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A company may have many reasons to establish and maintain programs of occupational health
and safety (OH & S). A definite plan to deal with major emergencies is an important element of
programs OH & S. The lack of an emergency plan can lead to serious losses such as multiple
casualties and possible financial collapse of the organization.
In addition to the main benefit of providing guidance during an emergency, develop the plan has
other advantages. Terms of unrecognized risk aggravate an emergency situation can not be
covered and thus allowing their removal. The planning process can bring to light deficiencies such
as lack of resources (equipment, trained personnel, supplies), both of which can be rectified
before an emergency occurs. Additionally an emergency plan promotes awareness for security and
shows the organization's commitment to the safety of workers.
Why do some organizations have not made plans?
Due to many reasons. It may simply be due to lack of awareness of the risks and severity thereof.
An attitude of "can not happen here" may be present. It may be that people are not willing to take
the time and effort to examine the problem. However, emergency planning is an important part of
the operation of a company and there should be no excuses for lack of planning.
Since emergencies occur, advance planning is needed to prevent potential disasters. The urgent
need for rapid decisions, shortage of time and lack of resources and trained personnel can lead to
chaos during an emergency. The time and circumstances in an emergency means you can not rely
on the normal channels of authority and communication work routinely. The stress of the situation
can lead to poor judgment resulting in severe loss
What is the overall objective of the plan?
The emergency plan specifies procedures for handling sudden unexpected situations. The
objective is to reduce the potential consequences of the emergency:
Reducing fatalities and injuries;
reducing damage to buildings, inventory and equipment;
accelerating the resumption of normal operations

The development of the plan begins with an assessment of vulnerability.
These study results show:
the possibility for a situation to occur
available means to stop or prevent the situation and
you need for a given situation
From this analysis you can set the appropriate emergency procedures.
In the planning stage, it is important to request the participation of different groups. Among these
groups, the set of occupational health and safety committee can provide valuable input and
means for greater worker participation. Please also refer to the appropriate municipal officials
since the control must be done by the local government in major emergencies and should have
additional resources available. Communication, training and periodic drills ensure adequate
performance if the plan should be implemented.
What is vulnerability assessment?
Although emergencies are, by definition, sudden events, their occurrence can be predicted with
some certainty. The first step is to identify what risks are threat to any specific company.
When a list of risks is prepared, records of past incidents and occupational experience are not the
only sources of valuable information. Since major emergencies are rare events, knowledge of both
technological risks (chemical or physical) as natural can be extended in consultation with the fire
department, insurance companies, engineering consultants and government departments.
What are technological and natural hazards?
Areas where used or stored flammable, explosive or chemical should be considered as the most
feasible for an emergency occurs technology venture instead. Examples of these risks include:
building collapse
major structural failure
flammable liquid spill
release of toxic substances
exposure to ionizing radiation
loss of power
loss of water supply
Loss of communications

The risk of natural hazards is not the same throughout in the World but the
list would include:
other severe wind storms,
ice storms or snow, and
severe extremes in temperature (hot or cold).
You can consider the possibility that an event triggers another. An explosion can start a fire and
cause structural failure while an earthquake can trigger all events listed in the list of physical and
chemical hazards.
What is the series of events or decisions to be considered?
Having identified the risks, potential major impacts of each should be specified as:
potential events (eg fire after explosion)
damage to plant infrastructure
loss of vital / documents records
damage to equipment
work stoppages

Based on these events required actions are determined. For example:
emergency declaration
sound the alarm
evacuate the danger zone
Close the main switches
seek outside help
initiate rescue operations
assist victims
fire fighting

The final consideration is the location and a list of resources that are
medical supplies
auxiliary communication equipment
Power Generators
radiation detection equipment and chemical
Mobile Equipment
Emergency protective clothing
firefighting equipment
rescue team
trained staff

What are the elements of the emergency plan?
The emergency plan includes
all possible emergencies, consequences, actions required, written procedures and available
detailed lists of staff, including personal phone numbers, their duties and responsibilities
floor plans,
Maps showing large-scale assessment routes and service ducts (such as water and gas pipes)
Because the document is likely to be large, the plan must provide written instructions to staff on
their specific duties during an emergency.
The following are examples of parts of a plan. These elements may not cover every situation in
every workplace but are for general guidance when it is drafting a specific plan of the workplace:
The objective is a brief summary of the purpose of the plan; ie reduce human injuries and property
damage in an emergency. It also specifies that those staff members can put the plan into action.
The goal clearly identifies who these members because the normal chain of command is not
always feasible with short notice. At least one of them must be on site at all times when the
premises are occupied. The scope of authority of personnel must be clearly indicated.
Should be appointed and to enable a person to act as emergency coordinator. However, the staff
at the site during an emergency is key to ensure quick and efficient action to minimize losses is
provided. In some cases it may be possible to call employees who are not in service to help but
usually initial critical decisions must be taken immediately.
Specific duties, responsibilities, authority and resources should be clearly
defined. Among the responsibilities to be assigned are:
Emergency report
activate the emergency plan
assume overall command
alert staff
order the evacuation
alert external agencies
confirm complete evacuation
alert the external population of possible risk
seek outside help
coordinate activities of various groups
advise the families of the victims
providing medical help
ensure that emergency switches are closed
Rain poll
advise the press
This list of responsibilities should be completed using summary measures against previously
developed for each emergency. In organizations operating with reduced staff during some shifts,
some staff must assume additional responsibilities during emergencies. Adequate substitute must
be appointed for each position of responsibility to ensure that someone in authority is always
available on the site.

External organizations that may be available to help (with varied response
times) include:
fire department
mobile rescue brigades
ambulance services
police departments
phone company
industrial neighbors
government agencies

These organizations should be contacted in the planning stages to discuss each of their roles
during an emergency. Mutual assistance with other industrial facilities in the area should be
The pre-planned coordination is necessary to avoid conflicting responsibilities. For example,
police, fire department, ambulance service, rescue squad, fire brigade and the company first aid
kit can be on the scene simultaneously. A default command string in this type of situation is
necessary to avoid organizational difficulties. Under certain circumstances, an outside agency can
assume command.
They have pointed to possible communication problems in different contexts. Efforts should be
made to find alternative means of communication during an emergency, especially among key
personnel such as general manager, responsible for design, engineering, fire brigade, medical,
rescue and external agents. Depending on the size of the organization and the physical availability
of the premises, it may be advisable to plan an emergency control center alternative
communication facilities. All staff with responsibilities alert or report must receive a current list of
phone numbers and addresses of people who might need to contact.
Many factors determine the procedures that are needed in an emergency, such as
degree of emergency
the size of the organization,
the capabilities of the organization in an emergency
immediacy of foreign aid,
definition of the physical premises, and
the number of structures determines the procedures needed.

Common elements to consider in all emergencies include pre-emergency preparation and
provisions for personnel warning and evacuation, accident management and emergency
Natural hazards such as floods or severe storms, sometimes provide early warnings. The plan
should take advantage of alerts such as, for example, instructions on sandbags, removal of
equipment to facilities in need, providing alternative sources of power, light or water, extra
equipment and relocation of personnel with special skills. Synchronize alert stages allow such
measures are initiated in an orderly manner.
The evacuation order is of the utmost importance to alert staff. To avoid confusion, only one type
of signal to be used for the evacuation order. For this purpose commonly sirens, bells, whistles,
flashing lights, announcements locator systems or megaphones are used in noisy environments.
The all-clear signal is less important since time is not a pressing concern.
The following are "duties"
Identify evacuation routes, alternate means of escape, make sure that all staff know; keep the
routes clear.
Specify safe places for staff meets to count heads and so ensure that everyone has left the
danger zone. Assign individuals to assist disabled employees in emergencies.
run the treatment of the injured and look for the missing simultaneously with efforts to contain
the emergency.
Provide alternative sources of medical help when normal facilities may be in the danger zone.
Containing the extent of loss of property should start only when the safety of all staff and
residents at risk has been clearly established.

Trials and Review
Complete a comprehensive plan for managing experiences is a fundamental step towards the
prevention of disasters. However, it is difficult to predict all the problems that can occur unless the
plan has been tested. Exercises and drills should be conducted to practice all or critical parts (such
as evacuation) plan. An immediate and comprehensive review after each exercise, drill, or after an
actual emergency indicate areas for improvement. The recognition of individual responsibilities
can be assessed through written tests or interviews.
The plan must be reviewed when defects are known, and must be reviewed at least annually.
Changes in plant infrastructure, process, materials used and key personnel are occasions for
updating the plan.
Should be emphasized that must have provisions for training both individuals and teams, if they
are expected to perform adequately in an emergency. An annual full scale exercise will help
maintain a high level of competence.