lbricant& N;ray
+i))raction in+icate+ 788 " o) sli+ing %as enog! to case a
+e;crystallise+ sr)ace an+ sb;sr)ace layer. %ell beyon+ 688 ""
into t!e "aterial& Clearly. t!e li*ely trans)er;/l" )or"ation
an+ !eat bil+;# eG#erience+ in DryDe* et al&Ls st+y +isallo%
a +irect co"#arison& 2o%ever. it +oes serve to illstrate t!at
t!e ni;+irectional natre o) t!e #in;on;+isc %ill. jst li*e t!e
Please cite t!is article as$ ,ilgor A. El/c* A& In(ence o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene strctre on %ear o) joint re#lace"ents& Tribol Int
(6883). +oi$78&787B'j&triboint&6889&77&877
ARTICLE IN PRESS
A& ,ilgor. A& El/c* ' Tribology International ] (]]]]) ]]]]]] 77
linear;reci#rocating "otion a##lie+ !ere. case strain !ar+ening
an+ #re)erential la"ellar align"ent at sbstantial +e#t!s beneat!
t!e sr)ace beyon+ t!ose eG#ecte+ )ro" a consi+eration o) t!e
contact "ec!anics& 1n+er t!ese si"#li/e+ tribological con+itions
%e also /n+ a +e;crystallise+ %orn sr)ace an+ sb;sr)ace layer
in t!e nirra+iate+ 120:PE&
Davey et al& FPP] con+cte+ #olarise+ ?orier;trans)or"
in)rare+ s#ectrosco#y (?TIR) on retrieve+ 120:PE acetablar
co"#onents& Cylin+rical cores %ere ta*en #er#en+iclar to t!e
%orn sr)ace an+ t!en sectione+ on a "icroto"e into 688 ""
t!ic* slices& T!ey )on+ t!e greatest a"ont o) la"ellar orienta;
tion occrring in t!e /rst 688 "" beneat! t!e sr)ace. alt!og!
"icrostrctral re;arrange"ent %as also a##arent # to P88 ""&
T!e Ra"an tec!niJe e"#loye+ %it!in t!is st+y in+icates a sb;
sr)ace +a"age layer consisting o) a +e;crystallisation Done
eGten+ing to a +e#t! greater t!an 4H ""& T!e only "aterial an+
%ear #at! co"bination t!at s!o%e+ no c!anges in sr)ace
crystallinity n+er sli+ing %as t!e nirra+iate+ "aterial %orn
n+er elli#tical "otion&
Parallel ri##les on t!e sr)ace o) !ig! %ear areas o) eG#lante+
120:PE c#s %ere /rst observe+ by Do%ling et al& FBP] sing
SE0& T!e li"itation o) t!e ri##les to occr in areas o) t!e c#
eG!ibiting !ig! %ear sggests a contact area sbjecte+ to a !ig!
+egree o) "lti;+irectionality an+ t!e #resence o) a+!esive or
)atige %ear "ec!anis"s& Ri##les )ro" Do%lingLs st+y. t!is
st+y. an+ "any "ore consistently re#ort t!e )eatre %it!
%avelengt!s bet%een 7 an+ 6 ""& :e i"age+ ri##ling on t!e
%orn sr)ace o) nirra+iate+ #olyet!ylene n+er elli#tical rbbing
(?ig& 76a). a tribological set# reslting in t!e !ig!est %ear& T!is
"ay sggest t!at ri##ling is a conseJence o) "lti;+irectional
"otion n+er +yna"ic loa+ing. !o%ever. sr)ace ri##les !ave also
been recor+e+ by El/c* et al& F6H] %!o sggests "otion
a##roac!ing ni;+irectionality "ay be a reJire"ent )or t!is
to#ogra#!ical )eatre& In agree"ent. Srag+on et al& FBC] )on+
only niaGial reci#rocating "otion #ro+ce+ signi/cant ri##les o)
%avelengt! 7&C "" on t!e %orn sr)ace o) non;irra+iate+ P7C8
120:PE #ins& :e also i"age+ ri##ling on t!e %orn sr)ace o)
>PE sbjecte+ to linear "otion (?ig& 7P+)& De to t!e inconsistent
tribological con+itions n+er %!ic! sig!tings o) ri##ling !ave
been observe+. t!e sggestion by El/c* et al& t!at ri##ling "ay be
a transient #!eno"enon see"s a##ro#riate&
1ni;+irectional "otion !as been )on+ to case t!e greatest
+egree o) "oleclar orientation n+er a range o) sli+ing "otions
FBB]& Sa"basivan et al& also )on+ signi/cant align"ent in
res#onse to linear reci#rocating %ear +ring a C888 cycle test
#erio+& In t!e crrent st+y "icrostrctral re;orientation %as
con/r"e+ by /el+;e"ission scanning electron "icrosco#y& 0icro;
strctre evoltion in res#onse to "otion #at! %as !ig!ly +istinct
in t!e nirra+iate+ gro#& Signi/cant teGtre +evelo#"ent
occrre+ n+er linear reci#rocating "otion& La"ellae %ere
orientate+ in a #re)erential "anner %!ic! coinci+e+ %it! t!e
sli+ing +irection (?ig& 74c)& Sr)aces %orn n+er elli#tical "otion
s!o%e+ consi+erably less re;arrange"ent an+ negligible crystal;
line +egra+ation& Sot! t!ese "aterial c!aracteristics col+ be
attribte+ to t!e !ig!er %ear rate case+ by elli#tical "otion& A
)aster %earing sr)ace %ill leave less ti"e )or large strains to
+evelo# in t!e sr)ace& T!is "ay reslt in a %orn sr)ace s!o%ing
no #re)erential orientation or )rag"ente+ la"ellae& Li*e%ise. t!e
sa"e nirra+iate+ "aterial sbjecte+ to linear "otion %as )on+
to %ear "ore slo%ly. !ence. %ol+ !ave "ore ti"e to acc"late
!ig!er levels o) sr)ace an+ sb;sr)ace strain. reslting in greater
a"onts o) orientation an+ crystalline +egra+ation& T!is is
s##orte+ by SE0 i"ages s!o%ing "ore )reJently occrring
la"ellar tilting. ben+ing. rotation an+ lti"ately )rag"entation in
ltra;strctres sbjecte+ to linear "otion& Crosslin*e+ "aterial.
t!e "ore %ear resistant "aterial n+er bot! ty#es o) "otion "ay
eG#erience a si"ilar e))ect& T!e slo%er %ear rates col+ eG#lain
t!e +ro# in crosslin*e+ crystallinity. an+ t!e si"ilarities o)
"icrostrctre +e)or"ation i"age+ on bot! %orn linear an+
elli#tical "icrostrctres&
SE0 i"ages o) <PE an+ >PE ltrastrctres a)ter linear "otion
%ere si"ilar& Sot! s!o%e+ +egrees o) la"ellar align"ent an+
crystalline +e)or"ation "ec!anis"s& T!e +i))erence in t!e t%o
#oly"er net%or*s %as reveale+ by s%elling reslts& T!ese
in+icate+ elevate+ crosslin*s occrring in t!e a"or#!os +o"ains
o) t!e >PE "aterial& T!e #resence o) crosslin*s +i+ not signi/;
cantly in!ibit la"ellae re;orientation. an+ +i+ not increase t!e
%ear resistance o) >PE n+er si"#li/e+ reci#rocating "otion&
T!ere)ore. %e #ostlate t!e increase+ %ear resistance o) cross;
lin*e+ "aterial co"es )ro" t!e elevate+ tie;"olecle +ensities in
a"or#!os +o"ains. a++ing increase+ resistance to a"or#!os
+e)or"ation "ec!anis"s sc! as interla"ellar stac* rotation.
interla"ellar s!ear an+ interla"ellar se#aration FBH] in res#onse
to crossing "otion #at!s& T!e greater resistance to #lastic
+e)or"ation an+ +ebris release )ro" t!e sr)ace creates a "ore
%ear resistant sr)ace& T!e increase+ strctral integrity o) t!e
a"or#!os +o"ain "ay "ore e))ectively trans)er strain to t!e
crystalline +o"ains. s##orting t!e +e;crystallise+ sr)ace an+
sb;sr)ace Dones )on+ in t!is st+y& 1n+er #!ysiological !i#
stresses. acc"late+ strain "ay not be relieve+ )ro" t!e sr)ace
as +ebris. as %ol+ be in conventional "aterial. bt rat!er
trans)erre+ )ro" a"or#!os to crystalline +o"ains increasing t!e
ti"e it ta*es to generate +ebris #articles& ?rag"ente+ la"ellae
"ay t!en #rovi+e t!e basis )or sb;"icron +ebris generation&
C& Conclsions
T!e se o) a novel siG;station. #rogra""able loa+ an+ "otion
%ear "ac!ine to )rt!er t!e tribological investigation into %ear
an+ sb;sr)ace #lasticity o) ltra;!ig! "oleclar %eig!t #oly;
et!ylene !as con/r"e+ t!e i"#ortance o) "lti;+irectional
"otion in #in;on;#late st+ies& ?rt!er. it !as #rovi+e+ a basis
)or non;+estrctive analysis tec!niJes to c!aracterise "icro;
strctre +evelo#"ent& T!e signi/cance o) ni)or" tribological
con+itions across t!e #in contact area !as allo%e+ t!e %ear
resistance o) !ig!ly crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene to be investigate+&
Ra"an s#ectrosco#y reveale+ a +e;crystallise+ +a"age Done
beneat! t!e %orn sr)ace eGten+ing to a +istance greater t!an
4H&C ""& T!is sggests t!e strain;in+ce+ +a"age Done is "ore
eGtensive t!an initially #ro#ose+&
Signi/cant la"ellar align"ent %as only observe+ n+er linear
reci#rocating "otion. Jestioning t!e basis o) orientation so)t;
ening an+ accelerate+ %ear n+er cross;s!ear& 2o%ever. t!e
!y#ot!esis t!at crosslin*ing +oes not in!ibit la"ellar "obility is
s##orte+ as SE0 i"ages reveale+ re;orientation n+er sli+ing&
T!e elevate+ n"ber o) carboncarbon covalent bon+s "ay
increase t!e resistance to #lastic +e)or"ation an+ /brillar #ll;
ot %!en t!e "icrostrctre s!o%s no #re)erential align"ent&
De;crystallise+ sr)ace an+ sb;sr)ace Dones %ere )on+ in t!e
lo%est %earing gro#s i&e& nirra+iate+ an+ crosslin*e+ "aterial
sbjecte+ to reci#rocating "otion& T!is %as attribte+ to large
strain acc"lation over a longer #erio+ o) ti"e #rovi+ing a
"ec!anis" )or crystalline )rag"entation& La"ellae )rag"ents
"ay )or" t!e basis o) sb;"icron +ebris )ro" t!e "ore %ear
resistant crosslin*e+ sr)aces&
Ac*no%le+ge"ents
T!e at!ors %ol+ li*e to t!an* t!e Engineering an+ P!ysical
Sciences Researc! Concil )or )n+ing t!e #roject. S"it! an+
Please cite t!is article as$ ,ilgor A. El/c* A& In(ence o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene strctre on %ear o) joint re#lace"ents& Tribol Int
(6883). +oi$78&787B'j&triboint&6889&77&877
ARTICLE IN PRESS
76 A& ,ilgor. A& El/c* ' Tribology International ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]
Ne#!e% Inc& )or s##lying t!e sa"#les. T!e Royal Society o)
E+inbrg!. Pro)& Lisa Pritt at t!e 1niversity o) Cali)ornia. Ser*eley
an+ Dr& C!ris 5e))ree )or ?ESE0 %or* at t!e 1niversity o)
E+inbrg!&
Re)erences
F48]
F47]
F46]
F7] =alante 5R. Rosto*er :& :ear in total !i# #rost!eses\eG#eri"ental
evalation o) can+i+ate "aterials& Acta Rrt!o#ae+ica Scan+inavica S##le;
"ent" 73H4(7PC)$7PB&
F6] 0c,ello# 2. et al& :ear c!aracteristics o) 120: #olyet!ylene$ a "et!o+ )or
accrately "easring eGtre"ely lo% %ear rates& 5ornal o) Sio"e+ical
0aterials Researc! 73H9I76(B)$93C36H&
F4] 0c,ello# 2. et al& ?riction an+ %ear #ro#erties o) #oly"er. "etal. an+ cera"ic
#rost!etic joint "aterials evalate+ on a "ltic!annel screening +evice&
5ornal o) Sio"e+ical 0aterials Researc! 7397I7C(C)$B73C4&
FP] Rose R0. Ci"ino :R& EG#loratory investigations on t!e strctre +e#en+ence
o) t!e %ear resistance o) #olyet!ylene& :ear 7396IHH(7)$9378P&
FC] Rosto*er :. =alante 5R& Contact #ressre +e#en+ence o) %ear rates o) ltra
!ig! "oleclar %eig!t #olyet!ylene& 5ornal o) Sio"e+ical 0aterials
Researc! 73H3I74(B)$3CHBP&
FB] :rig!t ,:5. Dobbs 2S. Scales 5T& :ear st+ies on #rost!etic "aterials sing
t!e #in;on;+isc "ac!ine& Sio"aterials 7396I4(7)$P79&
FH] C!arnley 5& Total !i# re#lace"ent by lo%;)riction art!ro#lasty& Clinical
Rrt!o#ae+ics an+ Relate+ Researc! 73H8(H6)$H67&
F9] Coo#er RA. et al& Polyet!ylene +ebris;in+ce+ osteolysis an+ loosening in
nce"ente+ total !i# art!ro#lasty$ a case o) late )ailre& T!e 5ornal o)
Art!ro#lasty 7336IH(4)$69C38&
F3] 2arris :2& T!e #roble" is osteolysis& Clinical Rrt!o#ae+ics an+ Relate+
Researc! 733C(477)$PBC4&
F78] :illert 2=. Sertra" 2. Sc!!orn =2& Rsteolysis in alloart!ro#lasty o) t!e
!i#\t!e role o) ltra;!ig!;"oleclar;%eig!t #olyet!ylene %ear #articles&
Clinical Rrt!o#ae+ics an+ Relate+ Researc! 7338(6C9)$3C78H&
F77] Sorne RS. et al& Pain in t!e t!ig! )ollo%ing total !i#;re#lace"ent %it! a
#oros;coate+ anato"ic #rost!esis )or osteoart!rosis\a C;year )ollo%;#
st+y& 5ornal o) Sone an+ 5oint Srgery\A"erican Tol"e 733PIHBA(78)$
7PBPH8&
F76] 0ratogl R,. et al& 1ni/e+ %ear "o+el )or !ig!ly crosslin*e+ ltra;!ig!
"oleclar %eig!t #olyet!ylenes (120:PE)& Sio"aterials 7333I68$7PB4H8&
]F74] Sai**o T. Calonis R. ,eranen 5& E))ect o) conter)ace rog!ness on t!e %ear
o) conventional an+ crosslin*e+ ltra!ig! "oleclar %eig!t #olyet!ylene
st+ie+ %it! a "lti;+irectional "otion #in;on;+is* +evice& 5ornal o)
Sio"e+ical 0aterials Researc! 6887ICH(P)$C8B76&
F7P] =alvin A. et al& :ear o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene n+er +i))erent tribological
con+itions& 5ornal o) 0aterials Science$ 0aterials in 0e+icine 688BI
7H(4)$64CP4&
F7C] 0c,ello# 2. et al& Develo#"ent o) an eGtre"ely %ear;resistant ltra !ig!
"oleclar %eig!t #olyt!ylene )or total !i# re#lace"ents& 5ornal o)
Rrt!o#ae+ic Researc! 7333I7H(6)$7CHBH&
F7B] Dorr LD. et al& Clinical #er)or"ance o) a +rasl !ig!ly cross;lin*e+
#olyet!ylene acetablar liner )or total !i# art!ro#lasty at /ve years& 5ornal
o) Sone an+ 5oint Srgery\A"erican Tol"e 688CI9HA(9)$797B67&
F7H] 2eisel C. et al& S!ort;ter" in vivo %ear o) cross;lin*e+ #olyet!ylene& 5ornal o)
Sone an+ 5oint Srgery\A"erican Tol"e 688PI9BA(P)$HP9C7&
F79] D"bleton 52. S!en C. 0iller E2& St+y o) %ear o) so"e "aterials in
connection %it! total !i#;re#lace"ent& :ear 73HPI63(6)$7B4H7&
F73] S!en C. D"bleton 52& ?riction an+ %ear be!avior o) irra+iate+ very !ig!
"oleclar;%eig!t #olyet!ylene& :ear 73HPI48(4)$4P3BP&
F68] E+i+in AA. et al& Plasticity;in+ce+ +a"age layer is a #recrsor to %ear in
ra+iation;cross;lin*e+ 120:PE acetablar co"#onents )or total !i#
re#lace"ent& T!e 5ornal o) Art!ro#lasty 7333I7P(C)$B7B6H&
F67] 0c*ello# 2A. et al& T!e origin o) sb"icron #olyet!ylene %ear +ebris in total
!i#;art!ro#lasty& Clinical Rrt!o#ae+ics an+ Relate+ Researc! 733C(477)$468&
F66] 5asty 0. et al& :ear o) #olyet!ylene acetablar co"#onents in total !i#
art!ro#lasty\an analysis o) one !n+re+ an+ t%enty;eig!t co"#onents
retrieve+ at ato#sy or revision o#erations& 5ornal o) Sone an+ 5oint
Srgery\A"erican Tol"e 733HIH3A(4)$4P3C9&
F64] Srag+on CR. et al& T!e i"#ortance o) "lti+irectional "otion on t!e %ear o)
#olyet!ylene& Procee+ings o) t!e Instittion o) 0ec!anical Engineers F2]
733BI678(4)$7CHBC&
F6P] :ang A. et al& Rrientation so)tening in t!e +e)or"ation an+ %ear o) ltra;
!ig! "oleclar %eig!t #olyet!ylene& :ear 733HI68468P$648P7&
F6C] C!arnley 5& :ear o) #lastics "aterials in !i#;joint& Plastics an+ Rbber 73HBI
7(6)$C3B4&
F6B] :ang A& A ni/e+ t!eory o) %ear )or ltra;!ig! "oleclar %eig!t
#olyet!ylene in "lti;+irectional sli+ing& :ear 6887I6P9(76)$49PH&
F6H] El/c* APD. et al& A re;a##raisal o) %ear )eatres o) acetablar soc*ets sing
ato"ic )orce "icrosco#y& :ear 6886I6C4(H9)$943PH&
F69] Deboer 5. Tan+enberg 25. Pennings A5& Crosslin*ing o) ltra!ig! "oleclar;
%eig!t #olyet!ylene in t!e oriente+ state %it! +ic"yl#eroGi+e& Poly"er
739PI6C(P)$C743&
F63] ,rtD S0. et al& Ra+iation an+ c!e"ical crosslin*ing #ro"ote strain
!ar+ening be!avior an+ "oleclar align"ent in ltra !ig! "oleclar %eig!t
F44]
F4P]
F4C]
F4B]
F4H]
F49]
F43]
FP8]
FP7]
FP6]
FP4]
FPP]
FPC]
FPB]
FPH]
FP9]
FP3]
FC8]
FC7]
FC6]
FC4]
FCP]
FCC]
FCB]
FCH]
FC9]
FC3]
FB8]
FB7]
#olyet!ylene +ring "lti;aGial loa+ing con+itions& Sio"aterials 7333I
68(7B)$7PP3B6&
:ang A. et al& Lbrication an+ %ear o) ltra;!ig! "oleclar %eig!t
#olyet!ylene in total joint re#lace"ents& Tribology International 7339I
47(74)$7H44&
5oyce T5. et al& A co"#arison o) t!e %ear o) cross;lin*e+ #olyet!ylene against
itsel) n+er reci#rocating an+ "lti;+irectional "otion %it! +i))erent
lbricants& :ear 6887I6C8(776)$68B77&
Q!o 5. et al& Tribological an+ nano"ec!anical #ro#erties o) n"o+i/e+ an+
crosslin*e+ ltra;!ig! "oleclar %eig!t #olyet!ylene )or total joint re#lace;
"ents& 5ornal o) Tribology 688PI76B(6)$49B3P&
]Sai**o T. Calonis R. ,eranen 5& E))ect o) sli+e trac* s!a#e on t!e %ear o)
ltra;!ig! "oleclar %eig!t #olyet!ylene in a #in;on;+is* %ear si"lation o)
total !i# #rost!esis& 5ornal o) Sio"e+ical 0aterials Researc! 688PI
B3S(6)$7P79&
Trell 0. :ang A. Sellare A& ^anti/cation o) t!e e))ect o) cross;#at! "otion
on t!e %ear rate o) ltra;!ig! "oleclar %eig!t #olyet!ylene& :ear
6884I6CC(H76)$784P3&
AST0 D6HBC;87& Stan+ar+ test "et!o+s )or +eter"ination o) gel content an+
s%ell ratio o) crosslin*e+ et!ylene #lastics& AST0 International. 688B&
Ro+rigeD ?. et al& Princi#les o) #oly"er syste"s& Ct! e+& Lon+on$ Taylor E
?rancisI 6884&
?lory P5& Princi#les o) #oly"er c!e"istry& It!aca. N_$ Cornell 1niversity PressI
73C4&
AST0 ?H46;88& Stan+ar+ test "et!o+ )or %ear testing o) #oly"eric "aterials
)or se in total joint #rost!eses& AST0 International. 688B&
,ilgor A. El/c* AP& Investigation o) #olyet!ylene strctre an+ its bearing on
%ear o) joint re#lac"ents& In$ :orl+ bio"aterials congress. A"ster+a". 6889&
2all R0. et al& :ear in retrieve+ C!arnley acetablar soc*ets& Procee+ings o)
t!e Instittion o) 0ec!anical Engineers 733BI678(4)$73H68H& F83CP;P773
(Print)]&
Ra"a"rti SS. et al& Loci o) "ove"ent o) selecte+ #oints on t!e )e"oral !ea+
+ring nor"al gait$ t!ree;+i"ensional co"#ter si"lation& T!e 5ornal o)
Art!ro#lasty 733BI77(H)$9PCC6&
Sennett DS. Rrr 5?. Sa*er R& 0ove"ent loci o) selecte+ #oints on t!e )e"oral
!ea+ )or in+ivi+al total !i# art!ro#lasty #atients sing t!ree;+i"ensional
co"#ter si"lation& T!e 5ornal o) Art!ro#lasty 6888I7C(H)$3837C&
Sai**o T. Calonis R& Sli+e trac* analysis o) t!e relative "otion bet%een
)e"oral !ea+ an+ acetablar c# in %al*ing an+ in !i# si"lators& 5ornal o)
Sio"ec!anics 6886I4C(P)$PCCBP&
Davey S0. et al& 0easre"ent o) "oleclar orientation in retrieve+ ltra;
!ig!;"oleclar;%eig!t #olyet!ylene (120:PE) !i# soc*ets sing ?orier;
trans)or" in)rare+ s#ectrosco#y& Strain 688PIP8(P)$68478&
Serg"ann =. =raic!en ?. Ro!l"ann A& 2i# joint loa+ing +ring %al*ing an+
rnning. "easre+ in t%o #atients& 5ornal o) Sio"ec!anics 7334I6B(9)$
3B338&
Pal 5P& ?orces trans"itte+ by joints in t!e !"an bo+y& Procee+ings o) t!e
Instittion o) 0ec!anical Engineers 73BBI797$97C&
=lotin 0. 0an+el*ern L& A Ra"an s#ectrosco#ic st+y o) t!e "or#!ological
strctre o) t!e #olyet!ylenes& Colloi+ E Poly"er Science 7396I6B8(6)$
79636&
0an+el*ern L. Ala"o R=. ,enne+y 0A& Inter#!ase t!ic*ness o) linear
#olyet!ylene& 0acro"olecles 7338I64(67)$PH674&
Strobl =R. 2age+orn :& Ra"an s#ectrosco#ic "et!o+ )or +eter"ining t!e
crystallinity o) #olyet!ylene& 5ornal o) Poly"er Science$ Poly"er P!ysics
E+ition 73H9I 779734&
A))atato S. et al& T!e #er)or"ance o) ga""a; an+ EtR;sterilise+ 120:PE
acetablar c#s teste+ n+er severe si"lator con+itions& Part 6$ %ear #article
c!aracteristics %it! isolation #rotocols& Sio"aterials 6884I6P(66)$P8PCCC&
A))atato S. et al& :ear be!avior o) cross;lin*e+ #olyet!ylene assesse+ in vitro
n+er severe con+itions& Sio"aterials 688CI6B(7B)$46C3BH&
A))atato S. et al& E))ects o) t!e sterilisation "et!o+ on t!e %ear o) 120:PE
acetablar c#s teste+ in a !i# joint si"lator& Sio"aterials 6886I64(B)$
7P43PB&
SertolDDa A. et al& 0icro;Ra"an s#ectrosco#y )or t!e crystallinity c!aracter;
iDation o) 120:PE !i# c#s rn on joint si"lators& 5ornal o) 0oleclar
Strctre 6888IC67(74)$933C&
Pritt LA& De)or"ation. yiel+ing. )ractre an+ )atige be!avior o) conven;
tional an+ !ig!ly cross;lin*e+ ltra !ig! "oleclar %eig!t #olyet!ylene&
Sio"aterials 688CI6B(9)$38C7C&
Rlley R2. 2o+ge A0. Sassett DC& A #er"anganic etc!ant )or #olyole/nes&
5ornal o) Poly"er Science$ Poly"er P!ysics E+ition 73H3I7H(P)$B6HP4&
Sa%yer LC. =rbb DT& Poly"er "icrosco#y& 6n+ e+& Ne% _or*$ C!a#"an E
2all Lt+I 739H&
Rlley R2. Sassett DC& An i"#rove+ #er"anganic etc!ant )or #olyole/nes&
Poly"er 7396I64(76)$7H8H78&
S!a!in 00. Rlley R2. Slissett 05& Re/ne"ent o) etc!ing tec!niJes to reveal
la"ellar #ro/les in #olyet!ylene ban+e+ s#!erlites& 5ornal o) Poly"er
Science Part S$ Poly"er P!ysics 7333I4H(7B)$66H39B&
,la##eric! C. ,o"vo#oolos ,. Pritt L& Tribological #ro#erties an+ "icro;
strctre evoltion o) ltra;!ig! "oleclar %eig!t #olyet!ylene& 5ornal o)
Tribology. Transactions o) t!e AS0E 7333I767(6)$43PP84&
Arc!ar+ 5?& Contact an+ rbbing o) (at sr)aces& 5ornal o) A##lie+ P!ysics
73C4I6P(9)$3979&
El/c* APD. et al& T!e e))ect o) soc*et +esign. "aterials an+ liner t!ic*ness on
t!e %ear o) t!e #oros coate+ anato"ic total !i# re#lace"ent& Procee+ings o)
Please cite t!is article as$ ,ilgor A. El/c* A& In(ence o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene strctre on %ear o) joint re#lace"ents& Tribol Int
(6883). +oi$78&787B'j&triboint&6889&77&877
ARTICLE IN PRESS
A& ,ilgor. A& El/c* ' Tribology International ] (]]]]) ]]]]]] 74
t!e Instittion o) 0ec!anical Engineers Part 2\5ornal o) Engineering in
0e+icine 6887I67C(2C)$PPHCH&
FB6] Lancaster 5,& Relations!i#s bet%een %ear o) #oly"ers an+ t!eir "ec!anical
#ro#erties& In+strial Lbrication an+ Tribology 73B3I67(H)$67P&
FB4] DryDe* E. DryDe* 5& 0easre"ent o) sbsr)ace Done in 120:PE a)ter
sli+ing against stainless steel sing t!e ne% eG#eri"ental "et!o+ DSIP&
Ra+iation P!ysics an+ C!e"istry 688HIHB(6)$7CH3&
FBP] Do%ling 50. et al& C!aracteristics o) acetablar c#s %orn in !"an;
bo+y& 5ornal o) Sone an+ 5oint Srgery\Sritis! Tol"e 73H9IB8(4)$4HC96&
FBC] Srag+on CR. et al& A ne% #in;on;+is* %ear testing "et!o+ )or si"lating
%ear o) #olyet!ylene on cobaltc!ro"e alloy in total !i# art!ro#lasty& T!e
5ornal o) Art!ro#lasty 6887I7B(C)$BC9BC&
FBB] Sa"basivan S. et al& 0oleclar orientation o) ltra!ig! "oleclar %eig!t
#olyet!ylene in+ce+ by varios sli+ing "otions& 5ornal o) Sio"e+ical
0aterials Researc! 688PIH8S(6)$6H99C&
FBH] Lin L. Argon AS& Strctre an+ #lastic;+e)or"ation o) #olyet!ylene& 5ornal o)
0aterials Science 733PI63(6)$63P464&
Please cite t!is article as$ ,ilgor A. El/c* A& In(ence o) crosslin*e+ #olyet!ylene strctre on %ear o) joint re#lace"ents& Tribol Int
(6883). +oi$78&787B'j&triboint&6889&77&877