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CHAPTER - I
WATER TECHNOLOGY


Q. Define hardness of water. State the type of hardness of water. OR
Distinguish between temporary (carbonate) and permanent
(noncarbonate) hardness.
Ans: Hardness: Hardness of water is defined which prevent lathering of soap
Temporary Hardness: It is due to the presence of dissolved bi-carbonates
of Ca, Mg and other heavy metals. Presence of bicarbonates causes
alkalinity to water. Temporary hardness can be removed by simple boiling
of water.
Permanent Hardness: It is due to the presence of dissolved chlorides and
sulphates of Ca, Mg and other heavy metals it cannot be removed by simple
boiling, chemical treatment is required to remove the hardness.
Q. Desceribe the different types of impurities present in natural water with
examples.
Ans: Impurities in water may be broadly classified into four categories:
i) Dissolved impurities
ii) Suspended impurities
iii) Dissolved gases &
iv) Organic matter.

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1. Dissolved impurities.
The soluble salt impurities present in water included salts of Ca, Mg, Na in
various soluble salt forms oxides of Mn, Fe, Pb &Ar may also present in
water.
2. Suspended impurities.
Suspended impurities are the dispersion of solid particles. Which can be
removed by filtration or settling.
They are of 2 types:-
Inorganic: It includes clay silica, Oxides of Fe & Mn etc.
Organic: Includes wood pieces. Disintegrated particles of dead animals,
leaf, fishes, Bacteria. Alage, and Protozoa etc.
3. Dissolved gases.
Most water contain dissolved gases such as O
2
, SO
2
.NH3&oxides of N all of
which are derived from atmosphere.
4. Organic matter: Organic compounds derived from the decay of
vegetables & animal matter including bacteria, water also gets contaminated
with sewage & human excreted matter etc.

Q. Name the two coagulant substances with chemical formulae.
Ans: Alum: [K
2
SO
4
.Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
. 24H
2
O]
Ferrous sulphate: [FeSO
4
. 7H
2
O]


3

Q. Write the names of the processes which are used to remove impurities
present in natural water.
Sr.No. IMPURITY PROCESS
1 Suspended Sedimentation
2 Colloidal Sedimentation with coagulation,
filtration
3 Dissolved Ion exchange, Zeolite, Limesoda
4 Biological Sterilization

Q. Name the impurities present in natural water. OR List the common
impurities present in natural water. Give two examples
Ans: 1. Suspended impurities: dust, mud, clay particles
2. Colloidal impurities: fine dust, fine clay particles, fine mud
3. Dissolved impurities: CaCl
2
, MgSO
4,
CO
2
, O
2
, H
2
S
4. Biological impurities: Bacteria, Germs, microorganism

Q. Distinguish between hard water and soft water. OR Define hard water
& soft water.
Ans: Hard water: Water which contains chlorides, sulphates and bicarbonates
of calcium and magnesium called as hard water. Such water does not
produce lather with soap. Hard water cannot use for boilers or for cooking or
washing purposes.
Soft water: Water which is free from any salts of calcium and magnesium
is called as soft water. Soft water easily produces lather with soap and can
be safely used for boilers and for other household and industrial purposes.

Q. Name the salts which are responsible for temporary and permanent
hardness of water with chemical formula.

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Ans: A) Temporary hardness is due to the presence of dissolved bicarbonates of
calcium and magnesium i.e. Ca (HCO
3
)
2
& Mg (HCO
3
)
2

B) Permanent hardness is due to the presence of dissolved chlorides and
sulphates of calcium and magnesium i.e. CaCl
2
& CaSO
4
, MgCl
2
& MgSO
4
Q. Write short notes on Units of Hardness of water.
Ans: Units of hardness:
The hardness of water is expressed in terms of parts by weight of calcium
carbonate.
There are three systems to express the hardness of water.
1. Clarks degree of hardness: It is defined as the number of parts by
weight of CaCO
3
present in 70,000 parts by weight of water

1
0
Clark =
1Part by weight of CaCO 3
70,000 parts by wt .of Water



2. French degree of hardness: It is the number of parts by weight of
CaCO
3
present in 1,00,000 parts by weight of water.


1
0
French =
1Part by weight of CaCO 3
1,00,000 parts by wt .of Wat er



3. Parts per million (ppm): It is the number of parts by weight if CaCO
3

present in 10,00,000 parts by weight of water.

1 PPM =
1Part by weight of CaCO 3
10,00,000 parts by wt .of Water


1
0
Clark = 1.430 French = 14.3PPM.

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Q. What is meant by boiler corrosion? Name the factors causing corrosion
of boiler.
Ans: Corrosion of boiler can be defined as the decaying of metals by a chemical
or electrochemical reaction with their environment.
Corrosion in boiler is due to following reasons.
1. Dissolved gases
2. Dissolved salt
3. Acidity and alkalinity of water

Q. What are the causes of hardness of water? Explain with chemical
reaction.
Ans: The causes of hardness of water are discussed below
1. The rain water absorbs carbon dioxide from air and also from decaying
plants on soil & it forms carbonic acid

H
2
O + CO
2
H
2
CO
3

Water Carbonic acid

2. When this water flows over rock containing calcium & magnesium
carbonates.
3. These reacts with carbonic acid present in water to form calcium
bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate which are highly soluble in
water.
H
2
CO
3
+ CaCO
3
Ca(HCO
3
)
2

H
2
CO
3
+ MgCO
3
Mg (HCO
3
)
2

4. There are chlorides & sulphates of calcium & magnesium present on the
surface layer which also dissolve in water.
5. When this water flow on the earth surface,these salt enter in water.In this
way chlorides, sulphates & bicarbonate of calcium and magnesium are
dissolved in water and making it hard.

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Q. Write the ill (bad) effect of using hard water in following industries. OR
What are the disadvantages of hard water in 1) Paper industry 2)
Dyeing in industry 3) Textile industry 4) Sugar industry.
Ans: Bad effect of using hard water in industries

Paper industry:
During the manufacturing of paper, the material like rosin size is added
to the paper pulp to make the surface of paper smooth & glossy. If hard
water is used then Ca
++
& Mg
++
ions present in it reacts with the material.
So the paper will not have desired smoothness & glossiness.
If salts of heavy metal like Fe & Mn are present in hard water they make
paper yellowish & dull.
Therefore water used in paper industry must be free from these salts.

Dying industry:
In dyeing industry, colouring of fabrics is done with the help of some
organic as well as inorganic coloring substances.
If hard water is used for dissolving the dyes then calcium & magnesium
salts present in it reacts with die to form unwanted precipitate.
These changes the shades of the dies & unwanted coloures are produced.
Iron produces yellow stains (spots) on clothes
Hence hard water should not be used in dyeing industry.

Textile industry:
If hard water is used in textile industry then a large quantity of soap as
well as water is wasted during washing the yarn because calcium &
magnesium salts do not allow formation of lather with soap.
They react with soap (sodium or potassium salt of fatty acid) to form
curdy precipitate which sticks to the fabric making it weak & brittle. Iron
& manganese present in hard water produces spots ( stains) on fabrics
therefore water used in textile industry should be free from calcium,
magnesium, iron & manganese salts.

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Sugar industry:
If hard & impure water is used in sugar industry for refining of sugar the
impurities like sulphates nitrates, alkali carbonate & bacteria present in it
causes difficulties in the crystallization of sugar. The sugar so formed
may be deliquescent (become watery) & get decomposed during storage.
Q. What are the disadvantages or ill (bad) effect of using hard water in 1)
Washing 2) Cooking 3) Bathing 4) Drinking OR
Why hard water is not suitable for 1) Washing 2) Cooking 3) Bathing 4)
Drinking
Ans: 1.Washing:
Hard water consist of soluble sulphate, chlorides & bicarbonates of calcium
& magnesium
If hard water is used for washing, then the Ca & Mg salts react with soap &
produces curdy precipitate of Ca of Mg salts of fatty acid
In this way large quantity of soap is wasted & the precipitate stick to the
cloth making it weak & brittle.
Secondly if iron is present in hard water it forms spots (stains) on clothes
2. Cooking:
The presence of impurities in water also increases the boiling point of water.
Hence vegetables may not cook well, so more time and more fuel required if
hard water is used.
The life of cooking utensils also decreases due to overheating
Hence hard water should not be used for cooking.
3. Bathing:
If hard water is used for bathing then
Wastage of soap takes place as hard water does not form good lather

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Insoluble residue is formed with soap which is adsorbed on our body, due to
which our skin become dry & dark
4. Drinking: If hard water is used for drinking then impurities in hard water
causes bad effect on digestion process and also kidney stone may formed
due to accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals
Q. Soft water is used as boiler feed water. Give reason
Ans : Hard water consist fo impurities such as dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon
dioxide, mineral acids, dissolved salts of Ca and Mg which causes corrosion
of boiler. Therefore soft water is sued as boiler feed water
Q. What is boiler corrosion? What are the causes of boiler corrosion?
Explain the causes of boiler corrosion. Write control (preventive)
measures.
Ans: Boiler corrosion can be defined as the decaying of metals by a chemical or
electro chemical reaction with their environment
The corrosion in boiler due to following reasons
1. Dissolved gases
2. Dissolved salts
3. Acidity or alkalinity of water

1. Dissolved gases:
Among the dissolved gases oxygen has most corroding effect on boiler
Water contains about 8ml of oxygen per litre at 10
0
C
Dissolve oxygen in presence of water under high temperature attacks the
boiler material
4Fe + 4H
2
O + 2O
2
4Fe (OH)
2

4Fe (OH)
2
+ O
2
2 ( Fe
2
O
3
. 2 H
2
O)
Ferrous hydroxide Rust

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Carbon dioxide when dissolved in water forms carbonic acid
H
2
O + CO
2
H
2
CO
3

The dissolved bicarbonate of Ca & Mg decomposes & gives CO
2

Mg (HCO
3
)
2
Mg CO
3
+ H
2
O + CO
2
2. Dissolved salts:
If hard water contains chlorides of calcium & magnesium; they get
hydrolyses & produces hydrochloric acid
MgCl
2
+2H
2
O Mg (OH)
2
+ 2HCl
This liberated hydrochloric acid react with iron material of the boiler like a
chain reaction producing hydrochloric acid again & again
Fe + 2HCl FeCl
2
+ H
2
FeCl
2
+ 2H
2
O Fe(OH)
2
+ 2HCl
Therefore, due to presence of small amount of CaCl
2
or MgCl
2
will cause
corrosion of boiler.

3. Acidity or alkalinity of water:
The corrosion in boiler is more it water is used is acidic. It is less when
water is neutral. Again the corrosion of boiler is greater when water is
alkaline.
Control (prevention) of boiler corrosion
By using proper water treatment procedures.
By degasfication to remove the dissolved gases like oxygen, CO
2
, etc.,
The dissolved CO
2
can be removed by the addition of limewater.
Adding calculated amount of base could neutralize the mineral acids.


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Q. What is caustic embrittlement? How it can be prevented (avoided)?
Ans: This a type of boiler corrosion caused due to alkaline water.
During water softening process small amount of sodium carbonate (Na
2
CO
3
)
is added in water. In high pressure boilers, sodium carbonate decomposes to
form sodium hydroxide & carbon dioxide & water becomes alkaline due to
formation of caustic soda (NaOH).
Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O NaOH + CO
2

This alkaline water goes into the cracks by capillary action. Water
evaporates & dissolved caustic soda is left behind.
The deposition of more & more caustic soda dissolves iron material of the
boiler.
This causes embrittlement (corrosion) of boiler parts, called as caustic
embitterment.
Caustic embrittelment can be avoided by
1. By using sodium phosphate for water softening
2. By adding tannin or lignin additives
3. By adjusting the alkalinity of water (PH 7-9)

Q. Define scales & sludge OR What are scales and sludge in boiler? Write
prevention (control) measures
Scales: The hard and adherent coating formed on inner walls of the boiler is
called as boiler scales. They stick very firmly on to the inner wall surface
and are difficult to remove with chisel and hammer.
Prevention:
Methods of prevention of scales
Internal conditioning method: Internal conditioning methods involve
addition of complexing agents like calogen to boiler feed water. Another
method of internal conditioning method is Phosphate conditioning. In this

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method sodium phosphate is added to boiler feed water which forms non-
sticky Calcium and magnesium Phosphate which can be removed by blow
down operation.
External conditioning method: In external conditioning methods water is
purified either by Zeolite process or by ion-exchange method before being
fed into boilers.
Sludge: When the precipitated matter forms a soft, loose, slimy deposits
inside the boiler which do not stick to the boiler permanently are called
boiler sludge.
Prevention:
a. By using well softended water.
b. By drawing off a portion of concentrated water frequently.

Q. Explain causes of scale & sludge formation in boiler. OR How scale and
sludge formed in boiler?
Ans: The main causes of scale & sludge formation in boiler are
1. Chemical decomposition OR Presence of Ca (HCO
3
)
2
& Mg (HCO
3
)
2

2. Decrease in solubility of salts

1. Chemical decomposition OR Presence of Ca (HCO
3
)
2
& Mg (HCO
3
)
2

If water contains soluble bicarbonate of calcium & magnesium then under
high temperature & pressure inside the boiler, it decomposes to give calcium
carbonate precipitate (insoluble) which forms scales.
This effect is observed in low pressure boiler.
In high pressure boilers CaCO
3
forms soluble Ca (OH)
2
.

Ca (HCO
3
)
2
CaCO
3
+ H
2
O + CO
2


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2. Decrease in solubility of salts (How calcium sulphate responsible for
scale formation in boiler)
Salts present in hard water; like CaSO
4
& silicates of Ca & Mg formed by
reaction with silica (SiO
2
) have lower solubility at high temperature. In
superheated water CaSO
4
is insoluble in boiler. As the water in boiler starts
heating up, the solubility decreases & excess salts are thrown out of water
forming hard deposits in the form of scales.

Q. Write the disadvantages of scale & sludge formation in boiler OR
Explain the ill (bad) effect of using hard water in boiler unit.
Ans: The disadvantages of scale & sludge formation in boiler are as follow.
Wastage of fuel:
Scales deposited on the inner wall of the boiler are poor conductor of heat.
Hence to get the steady supply of steam; overheating of boiler is needed.
Most of the heat is wasted in heating the scales & in this way there is
wastage of fuel.
It is estimated that for 25mm thick scale, nearly 60% of the fuel is wasted.
Lowering safety of boiler OR Decrease in life of the boiler:
Scales are poor conductor of heat it reduces transfer of heat from boiler to
water.
Therefore overheating of boiler is to be done in order to maintain a constant
supply of steam. This makes the boiler material & boiler tubes soft. This
lowers the safety of boiler.
Danger of explosion:

When scales crack due to uneven expansion of scale & boiler material, the
water comes suddenly in contact with overheated iron plate of boiler

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This causes the formation of a large amount of steam suddenly inside the
boiler
Hence sudden high pressure is developed which may causes explosion of
boiler

Decrease in efficiency: Scales may sometimes deposits in the valves of
condensers of the boiler & choke them. These results in decrease of
efficiency of boiler

Q. Write the principle which is used to soften hard water
Ans: During the process of softening of hard water, the soluble calcium and
magnesium salts are converted into insoluble salts. These insoluble salts can
be removed by filtration and soft water can be obtained
Q. What is priming and foaming? Write causes and control
Ans Priming : It may defined as the violent or rapid boiling of water occurring
in the boiler which results in carrying out of water with steam in the form of
a spray.
When a boiler is producing steam rapidly, some particles of liquid water are
carried along with the steam. This process of wet steam formation is called
priming.
Causes : Priming mainly caused due very high water level. The presence of
large amount of dissolved solids, high steam velocities, sudden increase in
steam production rate. Sudden steam demand which leads to sudden boiling,
presence of excessive foam filling the foam spare, and due to faulty boiler
design.
Prevention (Control) : Priming can be controlled by proper boiler design,
fitting mechanical steam purifier, avoiding rapid change in steam rate,
proper evaporation and adequate heating surfaces, uniform distribution of
fuel and providing anti priming pipes, keeping the water level low and avoid

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sudden steam demands. By efficient softening and filtration of the boiler
feed water.
Foaming: Foaming is the formation of small but stable bubbles above the
surface.
Causes:The main reason for foaming is being presence of fatty acids and
other impurities.
Prevention (Control) : Foaming can be controlled by using anti-foaming
chemicals, removal of concentrated boiler water and replacing it by fresh
feed water. Removing oil from boiler water by adding compounds like
sodium aluminate.
Q. Differentiate between scale & sludge.
Ans:


Q. How water softened by Zeolite process? OR Explain Zeolite OR
Permutit process. OR What is Permutit (Zeolite)? Write principle of
Permutit (Zeolite) Process. Explain the process with diagram. Write
chemical & regeneration reactions involved in it. Write advantages and
limitations
Scale Sludge
1 When the precipitated matter forms a
hard adherent coating on the inner
surface of the boiler is called boiler
scales.
When the precipitated matter forms a
soft, loose, slimy deposits inside the
boiler which do not stick to the boiler
permanently are called boiler sludge.
2 Scales are hard and adherent Sludges are soft
3 It cannot be removed by mechanical
means
Sludges can be removed by mechanical
means
4 Scales are bad conductor of heat Sludges are poor conductor of heat
5 Scales are formed throughout the
metal surface in contact with water
Sludges are formed at comparatively
cooler parts of the boiler
6 Scales lead to bursting or explosion
of metal tube
Sludge lead to check up problems

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Ans: Zeolite: Zeolite are complex of silicates and aluminates of metallic and non
metallic oxides. For softening of water, generally sodium zeolite is used. It
has crystalline structure with a chemical formula.
Na
2
Al
2
Si
2
O
8
.6 H
2
O
It is represented as Na
2
Z or Na
2
P

Principle: When zeolite come in contact with hard water, sodium ions in
zeolite are replaced by calcium and magnesium to form insoluble
calcium and magnesium zeolite

Working: When zeolites come in contact with hard water, sodium ions
in zeolites are replaced by calcium and magnesium ions to form insoluble
calcium and magnesium zeolites.



Chemical Reactions:

For temporary hardness

Ca(HCO
3
)
2
+ Na
2
P CaP + 2NaHCO
3

Mg(HCO
3
)
2
+Na
2
P MgP + 2 NaHCO
3


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For permanent hardness (Write any two reactions)

CaCl
2
+ Na
2
P CaP + 2 NaCl

MgCl
2
+ Na
2
P MgP + 2 NaCl
CaSO
4
+Na
2
P CaP + Na
2
SO
4


MgSO
4
+Na
2
P MgP + Na
2
SO
4

Regeneration: After some time all the Na
+
ions from zeolite (permutit)
completely gets converted into calcium and gets exhausted. At this stage,
supply of hard water is stopped. The exhausted zeolite is regenerated
or reactivated by passing 10% Brine solution( NaCl) through it
Regeneration reaction ( What is the actionof NaCl in regeneration of
Zeolite?)

CaP + 2NaCl Na
2
P + CaCl
2

Brine Solution
MgP + 2 NaCl Na
2
P + MgCl
2


The washings containing CaCl
2
and MgCl
2
are passed to drain and the
regenerated zeolite is used again. Water softened by zeolite is almost of
zero hardness.

Limitations of Zeolite process:
The capital cost involved in the zeolite process is much high as compared
to other conventional methods like soda- lime process.
If water contains some mineral acids, it cannot be softened by this
process since the acids destroys the softening material, sodium zeolites.
If water contains Fe or Mn salts, the original sodium zeolites are
converted into Fe or Mn zeolites which cannot be regenerated easily.

Advantages of Permutit or Zeolite Process:
Zeolite removes the hardness completely

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It is a clean process
It requires less time for softening
The equipment used is compact and occupying small space
Q. How water softened by zeolite process?Explain Ion Exchange or
Demineralization or Deionisation process with diagram.(Only process
and Diagram). Write chemical & regeneration reactions involved in it.
Write advantages and limitations.
Ans: Process: It consists of three cylindrical towers. First tower consists of cation
exchanger (RH
2
) and second tower consists of anion and alkali tanks for
regeneration of the exhausted resins.
Third tower is a degasifier.


Hard water is first passed through the cation exchanger. It removes all the
cations like Ca
++
, Mg
2+
and releases H
+
ions.

Chemical reactions
RH
2
+ CaCl
2

RCa + 2HCl
RH
2
+ MgSO
4

RMg + H
2
SO
4

Thus water is free from cations but it is acidic.

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The acidic water is then passed through anion exchanger where acids are
converted into water.
Chemical reactions
R-(OH)
2
+ 2HCl RCl
2
+2H
2
O
R-(OH)
2
+ H
2
SO
4
R- SO
4
+ 2H
2
O
3. Thus water is free from all cations and anions. Finally water is made free
from dissolved gases like CO
2
, O
2
by passing it through third tower of
degsifier.
Regeneration: When the cation exchanger resins get exhausted, they are
regenerated by passing the solution of dill. HCl or H
2
SO
4
through first
tower.
R-Ca + 2HCl RH
2
+ CaCl
2

R-Mg + H
2
SO
4
RH
2
+ MgSO
4

The washings containing CaCl
2
, MgCl
2
, CaSO
4
, MgSO
4
etc. is passed to
drain.
When the anion exchanger resin get exhausted, they are regenerated by
passing the solution of dil. NaOH or KOH through second tower.
RCl
2
+ 2NaOH R(OH)
2
+ 2NaCl
RSO
4
+ 2NaOH R(OH)
2
+ Na
2
SO
4

The washings containing NaCl, Na
2
SO
4
etc. is also passed to drain.
The regenerated resins are then used again.

Advantages:
This process can be used for purifying highly acidic or alkaline water
Water of zero hardness is obtained
Small space occupying equipment and portable
Water totally free from any ionic impurity is obtained

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Treated water contains negligible amount of total dissolved solid i.e. up
to 5 mg/lit
Limitations:
The equipment is costly and more expensive chemicals are needed
Turbidity may clog the pores of resins and reduce the output of process
Method cannot be used for getting deionized water on large scale

Q. Define potable water. Mention its requirements (parameters/standards).
Ans: Water which is fit for human consumption and safe to drink is known as
drinking water or potable water.
Requirement (Characteristics/Parameters/standards) for potable water:
It should be colourless, odourless and clear
It should be totally free from disease producing microorganisms like
germs and bacteria
Water should be soft and pleasant in tasteThe turbidity of water should be
less than 10 ppm
If water has a colour then it should be less than 20ppm
If water dissolve any solid then it should be less than 500ppm
It should be free from dissolved gases like hydrogen sulphate
Q. Explain the terms: 1) Screening 2) Sedimentation 3) Coagulation
Ans: Screening:
Screening is the process of removing floating materials from water. To
remove the floating matter, mainly this method is used.
The water is allowed to pass through screens having a large number of
pores. Thus, only floating material remains on the screen.
Sedimentation:Sedimentation is the process of removing suspended
impurities by allowing the water to stay undisturbed for some time in large

20

tanks when most of the suspended particles settle down due to the force of
gravity.
The process of sedimentation is generally carried out in continuous flow
type tanks in which water flows continuously in a horizontal or vertical
direction at a slow and uniform speed. Due to gravitational force, the
suspended particles get settled down at the bottom of the tank, form where
they can be removed periodically. Sediment water is taken out continuously.
Coagulation:
Coagulation is the process of removing colloidal (or fine size) particles
from water by the addition of certain chemicals known as coagulants before
sedimentation. This process is usually carried out along with
sedimentation.
The commonly used coagulants are the salts of iron and aluminium e.g. alum
[K
2
SO
4
. Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
. 24H
2
O], ferrous sulphate (FeSO
4.
7H
2
O) etc.
These coagulants react with bicarbonates present in water, and form bulky
gelatinous precipitate called flock. As these flocks descend through water,
they absorb or catch suspended fine particles from water and forming bigger
flocks, which settle down quickly.
The addition of coagulants to water also removes colour, odour and
improves its taste.
Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 3 Ca (HCO
3
)
2
2Al (OH)
3
+

3CaSO
4
+ 6CO
2

(Coagulant) Calcium (Bulky gelatinous flock)
Bicarbonate

FeSO
4
+ Mg(HCO
3
)
2
Fe (OH)
2
+ MgSO
4
+ 2CO
2

(Coagulant) Magnesium (Ferrous Hydroxide)
Bicarbonate

4 Fe (OH)
2
+ 2H
2
O + O
2
4 Fe (OH)
3

(Dissolved oxygen) Ferric hydroxide
(Heavy flock)


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Q. What is desalination? How is it done by reverse osmosis? OR State the
principle of reverse osmosis. Explain the process of desalination of sea
water by reverse osmosis.
Ans: Desalination : the process of removing common salt from water is called as
desalination
Reverse osmosis is a technique used for the purification of sea water in to
drinking water.
Principle of reverse osmosis: This method is based on the principle that if a
hydrostatic pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied on the more
concentrated solution side then the solvent molecules begin to move through
a semi permeable membrane in a direction opposite to that predicated by
natural osmosis. That is the solvent molecules begin to move from the
concentrated solution side to diluted solution and hence the name reverse
osmosis.

Process:
In this method hard water and soft water are taken in two different chambers
separated by a semi permeable membrane.

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When a hydrostatic pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied on
the hard waterside, the water molecules move from hard waterside to soft
waterside leaving the impurities on the membrane due to reverse osmosis.
Thus hard water is converted to soft water by super filtration of hyepr
filtration.
The membrane consists of a polymeric material film made of proper
porosity, from materials like cellulose acetate, acrylics, polyamides,
barmaids etc.
Q. How hardness determined by EDTA method? OR Explain EDTA
titration method for determination of total and permanent hardness of
water.(Write only procedure)
Ans: Chemicals required:
1. Standard hard water
2. EDTA solution (0.01M)
3. EBT indicator
4. Ammonia buffer
Principle:
EDTA stands for Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid. As it is insoluble in
water, we use its disodium salt.
Structure of EDTA:

By nature, Eriochrome Black T indicator is blue in colour. When EBT
indicator is added to water sample, it forms wine red coloured unstable
Ca-Mg-EBT complex. This reaction is carried out under a basic P
H
of 8-10
using ammonia buffers.

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Ca
2+
/Mg
2+
in water + EBT [Ca/Mg-EBT] unstable wine red complex.
When EDTA is titrated against the complex, EDTA replaces all the
EBT and forms a stable Ca/Mg-EDTA complex. The liberated EBT
indicates the end point as steel blue.
[Ca/Mg-EBT] + EDTA [Ca/Mg EDTA] + EBT
(Wine red/unstable) (Stable) (Steel blue)
So, the end point is the colour change from wine red to steel blue.
Procedure:
Determination of total hardness:
Pipette out 50 ml of the given hard water sample into 250 ml conical flask.
Add 5 ml of buffer solution to increase the pH to about 10.
Add 3-4 drops of Eriochrome Black- T indicator.
The solution turns wine red.
Titrate the hard water sample slowly with 0.01M EDTA until the colour
changes to blue (end point).
Note down the volume of EDTA used up at end point.

Determination of permanent hardness:
50ml hard water sample is boiled for about 15 to 20 minutes.
Then filtrate is diluted with distilled water to make 50 ml.
Add 5ml of buffer solution to increase the pH to about 10.
Add 3-4 drops of Eriochrome Black-T indicator.
The solution turns wine red.
Titrate the boiled hard water sample slowly with 0.01M EDTA until the
colour changes to blue (end point).
Note down the volume of EDTA used up at end point.
Using the above data, total and permanent hardness can be calculated.

24


Q. What is meant by Alkalinity? Give any two chemicals (substances)
responsible for it. Give importance (significance) of alkalinity
Ans: Alkalinity in water arises due to the substances that can cause the formation
of hydroxy1 ions & in turn can react with strong acid.
Substances that cause the alkalinity in water are of three types.
Hydroxides ( NaOH , Ca(OH)
2
)
Carbonates (Na
2
CO
3
, CaCO
3
)
Bicarbonates ( NaHCO
3
, Ca (HCO
3
)
2
)

Importance of alkalinity: Highly alkaline water are usually disagreeable
and upper limits to phenolphthalein alkalinity and total alkalinity are required
to specified. Alkaline water used in boilers for steam generation may cause to
precipitate of sludges, deposition of scale and causes caustic embrittlement. A
knowledge of the kinds of alkalinity present in water and their magnitude is
important in calculating the amounts of lime [Ca(OH)
2
] and soda [Na
2
(CO)
3
]
needed for water softening. Use of different fertilizers in agriculture is
dictated by alkalinity of water

Q. Explain the method of determining the Alkalinity in water
Ans: Principle: Alkalinity is determined by titrating a known volume of water
sample with indicator against a strong acid.
Two types of alkalinity can be evaluated based on the indicator used.
Alkalinity when methyl orange is used.
When methyl orange is used as indicator, only after all the three reactions,
the color change observed & that indicate the end point.

25

Total alkalinity = Alkalinity due to hydroxyls + Alkalinity due to Carbonates
+ Alkalinity due to bicarbonates.
When phenolphthalein is used, only after the two reactions (I&II) before the
III reaction occur, the color change observed & that indicate the end point.
Alkalinity with phenolphthalein = Alkalinity due to hydroxyls +
Alkalinity due to Carbonates.
Procedure:
Part I
Pipette out 100ml water sample into a clean conical flask.
Add two drops of Methyl Orange indicatorin it.
Titrate against standard (say 0.02N) HCl till the color of the solution
changes sharply from yellow to orange. Let the volume of HCl consumed be
Xml.
Part - II
To another 100ml sample of water, add two drops of phenolphthalein.
Titrate against standard (say 0.02N) HCl till the color of the solution
changes sharply from pink to colorless.
Let the volume of HCl consumed be Yml.
Calculations
a) Alkalinity due to methyl orange.
1000ml of 1N HCl is equivalent to 50 g Of CaCO
3
(50 being the
equivalent weight of CaCO
3
).
1ml of 1 N HCl is equivalent to 50/1000 g of CaCO
3

Xml of 0.02 N HCl is equivalent to 50X x 0.02/1000 g CaCO
3


26

10
6
ml of water sample contains 50X x 0. 02 x 10
6
/1000 x100 g of
CaCO
3
= 10X g of CaCO
3

i.e. Alkalinity of methyl orange = 10X ppm of CaCO
3
equivalent

b) Alkalinity due to Phenolphthalein.
This is also in similar way that is
Alkalinity of Phenolphthalein is 50 x Y x 0.0 2 x 106 / 1000 x 100
= 10Y ppm CaCO
3

Q. Explain Mohrs method of determining the Chloride content in water
Ans : Procedure: Transfer 100cm
3
of water sample into a clean conical flask.
Add about 1 cm
3
of K
2
CrO
4
indicator solution &titrate against standard (say
0.02N) AgNO
3
solution until a reddish brown color persists in the white
precipitate. Record the volume of AgNO
3
consumed (Let a cm
3
). Perform a
blank titration taking 100 cm
3
of distilled water. The volume of AgNO
3

consumed Let b cm
3
.
Calculation:
Volume of AgNO
3
required for chlorine estimation = (a - b) cm
3
= V
1000 ml of 1 N AgNO
3
= 35.45g/


1 ml of 1N AgNO
3
= 0.03545 g/


V ml of 0.02 N AgNO
3
= 0.03545X V X 0.02 g/

content in the sample =


0.035450.02
100
/

content in the sample =


0.035450.02 1000
100
/




27


Q. Explain Electrodialysis method for purification of brackish water.
OR
What is brackish water? How is it purified by electrodialysis?
Ans : Brackish Water : The water containing dissolved salts with a peculiar salty
taste, is called as brackish water.

Principle: Electrodialysis is a method in which the +ve and ve ions are
pulled out of the salt water through an ion selective membrane by passing
direct current.



Method: Sea water is taken in a three chambered vessel where the end
compartments function as the cathodic and anodic compartments. On
passing a direct current, + ve sodium ions start moving toward the cathode
and the - vely charged chloride ions begin to move towards the anode
through the membrane. Hence the concentration of NaCl decreases in the
central compartment while the concentration of ions increases in the two
side compartments. Thus the water in the central compartment becomes
desalinated and can be removed periodically. The concentrated water in the
side compartments is also replaced periodically with fresh water.

28

INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS

Q. What are Instrumental methods of analysis ?
Ans : It is one of the quantitative analysis methods of a compound. An instruments
is used for chemical analysis, converts the property of substance which is
under investigation in to form that can be readily measured. The measured
quantity is related to the quantity or quality of the sample.
Q. What are the Advantages of Instrumental Methods?
Ans : Advantages of Instrumental Methods :
1. Even complex samples can be handled easily.
2. These methods are faster than chemical methods.
3. These methods requires only small quantities of the sample.
4. Easy when a large number of samples have to be analyzed.
5. These methods are accurate
6. The analytical process can be automated.
7. High sensitivity is obtained.

Limitations of Instrumental Methods:
1. The equipments are generally expensive.
2. Specialized training is required to operate the instruments.
3. An initial or continuous calibration and standardization is required.
4. The concentration range is limited.
5. Sizable space is required.

29

Q. What is the principle of P
H
-Metry? Write advantages, disadvantages
and applications of P
H
-metry.
Principal: P
H
is a measure of the hydrogen ion activity of a solution, which
defines the degree of acidity or alkalinity of the solution.
Advantages:
Accuracy- It measures more accurately than test strip or ther method of
pH measurement.
Ease of use Using pH indicator is messier that pH meter.
Precision-pH meters are more precise and can measure down the 0.01th
of pH unit. Accuracy of strip is less.
Disadvantages:
P
H
meter need to be calibrated at some frequency.
More expensive than pH paper.
Probe has to be cleaned well after ever use to get accurate reading next
time.
Applications:
Used to test water for its level of acidity versus base or alkalinity.
In pharmaceutical industries, P
H
meters are designed to cater the
requirement of analytical labs. Used to test the level of concentration of
acids, alkalines and unwanted particles in medicinal fluids of liquids.
It is used in agriculture to tell the alkalinity of soil.
Used in food industries to test butter and yogurt.
Used in wine industries.

30

Q. What is principle of conductometry? Write advantages, disadvantages
and applications of conductometry
Ans : Principle: Conductivity is a parameter used to measure the ionic
concentration and activity of solution.
Advantages:
They are useful incase of coloured solutions.
They give more accurate equivalence point.
It is also useful for dilute solutions.
In this method in no special care is necessary near the end point as it is
determined graphically.
Disadvantages:
It is less satisfactory and less accurate with increasing total electrolyte
concentration.
This method is applicable to all types of volumetric applications but for
oxidation reduction system it is limited.
Applications:
To test the conductivity of aluminium copper and other non- ferrous
magnetic metal in processing industry.
In aerospace and automotive industry to monitor the process of heat
treatment strength and hardness of aluminium alloy to test the purity
grade of materials.
It is useful for determination of atmospheric SO
2
.
It is used in measuring the salinity of sea water in oceanographic work.
To determine basicity of organic acids ionic product of water

31

Q. What is principle of colorimetry? Write advantages, disadvantages and
applications of colorimetry?
Principal: It is instrument used for measuring absorption in visible region
and to characterize coloured sample.
Advantages:
It is simple instrument and requires little maintains.
Sample testing in laboratory can minute or hours whereas calorimeter can
take minutes or even seconds to tests.
Material cost is low even if material is costly it is frequency possible to
use dilution in solvent such as water
Disadvantages:
Cost of colorimeter is high
Unable to measure transparent samples.
Cannot differentiate between colour and appearance.
Applications:
For determination of structure of organic compounds,inorganic
compounds and inorganic complexes.
In Biology colorimeter is used to monitor the growth of bacterial or
yeast culture. As culture grows, the medium in which it is growing
becomes increasingly cloudy and absorbs more light.
Used to test concentration of plant.
Used to test concentration of plant nutrients in soil or to test hemoglobin
of blood

32

Used to indentify substandard and counter drugs.
Used in food industry and in manufacture of points and textiles.
Q. What is principle of potentiometry? Write advantages, disadvantages
and applications of potentiometry
Ans : Principal :A titration in which the equivalence or end point of a reaction is
determined with the help of the measurements of the potentials of the
reaction mixture is known as the potentiometric titrations.
. Advantages:
The method can be used with coloured solutions (Turbid, flurocent).
The method can be used for the analysis of dilute solution with high
degree of accuracy.
The method can be used for titration weak acid against weak bases
Different titration is possible.
There is no need of indicator in Redox titrations.
Disadvantages:
It is laboures, involves lot of time and large number of observation are
required to detect the equivalent point.
Applications:
In case of Acid titration all the types of titration can be carried
potentiometrically.
The system can be used for individual mono basic acid, weak and
strong versus base.
Preciptation titration can be carried out with the help of potentiometer.

33

CHAPTER II

CHEMI CAL ENERGY SOURCES

Q. Define fuel. Give the classification of fuel with example. OR How fuels
are classified?
Ans: A fuel can be defined as any combustible substance which during
combustion gives large amount of heat energy.
E.G. Wood, coal, kerosene, diesel, Petrol, coal gas etc.

The fuels are classified into two types:
1. Depending on their occurance
2. Based on their physical state
According to the first classification; the fuels classified into two classes
A) Natural (primary) fuel
B) Artificial (secondary) fuel

A) Natural (primary) fuel:
The fuel which are found naturally as wood, coal, petroleum & natural
gas are called as natural (primary) fuel.
B) Artificial (secondary) fuel:
The fuel which are prepared from natural (primary) fuels, like coke,
charcoal; petrol, diesel L.P.G, producer gas are called as artificial
(secondary) fuel
According to second classification fuels are classified into
1. Solid fuel Ex. Wood ,coal, peat, anthracite
2. Liquid fuel Ex. Crude oil
3. Gaseous fuels. Ex. Natural gas (Marsh gas)


34

Q. Define ignition temperature
Ans: The minimum temperature at which active combustion of fuel takes place
when the firing is once started is called as ignition temperature. In other
words, Ignition temperature is the temperature at which fuel starts burning. It
is also known as ignition point.

Q. Define calorific value.
Ans: It is defined as the total amount of heat produced by the complete
combustion of unit mass of solid fuel or liquid fuel or unit volume of gaseous
fuel in presence of air or oxygen. OR
It is also defined as the amount of heat liberated when a unit mass of fuel is
burnt completely in presence of air or oxygen.
It is the most important property of a fuel which decides the quality of a fuel
Q. Mention the SI units of calorific value
Ans: In SI system the units of calorific value for solid fuels are expressed in J/Kg
and for gaseous and liquid fules are expressed in J/m
3
.
Q. Define types of Calorific value
Ans : There are two types of calorific value
1. Higher calorific value. (HCV) or gross calorific value . (GCV)
2. Lower calorific value. (LCV) or Net calorific value (NCV)

1. HCV: It is the amount of heat liberated when a unit mass of fuels burnt
completely in the presence of air or oxygen and the products of
combustion are cooled to room temperature. Here it includes the heat
liberated during combustion and the latent heat of steam. Hence its value
is always higher than lower calorific value.

2. LCV: It is amount of heat liberated when a unit mass of fuel is burnt
completely in the presence of air or oxygen and the product of
combustion are let off completely into air. It does not include the latent
heat of steam. Therefore it is always lesser than HCV.

35

Q. Give relation between HCV and LCV
Ans : Relation between HCV and LCV

LCV = HCV Latent heat of steam

LCV = HCV mass of hydrogen x 9 x latent heat of steam

Q. Gross calorific value is higher than net calorific value. Give reason
Ans: Gross calorific value includes the heat liberated during combustion and the
latent heat of steam but net calorific value does not include the latent heat of
steam. Therefore GCV is higher than NCV

Q. Mention the units of calorific value
Ans: The units of calorific value for solid fuels and liquid fuels are expressed in
Kcal/Kg and for gaseous fuel in Kcal/m
3


Q. Write the characteristics (Properties) of good fuel.

Ans: A good fuel has following characteristics
1. It should have moderate ignition temperature
2. It should have high calorific value
3. It should posses moderate velocity of combustion
4. Its moisture content should be low
5. It should have low content of non combustible matter
6. It should be available in bulk at low cost
7. It should be easy to store & transport
8. It should be burn in air with efficiency
9. It should not undergo spontaneous combustion
10. Its product of combustion should not be harmful

36

Q. State the advantages & disadvantages of solid fuels.
Ans: Advantages of solid fuel are as follow
1. They are easy to transport
2. They are convenient (easy) to store without any risk of burning
3. They are having moderate ignition temperature
4. Their cost of production is low
Disadvantages of solid fuel are as follow
1. A large amount of ash is formed during burning
2. Their thermal efficiency is low
E.g. A large amount of heat is wasted during combustion
3. Their cost of handling is high
4. Their calorific value is lower than liquid or gaseous fuel

Q. State the advantages & disadvantages of liquid fuel.
Ans: Advantages of liquid fuel are as follow
1. They have high calorific value than solid fuel
2. They burn without forming ash & clinkers
3. They have moderate ignition temperature
4. They are easy to transport through pipes
5. They have better thermal efficiency

Disadvantage of liquid fuel are as follow
1. The cost of liquid fuel is relatively higher than solid fuels
2. Liquid fuels require costly special storage tanks for storages
3. They give bad odour while burning
4. A specially designed burners are required for liquid fuels
5. As they have low ignition temperature care should be taken while storing
& transport. E.g. there is a greater risk of fire hazard in case of petrol



37

Q. State the advantages & disadvantages of gaseous fuels.
Ans: The advantages of gaseous fuel are as follow
1. They have higher calorific value as compared to solid & liquid fuels
2. They are clean in use of economic in labour
3. Their combustion can be easily controlled by the use of regulator
4. They burn without smoke & are ash less
5. They have high thermal efficiency
Disadvantages of gaseous fuel are as follow
1. They are more costly as compared to solid & liquid fuels
2. They have very low ignition temperature & therefore more dangerous in
storing & transporting
3. They require large storage tanks, hence storage become costly
4. They are highly inflammable, so the chances of fire hazards are very high
Q. What is proximate analysis of coal? Describe proximate analysis of coal
for
1) Moisture ( % of moisture)
2) Volatile matter (% of volatile matter)
3) Ash (% of ash)
4) Fixed carbon (% of fixed carbon)
Ans: Proximate analysis:
The analysis of coal sample in which the moisture, volatile matter, ash
& fixed carbon content are found is known as proximate analysis.
1. Determination of moisture ( % of moisture)
It involves following steps
1. Firstly about 1gm of fine powdered air-dried coal sample is weighed in a
crucible
2. Then the crucible is placed in an electric hot oven for 1 hr at 105
0
C
3. The crucible is taken out from the oven & cooled in desiccators &
weighed (w
1
gm)
Then the loss in weight (w-w
1
) is reported as moisture


38

Percentage (%)
of moisture =



Loss in weight (w-w
1
) X 100

Weight of coal
Sample (w)
2. Determination of volatile matter (% of volatile matter)

It involves following steps
1. The dried sample of coal which is left in the crucible is covered with a lid
2. The crucible is then placed in an electric furnace at 925
0
C for 7 minutes
3. Then the crucible is taken out from electric furnace (muffle furnace) &
then it is cooled in desiccator & weighed ( without lid)
4. From the known weight of volatile matter removed from the coal, its
percentage can be calculated

Percentage (%) =
of volatile matter
Loss in weight

X 100

Weight of coal sample
3. Determination of Ash ( % of ash)
It involves following steps
1. The coal sample which is free from moisture & volatile matter is heated
without lid at 750
0
C in an electric furnace (muffle furnace) for half an
hour
2. Due to this the coal in the crucible gets burnt
3. The ash left in the crucible is then cooled & weighed
4. Cooling & weighing is repeated till a constant weight of ash is obtained

% of ash =
Weight of ash
X 100


Weight of coal sample
4. Fixed Carbon: the fixed carbon in coal is determined by using the
following equation

Fixed carbon = 100 - (% of moisture + % of volatile matter + % of ash)

39

Q. Write the significance (importance) of proximate analysis. OR Give
significance of moisture, volatile matter, ash & fixed carbon.
Ans:
A) Significance of moisture:

1. Moisture gets evaporated during combustion of coal by taking away
some heat in the form of latent heat of evaporation. Therefore, moisture
reduces the effective calorific value of coal
2. It increases the weight of the coal and as well as its transportation
charges. Hence, lesser the moisture content, betters the quality of coal as
a fuel

B) Significance volatile matter:
1. A high volatile matter containing coal burns with a long and smoky flame
and has low calorific value. So higher volatile matter content in coal is
undesirable
2. Hence lesser the volatile matter, better the quality of the coal as a fuel

C) Significance of ash:
1. Ash is non-combustible, useless matter which reduces the calorific value
of coal
2. It increases the cost involved in ash disposal
3. It causes the difficulties to the flow of air required for burning, thereby
decreasing the efficiency
4. Hence, lower the ash content, better the quality of coal

D) Significance of fixed carbon:
1. Carbon in the coal is the burning matter and produces heat
2. Higher the percentage of fixed carbon, greater is the calorific value




40

Q. Differentiate between Solid Fuel, Liquid Fuel and Gaseous Fuel
Ans :

Characteristic
property
Solid fuel Liquid fuel Gaseous fuel
1. Example Coal Crude oil Natural gas, coal
gas
2. Cost Cheap Costlier than solid fuel Costly
3. Storage Easy to store Closed container
should be used
Storage space
required is huge
and should be
lead proof
4. Fire
hazards
Less More Very high, since
these fuels are
highly
inflammable
5. Combustion
rate
Slow process Fast process Very rapid and
efficient
6. Combustion
control
(flame)
Cannot be controlled Can be controlled or
stopped when
necessary
Controlled by
regulating the
supply of air
7. Handling
cost
High, since labor is
required during
storage and
transportation
Low, since the fuel can
be transported through
pipes
Low, since the
fuel can be
transported
through pipes
8. Ash Ash is produced and
their disposals also
possess problems
No problem of ash No problem of
ash
9. Thermal
efficiency
Least High Highest
10. Calorific
value
Least High Highest
11. Use in IC
engine
Cant be used Can be used Can be used




41

Q. Give the classification of coal/solid fuel
Ans : Coal has been classified in several ways. The most common method
of classification is on the basis of rank.
Peat: It is the first stage of formation of coal from wood. It is brown, fibrous
jelly-like mass. It contains 80-90% moisture. The composition of peat is
C = 57 %; H = 6 %; O = 35 % Ash = 2.5 %. The calorific value of peat is
5400kcal/kg. it is a low- grade fuel due to high water content. It is used as a
fertilizer and packing material.
Lignite: Lignite is immature form of coal. It contains 20 - 60% moisture.
Air-dried lignite contains C = 60-70 % O = 20%. It burns with a long smoky
flame. The calorific vale of lignite is 6500 - 7100 kcal/kg.
Bituminous coal: It is a high quality fuel. Its moisture content is 4%. Its
composition is C = 83% O = 10% H = 5% and N = 2%. Its calorific value is
8500 kcal/kg.
Anthracite Coal: These coals have very low volatile matter, ash & moisture
it is the superior form (Highest Rank) of coal. It contains C = 92-98%, O =
3%, H = 3% and N = 0.7%. It burns without smoke. Its calorific value is
8700/kcal/kg.
Q. Whate is ultimate analysins of coal? Explain the determination of the
following constituents present in coal.
1. Carbon & Hydrogen 2. Nitrogen 3. sulphur 4. Oxygen
Ans : Ultimate analysis : This is the elemental analysis and often called as
qualitative analysis of coal. This analysis involves the determination of
carbon and hydrogen, nitrogen sulhur and oxygen.
1. Carbon and Hydrogen : About 1 to 2 gam of accurately weighed coal
sample is burnt in a current of oxygen in a combustion apparatus. C and
H of the coal are converted into CO
2
and H
2
O respectivley. The gaseous
products fo combustion ae absorbed respectively in KOH and CaCl
2

tubes of known weights. The increases in weights of these are then
determined

42

C + O
2


CO
2

2KOH + CO
2


K
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O
H
2
+ O
2


H
2
O
CaCl
2
+ 7H
2
O

CaCl
2
.7H
2
O

=
12 100
44


=

2
2100
18

2. Nitrogen: About 1 gram of accurately weighed powdered coal is heated
with concentrated H
2
SO
4
along with K
2
SO
4
(catalyst) in a long necked
Kjeldahls flask. After the solution becomes clear, it is treated with
excess of KOH and the liberated ammonia is distilled over and absorbed
in a known volume of standard acid solution. The unused acid is then
determined by back titration with standard NaOH solution. From the
volume of acid used by ammonia liberated, the percentage of N in coal is
calculated as follows

=
1.4



3. Sulphur : Sulphur is determined from the washings obtained from the
known mass of coal, used in bomb calorimeter for determination of a
calorific value. During this determination, S is converted in to Sulphate.
The washings ae treated with Barium chloride solution, when Barium
sulphate is precipitated. This precipitate is filtrated, washed and heated to
constant weight.

43

=

4
32100
233

4. Ash : the residual coal taken in the crucible and then heated without lid
in a muffle furnace at 700 +- 50
o
C for hour. The crucible is then taken
out, cooled first in air, then in desiccators and weighed. Hearing, cooling
and weighing is repeated, till a constant weight is obtained. The residue is
reported as ash on percentage basis.
=
100


5. Oxygen : It is determined indirectly by deducting the combined
percentage of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and ash from 100.
Percentage of oxygen = 100 percentage of (C + H + S + N + Ash)

Q. Give the significance of the following constituents present in coal.
A. Carbon & Hydrogen B. Nitrogen C. sulphur D. Oxygen
Ans:
A. Significance of carbon & hydrogen : Greater the percentage of carbon
and hydrogen better is the coal in quality and calorific value. However,
hydrogen is mostly associated with the volatile mater and hence, it
affects the use to which the coal is put.
B. Significance of Nitrogen: Nitrogen has no calorific value and hence, its
presence in coal is undesirable. Thus, a good quality coal should have
very little Nitrogen content.
C. Significance of sulphur : Sulphur, although contributes to the heating
value of coal, yet on combustion produces acids like SO
2
, SO
3
, which
have harmful effects of coroding the equipments and also cause
atmospheric pollution. Sulphur is, usually, present to the extent of 0.5 to
0.3% and derived from ores like iron, pyrites, gypsum, etc., mines along
with the coal. Presence of sulphur is highly undesirable in coal to be
used for making coke for iron industry. Since it is transferred to the iron

44

metal and badly affects the quality and properties of steel. Moveover,
oxides of sulphur pollute the atmosphere and leads to corrosion.
D. Significance of Ash: Ash is a useless, non-combustible mater, which
reduces the calorific value of coal. Moreover, ash causes the hindrance
to the flow of air and heat, thereby lowering the temperature. Hence,
lower the ash content better the quality of coal. The presence of ash also
increases transporting, handling and storage costs. It also involves
additional cost in ash disposal. The presence of ash also causes early
wear of furnace walls, burning of apparatus and feeding mechanism.
E. Significance of Oxygen: Oxygen content decreases the calorific value
of coal. High oxygen content coals are characterized by high inherent
moisture, low calorific value, and low coking power. Moreover, oxygen
is a combined form with hydrogen in coal and thus, hydrogen available
for combustion in lesser than actual one. An increase in 1% oxygen
content decreases the calorific value by about 1.7% and hence, oxygen is
undesirable. Thus, a good quality coal should have low percentage of
oxygen.
Q. Write composition of petroleum. Describe process of Refining of
petroleum
Ans : Composition of petroleum
Carbon 80-87 %
Hydrogen 11-15 %
Sulphur 0.1-3.5 %
Oxygen 0.1-0.9 %
Nitrogen 0.4-0.9 %

Crude oil obtained from the mine is not fit to be market. It contains a lot of
soluble and insoluble impurities which must be removed.
Refining of petroleum can be defined as the process of purification and
seperation of various fractions present in petroleum by fractional distillation


45

Refining of petroleum is done in different stages
a. Removal of solid impurities: The crude oil is a mixture of solid, liquid
and gaseous substances. This is allowed to stand undisturbed for some
time, when the heavy solid particles settle down and gases evaporate.
The supernant liquid is then centrifuged where in the solids get removed.
b. Removal of water (Cottrells process) : the crude oil obtained from the
earths crust is in the form of stable emulsion of oil and brine. This
mixture when passed between two highly charged electrodes will
destroy the emulsion films and the colloidal water droplets coalesce into
bigger drops and get separated out from the oil.
c. Removal of harmful impurities: In order to remove sulphur
compounds in the crude oil. It is treated with copper oxide. The sulphur
compounds get converted to insoluble copper sulphide, which can be
removed by filtration. Substances like NaCl and MgCl
2
it present will
corrode the refining equipment and result in scale formation. These can
be removed by technique like electrical desalting and dehydration.
d. Sweetening of Petrol: Refining of petrol or gasoline by treating it with
an alkaline solution of sodium plumbite with controlled addition of
sulphur, is called sweetening of petrol. By doing so, harmful sulphur
compounds are removed as lead sulphied.

Q. Define octane number
Ans : Defination : Octane number of a fuel is defined as the percentage by
volume of isooctane in a mixture of isooctane and n-Heptane blend, which
has the same knocking characteristic as the gasoline under test.
Knocking capacity of a fuel is measured in terms of octane number.
Branched chain compounds produce low knocking while straight chain
compounds produce high knocking. Isooctane, which has an excellent
combustion characteristics and very little tendency to knocking is given an
octane number 100. While n-Heptane this has poor combustion
characteristics and knocks badly, is given octance number zero.

46

Thus if the octane number of a gasoline is 70 it means that its knocking
characteristics are similar to that of the knocking characteristics for a
mixture of 70% isooctane and 30% n-Heptane.
Q. Define Cetane Number
Ans : Defination : Cetane number is defined as the percentage of n-Cetane in a
mixture of n-Cetane and that has the same ignition
characteristics as the diesel fuel under test.
The Cetane number is a measure of the ease with which the given diesel fuel
will undergo compression ignition.
-Methylnapthalene and n-Cetane are specified as standards, since n-Cetane
has low ignition lag, its cetane number is fixed as 100, while -
Methylnapthalene has long ignition lag and its cetane number is fixed as
zero
C
10
H
7
CH
3
CH
3
(CH
2
)
14
CH
3

n-Cetane
Cetane number = 0 Cetane number = 100
Q. Distinguish between Octane number and Cetane number
Octane number Cetane number
It is the percentage of iso-octane in a
mixture of isooctane and n-heptane that
matches the fuel under test in knocking
characteristics
It is the percentage of hexadecane in a
mixture of hexadecane and - Methyl
napthalene which have the same
knockig characteristis as the diesel fuel.
It is used to find the suitability of
gasoline or any other internal
combustion engine fuel
It is used to find the suitability of a
diesel fuel
The octane number of internal
combustion fuels can be increased by
the addition of tetraethyl lead (TEL),
(C
2
H
5
)
4
Pb and diethyl telluride,
(C
2
H
5
)
2
Te
The cetane number of diesel fuel can be
inceased by the addition of pe ignition
dopes such as ethyl nitrite, isoamyl
nitrite, acetone.


47

Q. What is natural gas? Write preperation, compostion, properties, uses
and advantages of Natural Gas
Ans : Natural gas : The natural gas is obtained from the wells dug in the earth
during mining of petroleum. It is mainly composed of methane and small
quantities of ethane along with other hydrocarbons. If the lower
hydrocarbons are present the gas is called dry gas or lean gas, but if the
hydrocarbons having the higher molecular weights are present the gas is
known as rich gas or wet gas. It is also known by the name of marsh gas as a
major portion of it is contributed by methane.

Composition of Natural gas:
Methane (CH
4
) 88.5%, Ehane (C
2
H
6
) 5.5%, Propane (C
3
H
8
) 3.7%,
Butane (C
4
H
10
) 1.8%., Pentane, H
2
, CO, CO
2
and higher hydrocarbons, -
0.5%.
The calorific value of natural gas varies from 8000 14000 k.cal/m
3
.
Natural gas is subjected to various treatments before it reaches the
consumer. For example sour natural gas contains appreciable quantities of
H
2
S which can be removed by scrubbing with monoethanolamine.
H
2
S + 2HO CH
2
CH
2
NH
2


[HO-CH
2
-CH
2
-NH
2
]
2
.H
2
S
On heating, H
2
S is liberated

Uses : Natural gas is an excellent domestic fuel which can carry to long
distances in pipelines as town gas in U.S., U.K. and Mumbai highway and
also as an industrial fuel. It is also used for manufacturing a number of
chemicals like carbon black, methanol, and formaldehyde etc. methane on
microbiological fermentation give synthetic proteins which are used as
animal feed. It is also used for generation of electricity in fuel cells. Natural
gas is also used as a source of H
2
. Hence ammonia can be made by reacting
N
2
with H
2
obtained from natural gas.

48

Advantages :
Is more environemnt friendly than oil or coal it is largely because of the fact
that it has only one carbon and hence, produces less emission. It is a known
fact that for the same amount of heat it emits 30% less carbon dioxide than
burning oil, and 45% less carbon dioxide than burning coal, thereby
improving the quality of air.

Q. Write preparation, advantages, disadvantages of CNG (Compressed
Natural Gas)
Ans : Natural gas contains mainly CH
4

When natural gas is compressed at high pressue (1000 atm) or cooled to
160
0
C it is converted into CNG. It is stored in cylinder made of steel. It is
now replacing gasoline as it releases fewer pollutants during its combustion
Advantages
Due to higher temperature of ignition, CNG is better than petrol and
diesel.
Operating cost of CNG is less
Cost of production is also less
It can be easily stored
It releases least pollutants like CO and unburnt hydrocarbons.
Spark plug of CNG engines is not carbonified.
It undergoes regular combustion
No anti-knocking agents are required as it has high octane number.
CNG run engines have long life
Disadvantages:
Response to blending is poor
Faint odour, leakages cannot be detected easily
A CNG tank requires a large tank space
Refueling network for CNG is very expensive

49

Q. Write composition, properties & applications of compressed natural gas
(C.N.G.).
Ans: Composition of C.N.G.
Methane (CH
4
) = 88.5%
Ethane (C
2
H
6
) = 5.5%
Propane (C
3
H
8
) = 3.7%
Butane (C
4
H
10
) = 1.8%
H
2
, Co
2
, H
2
S = Rest gases

Properties:
It is highly inflammable
It is cheaper than petrol or diesel
It has high ignition temperature (540
0
C)
It is odourless ,colourless & non- corrosive
It undergoes complete combustion
Its calorific value is very high
Applications/uses:
It is used as domestic & industrial fuel
It is the source of carbon black & hydrogen gas
It is used in traditional petrol I.C. engine cars
It is also used in locomotive generator to generate electricity that drives
the motor of the train
It is used as alternative fuel to petrol & diesel in metropolitan cities
Q. Describe Origin (Theory) of petroleum OR Give an account on origin of
petroleum
Ans :
Carbide theory: (Mendeleevs inorganic Theory) : According to this first
the carbides are formed by the reaction of metals and carbon under high
pressure and at elevated temperatures, e.g.
Ca + 3C CaC
3
calcium carbide
Mg + 3C MgC
3
magnesium carbide

50

4Al + 3C Al
4
C
3
aluminium carbide

These carbides are then acted upon by hot water or steam to give the gases
like acetylene and methane

CaC
2
+ 3H
2
O Ca(OH)
2
+ C
2
H
2
acetylene
MgC
2
+ 3H
2
O Mg (OH)
2
+ C
2
H
2

Al
4
C
3
+ 13 H
2
O 4Al (OH)
3
+ 3 CH
4
methane

These hydro carbon gases further undergo various types of reactions like
reduction, cyclisation, polymerisation etc. to give different hydrocarbons.

2

2

2

2

6

Acetylene ethene ethane

3
2

3

6

6


3
2

4

6

13

Ethene hexene

3
2

4

3
=
3


Toluene, methyl substituted cyclopentane and cyclohexane are formed by
different reactions.
The theory explains the formation of hydrocarbons satisfactorily but it fails
to explain
a. Presence of optically active compounds.
b. Presence of S, N, 0, compounds.
c. And presence of chlorophyll and radioactive materials. To overcome
this second theory was put forward.
Modern theory : According to this theory petroleum is formed by the
partial decomposition of marine animals and vegetable matter of prehistoric
forests. Changes in the earth (like earthquake, volcanoes) has buried these
materials underground, where they were subjected to the action of heat,

51

pressure, absence of air presence of bacteria and radioactive materials which
resulted in the decomposition of these materials into petroleum.

Q. Describe fractional distillation method of crude petroleum with the help
of labelled diagram
Ans: Fractional distillation: The process by which petroleum is separated into
different fractions having different boiling points is called Refining of
petroleum or fractional distillation of petroleum





Crude oil is obtained from the mines is not fit for use. It contains a lot of
impurities which must be removed. For this purpose, it is separated into a
number of useful fractions by fractional distillation.
Procedure:
1. The crude oil is heated to about 400
0
C in an iron retort. The hot vapours
coming out of the retort are passed through a tall vertical tower called
fractionating tower
2. The tower is fitted with a large number of horizontal trays at short
distance as shown in the fig. Each tray is provided with small chimneys
which are covered with loose caps

52

3. As the vapour go up, they become gradually cooled and fractional
condensation takes place at different heights of column
4. High boiling point fractions condense first and comparatively low B.P.
fractions condense turn by turn
5. The residue left in the retort above 400
0
C is a black and tarry mass called
asphalt or pitch. It is used for making paints and as a preservative for
wood and metals. It is also used for metalling of roads
6. The different fractions of petroleum obtained after fractional distillation
are uncondensed gases, petroleum ether, gasoline (petrol), naptha,
kerosene, diesel oil, heavy oil like lubricating oil, petroleum jelly,
greases, paraffin wax, residue (asphalt)
7. All the above fractions of petroleum are collected separately and then
subjected to further purification in order to make it suitable for specific
purposes

Q. What is Petroleum oil? Illustrate various fractions obtained during
refining of crude petroleum OR Whate are the products (fractions)
obtained in refining (distillation) of petroleum oil at various
temperature range?

Ans: Petroleum oil : Petroleum or crude oil is a dark brown, viscous oil found
deep in earth crust
.
Fractions Chemical Formula Boiling range
Uncondensed gases CH
4
C
4
H
10
Below 30
0
C
Gasoline (petrol) C
5
H
12
- C
7
H
16
30-70
0
C
Kerosene C
10
H
22
- C
16
H
34
180-200
0
C
Diesel oil C
12
H
26
- C
18
H
38
250-320
0
C
Fuel oil C
5
H
12
- C
7
H
16
320-400
0
C

53

Lubricating oil, paraffin
wax, Asphalt
C
30
H
62
and above Above 400
0
C

Q. Describe the method for determination of the gross calorific value by
using Bomb calorimeter.
Ans: Bomb calorimeter is used to find out the calorific value of solid and liquid
non-volatile fuels.
Construction of Bomb calorimeter:
A Bomb calorimeter consist of
1. Bomb pot (Cylindrical Bomb)
2. Copper calorimeter
3. Water and air jacket
4. Oxygen cylinder, battery, Pellet press


The Bomb pot is made up of stainless steel & it has a lid which is provided
with stainless steel electrodes
The Bomb is placed in a copper calorimeter which is surrounded by air
jacket & water jacket
The calorimeter is provided with an electrically operated stirrer &
Beckmanns thermometer


54

Working:
1. A small quantity of a fuel is weighed accurately (M Kg) and is placed in
the Bomb pot
2. Then the Bomb pot is placed in known amount water taken in a copper
calorimeter
3. Then the initial temp of water is noted as t
1
0
C with the help of
thermometer
4. After that oxygen gas is pumped under pressure 20 to 25 atm. through
the O
2
valve provided
5. Then the fuel is ignited by passing electric current through the wires
provided.
6. As the fuel undergoes combustion and liberates heat, which is absorbed
by surrounding water
7. Then the water is stirred continuously to distribute the heat uniformly and
the final temp attained by water is noted t
2
0
C. The gross calorific value
of the fuel is calculated as follows:

Calculation:
Mass of the fuel = M Kg.
Initial temp of the water = t
1
0
C
Final temp of the water = t
2
0
C
Change in temp t = ( t
2
t
1
)
0
C
Specific heat of water = S
Water equivalent of calorimeter = W Kg


Gross calorific value:
GCV =
W x S x t J/Kg
M




55

Chapter III
HIGH POLYMERS


Q. Define. 1) Plastic
2) Polymer
3) Polymerization
Ans:
1. Plastic: Plastic are synthetic organic materials having high molecular
weight which can be moulded into any desired shape when subjected to
heat & pressure in presence of catalyst.

2. Polymer: Polymer is a substance obtained from large number of small
molecules having low molecular weight.

3. Polymerization: It is the process of uniting (linking) together a large
numbers of small molecules (monomers) to form large molecule
(polymer) under specific conditions of temperature, pressure & catalyst
is known as polymerization.
Q. State the types of plastic. Give two example of each type.
Ans: There are two types of plastic
1) Thermosoftening plastic (Thermoplastic)
Ex: PVC,Polythene, PTFE etc
2) Thermosetting plastic Ex: Bakelite,Nylon 6:6 etc.

56

Q. State the types of polymerization. Explain the types with example
Ans: Types of polymerisation
1. Addition polymerization
2. Condensation polymerisation
Ans: Additition polymerisatrion: It is the process in which monomer which
contain at least one C=C bond undergo repeated addition, resulting in the
formation of long chain polymer without elimination of simple molecules
like H
2
O, HCl, NH
3

Example: Formation of polyethylene from ethylene

n(CH
2
=CH
2
) Polymerisation (-CH
2
-CH
2
)
n

Ethylene heat,pressure, polythylene
catalyst
Condensation polymerisation
It is the process in which the monomers of different types are joined
together by condensation forming a large polymer with the elimination of
simple molecule like H
2
O,HCl, and CH
3
OH etc.
Nylon 6:6 is obtained by condensation polymerisation of hexamethylene
diamine and adipic acid with the elimination of two water molecules.



57

Q. Thermosetting plastics are not regenerated whereas thermo softening
plastics are generated. Explain.
Ans: PVC is thermo softening plastic i.e. the plastic which can be softened on
heating & return to its original property on cooling whereas Bakelite is
thermosetting plastic i.e. the plastic which once can hardened cannot be
made soft again .
Q. Why thermosetting plastic cannot reshape and reused?
Ans: Thermosetting plastic is formed by condensation polymerization. This
plastic is hard and rigid material. It cannot be softened on heating. If it is
heated intensively, the bonds between monomers are permanently broken
and cannot reset after cooling. Therefore this plastic cannot be reshaped and
reused.
Q. Write the constituents present in plastic.
Ans: a) Resins (Binder) b) Fillers c) Pigments d) Plasticizers e) Accelerator

Q. Define Natural rubber.
Ans: Natural rubber is high molecular weight linear hydrocarbon polymer which
exhibit elasticity & other rubber like properties.

Q. Which organic compound present in the natural rubber.
Ans: Isoprene (C
5
H
8
)
n
is the organic compound present in the natural rubber.

Q. Define synthetic rubber .Give examples of synthetic rubber
Ans: The rubber like material prepared by chemical reaction called as synthetic
rubber.
Examples: 1) Buna-S 2) Buna-N 3) Neoprene 4)Thiokol 5)Butyl
rubber.

58

Q. What are polymers? Explain the classification of polymers with
examples
Ans : Polymers are the high molecular weight compounds obtained by repeated
union of simple molecules. (Monomers).
Ex. Starch, Polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, Nylon 6, 6 and etc
Classification of polymers
I. Based on their sources they are classified into

1. Natural polymer: The polymers, which are obtained from natural
sources such as plants and animals, are called natural polymers.
Eg. Wood, cellulose, Jute, Cotton, Wool, Silk, Proteins, Natural rubber,
etc.
2. Synthetic Polymer : The polymers, which are synthesized from simple
molecules, are called synthetic polymers.
Eg. Nylon 66, PVC, Polystyrene, Teflon, Plexiglass, Polyesters,
Polyethylene etc.
II. Based on their thermal behaviour they are classified into

1. Thermoplastic polymer : eg : PVC, Polyethylene etc.
2. Thermosetting polymers : eg.: Bakelite, urea-formaldehyde etc.

III. Based on their mechanism of polymerization they are classified
into
1. Addition polymers : eg : PVC, Polyethylene etc.
2. Condensation polymers : eg : Nylon66, Polyester etc

IV. Based on their properties they are classified into
1. Elastomers eg : Natural rubber
2. Fibres : eg : Jute, Wood, Silk etc
3. Resins eg : urea Formaldehyde, Epoxy resins, Phenol fomaldehyde
etc.
4. Plastics : egs: Plexiglass, PVC, Teflon etc

59

Q. What is degree of polymerization?
Ans : Degree of polymerization is a number, which indicates the number of
repetitive units (monomers) present in the polymer. By knowing the value of
DP, the molecular weight of the polymer can be calculated.
[Molecular wt of the polymer] = DP x Molecular wt of each monomer.
DP is repesented as n.
Ex. (CH
2
CH
2
)
n

Polythene
i. Calculate the molecular weight of the polythene polymer given DP is
100
Molecular weight of the polythene = DP x Molecular weight of
Polethene
= 100 x 28
= 2800
Q. Explain the free rdical mechanism addition polymerization of ethylene
Ans : The free radical mechanism polymerization of ethylene involves the
following thee steps
Initiation
Propagation
Termination

Initiation : When the initiators are heated or exposed to sunlight, they
undergo hemolytic decomposition forming highly reactive species
known as free radicals. The free radical attacks the double bond of the
monomer and initiates the chain reactions.

Examples : When dibenzoyl peroxide initiators are heated or exposed t
sunlight, they produces phenyl free radicals, which attacks the ethylene

60

monomer and converts it into reactive monomer. The reactive monomer
again reacts with another monomer and chain growth is initiated.
(C
6
H
5
COO)
2


2 C
6
H
5
* + 2CO
2

Dibenzyl peroxide Phenyl free radical
CH
2
= CH2 + C
6
H
5
*

C
6
H
5
CH
5
CH
2
*
Ethylene monomer Reactive monomer
Propagation : The active monomer again reacts with another
unsaturated monomer and converts it into monomer and growth of the
polymer chain continues
C
6
H
5
CH
2
CH
2
* + CH
2
=CH
2

C
6
H
5
-CH
2
-CH
2
-CH
2
-CH
2
*
Reactive monomer Ethylene growing polymer chain
Termination: Termination growing polymer chain occurs by any one
of the following reaction.

Coupling of two growing polymer chain
When two growing polymer chains react with each other termination
occurs due to the formation of a dead polymer chain
C
6
H
5
-CH
2
-CH
2
-CH
2
-CH
2
* + *CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
C
6
H
5



Growing polymer chain Growing polymer chain
C
6
H
5
-CH
2
-CH
2
-CH
2
-CH
2
-CH
2
CH
2
CH2 CH
2
C
6
H
5

Dead polymer chain
b. Coupling of one growing polymer chain with free radical
When one growing polymer chains react with a free radical termination
occurs due to the formation of a dead polymer chain.
C
6
H
5
- CH
2
- CH
2
- CH
2
- CH
2
* + C
6
H
5
*

C
6
H
5
- CH
2
- CH
2
- CH
2
- CH
2
- C
6
H
5

Growing polymer chain dead polymer chain

61

Q. Explain addition polymerization with suitable example
Ans: Definition: It is the process in which monomer which contain at least one
C=C bond undergo repeated addition, resulting in the formation of long
chain polymer without elimination of simple molecules like H
2
O,HCl, NH
3

Example: Formation of polyethylene from ethylene
In addition polymerization, monomers which are taking part in
polymerization must contain at least one double bond.
Ethylene (C
2
H
4
) is unsaturated hydrocarbon contain one C=C double
bond.
When ethylene is heated in the range 150
0
C to 250
0
C and at the pressure
above 300 atmospheric pressure.
Then number of ethylene molecules gets united to form a long chain of
polyethylene.
During this process one of the double bonds between the carbon atoms of
ethylene (CH
2
=CH
2
) is open up and forming an unstable molecule of
ethylene. The unstable molecule (monomer) to form dimmer and the
process continues to form large molecule of polyethylene.




62

Q. Explain condensation polymerization with suitable example
Ans: Definition: It is the process in which the monomers of different types are
joined together by condensation forming a large polymer with the
elimination of simple molecule like H
2
O,HCl, and CH
3
OH etc.
Example:Bakelite can be prepared by condensation of phenol with
formaldehyde in presence of acidic /alkaline catalyst.
During the reaction oxygen atom of carbonyl group of formaldehyde and
two hydrogen atoms of benzene ring of phenol are eliminated in the form of
H
2
O molecule.


Q. What is PTFE? Give synthesis (preparation), Properties and
Application of Teflon (PTFE Polytetrafluroethylene)
Ans : PTFE is synthetic fluropolymer of tetrafluroethylene
Synthesis (Preparation) : Teflon is prepared by emulsion polymerization of
tetrafluroethylene (TFE). Using ammonium persulfate as initiators/ benzoyl
peroxide as catalyst under pressure
n.CF
2
=CF
2
Persulfate intiator (-CF
2
-CF
2
)
n

Tetrafluroethylene Polymerisation Teflon
Poperties
1. It has high density about 2.3 gm/cm
3
.
2. It has high melting point 320
0
C.
3. It has high degree of crystalinity.
4. It has high density.

63

5. It is insoluble is any solvent.
6. It is highly resistance to corrosive chemicals, oxidizing and reducing
agents.
7. It has high thermal stability good mechanical strength.
Applications (uses)
1. It is used for insulating material for motors, transformers, cables wires,
capacitors, generator, coils.
2. It is used for making gaskets, belt pump, valve packing, tank lining, and
chemical carrying pipes.
3. It is used as dry lubricant.
4. It is used for nonstick cooking utensils.

Q. What is PMMA? Give synthesis (preparation), Properties and
Application of Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) OR Plexi glass (lucite)
Ans: PMMA is transparent thermoplastic used as light weight or shatter
resistant alternative to glass.
Synthesis (Preparation) :
It is prepared by emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate using
hydrogen peroxide as initiator

Properties
1. It is a white transparent linear thermoplastic.
2. It has excellent optical properties.
3. It is highly resistance to heat, chemicals and water.
4. It readily allows UV rays to pass through it

64

Applications (uses)
1. It is in air craft windows, instruments dentures (set of artificial teeth)
2. It is sued for making lenses for automobiles, artificial eyes, light fixtures
3. It is used in attractive sign boards.
4. It is used for manufacturing of transparent moulded articles and tubes.
5. It also finds uses as points and adhesives
Q. Give synthesis (preparation), Properties and Application of
Polyurethanes
Ans: Peparation : Polyurethanes are prepared by the polymerisation of
disocyanate and diol or triol.

Properties
1. They are obtained in the form of foam, fibres, elastomers etc.
2. They are less stable than polyamides at elevated temperature.
3. They are characterized by excellent resistance to abrasion and
solvents.
Application (Uses)
1. It is used as surface coating film, foams and adhesives
2. They are used for cushions in automobiles and furniture.
3. They are used to case to produce gaskets and seals.
4. These are used to coat gymnasium floor and dance floor.
5. It is used in light weight garments and swim suits.
Q. What is Bakelite? Give synthesis (preparation), Properties and
Application of Phenol formaldehyde resin (Bakelite)
Ans; It is early form of brittle (thermosetting) plastic typically brown, made
from phenol & formaldehyde.

65

Preparation: Bakelite can be prepared by condensation of phenol with
formaldehyde in presence of acidic /alkaline catalyst.
During the reaction oxygen atom of carbonyl group of formaldehyde and
two hydrogen atoms of benzene ring of phenol are eliminated in the form of
H
2
O molecule.


Properties
1. They are hard, rigid and strong materials.
2. They are resistant to heat, moisture, chemicals, fires.
3. They have good abrasion resistance.
4. They have excellent electrical insulation properties.
Application
1. It is used for making electric insulator part like switches, plugs switch
boards, heater. Hands and socket for light bulb and in wire insulation .
2. It is used for making moulded articles like telephone parts, cabinets for
radio and telvision.
3. It is used as adhesive for grinding wheels and bake lining.
4. It is used in varnishes and paints.
Q. What are Elastomers?
Ans : Elastomers high polymers that undergo very long elongation (500 1000%)
under stress, yet regain original size fully on released of stress.
The property of elastomers is known as elasticity. This arises due to the
coiled structure of elastomers.

66

Characteristics of Elastomers
Elastomers have linear but highly coiled structure.
Inter chain cohesive forces are negligible because these are
hydrocarbons.
They have high degree of elasticity.
They can retract rapidly.
Q. Describe structure of elastomer (rubber)
Ans: Rubbers (also known as elastomers) are high polymers, which have elastic
properties in excess of 30 percent. Thus a rubber- band can be stretched to 4
to10 times its original length and as soon as the stretching force is released,
it returns to its original length. The elastic deformation in an elastomer arises
from the fact that in the unstressed condition, an elastomer molecule is not
straight chained( as in the case of plastic fibres like nylon, polyethene, etc.)
but in the form of a coil and consequently, it can be stretched like a spring
(see fig.) the unstreched rubber is amorphous. As stretching is done, the
macromolecules get partially aligned with respect to another, thereby
causing crystallization and consequent, stiffening of material (due to
increased attractive forces between these molecules). On releasing the
deforming stress, the chains get reverted back to their original coiled state
and the material again becomes amorphous.


67

Q. What are the drawbacks (deficiencies) of natural rubber? OR Why it is
necessary to vulcanize rubber? OR Vulcanization of rubber is done
before industrial use OR Natural rubber is not useful in permanent
application where elastomeric is used. Why?
Ans: The drawbacks of natural rubber are as follows:
1. During summer, the raw rubber becomes soft and sticky & in winter stiff
(hard) and brittle.
2. It has low tensile strength.
3. It is too weak to be used in heavy duty operation.
4. It has a large water absorbing capacity.
5. On stretching, it undergoes permanent deformation.
6. It is affected by the organic solvents like benzene, CCl
4
etc.
Therefore, to remove the drawbacks and improve the properties, it is
necessary to vulcanize rubber.
Q. Explain Vulcanization of rubber with chemical reaction OR Describe
the process of Vulcanization of rubber .Write advantages of
vulcanization. OR Name and explain the process which increases the
stiffness of rubber OR which treatment is used to make useful the
natural rubber?
Ans: Vulcanization is the process that increases the stiffness of rubber.
Natural rubber is compounded with some substances like Sulphur, SF
6
, and
H
2
S etc.
When natural rubber is compounded (heated) with sulphur at 100-140
0
C,
the process is called as vulcanization of rubber and sulphur is called as
vulcanizing agent.


68




Process: In this process crude (raw) rubber is heated with sulphur at high
temperature. The sulphur combines chemically at the double bonds in the
rubber molecule of different rubber springs. This prevents the
intermolecular movement or sliding of rubber springs making the rubber
stiff. The stiffness depends upon amount of sulphur added.
Example:
1. A rubber tyre contains 3-5% sulphur
2. A battery case contains 30% of sulphur
3. Ebonite contain 50% of sulphur
Thus vulcanization makes the rubber tough, strong, abrasion resistance,
chemically resistant, stiff hence it is necessary to vulcanize rubber.
Advantages of vulcanization
The tensile strength increase.
Vulcanized rubber has excellent resilience.
It has broader useful temperature range (-40 to 100
0
C).
It has better resistance to moisture, oxidation and abrasion.
It is resistance to organic solvents like CCl
4
, Benzene petrol etc.
It has low elasticity.

69

Q. Mention the advantages of synthetic Rubbers over natural rubber
Ans : Advantages of synthetic rubber
These are more resistance to heat and cold (nitrile rubber).
These are not easily attacked by sunlight and air (neoprene and nitrile
rubber).
These have high abrasion and high tensile strength.
Rubber property is retained at high temperatures (ex: silicon rubbers
90
0
- 316
0
c)
Do not age easily (ex: polyurethane rubber)
Do not swell and can hold organic solvent better than natural rubber
(ex: polysulphide rubber)
Hold moist air and water at high pressure (ex: butyl rubber)

Q. Give the types of substances used in compounding of plastic
Ans: The types of substances used in compounding of plastic are fillers, resin,
plasticizers, accelerators and pigments.
Q. What is compounding of Plastic? Explain compounding of plastic. OR
What are different substances added during compounding of plastic?
Give functions of each
Ans: The plastic are in short of some properties required for engineering
application therefore to improve the required properties some substances
like fillers, resin, plasticizers, accelerators and pigments are added into it
during polymerization. This process of addition is known as compounding
of plastic.
Fillers: These are the substances added to the plastics to improve hardness,
tensile strength, finish, workability & opacity Ex. Wood, mica, Quartz,
Asbestos

70

Resin: It is the substance which are used to bind (hold) various constituents
of plastics together also called as binder Ex. Polythene, PVC, Polyesters
Plasticizers: These are added into plastic to improve plasticity & flexibility
Ex. Camphor, Tributyl phosphate
Accelerators: It is used as catalyst which speed up polymerization process
Ex. Zncl
2
, H
2
O
2
, Calcium oxide
Pigments: Different dyes & colored pigments are added to plastic to provide
desired colour or shade. The pigment should resistant to sunlight Ex. Cobalt
blue, Chrome green, Red lead.
Q. Differentiate between Natural rubber and Synthetic rubber.
Ans:
Natural Rubber Synthetic Rubber
It is an elastic material obtained
naturally from latex of rubber plant
It is rubber like product obtained by
some chemical reaction Ex. Buna-S,
Buna-N, Thiokol,
It is an polymer of isoprene (C
5
H
8
)n
molecule.
It is polymer of substance having
unsaturated nature
It is non resistant to oxidation It is highly resistant to oxidation
It is weak so that cannot be used in
heavy duty operation
It is strong so can be used in heavy
duty operation
It becomes soft & sticky at higher
temperature
It does not becomes soft & sticky at
higher temperature
It is plastic in nature It is elastic in nature
It is soluble in organic solvent It is insoluble in organic solvent


71

Q. Differentiate between thermo softening plastic and thermosetting
Plastic. OR Write characteristics of thermosoftening and thermosetting
plastic
Ans:
Thermosoftening plastic
(Thermoplastic
Thermosetting plastic
They are prepared by addition
polymerization
They are prepared by condensation
polymerization
They have linear chain structure They have network chain structure
They have smaller molecular weight They have higher molecular weight
They can be reshaped & reused They cannot be reshaped & reused
They are soft, weak & less brittle They are hard, strong & more brittle
They are soluble in organic solvent They are insoluble in organic solvent
They can be reclaimed from waste They cannot be reclaimed from waste
They are linked by weak covalent bond They are linked by strong covalent
bond
Ex: Polyethylene,PVC Ex: Bakelite,Polyster.

Q. State properties of plastics.
Ans: Properties of plastic
1. They are light in weight and have specific gravity from 1 to 2.4
2. They have low thermal and electrical conductivity.
3. They are highly resistant to corrosion and machined.
4. They can readily mould, drilled and machined.
5. They have low melting point.
6. They are not attacked by fungi, insects etc.

72

7. They have low coefficient of thermal expansion.
8. They have good tensile strength (5500 kg/cm
2
).
9. Plastics are good mechanical shock absorbers.
10. Their shades or colours do not fade easily.
11. They are highly resistant to the attack of light, oil, acids and moisture.

Q. Differentiate between addition polymerization and condensation
polymerization
Ans:
Addition polymerization

Condensation polymerization
It is the process in which monomers
undergo repeated addition resulting in
the formation long chain polymer
without elimination of simple
molecules like H
2
O, HCl, and NH
3

It is the process in which monomers
of different types are joined together
by condensation forming a large
polymer with the elimination of
simple molecule like H
2
O, HCl,
CH
3
OH
Unsaturated monomers undergo this
reaction
Functional monomers undergo this
reaction
For this low pressure &temperature is
required
For this high pressure &
temperature is required
Thermo softening plastic are prepared
by this method

Thermosetting plastic are prepared
by this method

Linear or chain structure is formed in
Polymer
Three dimensional structure is
formed in polymer
It is fast reaction It is slow reaction
Reaction gives only main product Reaction gives main product &
subsidary product


73

Q. Write applications of plastic based on its properties.
Ans: Applications of plastic
Due to low density and high tensile strength plastic are used in aircraft,
motor cars and in structural industries.
Due to low electrical conductivity they are used in electronic industry
for electrical insulation of PCB, cabinets of TV, computer.
Due to low thermal conductivity they are used for making handles of
electric irons, soldering gun, pressure cookers etc.
It is used as thermal insulator in refrigerator, air conditioners, cold
storage etc.
Due to corrosion resistant and chemical resistance they are used in
chemical industry in manufacturing of tanks, tubes, pipes, absorption
towers etc.
Due to their high shock absorbing capacity they are used for making
parts of machinery to reduce noise and vibration.
Due to optical clarity they are used for making glass fiber and wind
screens for automobile and aircraft.
As plastic is water resistant used in manufacturing of polythene bags,
containers, bottles, pipes floor covering, rain coats etc.
As light in weight and strong it is used in furniture like chairs , tables,
stools, decorative items like clocks, toys, panels sheet, mirror case etc.
Q. Explain the structure of thermosoftening and thermosetting plastic
Ans: Structure of thermosoftening plastic: This plastic is formed by addition
polymerization. It has long chain linear polymer with negligible cross links. Its

74

monomer has atleast two active valencies. Under suitable conditions these
valencies links with other similar monomers forming linear chain as shown below
If M is monomer


Structure of thermosetting plastic: This plastic is formed by condensation
polymerization. It has three dimensional network chain structure. Its
monomer has at least three active valencies. Under suitable condition these
valencies link with other type of monomers forming network chain structure
as shown below
If M is monomer



75

Q. Explain the following properties of synthetic rubbers.
1. Elasticity 2. Tack 3. Abrasion resistant
4. Tensile strength 5.Hardness 6.Rebound
Ans: Properties of synthetic rubber
1. Elasticity: Elasticity is the property by virtue of which a material undergoes
deformation under stress and regains its original shape on removal of the
stress. Ex: rubber bands, automobile tubes.

2. Tack: Tack is the special characteristic of rubber by virtue of which two or
more surface can stick to each other.Ex: In manufacturing of rubber tyres.

3. Abrasion resistance: Abrasion resistance is process of wearing away the
surface of rubber by friction.Ex: Automobile tyres, shoe soles.

4. Tensile strength (stress and strain): When a dumbbell shaped piece of
rubber is taken and placed in the machine and further it is stretched until it
breaks. The load at which it breaks is its tensile strength
Ex. V belts and conveyor belts.
5. Hardness: Hardness is ability of rubber to with stand wear, abrasion and
resists penetration. Ex: shock absorber, gaskets etc

6. Rebound: It is the ability to absorb energy and return without permanent
deformation of a synthetic rubber.Ex: Rubber ball will bounce when
dropped used in shock absorbers.

76

Q. Write any four applications of rubber (elastomers) with their related
engineering properties. OR Give applications of synthetic (vulcanized)
rubber.

Ans: Applications of rubber(elastomer)

Properties Based application
Elasticity, toughness, tensile strength


For making rubber bands, tubes of
vehicles, sports goods, telephone
reciever, ball etc.
Abrasion resistant


Used in tyres of vehicles, shoe heels
and Soles, V-belt, conveyor belt, floor
tiles, Rubber mats, etc.
Bad conductor of electricity


Used for insulation wires and cables,
switch board panels, plug, sockets, and
battery cases.
Hardness

Rubber gaskets are used for sealing
refrigerator, cabinet doors, cookers,
autoclave etc.
Chemical resistance

Rubber is used for lining in chemical
tank, as gaskets, rubber seals, pumps
etc.





77

Q. Write preparation, properties and application of Buna-S or Styrene
Rubber
Ans : Buna S ruber is probably the most important type of synthetic rubber,
which is produced by copolymerization of butadiene (about 75% by weight)
and styrene (25% by weight)

nCH
2
=CH-CH=CH
2
+ nCH
2
=CH-Ph

-(-H
2
C-CH=CH-CHCH
2
-CH-Ph-)
n
-
1,3-butadiene (75%) Styrene (25%)

Properties: Styrene rubber resembles natural rubber in processing
characteristics as well as quality of finished products
It possesses high abrasion resistance, high load bearing capacity and
resilience.
It gets readily oxidized, especially in presence of traces of ozone
presents in the atmosphere.
It swells in oils and solvents.
It can be vulcanized in the same way as natural rubber either by sulphur
or sulphur monochloride.
It requires less sulphur, but more accelerators for vulcanization

Applications (Uses)
1. It is mainly used for the manufacture of motor tyres.
2. It is used for floor tiles, shoe soles, gaskets, foot-wear components,
wire-cable insulations, carpet backing, adhesives, tank-linings





78

Q. Write prepation, Properties and applications of Butyl Rubber (G-I or
Polyisobutylene)
Ans :
Preparation :Butyl rubber is prepared by the aluminium chloride initiated
cationic co-polymerization of isobutene with small amount (0.5 to 2.5%) of
isoprene.


Properties : Butyl rubber has following characteristics
Under nomal conditions it is amorphous but it crystallizes on stretching.
It is quite resistant to oxidation due to low degree of unsaturation.
Due to very low unsaturation, it can be vulcanized but it cannot be
hardened much.
It can be degraded by heat or light to sticky low molecular weight
products so stabilization is must.
Butyl rubber is soluble in benzene but has excellent resistance to polar
solvents like alcohol, acetone.
Compared to natural rubber it possesses outstanding low permeability to
ai and other gases.
Application : Butyl rubber used for
Insulation of high voltage wires and cables
Inner tubes of automobiles tyres.
Conveyor belts for food and other materials.
Lining of tanks and Hoses.

79

Chapter IV
CORROSION SCI ENCE

Q. Define corrosion.
Ans: Any process of chemical or electrochemical decay (destruction) of a metal
due to the action of its surrounding medium is called as corrosion.
Example: Rusting of Iron

Q. State the types of corrosion.
Ans: There are two main types of corrosion namely,
1. Atmospheric corrosion or Dry corrosion/Direct chemical corrosion
2. Electro chemical/Wet/Immersed corrosion
Q. Define Atmospheric corrosion/Dry corrosion. Give two examples
Ans: The corrosion which is brought out by atmospheric condition is called as
atmospheric corrosion or
The corrosion which is caused by direct chemical action of gases like O
2
,
halogens, SO
2
, H
2
S with metal surface is called as atmospheric
corrosion/dry corrosion
Example: 1. Rusting of Iron.
2 Formation of green film of basic carbonate on the surface of copper
Q. State the factors affecting rate of atmospheric corrosion.
Ans: Factors affecting atmospheric corrosion are
1. The impurities present in the atmosphere.
2 . Moisture in the atmosphere

80

Q. Define Electrochemical/Wet corrosion/Immersed corrosion
Ans: The corrosion of metal which take place in presence of liquid (Solution)
through ionic reaction when two dissimilar (different) metals are in contact
with each other is called as electrochemical/wet/immersed corrosion.
Q. Give two examples of electrochemical corrosion.
Ans: a) Steel pipe connected to copper plumbing
. b) Copper sheets joined by iron nails.
c) Corrosion at rivetted joints
Q. State the factors affecting rate of electrochemical/immersed /wet
corrosion.
Ans: 1. P
H
value of solution
2. Purity of metal
3. Position of metal in electrochemical series
4. Solubility of the corrosion product
5. Area of cathode and anode
6. Nature of metal surface
Q. State the necessary condition for electrochemical corrosion to take
place.
Ans: a) Formation of anodic and cathodic area
b) Presence of conducting medium which acts as electrolyte
c) Electrical contact between anode and cathode for conduction of electron

Q. Why protection from corrosion is necessary? OR Give disadvantages of
corrosion
Ans: Corrosion causes many effects as
1. It reduces the life span of machine

81

2. It weakens the metallic structure and machinery which may causes
injuries to worker
3. It causes loss of cost of extraction of metal from their ores, cost of
fabrication of metal etc. Due to above reasons protection from corrosion
is necessary.
Q. Name different methods of applying metal (protective) coating OR List
different methods used for the prevention of corrosion.
Ans: Methods used for protective coating
1. Hot dipping : a) Galvanising b) Tinning
2. Metal spraying
3. Electroplating
4. Metal cladding
5. Cementation : a) Colorizing b) Chromizing c) Sheradizing
Q. What is cathodic protection? Give one example.
Ans: Cathodic protection is a method in which the base metal to be protected from
corrosion is made to acts as cathodic by attaching more active anodic metal
to it. e.g.: Protection of underground pipelines

Q. Why Galvanized containers are not useful for storing food and food
stuff (material).
Ans: Galvanized containers are not useful for storing or preparation of food stuff
because galvanized containers have a coating of zinc. This zinc metal reacts
with the acids present in food stuff and forms highly poisonous compounds
which are harmful for human consumption.


82

Q. Which property of tin makes useful for tinning? Why?
OR Tinned articles are used for storing food stuff. Why? OR Tin coated
utensils are mostly preferred to zinc coated utensils for the storage of
food stuff. Explain
Ans: In tinning base metal iron is coated with thin layer of tin (Sn). Tin (Sn) is
less electropositive than iron, hence it is more resistant to chemical attack
and thus protects the base metal. Due to its non-toxic nature and resistance
to chemical attack tinned articles are used for storing food stuff.
Q. Explain mechanism of Dry/ atmospheric/chemical (oxidation) corrosion
OR
Explain mechanism of corrosion due to action of oxygen
Ans: Oxidation corrosion is brought about by direct chemical action of oxygen
on metals or by forming oxide film.
2M + O
2
2MO
Metal Metal oxide


1. When metallic surface comes in contact with atmospheric oxygen then
metallic ion is formed.
2. Then the electrons from metal are transferred to oxygen and oxide ion is
formed.
3. Then the metallic ion and oxide ion combine together to form metal
oxide.

83

4. The mechanism of oxide film formation can be represented by the
following equation,
M M
++
+ 2e

(oxidation loss of e
-
)
+ O + 2e
-
O - - (Reduction gain of e
-
)

M + O M
++
+ O
- -
MO (Metal oxide)

Metal Oxygen Metallic Oxide
ion ion


Q. Explain the factors which affect the rate of atmospheric corrosion.

Ans: The factors which affect the rate of atmospheric corrosion are
1. Impurities in the atmosphere
2. Moisture in the atmosphere
1. Impurities in the atmosphere :
In industrial area the air contains the corrosive gases like CO
2
, H
2
S, SO
2

along with acidic impurities such as H
2
SO
4
, HNO
3
and HCl etc. In all of
these SO
2
is most corrosive factor. In the presence of such acidic
impurities the corrosion of metals becomes faster.
2. Moisture in the atmosphere:
The rate of corrosion increases in the presence of moisture. The
atmospheric gases or chemical vapours are dissolved in the moisture. The
reaction between such dissolved gases with metallic surface becomes
faster. Therefore moisture acts as conducting medium and increases the
corrosion.
Ex. Rusting of iron increases in presence of moisture.

84

Q. Explain mechanism of electrochemical/chemical/wet/immersed
corrosion by using Daniel cell (Galvanic cell action).
Ans: The mechanism of electrochemical corrosion can be explained by using
Daniel cell

Construction:
Daniel cell consist of Zn and Cu electrodes which are dipped in ZnSO
4
and
CuSO
4
solution respectively. These two solutions are separated by a porous
partition to prevent mixing of two solutions. Zinc and copper electrodes are
connected by a metallic conductor.




Working: The EMF is developed due to two separate reactions taking place
at the two electrodes.
a. Zinc metals is higher in the electrochemical series acts as anode
and goes into the solution as Zn
++
ions with liberation of electrons
At anode:
Zn
(s)
Zn
++
(aq)
+ 2e
-
(oxidation)

85

b. The liberated electrons move along metallic conductor and are accepted
by copper which acts cathode.
At cathode:
Cu
++
(aq)
+ 2e
-
Cu
(s)
(reduction)

Thus, zinc goes into the solution (get dissolved) and corroded, while copper
is deposited at cathode and get protected.
Q. Explain the factors which affect the rate of
electrochemical/wet/immersed corrosion.( Any four ) OR How nature of
metal and environment responsible for corrosion?
Ans: Following are the main factors which affect the rate of electrochemical
corrosion.
A . Nature of metal
1. Position of metal in electrochemical series: In electrochemical series,
elements are arranged in the order of their decreasing activity. Therefore
top elements are more active than that of bottom element. So top
elements are easily oxidized and get corroded easily.
2. Purity of metal: The impurity present in metals form minute
electrochemical cell and the anodic part get corroded. Hence, rate of
corrosion also increases with increase in impurities present in the metal
3. Area of anode and cathode: If the cathode area is large in comparison
of anode then corrosion increases and vice-versa because there is more
demand for electrons by larger catholic area
4. Nature of oxide film: If the oxide film is non porous then the metal
protects itself from corrosion. But if the oxide film is porous then the
corrosion by the gas continues

86

B. Nature of environment
1. P
H
value of the solution:
P
H
value of solution indicates the acidity or alkalinity of solution. Acidic
solutions are more corrosive to metals than neutral or alkaline solution;
hence solution with P
H
value less than 7 causes more corrosion.
2. Temperature: An increase in temperature results in an increase in
conductance of aqueous medium and rate of corrosion increases and
vice-versa
3. Humidity: Humidity air is directly related to the rate of corrosion. In
humid condition atmospheric gases easily form electrochemical cell by
which corrosion occurs to great extent
Q. Describe mechanism of electrochemical corrosion with evolution of
Hydrogen gas
Ans: The hydrogen evolution mechanism of electrochemical corrosion takes place
in acidic environment like industrial waste.


Mechanism: Consider a steel (Fe) tank which contains acidic solution
(waste) and a small piece of copper. As copper and iron come in contact

87

and surrounded by acidic solution, then galvanic cell is formed. Then large
steel tank (Fe) becomes anode and small copper becomes cathode.
Working:
1. At anode: Electrons flow through the metal from anode to cathode
Fe Fe
++
+ 2e
-
(oxidation)
2. At cathode: At cathode, H
+
ion present in acidic solution are eliminated
as hydrogen gas

2H
+
+ 2e
-
H
2
(reduction)


Net reaction: Fe + 2H
+
Fe
++
+ H
2

Thus, iron (steel) gets corroded in acidic reaction.
Q. Describe mechanism of electrochemical corrosion with absorption of
oxygen gas
Ans: This type of corrosion takes place in neutral or alkaline medium
Example: Consider Rusting of iron take place in presence of neutral or
alkaline medium.



88

Mechanism:
Consider a steel (Fe) surface exposed to atmosphere, after a course of time
iron oxide layer is formed on the surface of steel (Fe) plate. If there is a
small crack developed in iron oxide layer and a drop of water (moisture) is
collected in crack, then
a. Water acts as electrolyte
b. Small crack acts as anode
c. Iron oxide covered steel surface acts as cathode.
Working:

At anode: The liberated electrons flow through anodic area to cathodic area.

2Fe 2Fe
++
+ 4e
-
(oxidation)
At cathode: The dissolved oxygen present in moisture (water) .The
electrons are reacting with water and dissolved O
2

2H
2
O + O
2
+ 4e
-
4OH
-
(reduction)

The net reaction:
2Fe + 2H
2
O + O
2
2Fe
++
+ 4OH
-
2Fe (OH)
2
brown rust

If enough O
2
is present Fe (OH)
2
oxidised to Fe (OH)
3
which is called as
yellow rust
4Fe (OH)
2
+ 2H
2
O + O
2
4Fe (OH)
3
yellow rust


89

Q. What is sacrificial anodic (Galvanic) protection? Explain sacrificial
anodic protection method of prevention of corrosion. OR How
sacrificial anodic protection can be done?
Ans: Sacrificial anodic protection: In this method the metallic structure to be
protected from corrosion is connected to the anodic metal (active) by an
insulating wire is known as sacrificial anodic protection.
Method: The more active metal like Zn, Mg, and Al (acts as anode) are
connected to the metal structure to be protected so that the chemical
reactions are taking place at the more reactive metal surface and thus saving
the metal structure from corrosion as shown in fig. and gets corroded, hence
it is known as sacrificial anode.
For the purpose of increasing electrical contact, the active metal is placed in
back fill (Coal + NaCl). The sacrificial anode has to be replaced time to time
after complete corrosion..
Example: Several hundred kilometers long zinc wire is buried along oil pipe
line in Alaska

Applications:
1. It is used for protection of ships and boats
2. It is used for protection of underground pipeline, cables from soil
corrosion

90

Q. Explain impressed current cathodic protection method of prevention of
corrosion. Write its applications.
Ans: In this method the corroding metal is converted from anode to cathode by
applying impressed current to the metal to be protected and is itself used as
cathode.. This can be done by applying amount of direct current from D-C
source to an anode
Method: In this method
1. The negative terminal of battery is connected to the metal
2. The positive terminal of battery is connected to an inert anode
3. The inert anode used is graphite platinized titanium
4. Then the anode is buried in a back fill to provide electrical contact.
5. Then oxidation reaction is taking place at the cathode electrode and
electrons are liberated, which are repelled by the cathode electrode.
6. As result, the anode electrode destruct and has to replaced time to time
7. Thus cathode electrode protected from corrosion







Applications: This method is applicable to protection of Open water box
coolers, Water tank, Buried water or gas pipeline, Condensers, Transmission
line tower, Ships


91

Q. Explain Galvanising method. OR Describe the process of protecting
steel articles from corrosion by coating of zinc over it. OR How
galvanizing is done?
Ans: Galvanising:The process of coating of zinc on the surface of iron (steel)
by hot dipping method to prevent it from corrosion is called as galvanising



The method involves following steps:
1. The iron (steel) sheet to be galvanised is first cleaned by dil. H
2
SO
4
to
remove rust, dirt and oxide layer on the surface of iron
2. Then it is washed with water to remove acid completely and dried
3. Then the sheet is dipped in bath of molten zinc at 425
o
C to 460
o
C
temperature. Then it is passed through ammonium chloride and zinc
chloride flux to prevent oxidation of zinc
4. Then the metal sheet is passed through a series of rollers & to get
uniform coating.
5. Finally galvanized sheet is annealed at a temperature 650
0
C
Applications:
This method is used for roofing sheets, water pipes, bars, rods, fencing wires
etc.

92

Q. Explain Tinning method. OR Describe the process of protecting steel
articles from corrosion by coating of tin over it. OR How tinning is
done?
Ans: Tinning: It is the process of coating of tin metal on the surface of iron
(steel) by hot dipping method to prevent it from corrosion is called as
tinning.



The method involves following steps:
1. The iron (steel) sheet to be tinned is first cleaned by dil. H
2
SO
4
to
remove rust, dirt and oxide layer on the surface of iron
2. Then it is washed with water to remove acid completely and dried
3. Then the sheet dipped in bath containing ammonium chloride and zinc
chloride flux and then it is dipped in molten tin
4. Finally it is dipped in palm oil to prevent oxidation of tin
5. Then the metal sheet is passed through a series of rollers to remove
excess of tin & to get uniform coating
Applications: Tinning is used for coating steel used for manufacturing of
containers for storing food stuff, oil, ghee, pickles etc.

93

Q. Distinguish between galvanizing and tinning.


Galvanizing Tinning
1. The process of coating a base
metal like iron or steel with
zinc by hot dipping method is
called as galvanizing.
2. If a scratch or gap is produced
on a galvanized surface, zinc
will corrode and iron will be
protected.
3. In the above case, corrosion of
zinc will not take place very
fast because anodic area (Zn) is
large.

4. Galvanized articles cannot be
used for storing food stuff but
galvanized sheets are mostly
used for manufacture of roofing
sheets, buckets etc.
5. Zinc protects the iron from
corrosion because zinc is more
electropositive than iron.
1. The process of coating a base
metal like iron, steel or copper
with tin by hot dipping method
is called as tinning.
2. If a scratch or gap is produced
on a tinned surface, tin will not
be corroded, instead iron starts
corroding.
3. In the above case, corrosion of
anode (iron) takes place very
fast because anodic area is
small.

4. Tinned articles are mostly used
for storing and preparing food
Stuff.


5. Tin protects the iron from
corrosion because tin is less
electropositive than iron.



94

Q. Explain Differential metal corrosion?
Ans: Differential metal corrosion:
This type corrosion occurs when two different metals are in contact with
each other due to the formation of galvanic cell. The metal having less
standard reduction potential value under goes oxidation and liberates
electrons, which migrates to the cathode. The other metal having high
standard reduction potential (SRP) value acts as cathode and reduction
reaction takes places on its surface forming OH
-
ions or any one kind of
reduction reactions. The rate of corrosion depends on the potential difference
between the two metals. If the difference is more corrosion occurs faster and
vice versa. The anodic metal undergoes corrosion and cathodic metal is
unaffected. The reactions that occurs are
At anode M M
n+
+ ne
-

At cathode depending on the nature of corrosion environment the cathodic
reaction are as follows
2H
+
+ 2e
-
H
2
(in acidic environment)

H
2
O + O
2
+ 4e
-
OH
-
(in neutral environment)

2H
2
O + 2e
-
2OH
-
+ H
2
(in alkaline environemnt)

Example : Iron metal in contact with Copper metal, Brass tap in contact
with Iron pipe etc.

95

Q. What is differential aeration corrosion? Explain waterline corrosion
and pitting corrosion
Ans : Differential aeration corrosion: This type of corrosion occurs when
a metal is exposed to different concentrations of oxygen. The part of metal
which is more exposed to air acts as cathode and unaffected. The other part
of the metal, which is less exposed to air act as anode and undergoes
corrosion
Water line corrosion:

It is differential aeration type of corrosion .Corrosion observed in water
tanks, storage tanks and marine structures are called as water line corrosion.
When water is stored in an iron tank, it is found that maximum corrosion
occurs along a line just below the water level. The area above the H2O line
is highly oxygenated and acts as cathode while the area just below the H2O
line is less oxygenated and acts as anode and undergoes corrosion.
At anode Fe Fe
++
+ 2e
-

At cathode 2Fe
++
+ 4OH
-
2Fe (OH)
2

2Fe (OH)
2
+ O
2
+ 2H
2
O 2(Fe
2
O
3
. 3H
2
O) rust.


96

Pitting corrosion: Pitting corrosion occurs when small particle like dust,
mud etc get deposited on metal surface.

This gives rise to the formation of small anodic and cathodic areas. The
portion of metal covered by the dust or other particles is less aerated and act
as anode. The other portion of the metal exposed to more oxygen of the
environment acts as cathodic region. Corrosion takes place at the portion
below dust and a small pit is formed. Then the rate of corrosion increases
due to small area and large cathodic area.

Q. Explain the Anodic Protection method. OR How metal protected by
anodizing?
Ans: Anodic protection method



97

Method: In this method, the metal to be protected from corrosion is made
more anodic by passing external impressed current to make it more anodic
and it forms a thin oxide film which then protects the metal from further
corrosion. The metal part is connected to potentiostat for maintaining
constant potential having a reference electrode the auxiliary electrode acts as
cathode and base metal acts an anode after passing current the metal from a
passive layer which prevents further corrosion.
The advantage of the method is that it requires small current.
A drawback of this method is that is cannot be applied to the metals which
do not passivate.

Q. Explain the process of Phosphating (Phosphate coating). OR How metal
protected by phosphating?
Ans: Phosphate coating is a process of converting the surface atoms of the base
metal into their phosphates by chemical or electrochemical reaction between
base metal and certain metal phosphates in aqueous solution of phosphoric
acid.
Phosphate coating is generally obtaining on steel. Al, and Zn.
It involves following steps
The metal to be coated (base metal) is degreased, polished washed and
dried
It is dipped in a solution containing mixture of phosphoric acid, metal
phosphates such as Fe/Mn/Zn phosphates.

98

Accelerators such as copper salts. H
2
O
2
, nitrate etc.
pH of the bath is maintained about 35
0
C.
The metal ions dissolve and react with phosphate ions forming metal
phosphate.
The metal phosphates deposits on the surface of base metal.
Uses:- Phosphate coated metal widely used in automobile industry, bolts,
nuts, and refrigerators, washing machining, cars bodies etc.

























99

LUBRICANTS

Q. Define lubricant. State the types of lubricant.
Ans: - Definition: The substance which is used to reduce the frictional resistance
between two moving (sliding) surfaces is known as lubricant.
There are mainly three types of lubricant namely,
1. Solid lubricant graphite, soap
2. Liquid lubricant- palm oil, whale oil
3. Semisolid lubricant grease, waxes

Q. Define lubrication. State the types of lubrication
Ans: Definition: The process of reducing the frictional resistance (force)
between two moving (sliding) surfaces by the introduction of lubricants
between them is known as lubrication.
There are three types of lubrication namely,
a. Fluid (thick) film lubrication
b. Thin (boundary) film lubrication
c. Extreme pressure lubrication
Q. Define viscosity & viscosity index. Give their significance.
Ans: Viscosity: It is defined as the force in dynes required to move 1cm square
of liquid over another surface with velocity of 1 cm/sec. It is expressed in
poise.

Significance of viscosity: It determines the main oprating characteristics of
the lubricant
Depending on the load conditions in lubrication oil of different viscosities
are selected. For e.g. for low load condition, an oil of lower viscosity is
required while for high load conditions, oil should have higher viscosity.

Viscosity index
Definition: The rate of change of viscosity of lubricating oil with
temperature is called viscosity index

100

Significance:
A good lubricant should have minimum variation of viscosity with
temperature i.e. viscosity index.
For e.g. Butter has low viscosity index hence it cannot be used in
machines where temperature change is rapid.

Q. Define oiliness. Give its significance
Ans: It is defined as the power of an lubricant (oil) to maintain a continuous
film under pressure.

Significance:
1. Oiliness is important in extreme pressure lubrication
2. Oil with poor oiliness have tendency to be squeezed out of the machine
parts under high pressure
3. A good lubricant should have sufficient oiliness under working condition
Q. Define flash point & fire point. Give their significance
Ans: Flash point: Flash point is the lowest temperature at which the oil lubricant
gives of enough vapours that gives momentary flash of ligh when a small
flame is applied to it.

Fire point: Fire point is the lowest temperature at which the oil lubricant
gives of enough vapours which catches the fire & burn continuously at
least for 5 second when a small flame is applied to it.
Significance:
A good lubricant should have high flash point and fire point.
The knowledge of flash point of lubricant aids in precautionary measures
against fire hazards.
Oil of high flash point is supposed to offer more resistance to spontaneous
combustion

101

Q. Define cloud point & pour point. Give their significance.
Ans: Cloud point: When oil is cooled slowly, the temperature at which it
becomes cloudy or hazy in appearance is called as its cloud point.
Significance:
1. A good lubricating oil should have low cloud point 1.
2. The cloud point indicates the suitability of lubricant in cold condition
Pour point: When oil is cooled slowly, the oil ceases (stops) to flow is called
as its pour point.
Significance:
1. Pour point determines suitability of lubricant for low temperature
condition
2. Lubricant used in the machine working at low temperature should posses
low pour point
3. It indicates the dissolved wax concentration in given sample of oil & also
determine the temperature below which oil cannot be used as lubricant in
the engine
Q. Define
1. Acid value [Neutralization number]
2. Saponification value
3. Emulsification.
4. Aniline point
1. Acid value [Neutralization number]
It is defined as number of milligrams of KOH required to neutralize free
acid in 1gm of oil.

Significance
a. A good lubricant should have low acid value less than 0.1 because free
acid present in lubricant causes corrosion of machine parts and value
greater than 0.1 shows that oil has been oxidised

102

b. A lubrication oil should posses acid value less than oil

Determination of Acid Value:

Procedure:
1. Take 10-20 gms of oil in a conical flask and add 50 cc of water, 50 cc
alcohol and few drops of phenolphthalein indicator
2. Titrate the solution with N/10 KOH solution til pink colour is obtained
at the end point



Neutralization number = (No. of cc of N/10 KOH 5.6)
(weight of oil taken)


2. Saponification value
It is defined as number of milligrams of KOH required to saponify 1gm of
lubricating oil.

Significance
With the help of saponification value we can know whether the oil is
vegetable, animal or mineral
A good lubricating oil should have moderate (high) saponification value.

3. Emulsification
It is defined as the tendency of lubricating oil to mix with water to form
a stable emulsion i.e. homogeneous mixture of oil & water.
Significance
The emulsion have tendency to catch the dust and other particles from its
surrounding which causes failure of lubrication system. Therefore a
good lubricant should have low emulsification number.


103

4. Aniline point: Aniline point of oil is defined as the minimum
equilibrium solution temperature for equal volumes of aniline and oil
sample.
Significance: Aniline point gives an indication of the possible
deterioration of oil in contact with rubber, sealing packing etc.
A high aniline point of lubricant indicates that it contains higher % of
paraffinic hydrocarbons and lower % of aromatic hydrocarbons

Determination of aniline point:
Aniline point is determined by mixing; mechanically equal volumes
of the oil sample and aniline in a test tube.
The mixture is heated, till homogenous solution obtained.
Then the test tube is allowed to cool at a control rate.
The temperature at which the two phases (oil and aniline) separate out
is recorded as the aniline point.

Q. Lubricant is added along with fuel in IC engine. Justify.
Ans: Lubricant is added with fuel in IC engine because it reduces the power loss
in internal combustion engine. Because in internal combustion engine, the
lubricant acts as a seal between the piston & cylinder wall hence it prevents
the leakage of gases at high temperature.


Q. Wites the characteristics (properties) &uses of graphite.
Ans: Characteristics (Properties)
1. It is stable at high temperature
2. It is non-inflammable
3. It is very soft
4. It is not oxidized in air below 375
0
c
5. It is used up to very high temperature in the absence of air

104

Uses: It is used as lubricant in air compressors, lathes, food stuff industry,
railway track-joints, open gears, chains, cast iron, bearings, I.C. engine tube
drawing, forging etc.
Q. Write the characteristic & uses of molybdenum disulphide (MoS
2
)
Ans: Characteristics:
1. It is used in fine powder form
2. It is stable at high temperature & pressure
3. It adheres well to the metal surfaces
4. It has low coefficient of friction
Uses:
1. It is used for lubricating machine which are subjected to high temperature
2. It is also used as grease additive under required conditions which is used
in automotive & truck chasis
3. It can be used in vacuum & therefore can be used in space craft
Q. Write the characteristics & uses of grease (plastic lubricant)
Ans: Greases are the mixture of petroleum oil & soaps.
Characteristics:
1. Its structure is like a gel
2. They have higher frictional resistance than oil
3. It supports much heavier load at lower speeds
4. They are more convenient in use
Uses: They are widely used as
1. Where gears & bearing works at high temperature
2. Where bearing needs to be sealed against entry of dust, dirt, moisture
3. Where oil cannot remain in place of machine parts
Ex- Rail axle boxes
4. Where oil gives splashes (dripping)
Ex- textile, edible articles, machines, preparing paper

105

Q. Writes the characteristics & uses of silicone oil (fluid)
Ans: Characteristics:
1. They have high viscosity index
2. They have good oxidation resistance
3. They are chemically inert
4. They are non-inflammable
5. They have high flash point
6. They are water & corrosion resistant
Uses:
1. They are useful for rubber & plastic surfaces including moving picture
film, slide roles, gears bushing, bearing
2. It is used as moisture repellent
3. It is used as dielectric lubricant for clocks time & other electronic devices
Q. What are the functions of Lubricants?
OR
Write any four functions of Lubricants.

Ans : The functions of lubricants are as follows
1. It reduces wear & tear & surface deformation by avoiding direct contact
between the rubbing surface
2. It reduces the loss of energy in the form of heat by acting as a coolant.
3. It reduces the expansion of metal by local frictional heat
4. It reduces the maintaince & running cost of machine
5. It increases the efficiency of the machine by reducing the waste of energy
6. It reduces the power loss in internal combustion engine
Q. State the types of lubricants with example. OR Classify lubricants with
example
Ans: There are mainly three types of lubricants namely,
1. Solid Lubricant
2. Liquid Lubricant

106

3. Semi Solid Lubricant
1) Solid lubricant
Ex. Graphite, molybdenum disulphide, soap, wax, talc, mica, chalks etc
2) Liquid lubricant

Ex. a) Vegetable oils Palm oil, Castor oil
b) Animal oils Whale oil, Tallow oil,
c) Mineral oil- Paraffin, Naphthalene
d) Blended oil Mineral oil + animal oil, Mineral oil + vegetable oil
e) Synthetic oil Polymerized hydrocarbon, polyglycols, organic amines
3) Semi Solid lubricants
Ex.Greases and Vaseline


Q. How lubricants are selected?
Ans: The selection of lubricant is depends upon on following points,
1. It requires the study of working condition such as speed, pressure
temperature and heat produced.
2. A selected lubricant should neither be very thick nor be very thin.
3. A selected lubricant should form a continuous film between the moving
parts of machine
4. A selected lubricant should not adhere to moving parts & thus prevents
the movement of it
The selection of lubricant depends on operating condition

Operating condition Types of lubricant
1. High speed and heavy load Extreme pressure lubricant
2. Low speed heavy load High oiliness boundry film
lubricant
3. Less load and high speed Oil with low viscosity
4. Low temperature High fluidity
5. High temperature Oxidation resistance and less
viscosity

107


Q. With reason, suggest proper lubricants for sewing machine rollers,
delicate instruments gears, cutting tool, and internal combustion engine,
transformer

Ans: For Sewing machine: It is delicate instrument which is not exposed to high
temperature, heavy loads or to water so that mineral oil, silicones, thin
vegetables and palm oil like palm oil, neat foot oil are used as lubricant

Road rollers: It is machinery in which extreme pressure and low speeds are
employed where thick oil film cannot be maintained so that solid lubricants
like graphite, Soap-stone, mica, molybdenum disulphide are most commonly
used
For Delicate instrument (equipments):
Delicate instruments like watches, clocks, scientific instruments, sewing
machine are not exposed to high temperature, pressure load and heavy load
or there is heavy friction between the rubbing parts. Therefore lubrication oil
like thin vegetable oil, palm oil neat foot oil are used as lubricants.

For Gears: Lubricants in gears are under very high pressure or load so the
lubricants must have good adhesive properties i.e. must remain stick to the
gear teeth and must not be removed by centrifugal force a rotating gears.
The lubricant should have
1. Good oiliness
2. Have high load carrying capacity thus thick mineral lubricating oil
containing extreme pressure additive such as organic compound of
chlorine sulphur and phosphorous are used for where lubricants.
For cutting tools
Cutting includes turning, grinding, machining etc. of metals. In this process
the cutting tool is continuously exposed to the fresh underline metal. This
causes high rubbing resulting in generation of large amount of heat. The
liberated heat may over heat the tool and may damage it, cause imperfect

108

cut, and also increase. The power consumption (because of friction).
Therefore the main functions of cutting fluids are to cool the tool. For light
cutting oil emulsion are used and for heavy cutting, cutting oils essentially,
minerals oil of low viscosities with some additives like fatty oils, chlorinated
compounds and sulphurized fatty oils are added.
For Internal combustion engines
In internal combustion engine, the lubricant is to be exposed to high
temperatures. Therefore, the lubricant, should posses high viscosity index
and high thermal stability. It should not evaporate or decompose at the
operating high temperatures. The petroleum oils containing additives, which
impart high viscosity index and oxidation stability to them, are used as
lubricants for internal combustion engines.
For transformer
The function of a lubricating oil in an an electrical transformer is to insulate
the windings and to remove heat generated, when the transformer is
subjected to on load. The lubricant used for these transformer should posses
low viscosity and good dielectric properties. When transformer oil exposed
to air,high temperature,electrical stress and catalytic influence of copper
cause various chemical changes in the oil causing to formation of acid as
well as sludge. To remove the formation of acids and sludge, highly refined
mineral oil having high insulating properties, optimum oxidation resistance
and high chemical stability are used .

Q. Explain fluid film (thick film) lubrication
OR Explain hydrodynamic lubrication.

Ans: Fluid film lubrication: This type of lubrication is used in machines
working at low pressure and high speed
In this type of lubrication, the moving or sliding surfaces are separated from
each other by a thick film of fluid (1000
0
A thick), so that surface to surface
contact and welding of junctions rarely occurs

109

1. In this method the liquid lubricant is introduced in between the moving
surfaces.

2. The lubrication film covers or fills the irregularities of moving or sliding
surfaces and forms thin layer in between them

3. This thin layer avoids metal to metal contact and reduces the friction
4. The resistance in the movement of two moving surfaces is due to internal
resistance of the lubricant particles moving each other. Thus lubricant
should have minimum viscosity




Uses: This type of lubrication is provided in case of delicate instrument and
light machines like watches, clocks, guns, sewing machines, scientific
instruments.

Q. Explains thin film (boundary) lubrication.
OR
Explain the lubrication, which is present in heavy machineries which
are having low speed & high pressure on it.

Ans: This type of lubrication is used

110

a. When continuous fluid film of lubricant cannot persist i.e. viscosity of oil
lubricant is very low & direct metal to metal contact is possible
b. The machine parts work under low speed & heavy load
c. A shaft moving from rest



In this type of lubrication:
1. A thin layer of lubricant is adsorbed by physical or chemical forces on
both the metallic surfaces

2. These absorbed layer cannot be removed easily & avoid direct metal to
metal contact

3. For boundary lubrication the lubricant molecule should have long
hydrocarbon chains, lateral attraction between the chains, high viscosity
index, good oiliness resistance to heat and oxidation

4. In this type of lubrication graphite, molybdenum disulphide with oil ,
vegetable oil, animal oil and their soaps are used


5. This type of lubrication is used for tractor, rollers, lathe machine etc.



111

Q. Explain extreme pressure lubrication

Ans: This type of lubrication is used when the moving parts of machine work
under very heavy load or high pressure & high speed, due to this the
lubricant may decompose.





1. For these conditions, some additives are added to lubricants. These additives
are called as extreme pressure additives

2. The additives are reactive compounds of phosphorous, sulphur etc

3. At a very high temperature, they as react with metal & convert as sulphide or
phosphates

4. These lubricants have very high melting points & acts under extreme
pressure lubrication conditions


5. In this type of lubrication sulphurised oil, chlorinated wax are used
This type of lubrication is used for gears, cutting tools, wire drawing of
titanium etc

112

Q. Differentiate between fluid film lubrication and boundary lubrication
Ans :
Fluid film lubriacation Boundary lubrication
1. Lubricants having low viscosity are
used in fluid lubrication
1. Lubricants having high viscosity are
used
2. Thickness of oil film is more than
1000
0
C
2. Thickness of oil film is less than
1000
0
A
3. These are used in the machines
working under high load and high
speed
3. These are used in the machines
working under heavy load and low
speed
4. These are sued as such. No metallic
surface is required for adsorption
4. The thin lubricating oil is adsorbed
by physical or chemical forces
5. Watches, clocks, guns, sewing
machines require fluid film
lubrication
5. Gears, rollers, tractors, etc. require
thin film lubrication





















113

Chapter - V
ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY


Q. Define air pollution
Ans : Air pollution is defined as an undesirable change in physical, chemical or
biological characteristics of atmosphere causing harmful effect to human,
plants and animal life.

Q. Define Pollutant (air pollutant)
Ans The solid, liquid or gaseous substance present in such a large concentration
that are hazardous to the environment and harmful to life
OR
A pollutant defined as an unwanted/undesirable foreign matter added to the
environment which causes pollution

Q. Define water pollution
Ans : Water pollution is defined as any change in the physical, chemical and
biological properties of water as well as contamination with foreign
substances which decreases the utility of water.

Q. Describe the various sources of air pollutant and discuss their
effects.OR Give sources, effect of oxides of sulphur, carbon, nitrogen,
dust, smoke, smog, lead dust, asbestos dust.
On the basis of physical state the air pollutants are classified
A. Gases
Gases are freely mincible with air, without setting down.
Following are the gaseous air pollutants
B. Particulates
Particulates include dust, smoke, smog, asbestos dust , lead dust etc.

114

Pollutant Sources Effects
i. Sulphur
dioxide
(SO
2
)
Thermal power plants
Petroleum industry
Oil refineries,
Sulphuric acid plants
Sulphide ore roasting
plants
It cause cardiac (heart)
respiratory disorders like
asthma, bronchitis etc
Also causes eye irritation,
thorat troubles
Causes damage to agriculture
Corrosion of metals
Affects photynthesis of plants
ii. Sulphur
trioxide
(SO
3
)
Obtained by oxidation
of sulphur dioxide
under sunlight
In presence of water
SO
2
and SO
3
are
converted in to H
2
SO
3

and H
2
SO
4
and causes
acid rain
It causes irritation of
respiratory trac.
Destructive to vegetation
Acid rains affects various
materials, causes corrosion of
marble, iron and steel.
Desructive to lung tissues
It may cause heart failure
iii. Carbon
monoxide
(CO)
Obtained by partial
combustion of fuel in
automobiles, industries
and oil refineries,
smoke from cigarette,
bidi
It causes headache, visual
difficulty, paralysis and even
death in the human beings
It reduces oxygen carrying
capacity of blood due to
formation of
carboxyhaemoglobin
It also leads to llaziness,
exhaustionof body. Headache,
and serious effects on
cardiovascular system
iv. Carbon
dioxide
(CO
2
)
Obtained by burning of
fuels such as coal,
wood etc, respiration of
plants, animals and by
deforestation
Increase in CO
2

It is non poisonous, non
corrosive and too much in
atmosphere causes pollution,
Respiratory disorders and
suffocation

115

percentage by 10-15%
in air causes rise in
temperatur by 0.5
0
C
v. Nitrogen
oxiden (NO,
NO
2
)
Produed from
combustionof fueld
(Coal, disel, petrol)
acid manufacture
explosive industry,
acid pickline plants
It causes respiratory illness
among children , leads to
irritation of eyes and even
lungs congestio.
It combines with
hydrocarbons to form smog
which
i. Limits visibility of roads
and may cause accidants.
ii. Causes eye irritation
iii. Difficulty in breathing
asthma, and bronchitis

C. Particulates
Particulates include dust, smoke, smog, asbestos dust , lead dust etc.
Particulates Sources Effects
i. Dust From mines, quarries,
furnaces, power, houses,
vehicular, traffics, house
cleaning dust, pottery and
ceramics factory stacks,
agriculture, combustion
operations etc
It causes allergy and
respiratory diseases
If dust contain silica it
causes silicosis
It also causes corrosion
and soil erosion
ii. Smoke Obtaied by incomplete
combustion of fuels or
from chemical reactions
Major sources are roads
locomotives, diesel
engines, automobile petrol
Loss of calorific value due
to incomplete combustion
Possibility of cancer
disease
Spoiling of clothing, rags,
exterior finish of

116

engines, furnaces hearths
etc
buildings
iii. Smog It is the combination of
smoke and fog
It is a natural phenomenon
in which liquid particles
remain suspended in air
Smog has same effects as
smoke, but some what
prolonged one
iv. Lead dust The main source in lead
mining and smelting
works, lead batteries, lead
base alloys, automobile
exhausts
It causes lead poisoning as
it settles down on plants
and food stuffs
v. Asbestos
dust
The main sources are mining,
processing and manufacture
of asbestos sheets and ropes
used in
automobiles,buildingsflooring
and insulating materials
It causes asbestosis
disease (lungs disease),
cancer etc.

Q. Write in brief, various methods of controlling air pollution
Ans: The best way, to control air pollution is to prevent or reduce the formation of
pollutants at the source itself.
Automobile emission can be minimized by using catalyst. Which
helps in cleaning the exhaust gases
Tall chimneys reduce the concentration of air pollutants at ground
level
Dust: Following methods are used to remove dust

a. Extraction ventilation is applied for removal of dust
In this air stream carrying suspended dust particles is first maintained at a
sufficient velocity to keep the dust particles in suspension, thereafter, the

117

rate is reduced suddenly, so that the dust paticles settle down in a setting
chamber.
b. Cyclone collector
Gas containing particulates is allowed to flow into a tight circular spiral
fitted chamber. The centrifugal force, forces particulates to move towards
the walls of chamber from where they start settling down due to force of
gravity. The particulates collected at the bottom of the chamber are removed
periodically from the bottom.

Smoke
Smoke is a colloidal solution of negatively charged carbon particles in air.
Smoke when passed through cottrell electrostatic precipitator which is
provided with a knowb maintained to a very high voltage for + 30,000
volts. The negative charges of carbon particles from smoke are rubbed off
and they are precipitated out at bottom and only hot dust free gases go out
through the upper outlet towards chimmney.

Smoke can also be reduced by
a. Correct firing method
b. Admitting correct quantities of air.
c. Maintaining high temperature during combustion. At low temperature
combustion is incomplete and smoke is produced.
d. Feeding the fuel continuously

Sulphur dioxide (SO
2
) pollutant can be removed by chemical
treatment

a. Lime water wash The gases containing SO
2
are passed through lime
water as a result SO
2
will removed as sillicate

b. By liquid ammonia SO
2
gas is passed through ammonia, when
ammonium sulphite is obtained.
Cairox methodThe oxidation of SO
2
takes place when SO
2
is mixed with
alkaline KMnO
4
solution through spray.

118

The use of wood and coal as a fuel should be gradually reduced and
modern energy sources like electricity, tidal power and solar power
should be used for domestic as well as for industrial purposes..

Acids and chemical fumes
By passing gases/vapours through a tower filled with coke and by
passing the counter current of water in the reverse direction.
Zoning: Proper industrial zoning can reduce air pollution. It should
have buffer zone, which separates houses and industrial units.
Forestation : Due to deforestation the level of CO
2
will reduce and
also problem of global warming

Q. What is meant by deforestation? What are the causes, effects of
deforestation. Write control (preventive) measures.
Ans : The destruction of forest due to indiscriminate cutting of trees and causing
deterioration of environment is called as deforestation
Following are the causes of deforestation
Population explosion: A tremendous increase in population increased
the demand for forest products like fire wood, timber etc. and also
cleared the fire wood and for human settlement Ex. : agriculture, housing,
roads, factories, railway tracks etc.
Forest fires due to natural calamities and some human activities.
Forest pests, insects destroy trees by eating up leaves etc.s
Some natural forces floods, storms, snow etc. damages forests
Excessive grazing of animals
The effects of deforestation are as follows
Destruction of wild habitat
Increase in soil erosion
Decrease in oxygen level
Decrease in availability of forest products
It reduces water level and may increase the frequency of droughts
Also causes global warming, as CO
2
level increases

119

The following measures should be taken for conservation of forest
Instead of fire wood, some alternate sources of energy such as
biogas, solar energy should be used as a fuel.
Over grazing and deforestation should be prohibited
Plantation of trees i.e. afforestation should be done on deforested
areas.
Pest and forest fire should be controlled by modern techniques
Forestry can be improved by using modern techniques like use of
fertilizers, irrigation, weed control, tissue culture etc.

Q. What is ozone Layer depletion? Write its causes, effects and preventive
(control) measures.
Ans : Ozone is produced in the upper layer of atmosphere above 20 km from the
earth surface. Oxygen from air is converted to ozone due to action of U.V.
rays
3
2

2
3

Oxygen ozone
Importance of ozone layer
Ozone layer is a protective layer, which strongly absorbs U.V. radiations
from the sun and protects the life on earth from severe radiation damage.
Ozone layer is depleted then the harmful u.v. radiations from the sun would
reach the earth surface affecting the life of living beings
Following are the causes ozone depletion
i. Chlorofluro carbon (CFC) are used in air conditioners, refrigeraters,
propellants, in aerosol of sprays, in thermocole causes destruction of
ozone in the stratosphere.
CFC molecules escape into the atmosphere and undergo
decomposition under the influence of u.v. radiations, to give chlorine.
Each atom of chlorine so released reacts with ozone molecules and
converts ozone into oxygen.

120

Thus ozone depletion takes place gradually and u.v. rays absorption
capacity of ozone layer decreases slowly.

3


2()
+
+
3()

ClO + O
2(g)

+

Cl + O
2(g)

The chlorine atom produces above causes as a chain reaction
ii. Due to volcanic activity in the earth, the chlorine is released in the
atmosphere and due to reaction with nitric oxide, atomic oxygen,
reactive hydroxyl radical causes the ozone depletion

O
3
+ NO

NO
2
+ O
2

O
3
+ O

O
2
+ O
2

O
3
+ HO

HO
2
+ O
2

HOO
-
+ O

HO
-
+ O
2

The effects of ozone layer depletion are as follows
i. As the ozone layer is depleted, the weak ozone layer allows more
u.v. radiations to reach the earth. u.v. rays are harmful to living
things. They cause skin cancer, swelling of skin, sun burns, burning
sensation, skin ageing, leukemia, breast cancer cataracts of eyes,
edema, hemorrhage, lung diseases, visual impairment, premature
ageing, DNA, breakage etc.
ii. Ozone enters in plants which cause visible damage to leaves, reduce
photosynthetic rate, it reduces the yield of the plants and also
damages food production
iii. They affect the ecosystem badly
iv. They reduce the population of aquatic species
Following are the control measures of ozone layer depletion
i. Discourage the use of ozone depletion gases like CFCs, No
x
,
halogens and other gases.
ii. In refrigeration, instead of freon other coolant, like helium should be
used

121

iii. Reforestation and forest preservation is necessary.

Q. What is sewage and sewage water? What are the main objectives of
sewage treatment? Describe sewage treatment.
Ans : Sewage: It is liquid waste, which contains human and household waste
water, industrial waste, ground wastes and storm water.

Sewage water: The water which contains organic matter, human excreta and
domestic waste, microbes, house hold waste is called sewage water.
Main objectives of sewage treatment
1. To render sewage in offensive so that it causes no odour or nuisance.
2. To reduce or eliminate danger to the public health by possible
contamination of water supplies (like river, canal etc.) and bathing areas
(e.g. pond, etc.).
3. To prevent the destruction of fish or other aquatic life in river, canal etc.
into which
4. Sewage discharge is generally made.
5. Sewage treatment is generally carried out using the artificial treatment
method.

The basic features of sewage treatment are
1. To reduce the solid contents of sewage
2. To remove all nuisance causing elements and
3. To change the character of the sewage so that it can safely be discharged
into the natural water course such as river or applied on land

The steps involved in sewage treatments are as follows
1. Preliminary process
2. Settlement process
3. Biological process

122

Preliminary process Causes removal of large and coarse solid, inorganic
matter suspended or floating in the sewage. This involves in passing the
sewage through bar screens (to remove large suspended and floating matter)
and mesh screens (to remove coarse, solids, gravels, silt )
Settlement process
This process removes greater portion for suspended inorganic and organic
solids from the liquid sewages. For this continuous flow type sedimentation
tanks are employed. Chemical treatment is sometimes given to sewage just
prior to sedimentation. This results more rapid and complete removal
suspended matter. The chemicals employed are alum, ferrous sulphate etc.
These produce large gelatinous flocks which entrap finely divided organic
matter and settles rapidly.
Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 6H
2
O

Al (OH)
3
+ 3H
2
SO
4
at P
H
7.5
The chief virtue of adding chemical coagulant is its ability to remove
colloidal material.
Biological process
It is an essentially an aerobic biochemical oxidation or aeration. In this
process sewage water is filtered through specially designed sprinkling filters
so that aerobic conditions are maintained all the times. During this aerobic
oxidation process the carbon of the organic matter is converted into CO
2
, the
nitrogen into NH
3
and finally into nitrites and nitrates. The dissolved bases
present in the sewage water then forms salts such as ammonium nitrate,
ammonium nitrite, calcium nitrate

NH
2
CONH
2

( )
CO
2
+ 2NH
3

NH
3


HNO
3
, HNO
2
etc
HNO
3
, HNO
2

+
NH
4
NO
2
, NH
4
NO
3
, Ca(NO
2
)
2
, Ca(NO
3
)
2
, KNO
2
etc


123

Q. Explain four major sources causing Air Pollution
Ans : Major sources causing Air pollution are
A. Gases
Sulphur dioxide (SO
2
) : Thermal power plants, Petroleum industry, Oil
refineries, Sulphuric acid plants, Sulphide ore roasting plants
Sulphur trioxide (SO3) : SO
3
is formed by the oxidation of SO
2
under the
influence of sunlight
Carbon Monoxide (CO) : Partial combustion of fuel in automobile,
industries and oil refineries, cigarette and bidi, smoke and domestic heat
appliances

Carbon dioxide (CO
2
) : It is released in the atmosphere in the form of
smoke by burning of fuels eg coal gases, It is also released into air by the
respiration, plants and animals, It also occurred by deforestation

B. Particulates
Dust: Mines and quarries, Furnaces, Power houses, Vehicular traffics, house
cleaning dust. Poultry and, Ceramic factory, Agricultural forest fires, Natural
winds, Earth movements, Rubber tyre abrasions

Smoke: Rail roads, Locomotives domestic wood, coal grates, industrial
power plant, open fires refuse, incinerators, diesel engines, automobile,
gasoline engines, furnaces, hearths etc

Smog: Due to the action of sunlight on hydrocarbons coming largely from
vegetable matter and the nitrogen oxides emitted by factories and car
exhaust along with CO
2
, CO, and unburnt hydrocarbon particles and also
SO
2
.
Lead dust: Automobile emissions, Lead smelters, Burning of coal or oil,
Lead arsenate particles, Lead batteries, and paints and manufacture of lead
based alloys.

C. Deforestation: Green plants use CO
2
for the manufacture of food by
photosynthesis and give out O
2
there by purifying the atmospheric air

124

plants also control H
2
S, HNO
3
and chlorine. Thus plants help in
controlling the air pollution. Excessive cutting of trees consequently
cuases indirectly air pollution.

D. Radioactive gases
The radio active elements which occur in rocks and soils are derivatives of
uranium (U) They (Th) and actinium (Ac) series.
They evolve radioactive gases which mainly consists of radon and threon.
These gases are harmful to human health


Q. What are causes (Sources) of water pollution?
Ans : Causes of Water Pollution are
1. Industrial waste: Water gets polluted by industrial effluents containing
acids, alkalis, soaps, detergents, pesticides, insecticides, fungicides and
metals like Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg etc. which are released from chemical
industries.
2. Domestic Sewage: It includes human and household waste waters,
municipal waste etc. directly mix into canals and rivers cause pollution of
river water. When sewage is discharged into a stream of water directly
into river lakes.
3. Suspended Particles
The surface water containing bacteria, algae, viruses make water unfit for
domestic and industrial purposes. High concentration fo organic and
inorganic solids, sand, precipitates, insects, ores, fine particles of soil are
added to river and cause water pollution.

4. Spilling of Oil : Pollution of oceans about one million tones of oil is
spilled into the ocean each from shipping and drilling operations. Oil
from oil mills and washing of automobiles pollute the rivers.
5. Drain from land and fields: Residual insecticides, pesticides and
fungicides are washed down into lakes, streams, rivers etc. and pollute
them.

125

6. Fertilizer: Wastes from fertilizer plants containing nitrates, phosphates ,
ammonia etc. are released in water and causes pollution.
7. Atomic explosion: Atomic explosion and processing of radioactive
materials near the sources of water causes water pollution.

Q. What is green house effect? Name Green house gases? How is takes
place?
Ans : Definition: The green house effect may be defined as The progressive
warming up of the earths surface due to blanketing effect of manmade CO
2

in atmosphere.
The four major green house gases which cause adverse effects are
carbondioxide (CO
2
), methane (CH
4
), nitrous oxide (N
2
O) and chlorofluoro
carbons (CFCs). The other gases like ozone, SO
2
also cause the same global
warming.
The heat received from the sunlight heats up earth and some of it is radiated
back into space after absorption but certain gases present in the lower
atmosphere acting like a glass in a gren house allow radiations in the range
300-2500 nm. While filtering u.v. rays in the range <300 nm. It however
does not allow the earth to reradiate heat in to space. Thus a green house is
that body which allows the short wavelength incoming solar radiation to
come in but does not allow the long wave outgoing terrestrial infrared
radiations to escape. A part of the heat so trapped in these atmospheric gases
is re-emitted to the earths surface.
The net result is the heating of earths surface by this phenomenon called the
green house effect.
Q. What is global warming? Write consequences/impact/effect of green
house effect? Write Control and Remedial Measures of Green House
Effect. OR Global warming is warning for us. Justify the statement
Global Warming: The increase in the temperature of earth surface due to
the effect of greenhouse gases is called as global warming

126

Consequences/impact/effect of green house effect (Global warming)
Due to rise in temperature of the earth, the oceans get warmed up
rising sea level and flooding low lying regions. Slight increase in sea
level makes considerable effects on habitation patterns because the
coastal cities and ports come under threat of floods.
There will be heavy increase in rain fall, causing the soil erosion
rapidly. This results in desertification and drought.
The tropics wetter and the sub tropics which are already dry will be
moe dried. In temperature regions the winter will be shorter and
warmer and the summer will be longer and hotter.
e.g. North America
Plants and animal life will also be affected resulting in disruption of
the whose ecosystem
The rise in temp may cause climatic change leading to more
cyclones and hurricanes and also melting of snow in mountains
causing more floods during monsoon
Global warming can affect the worlds food production
Due to melting of ice at polar region the water level may rise and
may submerge the coastal area
Natural calamities like Cyclones, Hurricane, Typhoons and Tsunami
may occur frequently and strongly
Control and Remedial Measures of Green House Effect (global warming
1. Reducing the consumption of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum). This can
be achieved by depending more on non-conventional renewable sources
of energy like wind, solar, nuclear and bio-gas energy.
2. Deposing elsewhere the formed green house gases instead of releasing
in the atmosphere.
3. Enhancing forestation will reduce the CO
2
level and thereby decreasing
green house effect.
4. International cooperation for reducing green house gases.

127

Q. Explain air pollution due to IC engine (automobile). OR Explain how
I.C. engine responsible for pollution. Give the method of controlling to
Auto Emission
Ans : The internal combustion engine used for running motor car, buses, planes,
trucks, auto rickshaws, scooters etc. when fuel like kerosene, diesel, petrol is
burnt a lot of smoke is released into the atmosphere. A major cause of air
pollution is various type of auto vehicles. These fuels are all mixture of
hydrocarbons of different molecular masses and out of this octane
constituent major component of fuel. When it burns in IC engine reaction
takes place
2C
8
H
18
+ 25 O
2

16 CO
2
+ 18H
2
O + Heat
Besides the pollutant CO
2
, CO, SO
2
, hydrocarbons acids, alcohols, NO
2
etc.
enter the atmosphere. These gases effects on human being
Control of air pollution due to IC engine
1. By using engine with better design for higher efficiency. Due to this,
maximum fuel is burnt and less amount of unburnt fuel, carbon
monoxide, hydro-carbons etc. are released
2. By supplying sufficient amount of fuel and more amount of air (O
2
) so
that complete reaction takes place
3. By improving quality of gasoline by adding tetra-ethyl-lead (TEL). This
reduces the amount of smoke
4. By using suitable catalyst in the fuel so that complete oxidation of fuel
takes place controlling pollution
Q. Write any preventive (control) measure of water pollution OR How is
water treated?
Ans Preventive (control) measure of water pollution
1. Stabilization of the ecosystem: Ecosystem stabilization is the most
scientific method which involves reduction of waste at source, trapping
nutrients, fish management, aeration, harvesting and removal of biomass.

128

2. Re-utilization and recycling of the waste: Waste water is given sort of
treatment before discharging into rivers, lakes, ponds etc. Such treated
water can be recycled and reused to generate cheaper fuel, gas and
electricity.
3. Oxidation method (or stabilization of ponds) : Waste water is stored in
large and shallow ponds. In presence of sunlight and organic nutrients in
waste, large number of bacteria grows very fast into harmless simple
compounds. This waste can be reused for irrigation of land without any
danger of pollution
4. Waste water reclamation: The sewage water is given treatment and
directly used for irrigation and fish farming.
5. Use of chemicals: Sewage on effective filtration followed by
chlorination provides water safe for drinking and domestic use.
6. Use of Bioreactors: Organic dirty sewage and factory waste is pumped
into the bioreactors which removes about 95% of impurities. Even
corrosive acids, alkalis, and industrial effluents can be purified using
bioreactors. They neither produces odorous smell nor toxic by products
during the reactions
7. By avoiding washing clothes, utensils, cattle and vehicles directly in
river/canal water.

Q. Give names of environmental segments. Describe in brief.
The environment consists of following four segments.
1) Lithosphere 2) Hydrosphere 3) Atmosphere 4) Biosphere
Lithosphere:
The mantle of rocks constituting the earth crust is called lithosphere.
For practical purpose the soil covering the rocks (which results from
physical, chemical & biological process during whethering). It is also
considered to be an important part of the lithosphere.
The soil mainly consists of complex mixture of organic, inorganic matter
and water.

129

It consists of biologically active components such as polysaccharides,
nucleotide and organo sulphur compounds, sugar and humid materials,
The clay minerals and humus present in the soil possess a very high cation
exchange capacity and thus help in supplying essential trace metals to the
plants as nutrients.
Hydrosphere:
This includes all the surfaces and ground water resources i.e. ocean, seas,
rivers, streams, lakes, ground water and the water locked in rock cervices
and mineral lying deep below the earth crust.
Earth is called blue planet because 80% of its surface is covered by water
but however 97% of the earth water resource is locked up in the ocean and
seas, which is too saline to drink and for direct use for agricultural and
industrial purpose.
Water exhibits unusual properties, as compared to the hydrides of V1 group
elements, due to the presence of hydrogen bonding.
Without hydrogen bonding, water would have boiled at -100
0
C and in that
case life on earth would have been impossible.
Because of hydrogen bonding water is a liquid at room temperature, with
melting point 0
0
C and boiling point at 100
0
C at atmospheric pressure.
Biosphere:
This is the region of the earth where life exists and includes a global girdle
extending from about 10,000 m below sea level to 6,000 m above sea
level.
Thus the biosphere covers the entire living organism and their interaction
with other segments of the environment namely the lithosphere, the
hydrosphere and atmosphere.
Atmosphere: The atmosphere comprises of a mixture of gases (N
2
,O
2
,CO
2
)
and it extends upto about 500km above the surface of the earth.

130

Biosphere : Atmosphere : Hydrosphere
1 : 300 : 69,100
A constant exchange of matter takes place between the atmosphere,
biosphere and hydrosphere.
It plays a key role in maintaining heat balance of the earth.
As it absorb most of the cosmic rays from outer space and helps in
sustaining life on the earth.
The important gaseous constituents of the earth i.e. O2,N2 and CO
2
play
important roles in sustaining life on the earth.
Oxygen support life on earth, nitrogen is an essential macro- nutrient for
plants and carbon dioxide is essential for photosynthetic activity of plants.

Q. Describe the structure of Atmosphere
Ans : The atmosphere which extends upto about 500 km, can be broadly divided
into four major regions, with widely varying temperature even within the
region.
1. Troposphere
2. Stratosphere
3. Mesosphere
4. Thermosphere

Troposphere
This region is nearest to the earth surface and contain 70% of mass of
the atmosphere.
The troposphere contains the major components such as nitrogen,
oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and particulate matter also.

131

The troposphere is a turbulent region due to the global energy flow
arising from differential heating and cooling rates between equator and
poles.
The density of air in this region, decreases exponentially with increasing
altitude.
The troposphere contains most of the water cloud and particulate matter
of the atmosphere.
The temperature of air in the troposphere decreases fairly steadily with
increasing altitude from ground temperature to a temperature of about -
56
0
C.
The temperature altitude curve then changes its slope rather suddenly in
a narrow transitional layer at the top of the troposphere known as the
tropause.

Stratosphere
The region above the tropopause is called the stratosphere.
In this region, the temperature altitude curve shows a warming trend
with increasing altitude.
The temperature in this stratospheric region continues to increase with
height, untill 50 kms where the temperature attains a maximum of -2
0
C.
This warming up tendency in the stroposphere is due to the absorption of
solar U.V. radiation by ozone.
Ozone is the major chemical species in this region which absorbs
ultraviolet rays causing rise in temperature.
O
2
+ h O + O

132

Thus by absorbing these rays stratosphere act as a protective shield for
life on earth.
If some impurity molecules are injected in stratosphere act as a
protective shield for life on earth.
If some impurity molecules are injected in stratosphere they can cause
long term global harzards.
The region immediately above the stratosphere is called stratopause.
Which is second transitional layer that is relatively warm.
Mesosphere
This is the region above the stratopause and extends upto 85 km
height.
In this region the temperature again decreases with height.
This is due to relatively low level of ozone and other species that can
absorb U.V. radiation from the sun.
The temperature at the top of the Mesosphere reaches about 92
0
C.
Immediately above the Mesosphere is another transitional layer called
Mesopause which is the region of minimum or coldest temperature in
the atmosphere (i.e. about -100
0
C).
Thermosphere
This is the region immediately above the mesopause, where the
temperature rises very rapidly with increasing altitude.
The maximum temperature that is attained in this region is about
1200
0
C.
This region is characterized by low pressures and low densities.

133

The atmospheric gases present in this region absorb the solar radiations
in the far ultra-violet region and undergo ionisation.
The region above stratosphere, in the altitude range of 50km to 100 km
is called Ionosphere.
In this region positive ions e.g. O
2
+
, O, NO
+
, .and electrons exist at
significant levels.
Q. Give sources, causes, effect and control (preventive) measures of Acid
rain
Ans : Sources: Emission from volcanoes and form biological processes that occur
on the land. Industrial factories, power generating plants and vehicles.
Causes of acid rain: It is due to the dissolved oxides of sulphur and
nitrogen. The gases like SO
2
and NO from industries dissolves in water and
form respective acids.
SO
2
+ H
2
O H
2
SO
3

2SO
2
+ O
2
2SO
3

SO
3
+ H
2
O H
2
SO
4

2NO
2
+ H
2
O HNO
3
+ HNO
2

Effects of acid rain:
1. Acid rain makes the soil more acidic thereby reduces the fertility of the
soil.
2. It affects the growth of crops, plants etc.
3. It affects the survival of fishes and reduces the population of aquatic
species.

134

4. It badly makes damage to buildings, vehicles, structural materials etc.,
5. It affects human beings life systems and organs like skin, lungs and
hair.
6. It damages the memorable monuments, buildings etc., The famous Taj
Mahal is being affected severely.
7. Damage valuable ancient sculptures, carved from marble, limestone,
sand stone etc
Ex. In Greece and Italy valuable statue are damaged due to acid rain.
Preventive measure:
1. The only practical approach to counter the problem of acid rain is to
reduce SO
x
and NO
x
emission. The following three general options are
considered for this purpose.
2. Energy conservation- Resulting in reduced fuel consumption and hence
slower emissions of Sox and NO
x
conservation via more efficient fuel
use and through improved thermal insulation is also being studied.
3. Desulphurization and gentrification of fuels of stack gases and increased
use of fuels naturally low in sulphur content or use of technologies that
reduce the Sox and NO
x
emission desulphurization and use of low NO
x

producing technologies are the only viable control option today and will
perhaps continue to be so for some more time.

Q. Define soil (land) pollution. Give causes (sources) and control measures
of soil pollution
Ans : Soil pollution is defined as the addition of some chemical substances in large
proportion to soil due to which fertility of soil get affected

135

Sources (causes) of soil pollution
1. Industrial waste: it consist of waste from paper, chemical, sugar, textile
industry which in solid, liquid or gaseous forms and which contains
harmful chemicals.
2. Urban waste: This consists of waste like plastics glasses, metal cans,
and other discarded materials. All these materials cause soil pollution.
3. Agricultural pollutant: It includes chemical fertilizers which are carried
away by rain water and get concentrated in low region.
4. Biological pollutants: It includes large quantity of human and animal
waste. Particularly the pathogenic germs are absorbed by soil and may be
retained for longer period.
5. Chemicals like fertilizers, pesticides, bactericides applied to plant and
soils.
6. Radioactive wastes discharged from industrial and research centres.
7. Soil get polluted by the removal of its upper fertile layer.
8. Improperly disposed human and animal waste.
9. Radioactive waste discharged from industrial and research centers.
10. Soil erosion due to deforestation over grazing, unplanned irrigation and
defective agricultural practice.
Control measure of soil pollution:
1. To avoid contamination of industrial waste with soil. It is necessary to
treat these wastes properly and reduce their chemical reactivity.
2. To control the use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides and replace them
by bio- fertilizer

136

3. To cover the untreated biological waste materials with soil and provide
absorption sites for liquid waste after treatment.
4. Industrial and sewage waste should be properly treated beforedisposal
on land.
5. Using sanitary landfills.
6. By forestation.
7. Avoiding throwing away solid waste like garbage, ash, sludge, building
material empty bottle
Q. Give sources, effect and control measures of radioactive pollution OR
Explain pollution due to radioactive elements
Ans : Sources:
1. One of major source is nuclear explosions i.e. U
235
or Pu
239
etc. In
addition radioactive rays may be emitted due to in improper shielding.
2. Industrial, medical and research use of radio- active materials.
3. Radioactive ores processing industries may cause emission of
radioactive elements or rays due to natural radio- activity.
Effect (Disadvantages) of radioactive pollution:
1. The radio isotopes affect upon chromosomes and bring about genetic
disorder.
2. These cause mutations in genes which passes from one generation to
another leading to skin cancer.
3. This may produce permanent damage to living organisms which may
lead to death.
4. These radiations are penetrating which can cause breaking up of organic
molecules present in our body.

137

Preventive measure:
1. Steps should be taken to prevent the leakage of radioactive element from
nuclear reactors.
2. The radioactive waste should be stored at such places, where they
gradually decay to their final stable product.
3. Methods to be adopted for the safe handling and disposal of radioactive
materials.

Q. Define Noise pollution. Give sources (causes), effects (impact) and
control measures
Ans : Noise Pollution : It is an increased amount of sound which is painful to
listen and causes ill effect on life.
Noise level is expressed in decibel (dB)
Sound above 80decible is said to be noise.
Sources of Noise pollution:
1. Transportation:
Number of vehicles running on road like buses, trucks, tractors, cars
two wheelers and particularly the diesel engine vehicle causes noise
pollution
Noise pollution is due to air traffic depends upon type of air craft the
number of flights and flight paths.
Railway traffic causes noise due to vibration during operation which
increases with the speed.


138

2. Industrial Noise:
Different machines operating on electricity diesel or coal produce
noise.
Electric motors, impact machines, compressors etc. produce higher
noise.
Heavy machine producing at high speed and greater load cause
greater noise pollution.

3. Neighborhood noise:
Use of loud speakers in public functions, religious processions
festivals etc is a common feature today.
Due to which Educational institutions, hospitals, offices are disturbed
to a great extent due to such noise.

4. Noise in buildings:
Apartment is often annoyed by noise in their homes, especially when
the building is not well designed and constructed.
In this case internal building noise from plumbing, boilers, generators,
air-conditioners and fans can be audible and annoying

5. Construction Noise:
The noise from construction of highways, city streets and buildings is
a major contributor to the urban scene. Construction noise source
includes pneumatic hammers, air compressors, bulldozers, Loader,
dump trucks.


139

Effect of noise pollution:
1. Physiological effects: The physiological features like breathing
amplitude, blood pressure, heart-beat rate, pulse rat, blood cholesterol
are affected.
2. Loss of hearing: Long exposure to high sound levels cause loss of
hearing. This is mostly unnoticed, but has an adverse impact on
hearing function.
3. Human performance: The working performance of workers/human
will be affected as they will be losing their concentration.
4. Nervous system: It causes pain, ringing in the ears, feeling of
tiredness, thereby effecting the functioning of human system.
5. Sleeplessness: it affects the sleeping thereby inducing the people to
become restless and lose concentration and presence of mind during
their activities.
6. Damage to material: The buildings and materials may get damaged
by exposure to infrasonic/ultrasonic waves and even get collapsed.

Control of Noise pollution:
1. Reducing the noise levels from domestic sectors: The domestic
noise coming from radio, tape recorders, television sets, mixers,
washing machines, cooking operations can be minimized by their
selective and judicious operation.
2. Maintenance of automobiles: Regular servicing and tuning of
vehicles will reduces the noise levels. Fixing of silencers to
automobiles, two wheelers etc., will reduces the noise levels.

140

3. Control over vibrations: The vibrations of materials may be
controlled using proper foundations, rubber padding etc. to reduce the
noise levels caused by vibrations.
4. Low voice speaking: Speaking at low voices enough for
communication reduces the excess noise levels.
5. For controlling sound pollution, in buildings absorptive materials such
as porous bricks, acoustic tiles etc can be used.
6. Installing noisy machines in sound proof chambers.
7. Covering noise producing machine parts with sound absorbing
materials to check noise production.
8. Planting green trees and shrubs along roads, hospitals, educational
institutions etc help in noise reduction to a considerable extent
9. Prohibition on usage of loud speakers in the habitant zones except for
important meetings/functions.
10. Proper lubrication and maintenance of machines, vehicle etc. will
reduce noise levels.
11. Setting industries away from the residential area
12. Using cotton plugs or ear muffs










141

Chapter VI
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY SYSTEM

Q. Explain basic concept in battery technology
Ans:
1) Cell: A cell is a device in which either electrical energy is converted to
chemical energy or chemical energy is converted to into electrical energy.

2) Battery:Battery is a device in which many cells are connected in
series.

3) Charge (Charging):This is the operation of a cell when an external
source of current reverses the electrochemical reaction of the cell to restore
the battery to its original state.

4) Discharge (Discharging): This is the operation of a cell when current
flows spontaneously from the battery into the external circuit.

5) Anode: It is the negative electrode of a primary cell. It is always
associated with oxidation or the release of electrons into the external circuit.
In a rechargeable cell, the anode acts as negative pole during discharge and
as positive pole during charge.
6) Cathode: It is positive electrode of a primary cell and is always
associated with reduction or taking of electrons from the external circuit. In
a rechargeable cell, the cathode is the positive pole during discharge and the
negative pole during charge.

142

7) Electrochemical Couple: It is the combination of the electrode reactions
of the anode and cathode to form the complete galvanic cell. The number of
electrons given up by the anode to the external circuit must be identical with
the number of electrons withdrawn from he external circuit by the cathode.
8) Impedance or Internal resistance: The impedance or internal resistance
of the battery is the resistance to the flow of current, which operates in
addition to the resistance of the external load.
9) Open Circuit voltage: This is the voltage measured across the terminals
of the cell or battery when no external current is flowing. When measured
on a single cell, it is usually close to the thermodynamic electro-motive force
10) Separator: It is a physical barrier between the positive and negative
electrodes to prevent direct shorting of the electrodes. Separators must be
permeable to ions, but must not conduct electrons. They must be inert in the
total environment.
11) Electrolyte:
A substance which in aqueous solution or in molten (or fused) state
liberates ions and allows electric current to pass through it, resulting in its
chemical decomposition is called as electrolyte. e.g. acids, bases and
electrovalent salt.

Q. Define electrolytic cell and electrochemical cell.
Ans: Electrolytic cell: It is the device in which electrical energy is converted
into chemical energy. These cells are also known as voltameters. Due to
passage of electric current non spontaneous chemical reaction take place.

Electrochemical cell: It is the device in which chemical energy is
converted into electrical energy. In this type of cell the electricity can be
generated by spontaneous redox reaction.

143

Q. Differentiate between Metallic conduction (conduction through solid)
and Electrolytic conduction (conduction through liquid)
Ans:Metallic conduction Electrolytic conduction
It involves flow of electrons in a
conductor
It involves movement of ions in a
solution
There is no change in the chemical
properties of conductor.
The chemical reactions take place at the
electrodes with the decomposition of
the electrolyte.
It does not involves any transfer of
matter
It involves transfer of electrolyte in the
form of ions.
It shows the increase in resistance as
the temperature is increased
It shows the decrease in resistance as
the temperature is increased


Q. Give the classification of batteries. OR How batteries are classified?
Ans: Batteries are classified into
1. Primary battery:The type of battery in which cell reaction is not
reversible is called as primary battery. These are not rechargeable. If
these are discharged then discarded. e.g. Dry cell, Daniel cell
2. Secondary battery: The type of battery in which cell reaction is
reversible is called as secondary battery. These are rechargeable. e.g.
Lead acid storage cell, Ni- Cd-cell.
3. Reserve battery: It is a battery in which active material are kept
separated by special arrangements. Such a battery is designed for long
storage before use. e.g. Gordon-magnesium battery, Silver chloride
cell.

144

Q. Write advantages, disadvantages and applications of primary batteries
Ans : Advantages :
Inexpensive
Convenient
Light weight
Good shelf life
High energy density at low/moderate discharges

Disadvantages:
Can only be used once
Leads to large amount of waste batteries to be recycled
Batteries put into landfill sites have severe environmental impact
Life cycle energy efficiency < 2%

Applications:
Portable devices
Lighting
Toys
Memory back-up
Watches/clocks
Hearing aids
Radios
Medical implants
Defense related systems such as missiles

145

Q. Write advantages, disadvantages and applications of secondary
batteries
Ans : Advantages:
High power density
High discharge rate
Good low temperature performance

Disadvantages:
Lower energy density
Poorer charge retention
Safety issues
Lack standards
High initial costs

Applications:
Car battery used to start engine
Aircraft systems
Standby power resources
Emergency no fail systems
Electric vehicles
Mobile phones
Power tools
Toys portable computers

146

Q. Differentiate between Primary cell and Secondary cell OR How
electrochemical cells are classified?
Ans: Electrochemical cells are classified into primary cell and secondary cell

Primary Cell Secondary Cell
The type of cell in which net cell
reactions cannot be reversed on
applying higher e.m.f. is called as
primary cell
The type of cell in which net cell
reactions can be reversed on applying
higher e.m.f. is called as secondary
cell
Its cost is low Its cost is high
It is light in weight It is heavier
Its life is short Its life is longer
It cannot recharge once discharged
E.g. Dry cell, Daniel cell.
It can be recharged number of times.
E.g. Lead acid storage cell, Ni- Cd cell


Q. State Ohms law with mathematical equation and meaning of each
symbol used in it
Ans: Statement:
The strength of current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional
to the potential difference applied across the conductor and inversely
proportional to the resistance of the conductor.
i.e. I = E / R
Where, I = current
E = potential difference
R = Resistance

147

Q. State the types of conductance (conductivity)
Ans : Specific conductivity , equivalent conductivity, Molar Conductivity are the
types of conductance

Q. Define Specific conductivity and equivalent conductivity. State their
units. State the relation between equivalent conductivity and specific
conductivity
Ans: Specific conductivity (conductance) is the reciprocal of specific resistance.
OR It is also defined as the conductance of 1cm cube of solution
It is denoted by (K) kappa.
The unit is ohm
-1
cm
-1

Equivalent conductivity (conductance) is defined as the conductivity of a
solution containing 1gm equivalent of the electrolyte
It is denoted by
The unit is ohm
-1
cm
2
eqvt
-1

= KV
Where, V is volume of solution containing 1gm equivalent of an electrolyte.

But V = 100/ C
Where, C is concentration in gram equivalent/ litre

= K 1000
C
This is the relation between equivalent conductivity and specific
conductivity

148

Q. Define Molar Conductivity (
m
) :
Ans : Molar conductivity of a solution is defined as the conductance of all the ions
present in one mole of electrolyte in the solution
If M is the molar concentration in moles/litre

=
1000


Units : Molar conductivity is measured in ohm
-1
cm
2
mol
-1

Q. Define conductance. Explain the method of determination
(Measurement) of Conductance in laboratory
Ans : Conductance : The reciprocal of resistance is called as conductance
Unit : ohm
-1
or mhos

Procedure:
1. A solution whose conductance to be determined is taken in the
conductivity cell. Since the conductivity varies with temperature, it is
necessary to keep temperature of solution constant. The copper wires of
the circuit dip in mercury placed in glass tubes to complete the circuit.
2. Conductivity cell is connected to a resistance box R on one side and to a
long thin wire AB stretched along a scale of Wheatstone bridge on the
other side.

149

3. Some known resistance R is taken out of the resistance box. An
alternating current of about 1000-4000 cycles per second is passed
through solution with the help of an induction coil. The sliding contact
d is moved on the wire AB so that no sound (or minimum sound) is
heard in the head phone. It gives the null point

()
()
=


=
1
()

= Observed conductance

Where a and b are the lengths of wire between movable contact and the
ends of the bridge wire

Q. Define cell constant. How Cell constant is determined?
Ans : Cell constant: The ratio of distance between two electrodes and area of
electrode is called as cell constant

=


=
0.002765





1

Determination of cell constant
Cell constant (1/A) can be determined by measuring the distance between
the two electrodes (l) and their surface aea (A) but, electrodes of
ordinary cell are not exactly 1cm apart and may not possess the surface
area of 1cm
2
.

150

Therefore, the reciprocal of resistance of cell does not give exact value of
specific conductivity but its value is proportional to it
Therefore the cell constant is determined by substituting the value of
specific conductance of standard N/50 KCl solution at given temperature
25
0
C which accurately determined by Kohlrausch (0.002765).

As we know that , =
1


= =
1


=
1

. x
= =


1 = x


= observed conductance x X
= observed conductance x cell constnat

Q. Explain variation of Specific conductance, equivalent conductance,
molar conductance with dilution
Ans : Specific conductivity (k) depends upon
1. The number of ions in the solution
2. The amount of water (solvent) present in soltion. Therefore, as the
dilution increases (amount of water in electrolyte increases) the
conducting power of 1 cm
3
of the electrolytic solution decreases. In fact
there are lesser number of ions and more water molecules present in 1
cm
3
of solution.
Variation of Equivalent Conductance with dilution
As the degree of dissociation of an electrolytic solution increases with
increase in dilution. Therefore the conducting power of an electrolyte is
due to the ions formed in it, increases with increasing dilution.

151

In other words, the equivalent (or molar) conductivity increases as the
number of ions present in a solution containinng 1 equivalent (or 1
mole) of electrolyte increases with dilution.
Molar conductance increases with increase in dilution

Q. State Kohlrauschs law .Give applications of Kohlrauschs law
Ans : Statement : The equivalent conductance of an electrolyte at infinite dilution
is equal to the sum of the equivalent conductance of the component ions
The law can be expressed mathematically as
=
a
+
c

Where = equivalnet conductivity of electrocyte at infinite dilution

a
= equivalent conductance of anion

c

= equivalent conductance of cation

Application of Kohlrausch law

1. Determination of equivalent conductivity of weak electrolyte

Kohlrausch law has provided a method for determining the
0
for weak
electrolyte from
0
measurements of strong electrolyte. Suppose we want to
calculate
0
value for acetic acid, then its value is obtained from
0
values of
HCl, NaCl and CH
3
COONa.
According to Kohlrausch law

0

+
0

+
=
0

+
0

+
0

+
+
0



i.e.
0
CH
3
COOH =
0
HCl +
0
CH
3
COONa
0
NaCl


152

2. Determination of equivalent conductance for sparingly soluble salt
(AgCl) :
The equivalent conductance of sparingly soluble salt (AgCl) also can be
obtained by the similar method.

0
AgCl =
0
NH
4
Cl +
0
AgNO
3

0
NH
4
NO
3
3. Determination of the solubility of sparingly soluble salt :

The solubility of the sparingly soluble salts like Gal, BaSO
4
can calculate
by using the following relation

0
=
1000k
S

S = Solubility in gm eq lit
K is determined by using Wheatstone bridge,
0
is calculated using
Kohlrauschs law,

0
(salt) =
0
+
+
0
-

4. Determination of degree of dissociation

Degree of dissociation ( ) is the fraction of the molecules ionized into ions
=
.



This equation may be written as

= =
.
.


, can be obtained from conductivity measurements,
0
can calculated using
Kohlrausch law



153


Q. Explain construction and working of Lead acid storage cell (Lead
accumulator). Write charging and discharging reactions.
Ans: It is secondary cell it is reversible cell and can be charged.

Construction:
1. Lead acid storage cell consist of lead plate which acts as anode and lead
plate coated with lead oxide (PbO
2
) which acts as cathode.
2. Several such an anode and cathode pairs are connected in parallel and are
dipped in 20% of H
2
SO
4
solution with specific gravity 1.25g/cm
3
.
3. The battery is encased in plastic or glass container.
4. Each pairs of anode and cathode produces a voltage of 2 Volt.

Working:
Due to the formation of water in the cell the acid get diluted. When its
specific gravity falls below 1.25gm/cm
3
the battery needs charging.





154

The following discharging and charging reactions take place.

Discharging

At anode: Pb + SO
4
--
PbSO
4
+ 2e
-


Charging
Discharging

At cathode: PbO
2
+ SO
4
--
+ 4H
+
+2e
-
PbSO
4
+ 2H
2
O

Charging

_________________________________________________________
Net cell reaction:

Discharging

Pb +PbO
2
+ 4H
+
+2SO
4
--
2PbSO
4
+ 2H
2
O
Charging

During charging lead & lead oxide is again deposited on anode & cathode
respectively & charging reaction is


Discharging

2PbSO
4
+ 2H
2
O Pb + PbO
2
+ 2H
2
SO
4
Charging

Applications:
1. Lead acid battery used in starting motor and power station
2. It is used in UPS system & research centers
3. It is used in marketing area, railway signaling in mines, laboratories and
hospitals
4. It is used in security alarms system, cars, buses and trucks.
Advantages
1. It is made easily
2. It reduces very high current.
3. The self discharging rate is low
4. It work, effectively even at two temperature.

155

Q. What is fuel cell? Explain construction & working of Hydrogen-Oxygen
(H
2
O
2
) fuel cell. Write applications of H
2
O
2
fuel cell.
Ans: Fuel cell: A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell which can convert the
chemical energy of fuel directly into electrical energy by an electrochemical
process, in which the fuel is oxidized at the anode.
Construction:
1. It consists of two inert porous graphite electrodes coated with an electro
catalyst such as finely divided Pt- Co Ru.
2. Aqueous KOH or NaOH is used as electrolyte.
3. A wick is placed to maintain water balance.

Working:
1. Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas are continuously supplied to anode and
cathode respectively under a pressure of about 50 atmospheres.
2. Then the hydrogen undergoes combustion generating electric current.
The emf of cell is 1.23 V

156

The following electrode reactions take place
At anode:
2H
2(g)
4H
+
+ 4e
-

At cathode:
O
2
+ 4e
-
2O
--

Net cell reaction: 2H
2
+ O
2
2H
2
O
Applications:
It is used in space vehicles, space aircrafts, mobile power system and
submarine military vehicles.
Q. Write the advantages & limitation of Hydrogen-Oxygen fuel cell (Fuel
cell)
Ans: Advantages:
1. There is no emission of gases & pollutant
2. It required low maintenance cost.
3. It can be operated at room temperature
4. It saves fossil fuels
5. There is low noise pollution by using this cell
6. Its efficiency is very high
7. Modular and hence parts are exchangeable
Limitations (Disadvantages):
1. It require high initial cost
2. It require large weight & volume for gas-storage system

157

3. It require high cost of pure hydrogen
4. There is lack of infrastructure for distributing hydrogen
5. The life spans of the cell is not accurately known
Q. Explain the construction and working of Nickel metal hydride battery
Ans : Construction: Nickel Metal hydride battery is made up of anode
containing metal hydride such as ZrH
2,
VH
2
and TiH
2
with hydrogen storage
metal alloy such as La Ni
5
or TiNi. Cathodes consisting of nickel oxy
hydroxide both the compartments are separated by polypropylene. KOH
used as electrolyte.



Working: Then cell reactions are as follows

At anode: MH + OH
-
M + H
2
O + e
-

At cathode: NiO [OH] + e
-
+ H
2
O Ni (OH)
2
+ OH
-


NCR : MH + NiO (OH) M + Ni (OH)
2


Applications: Used in electric vehicles, laptops, and cellular phones and
designed for electrically run automobiles.

158

Advantages:
Resistance to chemical oxidation
High energy storage capacity
Long cycle life and shelf life
No maintaince required

Q. What are Lithium cells? Explain the construction and working of
Lithium MnO
2
battery? Mention the advantages
Ans : Lithium cells
Lithium cells are most popularly used cells, which are available in various
configurations such as button type, bobbin type, spiral wound prescematic,
rectangle etc configuration.
Construction:
Lithium manganese dioxide cell consisting of anode containing lithium and
the cathode can containing of specially heat-treated manganese dioxide
(MnO
2
). Both anode and cathode are separated by a separator made up of
polypropylene impregnated with the electrolyte. (Metal salt such as LiCl,
LiBr, LiAlCl
4
which are mixed in a organic solvent such as 1,2 dimethoxy
ethane, and propylene carbonate).
The cell delivers an emf of 3V.



159

Working: The cell reactions are as follows

At anode: Li Li
+
+ e
-

At cathode: Li
+
+ MnO
2
+ e
-
[Li] MnO
2

NCR : Li + MnO
2

[Li] MnO
2
During the all reactions Mn IV stage reduced to Mn III stage.
Uses: Li MnO
2
cells are used in Safety and Security Devices, Calculator,
watches, automatic camera, memory batteries, cellular phones etc.
Advantages:
These are light in weight
High energy density
More cycle life
Q. Explain the construction and working of Methanol Oxygen fuel cell
Ans : Construction: It consist of two electrodes made up of platinum in between
the electrodes H
2
SO
4
is placed as a electrolyte. Methanol and H
2
SO
4
is
placed as a electrolyte.



160

Working: Methanol and H
2
SO
4
is supplied at the anode and pure oxygen
gas is supplied at the cathode. The methanol is oxidized to CO
2
and H
2
O
with the liberation of electrical energy. The cell delivers an emf of 1.20 V.
The cell reactions are as follows
At anode : CH
3
OH + H
2
O

CO
2
+ 6H
+
+ 6e
-

At cathode : 3/2 O
2
+ 6H
+
+ 6e
-


3H
2
O

NCR : CH
3
OH + 3/2 O
2


CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
Application:
1. It is used in space craft continues power supply.
2. It is used in military for large scale power production.

Q. Explain the Classification of fuel cells based on the electrolyte
Ans : Fuel cells are classified into the following types based on the type of
electrolyte used
1. Alkaline fuel cells
2. Phosphoric acid fuel cell.
3. Molten carbonate fuel cell.
4. Solid oxide fuel cell
5. Solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell.

1. Alkaline fuel cells: These fuel cells containing alkali such as KOH or
NaOH as electrolyte. Hydrogen is used as fuel and oxygen gas is used as
an oxidant. The cell operates at a temp of 80
0
C.
Uses: These are used in emergency lights and portable power
generations, space applications, military applications etc.,

2. Phosphoric acid fuel cells: These fuels cells consisting of 98%
phosphoric acid, 2% water as electrolyte, O
2
is used as oxidant

161

Hydrogen LPG, NPG etc are used as fuels. These operate at a temp 190
to 200
0
C. Platinum alloys such as platinum cobalt chromium, are used as
electro catalyst.
Uses: These cells are used to provide light and heat in large buildings

3. Molten carbonate fuel cells: These fuel cells consisting of molten
carbonates such as lithium carbonate 26.2% and potassium carbonate
(K
2
CO
3
) 23% and lithium. Aluminium carbonate as electrolyte. The
anode is made up of nickel and cathode made up of nickel oxide.
Operating temperature is 650
0
C.
Uses: These are used in chemical industries such as aluminium
chloroalkali industries

4. Solid oxide fuel cells: These contains ZrO
2
, Y
2
O
3
are solid electrolytes.
Cathode is made up of porous strontium doped with LaMnO
3
or In
2
O
3

and SnO
2
. Anode is made up of cobalt, nickel, or ZrO
2
. Operating
temperature is 1000
0
C.
Uses : These cells are used in KW power plants, water heating etc.

5. Solid polymer Electrolyte: These contain ion exchange membrane as
solid electrolyte for ionic conduction nafion R membranes which are
chemically and electrochemically stable at 200
0
C are used. Operating
temperature of the cell is 80
0
C. The electrodes are made up of platinum
and noble metals are used as electro catalysts.

Uses: Used in the manned Gemini terrestrial orbital missions


Q. Give the classifications of Fuel cells based on temperature
Ans : Fuel cells are the galvanic cells in which chemical energy of fuel is directly
converted into electrical energy


162

Classification of Fuel cells
These are classified into three types as follows
1. Low temp fuel cells: This operates at the temp range about 750C and
contains water base electrolytes.

2. Moderate temp fuel cells: Which operates at the temp range about
600
0
C and contains salt electrolyte


3. High temp fuel cells: This operates at the temp range about 10000C and
contains ceramics as electrolyte.

Q. Give applications of fuel cells
Ans: Application of fuel cells

Alkaline fuel cells: These are used in emergency lights and portable power
generations, space applications, military applications etc.,
Phosphoric acid fuel cells: These cells are used to provide light and heat in
large buildings
Molten carbonate fuel cells: These are used in chemical industries such as
aluminium chloroalkali industries
Solid oxide fuel cells: These cells are used in KW power plants, water
heating etc.
Solid polymer Electrolyte: Used in the manned Gemini terrestrial orbital
missions





163

References

Engineering Chemistry Jain and Jain, S. S. Dara, Shashi Chawla,
Industrial Chemistry B.K. Sharma
Polymer Science V.R. Gowariker
Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis B.K. Sharma
Environmental Chemistry B.K. Sharma, A.K. De, S. S. Dara

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Prof. Atul B. Waghmare [9527202189, 9657824223]
[ M. Sc. Analytical Chemistry ]
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Shri Yogeshwari Polytechnic College, Ambejogai

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