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A Modified Boost Topology with Simultaneous

AC and DC Load
Olive Ray and Santanu Mishra
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, U.P., India,

AbstractThis paper proposes a modified Boost converter
topology which can supply DC as well as AC loads
simultaneously. This topology is realized by replacing the
controlled switch of a conventional Boost converter with a
voltage source inverter (VSI) bridge network. The duty cycle of
the Boost converter, in this case, is controlled by the shoot-
through period of any particular inverter leg. The proposed
topology is immune to EMI induced misgating-on of
complementary switches of each VSI leg. A PWM control
strategy for this converter is presented. The advantages and
limitations of the converter are also discussed. The proposed
approach can be easily extended to higher order boost
converters (e.g., quadratic boost) in order to achieve higher
gains. Experimental and simulation results are provided to
verify the operation of the converter.
Small-scale Distributed Generation Systems (DGSs)
involve different types of localized energy sources like
Diesel Generators, Solar panels, Wind turbines, etc., serving
different types of loads, which can be of either DC or AC
type. Power electronic converters efficiently interface the
varied source types to the loads. One way of implementing
step-up DC-AC power conversion with higher efficiency and
power density is by using a Boost converter stage cascaded
to a Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) stage. [1] As shown in
Figure 1, the single stage Boost converter output (v
) is
inverted using the VSI to obtain an AC voltage output
). Depending upon the application requirements, boost
converter topologies with higher gains, such as higher order
Boost converters or transformer-based isolated designs, can
also be used for the DC-DC step-up conversion. The
resulting topology thus obtained provides inversion
operation in two stages. The converter can be used to feed
both AC as well as the DC loads; the DC loads being
supplied by the output of the DC-DC converter stage.
In traditional Voltage Source Inverters, the two switches
of a single leg of the bridge network are complementary in
operation. During switching transition, sufficient dead-time
has to be provided to the switches to prevent shorting of the
input source. In addition, due to EMI or other spurious noise,
misgating-turn-on of the inverter leg switches may take
place, resulting in damage to the switches.
Z-Source Inverter, proposed in [2], can mitigate the
problem of misgating. The use of a unique impedance
network at the input of the Z-source inverter allows a shoot-
through state in which both the switches of an inverter leg
can be turned-on simultaneously. Extended Boost Z-Source
Inverter has been proposed where a higher gain is achieved
using this Z-Source topology [3]. However, Z-Source
converter cant supply both DC as well as AC loads
simultaneously. This is due to the fact that it has two
capacitors which have to be matched with equal load across
them. Unmatched loads on the capacitors might lead to
dynamic instability [4]. The Switched Boost Inverter (SBI)
was proposed in [5], which can achieve similar advantages
as a Z-Source converter with lesser number of passive
components and supply simultaneous DC as well as AC
This paper proposes a modification of a conventional
Boost converter which can achieve advantages similar to a
Z-Source Inverter as well as supply both AC and DC loads
simultaneously. This single converter topology, supplying
both AC as well as AC loads, can be well utilized in
Microgrids as well as Nanogrids, where different types of
power conversions need to be realized. It will be shown that
this topology can be easily extended to achieve higher

Figure 1. Schematic of Conventional Transformer-less Boost Converter
Cascaded VSI
978-1-4673-0803-8/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE 2454
conversion ratio. The proposed modification is illustrated
using the conventional Boost converter and its operating
behavior has been described next in Section II. The PWM
control strategy for the converter is described in this section
followed by the advantages and disadvantages of the
proposed topology. The converter and its control strategy
have been validated using an experimental prototype in
Section III. Extension of this scheme to a higher order boost
is validated using PSPICE simulation.
Fig. 1 shows the schematic of a single Boost converter
stage which is cascaded to a single-phase Voltage Source
Inverter stage. Note that the inverter can also be three phase
in this case to produce a three phase output. A conventional
Boost converter, shown in Fig. 2(a), is operated using the
single controlled switch S
between nodes s and n. Fig.
2(b) shows the schematic of the proposed extension, which
is referred to as Hybrid Boost Converter (HBC) in this
paper. The circuit is primarily a Boost DC-DC converter
(Fig. 2(a)), where the controllable switch S
is replaced by
the bridge network to obtain the additional DC-AC
operation. The proposed extension can thus provide both
DC output across V
as well as AC output across V
simultaneously, in a single stage conversion. Therefore, the
topology is referred to as the Hybrid Boost Converter.
A. Operating Principle
For the following explanation CCM operation of the
Boost converter is assumed (the Boost inductor current
never goes to zero). The Hybrid Boost Converter is
controlled using the four switches (S

of the bridge
network (Fig. 2(b)). The bidirectional switches, formed by
the combination of S
and D
(i=1 to 4), replace the single
controllable switch S
of the Boost converter, shown in
Fig. 2(a). The Boost operation of the proposed converter can
now be realized by turning on both switches of any
particular leg of the bridge network (either S
or S
simultaneously. This is shoot-through switching as far as the
VSI is concerned and it is strictly forbidden in the case of a
conventional VSI. However, for the proposed modification,
this operation is equivalent to switching on of the switch
of the conventional Boost converter (Fig. 2(a)).
The inverter operation is realized by applying appropriate
sinusoidal PWM switching technique to the inverter leg
switches S
. Note that during inverter mode of operation,
the DC output of the boost converter (v
) acts as the input
voltage level for the inverter. It is important to note that the
inverter input current can be either positive or negative
during a particular cycle. When this input current is positive,
the power flows through the Boost inductors (L
However, when the input current is negative, the current
flows into the DC load through the Boost diode (D).
This operating principle is illustrated using PSPICE
simulation in Figure 3. The major difference between this
inverter and a conventional inverter is that the input voltage
of this inverter is a switched signal varying between V

and zero. That effectively means that the inverter output can
only be modulated when its input is non-zero. This is the
fundamental motivation behind the switching strategy for
this topology. The inverter output voltage (V
) is positive,
negative or zero in the case of a Unipolar Sine-PWM
control. In the proposed switching scheme, the inverter
output voltage is non-zero only when the Boost diode (D)
conducts. Figure 3 shows that the inverter output voltage
) is positive (Fig. 3(a)) as well as negative (Fig. 3(b))
only when the Boost diode D conducts (V
0). The
conduction of the diode is indicated by a positive voltage at
the switch node (V
). The gate signals for the bridge
network are also shown in this figure. The inverter output
voltage (V
), on the other hand, can be zero either during
shoot-through condition (V
= 0) or during non shoot-
through (V
> 0) condition. Based on the above switching
conditions, an appropriate PWM switching strategy for the
proposed converter has been described in the next section.
B. Switching Strategy
The switching states of a conventional single phase Voltage
Source Inverter (Fig. 1) are shown in TABLE 1. Assuming
the switch state is denoted by 1 when it is turned on and
0 when it is turned off, TABLE 1 shows the various

Figure 2. Proposed Hybrid Boost Converter obtained by modification of
a conventional Boost converter switch Sa of (a) with bridge network (b).
switching conditions for this topology. It identifies several
undesirable states, denoted by u, which represent the
shoot-through conditions and measures have to be taken to
protect the topology against these conditions. The
undesirable states, shown in TABLE 1a, can be eliminated by
using the proposed circuit, shown in Fig. 2(b). In the
proposed circuit, both the boost operation as well as inverter
operation can be performed using four switches (S
Boost operation occurs when both the switches in a single
leg are turned on at the same time. This takes care of the
undesirable states u, mentioned in TABLE 1a. TABLE 1b
shows the switching states of the proposed converter.
Various switching schemes for control of Z-Source
converters have been reported in literature [6-8]. The shoot-
through states define the boost interval for the DC output.
The PWM control circuit to generate the gate signals for this
topology is shown in Fig. 4 (a-b). The reference signals to
the PWM generation circuit are v
(t) and v
(t). The signals
S1-S4 of Fig. 4(b) are provided to the gates of the controlled
switches. v
(t), a DC signal, controls the shoot-through
period and hence the duty ratio for the DC output of the
Boost converter and v
(t) controls modulation index for the
inverter. The PWM switching waveforms for the proposed
converter during positive reference signal are shown in
Figure 5. The figure indicates that the boost current
alternates between the two inverter legs, enabling high
frequency operation and improves the converter dynamics.
As the same set of switches controls both the DC and AC
output, there is limitation to the maximum duty cycle or
modulation index that can be achieved for this topology.
The switching strategy must satisfy the following constraint

+ <= 1, (1)
Where, m
= modulation index (=max(v
(t))) and D = Duty
ratio of the Boost converter.

(a) (b)
Figure 3. Steady state switching waveforms for the HBC showing that when the switch node voltage (shown in purple) is non zero (equivalent to
the diode of Boost converter operating), the VSI operation takes place as shown by positive value of Vsw in (a) and negative value of Vsw in (b).
The corresponding gate signals to the VSI switches are also shown.

The maximum gain between DC input and AC output
(peak) that can be achieved for HBC is unity. TABLE 2
shows a comparison of outputs of various topologies using
the conditions m
= 0.5 and D = 0.4. For a HBC, the
maximum output AC voltage (pk) can be equal to the input
voltage and this holds true when equation (1) holds true
with unity relationship. If higher gain is desired, converters
with higher order gains can be used. This is verified in the
experimental section.
TABLE 2 provides comparative figures for a Hybrid Boost
Converter (Boost converter based topology), Quadratic
Boost based converter as well as Switched Boost Inverter
[5]. In all the analyses, continuous conduction mode of
operation was assumed. The use of Quadratic Boost based
converter to achieve higher gains has been validated using
simulation as shown in Section III.

C. Advantages of the proposed topology

The proposed topology (Fig. 2(b)) can be used to generate
simultaneous DC (at v
) as well as single phase AC
outputs (at v
) through a single stage conversion from a
single DC input (v
). The proposed Hybrid Boost
Converter has the following advantages:
The problems associated with misgating-on of the
two complementary switches of each inverter leg
due to EMI or other spurious noise have been
eliminated by the proposed topology. Shoot-
through condition does not cause problems in the
operation of the circuit. On the contrary, having a
Shoot-through is necessary for Boost converter
Implementation of dead-time is not essential for
this topology. This improves the nature of the
inverter output with respect to its harmonic content
FOR D = 0.4 AND M
= 0.5
For D=0.4
and ma=0.5
Gain V

(1 -)

1.67 V
0.835 V

Hybrid Q-
(1 - )

2.78 V
1.39 V

SBI [5]
(1 - ). m
(1 -2)
3.0 V
1.5 V

Figure 5. PWM switching waveforms for the proposed converter

Figure 4. (a) and (b) shows the circuit for generation of gate signals for
the proposed converter.

The number of controllable switches is reduced
when compared to a Boost cascaded inverter
topology; both the VSI and Boost Converter are
controlled using the same bridge configuration,
thus reducing control circuit.
In this topology, the duty ratio and modulation
index of the DC and AC structure can be
independently controlled. In contrast to a Z-Source
or SBI [5], the maximum duty cycle for DC-DC
conversion is not limited to 0.5. This has been
demonstrated using simulation results in Figure 6.
When the HBC is not used for DC-AC operation,
the converter can be solely used for Boost
operation. The figure shows the gate signals when
the modulation index is zero and the duty cycle is
The current during boost interval of the Boost
converter alternates between the two legs of the
inverter. This enables use of higher switching
frequency for the boost converter thus reducing
magnetic size and improving the dynamics of the
The converter can supply both AC as well as DC
loads. There is single stage conversion for DC-DC
as well as DC-AC operation.

The modified converter proposed in this paper has been
verified used PSPICE simulation and experimental
prototype. The schematic of implementation for a modified
Boost converter is given in Fig. 2(b) and parameters for the
circuit are provided in the caption of Fig. 7. The PWM
signals have been generated using TMS320F28335 DSP kit
and its operational schematic is shown in Fig. 4 (a-b). Fig.
7(a) shows the actual control signals provided to the
switches. It shows that when switches S
and S
or S
and S
are on at the same time, V
=0. These two intervals,
controlled by v
(t), are the boost intervals for the DC
output. The AC output is obtained using Unipolar Sine
PWM modulation technique, by controlling the value of the
reference signal v
(t). The AC and DC outputs are shown in
Fig. 7 (b). For a 48 V DC input, with D = 0.4 and m
= 0.5,
the DC and AC outputs obtained are 78.3 V and 28 V AC
(rms) respectively.

Figure 6. PWM switching waveforms for the proposed converter
when ma = 0 and D = 0.7.


Figure 7. (a) shows the Gate Signals for controlling the proposed
converter. The input-output behavior is seen in Fig 7(b). Prototype
parameters: L (=L1+L2) =2.4 mH, C=100 uF, Lac (=Lac1+Lac2) =1 mH,
Cac=20 uF, Rac=Rdc=100 Ohms.
If a higher gain is desired high gain Boost stages [10-12]
can be used for the basic DC-DC converter. Fig. 8 (a) shows
the implementation of a Quadratic-Boost topology based
modified Quadratic-Boost converter. The input to this
converter 48 V and it produces a 133 V DC and a 133 VAC
(pk-pk). Note that using a Q-Boost based converter changes
the stresses of the switching devices and the converter has to
be designed accordingly.

In this paper a modified single stage Boost converter for
providing both DC as well as AC outputs is proposed. The
advantages of the converter over conventional VSIs are
described. Simulation results show that this concept can be
extended to higher order Boost converters and this is shown
for a Quadratic Boost based converter. Experimental results
verify the operation of a single stage Boost based converter
in open loop.

The authors would like to thank Ravindranath Adda, Senior
Research Scholar, IIT Kanpur for his suggestions and
comments for improving this paper.
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Figure 8. (a) Schematic of proposed modified Quadratic Boost
Converter (b) Simulation of the behavior of the converter with input
voltage of 48 V DC (deep blue). The output DC voltage (green) is
133 V DC at D = 0.4. The AC output (blue) (peak value of 66.5 V
at ma = 0.5) and inverter output (pink) is also shown. The load
ratings are same as those used for experimentation with HBC..