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METHODOLOGY

1.0 Mobilization / Demobilization


Mobilization and demobilization shall refer to the moving-in and moving out of equipment,
including the crew complement required to operate the equipment to be used in
undertaking the work under the contract. A unit of equipment under this section shall
mean one set of drilling rig complete with the attachment and accessories needed in the
work under this contract. The item of moving in moving out of equipment, to and from
jobsite, shall refer to the units of equipment required to complete the work within the
specified period as listed in the Contractors Proposal.

1.1 Preparatory Works
Preparatory work covers preparing for actual drilling works which include, but not limited
to:
a. Movement of personnel, supplies and incidentals to the jobsite.
b. Establishing campsite, access roads and other facilities and for any work and operation
which must be performed incident to the initiation of meaningful work at the jobsite.

1.2 Surface Geological Mapping
During the fieldworks, rock types shall be identified and boundaries delineated. Where
rocks are exposed and joints are presented, strikes and dips of faults, bedding, flow layers
and other discontinuities shall be measured and recorded. Likewise, solution channels, wet
areas and springs, slides and other significant geological features shall be mapped and
indicated on the geological map.

1.3 Drilling Exploration
We shall undertake the drilling of exploratory holes planned at the locations engineering
structures on-shore and off-shore.

The borehole locations and depths were planned for a good coverage at the area of
concern specifically at the proposed sites of the engineering structures.

On land drilling will be carried out at the sites of the powerhouse, cooling tower, chimney,
switchyard at the transformer location, tank farm for the fuel oil and the water tank
foundation. On the other hand, for off-shore drilling holes will be allocated at the sites the
pier and at alignment of sea water intake and discharge pipes.

The number and depth of holes will be determined after the plant layout and associated
structures shown on plans are available.

a. Soil Boring and Sampling with SPT

The boreholes shall be advanced using rotary techniques. In-situ density determinations
shall be undertaken at 1.0 meter interval regardless of strata employing Standard
Penetration Test (SPT). In the test, a split spoon sampler is advanced 45cm by blows from a
63.6kg trip hammer having a free fall of 76cm, the number of blows required for each
15cm penetration is recorded. The number of blows required for the last 30cm sampling is


the N-Value. When N-Value is equal or less than 8 (UDS) is undertaken using Shellby Tube.
Both ends of the tube shall be covered by paraffin wax.
Soil samples recovered from SPT shall be placed in jar or in zipped plastic bags to maintain,
if possible, the moisture content.

b. Core drilling in hard strata
i. Each hole will be drilled with standard diamond core drilling equipment using
suitable sized diamond core bits acceptable to the client representative at
the jobsite.
ii. Core drilling will be performed with clear water unless specifically authorized in
writing by the client duly authorized representative.
iii. Water table measurements shall be made in each borehole at the start of each
eight (8) hours shift of drilling operation for each day.
iv. The core drilling operations shall be carried out with utmost care to obtain a 100%
core recovery.

During the core drilling, an NX size diamond coring bit attached to a double tube or triple
tube core barrel shall be utilized for the better recoveries.

Core or rock samples shall be laid in core boxes with wood blocks as separator where the
length of run, core recovery and RQD expressed in percent shall be indicated.

Groundwater levels in boreholes shall be measured and recorded 24 hours after drilling
completion.


1.4 Transfer of Equipment from Hole to Hole
Transfer from hole to hole comprise of the actual transfer of a core drilling unit of
equipment, including attachments and accessories, from one drill hole to another after the
completion of all operations for drilling, water pressure testing and incidents to complete
the work in one hole.


1.5 Core Sample Box
The sample obtained shall be placed in covered PVC core boxes with standard
measurements of 1.10m x 0.60m with dividers for the lateral separation of the core samples.
Each core sample box shall be properly marked/labeled indicating the name of the
project, core box number, borehole number and location and extent of drilling.
Furthermore, each core box must be provided with wood spacers of about 5 cm long
whereby each depth advance, length of run, length of core and percentage of recovery
shall be reflected.


1.6 Permeability Test in Boreholes

a. Water Pressure Testing
Prior to water pressure test, the packer assembly together with the packer pipe shall be
calibrated at the ground surface preferably near the river bank. Procedure for packer
calibration is similar to the guidelines of water pressure testing using a single or double


packer assembly except that the testing or calibration is undertaken at the ground
surface.

b. Washing
Immediately before the pressure testing of each stage of any hole begins and at such
time as directed the hole shall be thoroughly washed if possible under pressure. All
intersected rock seams and crevices containing clay and other washable materials
shall be washed out as directed by introducing water into the holes. The holes shall be
washed at such time until the return water is clear and fracture filling is no longer
recovered. Before the start of the water pressure testing of the hole, the hole shall be
thoroughly washed for at least 10 minutes or as directed.

c. Time of Testing
Pressure testing shall be done immediately after completion of drilling the full depth of
a hole by using the double packer assembly or in sages as the hole is drilled using the
single packer assembly. When badly fractured or other unstable rock is encountered or
when the continuation of drilling will alter the structural condition of the rock, each
completed section of the hole in which tests are to be performed shall be pressure
tested before drilling is continued.

d. Section to be tested
All holes drilled at site as directed by the client shall be pressure tested at every 5.0m
length or 3.0m interval in fractured/jointed rock formation.

e. Testing Procedure
All testing shall be done under the supervision of the client duly authorized
representative at the jobsite. The static water level shall be determined before the start
of the test. Water level shall be measured inside the packer pipe after the packer has
been set.



Table 1: Specified Ratio of Pressure and Time for Each Step of a WPT
Step No. Pressure (P) Elapsed Time (min.)
1 P1 - 1/3 P3 5
2 P2 - 2/3 P3 5
3 P3 10
4 P4 - 2/3 P3 5
5 P5 - 1/2 P3 5



To start the test, the packer or packers are seated and the depth recorded. Hole and
equipment must be filled with water and begin pumping until pressure P1 is indicated on
the pressure gauge. Read the flow meter and start stopwatch for the first segments. At the
end of 5 minutes, increase pressure to P2 and read the flow meter. This is continued until all
five increments are completed.









Table 2 Specified Pressure
From To 1 & 5 2 & 4 P3
0 2 2 3 5
2 4 3 6 10
4 6 5 10 15
6 8 8 15 25
8 10 10 20 30
10 14 15 30 35
14 20 20 35 55
20 25 25 50 75
25 30 30 60 90
30 35 35 70 105
35 40 40 80 125
40 45 45 90 140
45 50 50 100 150
50 deeper 50 100 150
Vertical Depth of Packers
(m)
Specified Pressure for Test Stage
(psi)


The specified depth shall be the depth at the midpoint of the section tested.

If in any step, the specified pressure cannot be attained, run the pump at full speed and
recorded the highest steady pressure established and proceed with the test.

Between steps, the pressure shall not allowed to fall below the specified for the next step or
the step just completed.

f. Percolation Test
Permeability test by the open-end constant-head method shall be performed for
section which has not cemented yet or intensely weathered/or severly fractured
formation and overburden materials to which the packer cannot be installed
effectively.

When a hole has been drilled to the depth where the test is intended a casing shall be
installed for the full length of the hole. For tight contact of the casing with the deposits
in the surroundings the casing shall be installed.

1.7 Test Pitting

Test pits shall be dug manually using convenient hand tools. Minimum size of pit is 1.2m by
1.2m. Depth is 3.0 m but may vary depending on field conditions as certified by the client
duly authorized at the jobsite. Materials from the pits shall be removed by buckets
operated from a hoist, especially when depth is greater than 2.0m. During excavation, the
bottom of the hole should be kept fairly leveled and of full size so that each lift may
represent the corresponding portion of the deposit in quantity and quality. At the surface
the excavated material should be placed in an orderly manner around the pit and
marked stakes should be driven to indicate depth of the pit from which the material came


in order to facilitatelogging and ssampling. To avoid collapse of the pit walls, wooden cribs
shall be installed when necessary.

1.8 Laboratory Testing

Gathered representative soil and samples from boreholes shall be handled carefully
particularly the undisturbed samples in Shellby Tube to prevent them from jarring while in
transport to the laboratory.

Test to be conducted on representative soil and rock samples taken from boreholes are
shown below:

Soil Classification (USCS)
Grain Size Distribution with hydrometer test
Atterberg limit
Natural moisture content
Specific gravity
1. Soil
2. Rock
Unit Weight
1. Soil
2. Rock
Direct Shear Test (Soil Only)
Unconfined Compressive Strength Test
1. Soil
2. Rock
Consolidation Test (One Dimensional)


Determination of the number test shall be based on the boreholes drilled and on any
additional sub-surface exploration deemed necessary.

1.9 Factual Report

The report to be prepared by the contractor shall discuss the standard methods for
topographic and hydrographic survey, drilling and other associated in-situ tests
conducted. Procedures for gathering of disturbed and undisturbed samples shall also be
discussed.

The report shall include topographic and hydrographic plans and cross sections showing
also the borehole locations on on-shore and off-shore. Other enclosures that will form part
of report are the logs of boreholes normally prepared showing the layers of engineering
soils and results of the laboratory tests conducted on representative soils and rock samples.

1.10 Preparation of Geotechnical Report

Interpretation of results of drilling and laboratory testing and corresponding
recommendations shall be done by Geotechnical Engineering.