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# EC2202: Analog and Digital Signal Processing

Tutorial 3
(February 6, 2014)
1. Let x[n] and h[n] be zero outside [N
1
, N
2
] and [M
1
, M
2
]. Let y[n] = x[n] h[n].
(a) Determine the interval [L
1
, L
2
] outside of which y[n] is guaranteed to be zero, ex-
pressing L
1
and L
2
in terms of N
1
, N
2
, M
1
, and M
2
.
(b) Determine the limits of the cases of partial overlap from the left, full overlap, and
partial overlap from the right. Without loss of generality, assume that h[n] is the
shorter duration sequence.
(c) Validate of your results by computing the convolution of the two signals given be-
low:
x[n] =

1 2 n 4
0 elsewhere
h[n] =

2 1 n 2
b
n
n < 0
0 elsewhere
2. Determine the range of a for which the linear time invariant system with impulse re-
sponse given below is stable:
h[n] =

a
n
n 0, n even
0 otherwise
3. Compute the following:
(a) 131 122
(b) {1, 3, 1} {1, 2, 2} where denotes convolution.
(c) H
1
(z) H
2
(z) where H
1
(z) = 1 +3z + z
2
and H
2
(z) = 1 +2z +2z
2
(d) 1.31 12.2
Comment on your results.
4. An LTI systems step response is denoted by s[n], i.e., it is the response to u[n]. For an
arbitrary input x[n], express the output y[n] in terms of its step response.
5. Determine the overall impulse response of the system of gure below, where h
1
[n] =
2[n 2] 3[n +1], h
2
[n] = 2[n 1] +3[n +2], and h
3
[n] = 5[n 5] +7[n 3] +
2[n 1] +3[n +1] [n].
h
1
[n] h
2
[n] +
h
3
[n]
x[n] y[n]
EC2202 ADSP Page 1 of 2 CSR/SU
6. Computer assignment Consider the difference equation y[n] = y[n M] + x[n]. Let
y[1] = 0, M = 100, and = 0.98. x[n] is a uniform random variable in the range
[1, 1] for 0 n 99, and zero outside. You can use the MATLAB command rand to
generate x[n] for each n over the given interval. Generate y[n] recursively and listen to
the generated sound assuming a sampling frequency of 44.1 kHz. What does it sound
like? Look up the command soundsc.
7. Computer assignment Consider the following difference equation:
N

k=0
a
k
y[n k] =
M

l=0
b
l
x[n l]. Let a denote the vector of coefcients containing a
k
, and similarly for
b. Look up the command filter(b,a,x). Assuming various order difference equations
and inputs, examine the output in each case. Howdo the lengths of the input and output
compare?
8. Computer assignment For each system you considered in the previous problem, com-
pute the impulse response using the command impz.
9. Computer assignment For each system you considered in the previous problem and a
suitable input, computed the output using the command conv(x,h), where x is the input
and h is the impulse response.
10. Computer assignment When the sequences x[n] and h[n] are of nite duration N
x
and
N
h
, respectively, the convolution y[n] = x[n] h[n] can be implemented using matrix-
vector multiplication. If the elements of x[n] and y[n] are arranged in the column vectors
x and y, then
y = Hx
where the linear shifts in h[n k] for 0 n N
h
1 are arranged as rows of the matrix
H. This matrix has an interesting structure and is called a Toeplitz matrix. To investigate
this, let x = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and h = {6, 7, 8, 9}.
(a) Determine the result of convolving x[n] and h[n].
(b) Express x[n] as a 5 1 column vector and y[n] as an 8 1 column vector, and deter-
mine the 8 5 matrix H that satises y = Hx.
(c) Characterize the matrix H. From this characterization, can you give the denition
of a Toeplitz matrix?
(d) What can you say about the rst column and rst row of H?
(e) Look up the command toeplitz and use it to construct H.
11. Computer assignment Consider the convolution of x[n] and y[n], where y[n] = x[n].
The result is called the autocorrelation of x[n]. Let x[n] = rand(100,1). Find the au-
tocorrelation of x[n]. Normalize the peak value to unity. At what time index does it
occur? Replace rand by randn and repeat. Do you see any qualitative change in the
result? Study the function xcorr. If the samples of a sequence are uncorrelated, the re-
sulting autocorrelation sequence will be impulsive (or approximately so). For example,
consider N successive digits of . Replace an even digit by 1 and odd digit by 1. Find
the autocorrelation of the resulting sequence. The rst ten thousand digits of can be
found at http://www.joyofpi.com/pi.html.
12. Computer assignment In the previous experiment, if you replaced each odd digit by 0
instead of 1, how does the plot change? Can you explain the result?
EC2202 ADSP Page 2 of 2 06.02.2014