Heat Exchangers in Aspen

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Heat Exchangers in Aspen

© All Rights Reserved

- Aspen-Simulation Workbook User Guide
- Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers - Basic Calculations
- Condenser Design in Aspen Plus
- Introduction to Aspen Dynamics
- ACM Examples Guide
- Process Analysis and Simulation in Chemical Engineering(2015)
- Heat Exchanger Designing Using Aspen Plus
- Calculator Block
- Design 001H AmmoniaSynthesis OpenLoop
- Aspen Plus & Dynamic Workshop (Step by Step)
- Perrys Chemical Engineering Handbook 7th Edition Price
- HTRI Thermal Design Sheet of BEU Type Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
- Peng-robinson Usando Matlab
- ACM Library Reference Guide
- Aspen EDR Family
- Aspen Tutorial Series
- Aspen Dynamics
- Aspen Energy Analyzer Tutorial
- Process Simulation and Control Using Aspen
- Complete ASPEN PLUS Simulation Guide.

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C H A P T E R 3

Heat Exchangers

This chapter describes the unit operation models for heat

exchangers and heaters (and coolers), and for interfacing to the B-

JAC heat exchanger programs. The models are:

Model Description Purpose Use For

Heater Heater or cooler Determines thermal and

phase conditions of

outlet stream

Heaters, coolers, condensers, and so on

HeatX Two-stream heat

exchanger

Exchanges heat between

two streams

Two-stream heat exchangers. Rating shell

and tube heat exchangers when geometry is

known.

MHeatX Multistream heat

exchanger

Exchanges heat between

any number of streams

Multiple hot and cold stream heat

exchangers. Two-stream heat exchangers.

LNG exchangers.

Hetran Shell and tube heat

exchanger

Provides interface to the

B-JAC Hetran shell and

tube heat exchanger

program

Shell and tube heat exchangers, including

kettle reboilers

Aerotran Air-cooled heat

exchanger

Provides interface to the

B-JAC Aerotran air-

cooled heat exchanger

program

Crossflow heat exchangers, including air

coolers

HxFlux Heat transfer

calculation

Perform heat transfer

calculations between a

heat sink and a heat

source, using convective

heat transfer

Two single-sided heat exchangers

HTRI-Xist Shell and tube heat

exchanger

Provides interface to

HTRIs Xist shell and

tube heat exchanger

program

Shell and tube heat exchangers, including

kettle reboilers

3-2 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

Heater Reference

You can use Heater to represent:

Heaters

Coolers

Valves

Pumps (whenever work-related results are not needed)

Compressors (whenever work-related results are not needed)

You also can use Heater to set the thermodynamic condition of a

stream.

When you specify the outlet conditions, Heater determines the

thermal and phase conditions of a mixture with one or more inlet

streams.

Use the following forms to enter specifications and view results for

Heater:

Use this form To do this

Input Enter operating conditions and flash convergence

parameters

Hcurves Specify heating or cooling curve tables and view

tabular results

Block Options Override global values for physical properties,

simulation options, diagnostic message levels,

and report options for this block

Results View Heater results

Heat (optional)

Material

Material

(any number)

Heat

(optional)

Water (optional)

Material Streams

inlet At least one material stream

outlet One material stream

One water decant stream (optional)

Heat Streams

inlet Any number of heat streams (optional)

outlet One heat stream (optional)

Flowsheet

Connectivity for

Heater

Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-3

If you give only one specification (temperature or pressure) on the

Specifications sheet, Heater uses the sum of the inlet heat streams

as a duty specification. Otherwise, Heater uses the inlet heat stream

only to calculate the net heat duty. The net heat duty is the sum of

the inlet heat streams minus the actual (calculated) heat duty.

You can use an optional outlet heat stream for the net heat duty.

Use the Heater Input Specifications sheet for all required

specifications and valid phases.

Dew point calculations are two- or three-phase flashes with a vapor

fraction of unity.

Bubble point calculations are two- or three-phase flashes with a

vapor fraction of zero.

Use the Heater Input FlashOptions sheet to specify temperature

and pressure estimates and flash convergence parameters.

Use the Hcurves form to specify optional heating or cooling

curves.

This model has no dynamic features. The pressure drop is fixed at

the steady state value. The outlet flow is determined by the mass

balance.

Heater can simulate fluid phases with solids when the stream

contains solid substreams or when you request electrolyte

chemistry calculations.

All phases are in thermal equilibrium. Solids leave at the same

temperature as fluid phases.

Solid Substreams Materials in solid substreams do not participate

in phase equilibrium calculations.

Electrolyte Chemistry Calculations You can request these on the

Properties Specifications Global sheet or the Heater BlockOptions

Properties sheet. Solid salts participate in liquid-solid phase

equilibrium and thermal equilibrium calculations. The salts are in

the MIXED substream.

All features of Heater are available in the EO formulation, except

the features which are globally unsupported.

Specifying Heater

Solids

EO Usage Notes for

Heater

3-4 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

HeatX Reference

HeatX can model a wide variety of shell and tube heat exchanger

types including:

Countercurrent and co-current

Segmental baffle TEMA E, F, G, H, J, and X shells

Rod baffle TEMA E and F shells

Bare and low-finned tubes

HeatX can perform a full zone analysis with heat transfer

coefficient and pressure drop estimation for single- and two-phase

streams. For rigorous heat transfer and pressure drop calculations,

you must supply the exchanger geometry.

If exchanger geometry is unknown or unimportant, HeatX can

perform simplified shortcut rating calculations. For example, you

may want to perform only heat and material balance calculations.

HeatX has correlations to estimate sensible heat, nucleate boiling,

and condensation film coefficients.

HeatX can

Perform design calculations

Perform mechanical vibration analysis

Estimate fouling factors

Use the following forms to enter specifications and view results for

HeatX:

Use this form To do this

Setup Specify shortcut, detailed or Hetran-rigorous

calculations, flow direction, exchanger pressure

drops, heat transfer coefficient calculation methods,

and film coefficients

Options Specify different flash convergence parameters and

valid phases for the hot and cold sides, HeatX

convergence parameters, and block-specific report

option

Hetran Options Specify the name of the Hetran input file,

parameters for calculating the property curves,

optional Hetran program inputs.

Hetran Browser Specify data when using the Hetran-Rigorous

calculation type.

Geometry Specify the shell and tube configuration and indicate

any tube fins, baffles, or nozzles

Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-5

Use this form To do this

Hot-Hcurves Specify hot stream heating or cooling curve tables

and view tabular results

Cold-Hcurves Specify cold stream heating or cooling curve tables

and view tabular results

User Subroutines Specify parameters for user-defined Fortran

subroutines to calculate overall heat transfer

coefficient, LMTD correction factor, tube-side

liquid holdup, or tube-side pressure drop

Dynamic Specify parameters for dynamic simulations

Block Options Override global values for physical properties,

simulation options, diagnostic message levels, and

report options for this block

Thermal Results View a summary of results, mass and energy

balances, pressure drops, velocities, and zone

analysis profiles

Geometry Results View detailed shell and tube results, and information

about tube fins, baffles, and nozzles

Hetran Thermal

Results

View overall results and detailed results for the shell

side and tube side when using the Hetran-Rigorous

calculation type.

Cold Outlet

Water (optional)

Hot Outlet

Water

(optional)

Hot

Inlet

Cold Inlet

Material Streams

inlet One hot inlet

One cold inlet

outlet One hot outlet

One cold outlet

One water decant stream on the hot side (optional)

One water decant stream on the cold side (optional)

Flowsheet

Connectivity for

HeatX

3-6 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

Consider these questions when specifying HeatX:

Should rating calculations be simple (shortcut) or rigorous?

What specification should the block have?

How should the log-mean temperature difference correction

factor be calculated?

How should the heat transfer coefficient be calculated?

How should the pressure drops be calculated?

What equipment specifications and geometry information are

available?

The answers to these questions determine the amount of

information required to complete the block input. You must

provide one of the following specifications:

Heat exchanger area or geometry

Exchanger heat duty

Outlet temperature of the hot or cold stream

Temperature approach at either end of the exchanger

Degrees of superheating/subcooling for the hot or cold stream

Vapor fraction of the hot or cold stream

Temperature change of the hot or cold stream

HeatX has three calculation methods: shortcut, detailed, and

Hetran-rigorous. Use the Calculation field on the Setup

Specifications sheet to specify the appropriate calculation

method.

With the shortcut calculation method you can simulate a heat

exchanger block with the minimum amount of required input. The

shortcut calculation does not require exchanger configuration or

geometry data.

With the detailed calculation method, you can use exchanger

geometry to estimate:

Film coefficients

Pressure drops

Log-mean temperature difference correction factor

The detailed calculation method provides more specification

options for HeatX, but it also requires more input.

The detailed calculation method provides defaults for many

options. You can change the defaults to gain complete control over

the calculations. The following table lists these options with valid

values. The values are described in the following sections.

Specifying HeatX

Shortcut Versus Rigorous

Rating Calculations

Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-7

The Hetran-rigorous method allows you to design new

equipment, and to rate or simulate the performance of existing

equipment. In addition to the more rigorous heat transfer and

hydraulic analyses, the program will also determine possible

operational problems such as vibration or excessive velocities. You

can use the Hetran-rigorous method to estimate the cost for the

equipment. The modules used in the Hetran-rigorous method are

the same as those used in the Aspen Hetran standalone product for

shell and tube heat exchanger analysis.

Variable Calculation Method

Available in

Shortcut Mode

Available in

Detailed Mode

Available in

Hetran-rigorous mode

LMTD

Correction

Factor

Constant

Geometry

User subroutine

Calculated

Single tube pass

No

No

Multiple tube pass

Yes

Default

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Heat Transfer

Coefficient

Constant value

Phase-specific values

Power law expression

Film coefficients

Exchanger geometry

User subroutine

Yes

Default

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Default

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

Film

Coefficient

Constant value

Phase-specific values

Power law expression

Calculate from geometry

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Default

No

No

No

No

Pressure Drop Outlet pressure

Calculate from geometry

Default

No

Yes

Default

No

No

In shortcut mode, a constant LMTD must be supplied for

exchangers with a single tube pass. For exchangers with multiple

tube passes, the LMTD correction factor will be calculated.

The standard equation for a heat exchanger is:

Q U A LMTD

where LMTD is the log-mean temperature difference. This

equation applies for exchangers with pure countercurrent flow.

The more general equation is:

Q U A F LMTD

where the LMTD correction factor, F, accounts for deviation from

countercurrent flow.

Use the LMTD Correction Factor field on the Setup Specifications

sheet to enter the LMTD correction factor.

In shortcut rating mode, the LMTD correction factor is constant for

a cocurrent or countercurrent exchanger. For a multipass

Calculating the Log-Mean

Temperature Difference

Correction Factor

3-8 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

exchanger, HeatX will calculate the correction factor. See

Shortcut Model of a System of Multiple Tube Pass Exchangers in

Series, for more information.

In rigorous rating mode, use the LMTD Correction Method field

on the Setup Specifications sheet to specify how HeatX calculates

the LMTD correction factor. You can choose from the following

calculation options:

If LMTD Correction

Method is

Then

Constant The LMTD correction factor you enter is

constant.

Geometry HeatX calculates the LMTD correction factor

using the exchanger specification and stream

properties

User subroutine You supply a user subroutine to calculate the

LMTD correction factor.

To determine how the heat transfer coefficient is calculated, set the

Calculation Method on the Setup U Methods sheet. You can use

these options in shortcut or rigorous rating mode:

If Calculation

Method is

HeatX uses And you

specify

Constant value A constant value for the heat

transfer coefficient

The constant

value

Phase-specific

values

A different heat transfer coefficient

for each heat transfer zone of the

exchanger, indexed by the phase for

the hot and cold streams

A constant

value for each

zone

Power law

expression

A power law expression for the heat

transfer coefficient as a function of

one of the stream flow rates

Constants for

the power law

expression

In rigorous rating mode, three additional values are allowed:

If Calculation

Method is

Then

Exchanger

geometry

HeatX calculates the heat transfer coefficient using

exchanger geometry and stream properties to

estimate film coefficients.

Film coefficients HeatX calculates the heat transfer coefficients using

the film coefficients. You can use any option on the

Setup Film Coefficients sheet to calculate the film

coefficients.

User subroutine You supply a user subroutine to calculate the heat

transfer coefficient.

Calculating the Heat

Transfer Coefficient

Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-9

HeatX does not calculate film coefficients in shortcut rating mode.

In rigorous rating mode, if you use film coefficients or exchanger

geometry for the heat transfer coefficient calculation method,

HeatX calculates the heat transfer coefficient using:

1 1 1

U h h

c h

+

Where:

h

c

= Cold stream film coefficient

h

h

= Hot stream film coefficient

To choose an option for calculating film coefficients, set the

Calculation Method on the Setup Film Coefficients sheet. The

following are available:

If Calculation Method is HeatX uses And you

specify

Constant value A constant value for the

film coefficient

A constant

value to be used

throughout the

exchanger

Phase-specific values A different film coefficient

for each heat transfer zone

(phase) of the exchanger,

indexed by the phase of the

stream

A constant

value for each

phase

Power law expression A power law expression for

the film coefficient as a

function of the stream flow

rate

Constants for

the power law

expression

Calculate from geometry The exchanger geometry

and stream properties to

calculate the film

coefficient

The hot stream and cold stream film coefficient calculation

methods are independent of each other. You can use any

combination that is appropriate for your exchanger.

To enter exchanger pressure or pressure drop for the hot and cold

sides, use the Outlet Pressure fields on the Setup Pressure Drop

sheet. In shortcut rating mode the pressure drop is constant.

In rigorous rating mode, you can choose how pressure drops are

calculated by setting the pressure options on the Setup

PressureDrop sheet. The following pressure drop options are

available:

Film Coefficients

Pressure Drop

Calculations

3-10 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

If Pressure Option is Then

Outlet Pressure You must enter the outlet pressure or pressure

drop for the stream.

Calculate from geometry HeatX calculates the pressure drop using the

exchanger geometry and stream properties

HeatX calls the Pipeline model to calculate tube-side pressure

drop. You can set the correlations for pressure drop and liquid

holdup that the Pipeline model uses on the Setup PressureDrop

sheet.

Exchanger configuration refers to the overall patterns of flow in

the heat exchanger. If you choose Calculate From Geometry for

any of the heat transfer coefficients, film coefficients, or pressure

drop calculation methods, you may be required to enter some

information about the exchanger configuration on the Geometry

Shell sheet. This sheet includes fields for:

TEMA shell type (see the next figure, TEMA Shell Types)

Number of tube passes

Exchanger orientation

Tubes in baffle window

Number of sealing strips

Tube flow for vertical exchangers

Exchanger Configuration

Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-11

Two Pass Shell

with Longitudinal Baffle

One Pass Shell

E Shell

F Shell

G Shell

H Shell

J Shell

X Shell

Split Flow

Double Split Flow

Divided Flow

Cross Flow

TEMA Shell Types

3-12 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

The Geometry Shell sheet also contains two important dimensions

for the shell:

Inside shell diameter

Shell to bundle clearance

The next figure shows the shell dimensions.

Outer Tube

Limit

Shell to Bundle

Clearance

Shell Diameter

Shell Dimensions

Calculation of shell-side film coefficient and pressure drop require

information about the baffle geometry within the shell. Enter baffle

geometry on the Geometry Baffles sheet.

HeatX can calculate shell-side values for both segmental baffle

shells and rod baffle shells. Other required information depends on

the baffle type. For segmental baffles, required information

includes:

Baffle cut

Baffle spacing

Baffle clearances

For rod baffles, required information includes:

Ring dimensions

Support rod geometry

The next two figures show the baffle dimensions. The Baffle Cut

in the Dimensions for Segmental Baffles figure is a fraction of the

shell diameter. All clearances are diametric.

Baffle Geometry

Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-13

Baffle Cut

Tube Hole

Shell to Baffle

Clearance

Dimensions for Segmental Baffles

Ring Outside

Diameter

Ring Inside

Diameter

Rod Diameter

Dimensions for Rod Baffles

Calculation of the tube-side film coefficient and pressure drop

require information about the geometry of the tubebank. HeatX

also uses this information to calculate the heat transfer coefficient

from the film coefficients. Enter tube geometry on the Geometry

Tubes sheet.

You can select a heat exchanger with either bare or low-finned

tubes. The sheet also includes fields for:

Total number of tubes

Tube length

Tube diameters

Tube layout

Tube material of construction

The next two figures show tube layout patterns and fin dimensions.

Tube Geometry

3-14 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

Tube

Pitch

30

o

Triangle

45

o

Tube

Pitch

Rotated

Square

60

o

Tube

Pitch

Rotated

Triangle

90

o

Tube

Pitch

Square

Direction of Flow

Tube Layout Patterns

Outside

Diameter

Fin Thickness

Root Mean

Diameter

Fin Height

Fin Dimensions

Calculations for pressure drop include the calculation of pressure

drop in the exchanger nozzles. Enter nozzle geometry on the

Geometry Nozzles sheet.

HeatX uses open literature correlations for calculating film

coefficients and pressure drops. The next four tables list the model

correlations.

Tube-side Heat Transfer Coefficient Correlations

Mechanism Flow Regime Correlation References

Single-phase Laminar

Turbulent

Schlunder

Gnielinski

[1]

[1]

Boiling -

vertical tubes

Steiner/Taborek [2]

Boiling -

horizontal tubes

Shah [3, 4]

Condensation -

vertical tubes

Laminar

Laminar wavy

Turbulent

Shear-dominated

Nusselt

Kutateladze

Labuntsov

Rohsenow

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

Condensation -

horizontal tubes

Annular

Stratifying

Rohsenow

Jaster/Kosky method

[8]

[9]

Nozzle Geometry

Model Correlations

Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-15

Shell-side Heat Transfer Coefficient Correlations

Mechanism Flow Regime Correlation References

Single-phase

segmental

Bell-Delaware [10, 11]

Single-phase

ROD

Gentry [12]

Boiling Jensen [13]

Condensation -

vertical

Laminar

Laminar wavy

Turbulent

Shear-dominated

Nusselt

Kutateladze

Labuntsov

Rohsenow

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

Condensation -

horizontal

Kern [9]

Tube-side Pressure Drop Correlations

Mechanism Correlation

Single-phase Darcys Law

Two-phase See Pipeline

Shell-side Pressure Drop Correlations

Mechanism Correlation References

Single-phase segmental Bell-Delaware [10, 11]

Single-phase ROD Gentry [12]

Two-phase segmental Bell-Delaware method with

Grants correction for two-phase

flow

[10, 11], [14]

Two-phase ROD Gentry [12]

References

1 Gnielinski, V., "Forced Convection in Ducts." In: Heat

Exchanger Design Handbook. New York:Hemisphere

Publishing Corporation, 1983.

2 Steiner, D. and Taborek, J., "Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in

Vertical Tubes Correlated by an Asymptotic Model." In: Heat

Transfer Engineering, 13(2):43-69, 1992.

3 Shah, M.M., "A New Correlation for Heat Transfer During

Boiling Flow Through Pipes." In: ASHRAE Transactions,

82(2):66-86, 1976.

4 Shah, M.M., "Chart Correlation for Saturated Boiling Heat

Transfer: Equations and Further Study." In: ASHRAE

Transactions, 87(1):185-196, 1981.

5 Nusselt, W., "Surface Condensation of Water Vapor." Z. Ver.

Dtsch, Ing., 60(27):541-546, 1916.

6 Kutateladze, S.S., Fundamentals of Heat Transfer. New York:

Academic Press, 1963.

3-16 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

7 Labuntsov, D.A., "Heat Transfer in Film Condensation of Pure

Steam on Vertical Surfaces and Horizontal Tubes." In:

Teploenergetika, 4(7):72-80, 1957.

8 Rohsenow, W.M., Webber, J.H., and Ling, A.T., "Effect of

Vapor Velocity on Laminar and Turbulent Film

Condensation." In: Transactions of the ASME, 78:1637-1643,

1956.

9 Jaster, H. and Kosky, P.G., "Condensation Heat Transfer in a

Mixed Flow Regime." In: International Journal of Heat and

Mass Transfer, 19:95-99, 1976.

10 Taborek, J., "Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers: Single Phase

Flow." In: Heat Exchanger Design Handbook. New York:

Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1983.

11 Bell, K.J., "Delaware Method for Shell Side Design." In:

Kakac, S., Bergles, A.E., and Mayinger, F., editors, Heat

Exchangers: Thermal-Hydraulic Fundamentals and Design.

New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1981.

12 Gentry, C.C., "RODBaffle Heat Exchanger Technology." In:

Chemical Engineering Progress 86(7):48-57, July 1990.

13 Jensen, M.K. and Hsu, J.T., "A Parametric Study of Boiling

Heat Transfer in a Tube Bundle." In: 1987 ASME-JSME

Thermal Engineering Joint Conference, pages 133-140,

Honolulu, Hawaii, 1987.

14 Grant, I.D.R. and Chisholm, D., "Two-Phase Flow on the Shell

Side of a Segmentally Baffled Shell-and-Tube Heat

Exchanger." In: Journal of Heat Transfer, 101(1):38-42, 1979.

Use the Options Flash Options sheet to enter flash specifications.

If you want to perform

these calculations Solids? Set Valid Phases to

Vapor phase Yes or no Vapor-only

Liquid phase Yes or no Liquid-only

2-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid

3-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-Liquid

3-fluid phase free-water flash Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-FreeWater

Solids only Yes Solid-only

To override global or flowsheet section property specifications, use

the BlockOptions Properties sheet. You can use different physical

property options for the hot side and cold side of the heat

exchanger. If you supply only one set of property specifications,

HeatX uses that set for both hot and cold side calculations.

All phases are in thermal equilibrium. Solids leave at the same

temperature as the fluid phases.

Flash Specifications

Physical Properties

Solids

Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-17

HeatX can simulate fluid phases with solids when the stream

contains solid substreams, or when you request electrolyte

chemistry calculations.

Solid Substreams: Materials in solid substreams do not participate

in phase equilibrium calculations.

Electrolyte Chemistry Calculations: You can request these on the

Properties Specifications Global sheet or HeatX BlockOptions

Properties sheet. Solid salts participate in liquid-solid phase

equilibrium and thermal equilibrium calculations. The salts are in

the MIXED substream.

HeatX can perform a shortcut calculation of a system of multiple

tube pass heat exchangers in series. The following restrictions

apply:

All units in series are identical

Each unit in series has one shell pass and an even number of

tube passes

The overall heat transfer coefficient is the same for each unit

To do this, on the Setup Specifications sheet:

1 Select the Shortcut calculation type

2 Select Multiple tube passes for flow direction.

3 In the No. shells in series field, enter the number of units in

series.

When this option is chosen, Aspen Plus will calculate the LMTD

correction factor.

You can also choose to specify a minimum value for the calculated

LMTD correction factor. HeatX will issue a warning if the

calculated value is less than this value.

The LMTD correction factor is calculated as follows:

If R, the ratio of heat capacities, is not equal to 1, then:

]

]

]

]

,

,

,

+ + +

+ +

]

]

]

,

) 1 1 ( 2

) 1 1 ( 2

ln

1

1

ln

1

1

2

2

2

R R P

R R P

P

R P

R

R

F

If R = 1, then:

]

]

]

,

,

+

) 2 2 ( 2

) 2 2 ( 2

ln ) 1 (

2

P

P

P

P

F

Shortcut Model of a

System of Multiple Tube

Pass Exchangers in

Series

3-18 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

Where:

F = LMTD correction factor

R =

Ratio of heat capacities:

hot cold

) /( ) (

p p

WC WC

P

= Thermal effectiveness of each unit, calculated by the

Bowman transformation

The Bowman transformation gives the thermal effectiveness of

each unit based on the overall thermal effectiveness. If R 1, then:

R

P

PR

P

PR

P

N

N

]

]

]

,

]

]

]

,

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

If R=1, then:

N NP P

P

P

+

Where:

P = Thermal effectiveness for the overall heat

exchanger:

(temp. increase of cold fluid)/(inlet T hot fluid

inlet T cold fluid)

N = Number of shells in series

Reference

Dodd, R., "Mean Temperature Difference and Temperature

Efficiency for Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Connected in

Series with Two Tube Passes per Shell Pass." In: Trans. IChemE,

Vol. 58, 1980.

The features listed below are not supported in equation-oriented

formulation. However, the capabilities are still available for the EO

solution strategy via the Perturbation Layer.

Rigorous method (with geometry)

Phase-specific heat transfer coefficients and zone analysis

Features which are globally unsupported

EO Usage Notes for

HeatX

Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-19

MHeatX Reference

Use MHeatX to represent heat transfer between multiple hot and

cold streams, such as in an LNG exchanger. You can also use

MHeatX for two-stream heat exchangers. Free water can be

decanted from any outlet stream. MHeatX ensures an overall

energy balance but does not account for the exchanger geometry.

MHeatX can perform a detailed, rigorous internal zone analysis to

determine the internal pinch points and heating and cooling curves

for all streams in the heat exchanger. MHeatX can also calculate

the overall UA for the exchanger and model heat leak to or from an

exchanger.

MHeatX uses multiple Heater blocks and heat streams to enhance

flowsheet convergence. Aspen Plus automatically sequences block

and stream convergence unless you specify a sequence or tear

stream.

Use the following forms to enter specifications and view results for

MHeatX:

Use this form To do this

Input Specify operating conditions, flash convergence

parameters, parameters for zone analysis, flash table,

MHeatX convergence parameters, and block-

specific report options

Hcurves Specify heating or cooling curve tables and view

tabular results

Block Options Override global values for physical properties,

simulation options, diagnostic message levels and

report options for this block

Results View stream results, exchanger results, zone

profiles, stream profiles, flash profiles, and material

and energy balance results

Hot Inlets

(any number)

Hot Outlets

Water (optional)

Hot Outlets

Water (optional)

Water

(optional)

Cold

Outlets

Cold Inlets

(any number)

Flowsheet

Connectivity for

MHeatX

3-20 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

Material Streams

inlet At least one material stream on the hot side, unless a load

stream is used.

At least one material stream on the cold side, unless a load

stream is used.

outlet One outlet stream for each inlet stream.

One water decant stream for each outlet stream (optional).

Load Streams

inlet Any number of load streams on either or both sides.

outlet One outlet load stream for each inlet load stream.

The inlet stream sides are non-contacting.

You must give outlet specifications for each stream on one side of

the heat exchanger. On the other side you can specify any of the

outlet streams, but you must leave at least one unspecified stream.

Different streams can have different types of specifications.

MHeatX assumes that all unspecified streams have the same outlet

temperature. An overall energy balance determines the temperature

of any unspecified stream(s).

You can use a different property method for each stream in

MHeatX. Specify the property methods on the BlockOptions

Properties sheet.

MHeatX can perform a detailed, rigorous internal zone analysis to

determine:

Internal pinch points

UA and LMTD of each zone

Total UA of the exchanger

Overall average LMTD

To obtain a zone analysis, specify Number of zones greater than 0

on the MHeatX Input Zone Analysis sheet. During zone analysis

MHeatX can add:

Stream entry points (if all feed streams are not at the same

temperature)

Stream exit points (if all product streams are not at the same

temperature)

Phase change points (if a phase change occurs internally)

MHeatX can also account for the nonlinearities of zone profiles by

adding zones adaptively. MHeatX can perform zone analysis for

both countercurrent and co-current heat exchangers.

Specifying MHeatX

Zone Analysis

Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-21

Use Flash Tables to estimate zone profiles and pinch points

quickly. These tables are most useful for heat exchangers that have

many streams, for which zone analysis calculations can take a long

time.

To use a Flash Table for a stream, specify the number of flash

points for the stream on the MHeatX Input Flash Table sheet.

When you specify a flash table for a stream, MHeatX generates a

temperature-enthalpy profile of that stream before zone analysis,

and interpolates that profile during zone analysis, rather than

flashing the stream.

You can also specify the fraction of total pressure drop in each

phase region of a stream on the MHeatX Input Flash Table sheet.

Aspen Plus uses these fractions to determine the pressure profile

during Flash Table generation.

The computational structure of MHeatX may affect your

specifications.

Unlike other unit operation blocks, MHeatX is not simulated by a

single computation module. Instead, Aspen Plus generates heaters

and heat streams to represent the multistream heat exchanger. A

Heater block represents streams with outlet specifications. A

multistream heater block represents streams with no outlet

specifications. The next figure shows the computational structure

generated for a sample exchanger.

S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8

S1 S2

LNGIN LNGOUT

$LNGH03

$LNGQ03

$LNGQ02

HEATER HEATER

$LNGH02

$LNGQ04

HEATER

$LNGH04

$LNGHTR

MHEATER

Example of MHeatX Computational Structure

This computational sequence converges much more rapidly than

simulation of MHeatX as a single block. Block results are given

for the entire MHeatX sequence. In most cases, you do not need to

know about the individual blocks generated in the sequence. The

following paragraphs describe the exceptions.

Simulation history and control panel messages are given for the

generated Heater blocks and heat streams.

Using Flash Tables in

Zone Analysis

Computational Structure

for MHeatX

3-22 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

You can provide an estimate for duty of the internally generated

heat stream. If the heat stream is a tear stream in the flowsheet,

Aspen Plus uses this estimate as an initial value.

You can give convergence specifications for the flowsheet

resulting when MHeatX blocks are replaced by their generated

networks. The generated Heater block and heat stream IDs must be

used on the Convergence SequenceSpecifications and

Convergence TearSpecifications sheets.

Automatic flowsheet analysis is based on the flowsheet resulting

when MHeatX blocks are replaced by generated Heater blocks.

The generated Heater blocks, instead of the MHeatX block, appear

in the calculation sequence. You can select generated heat streams

as tear streams.

MHeatX can simulate fluid phases with solids when the stream

contains solid substreams, or when you request electrolyte

chemistry calculations.

All phases are in thermal equilibrium. Solids leave at the same

temperature as the fluid phases.

Solid Substreams: Materials in solid substreams do not participate

in phase equilibrium calculations.

Electrolyte Chemistry Calculations: You can request these on the

Properties Specifications Global sheet or the MHeatX

BlockOptions Properties sheet. Solid salts participate in liquid-

solid phase equilibrium and thermal equilibrium calculations. The

salts are in the MIXED substream.

Solids

Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-23

Hetran Reference

Hetran is the interface to the B-JAC Hetran program for designing

and simulating shell and tube heat exchangers. Hetran can be used

to simulate shell and tube heat exchangers with a wide variety of

configurations. To use Hetran, place the block in the flowsheet,

connect inlet and outlet streams, and specify a small number of

block inputs, including the name of the B-JAC input file for that

exchanger.

You enter information related to the heat exchanger configuration

and geometry through the Hetran standalone program interface.

The exchanger specification is saved as a B-JAC input file. You do

not have to enter information about the exchangers physical

characteristics through the Aspen Plus user interface or through

input language.

Use the following forms to enter specifications and view results for

Hetran:

Use this form To do this

Input Specify the name of the B-JAC input file,

parameters for calculating the property curves,

optional Hetran program inputs, flash

convergence parameters, and valid phases

Block Options Override global values for physical properties,

simulation options, diagnostic message levels,

and report options for this block

Results View inlet and outlet stream conditions and

material and energy balance results

Detailed Results View overall results and detailed results for the

shell side and tube side

Cold Inlet

Hot Inlet

Hot Water (optional)

Hot Outlet

Cold Outlet

Cold Water (optional)

Material Streams

inlet One hot inlet

One cold inlet

Flowsheet

Connectivity for

Hetran

3-24 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

outlet One hot outlet

One cold outlet

One water decant stream on the hot side (optional)

One water decant stream on the cold side (optional)

Enter the input for the shell and tube heat exchanger through the

Hetran programs graphical user interface. The input for Hetran in

Aspen Plus is limited to:

The B-JAC input file name that contains the heat exchanger

specification

A set of parameters to control how property curves are

generated

A set of Hetran program inputs that you can change from

within

Aspen Plus (for example, fouling factors and film coefficients)

Use the Flash Options sheet to enter flash specifications.

If you want to perform these

calculations

Solids? Set Valid Phases to

Vapor phase Yes or no Vapor-only

Liquid phase Yes or no Liquid-only

2-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid

3-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-Liquid

3-fluid phase free-water flash Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-FreeWater

Solids only Yes Solid-only

To override global or flowsheet section property specifications, use

the Flash Options sheet. You can use different physical property

methods for the hot side and cold side of the heat exchanger. If you

supply only one set of property specifications, Hetran uses that set

for both hot- and cold-side calculations.

Hetran cannot currently handle streams with solids substreams.

Specifying Hetran

Flash Specifications

Physical Properties

Solids

Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-25

Aerotran Reference

Aerotran is the interface to the B-JAC Aerotran program for

designing and simulating air-cooled heat exchangers. Aerotran can

be used to simulate air-cooled heat exchangers with a wide variety

of configurations. It can also be used to model economizers and the

convection section of fired heaters. To use Aerotran, place the

block in the flowsheet, connect inlet and outlet streams, and

specify a small number of block inputs, including the name of the

B-JAC input file for that exchanger.

You enter information related to the air cooler configuration and

geometry through the Aerotran standalone program interface. The

air cooler specification is saved as a B-JAC input file. You do not

have to enter information about the air coolers physical

characteristics through the Aspen Plus user interface or through

input language.

Use the following forms to enter specifications and view results for

Aerotran:

Use this form To do this

Input Specify the name of the B-JAC input file,

parameters for calculating the property curves,

optional Aerotran program inputs, flash

convergence parameters, and valid phases

Block Options Override global values for physical properties,

simulation options, diagnostic message levels,

and report options for this block

Results View inlet and outlet stream conditions and

material and energy balance results

Detailed Results View overall results, detailed results for the

outside and tube side, and fan results

Cold (Air) Inlet

Cold (Air) Outlet

Hot Outlet

Hot Inlet

Hot Water (optional)

Cold Water (optional)

Flowsheet

Connectivity for

Aerotran

3-26 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

Material Streams

inlet One hot inlet

One cold (air) inlet

outlet One hot outlet

One cold (air) outlet

One water decant stream on the hot side (optional)

One water decant stream on the cold side (optional)

Enter the input for the air-cooled heat exchanger through the

Aerotran programs graphical user interface. The input for Aerotran

in Aspen Plus is limited to:

The B-JAC input file name that contains the heat exchanger

specification

A set of parameters to control how property curves are

generated

A set of Aerotran program inputs that you can change from

within Aspen Plus (for example, fouling factors and film

coefficients)

Use the FlashOptions sheet to enter flash specifications.

If you want to perform these

calculations

Solids? Set Valid Phases to

Vapor phase Yes or no Vapor-only

Liquid phase Yes or no Liquid-only

2-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid

3-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-Liquid

3-fluid phase free-water flash Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-FreeWater

Solids only Yes Solid-only

To override global or flowsheet section property specifications, use

the FlashOptions sheet. You can use different physical property

methods for the hot side and cold side of the air cooler. If you

supply only one set of property specifications, Aerotran uses that

set for both hot- and cold-side calculations.

Aerotran blocks cannot currently handle streams with solids

substreams.

Specifying Aerotran

Flash Specifications

Physical Properties

Solids

Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-27

HxFlux Reference

HxFlux is used to perform heat transfer calculations between a heat

sink and a heat source, using convective heat transfer. The driving

force for the convective heat transfer is calculated as a function of

log-mean temperature difference (LMTD).

Specify variables among inlet and outlet stream temperatures, duty,

heat transfer coefficient, and heat transfer area. HxFlux calculates

the unknown variable and determines the log-mean temperature

difference, using either the rigorous or the approximate method.

Use the following forms to enter specifications and view results for

HxFlux:

Use this form To do this

Input Specify required and optional variables for heat transfer

calculations

Results View a summary of results and mass and energy

balances.

Heat (optional)

Heat

(optional)

inlet Inlet heat stream (optional)

outlet Outlet heat stream (optional)

You have to specify inlet hot stream temperature or temperature

from a reference stream, and inlet cold stream temperature or

temperature from a reference stream. You also have to specify four

of the following variables:

Outlet hot stream (temperature or temperature from a reference

stream)

Outlet cold stream (temperature or temperature from a

reference stream)

Duty, duty from a reference heat stream, or inlet heat stream

Overall heat transfer coefficient

Heat transfer area

You can select the flow direction for either counter-current or co-

current flow. When there is an inlet heat stream or when the duty is

Flowsheet

Connectivity for

HxFlux

Specifying HxFlux

3-28 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

from a reference heat stream, you can select the heat stream

direction to indicate whether the duty value is positive or negative.

You can also select the calculation method in determining the log-

mean temperature difference.

The standard equation for convective heat transfer is:

LMTD UA Q

Where:

Q = Heat duty

U = Overall heat transfer coefficient

A = Heat transfer area

LMTD = Log-mean temperature difference

This equation applies for heat transfer with either counter-current

or co-current flow.

Two methods are used in determining log-mean temperature

difference (LMTD). For the rigorous method:

(

,

\

,

(

j

2

1

2 1

ln

T

T

T T

LMTD

For the approximate method:

3

2 1

3

1

3

1

2

(

,

\

,

(

j +

T T

LMTD

where

1

T

and

2

T

are the approach temperatures.

The approximate method is used even if the rigorous method is

specified when:

Either of the approach temperatures is zero.

There is no difference in the approach temperatures.

All features of HXFlux are available in the EO formulation, except

the features which are globally unsupported.

Convective Heat

Transfer

Log-Mean

Temperature

Difference

EO Usage Notes for

HXFlux

Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-29

HTRI-Xist Reference

HTRI-Xist is the interface to HTRIs Xist program for designing

and simulating shell and tube heat exchangers. HTRI-Xist can be

used to simulate shell and tube heat exchangers with a wide variety

of configurations. To use HTRI-Xist, place the block in the

flowsheet, connect inlet and outlet streams, and specify a small

number of block inputs, including the name of the Xist input file

for that exchanger.

You can enter information related to the heat exchanger

configuration and geometry through the Xist standalone program

interface. The exchanger specification is saved as an Xist input

file. You do not have to enter information about the exchangers

physical characteristics through the Aspen Plus user interface or

through input language.

Use the following forms to enter specifications and view results for

HTRI-Xist:

Use this form To do this

Input Specify the name of the Xist input file, parameters

for calculating the property curves, optional Xist

program inputs, flash convergence parameters, and

valid phases

Block Options Override global values for physical properties,

simulation options, diagnostic message levels, and

report options for this block

Results View inlet and outlet stream conditions and material

and energy balance results

Detailed

Results

View inlet and outlet stream conditions and material

and energy balance results

Cold Inlet

Hot Inlet

Hot Water (optional)

Hot Outlet

Cold Outlet

Cold Water (optional)

Material Streams

inlet One hot inlet

One cold inlet

Flowsheet

Connectivity for

HTRI-Xist

3-30 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models

outlet One hot outlet

One cold outlet

One water decant stream on the hot side (optional)

One water decant stream on the cold side (optional)

Enter the input for the shell and tube heat exchanger through the

Xist programs graphical user interface. The input for HTRI-Xist in

Aspen Plus is limited to:

The Xist input file name that contains the heat exchanger

specification

A set of parameters to control how property curves are

generated

A set of Xist program inputs that you can change from within

Aspen Plus (for example, fouling factors and film coefficients)

Use the FlashOptions sheet to enter flash specifications.

If you want to perform these

calculations

Solids? Set Valid Phases to

Vapor phase Yes or no Vapor-only

Liquid phase Yes or no Liquid-only

2-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid

3-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-Liquid

3-fluid phase free-water flash Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-FreeWater

Solids only Yes Solid-only

To override global or flowsheet section property specifications, use

the FlashOptions sheet. You can use different physical property

methods for the hot side and cold side of the heat exchanger. If you

supply only one set of property specifications, HTRI-Xist uses that

set for both hot- and cold-side calculations.

HTRI-Xist cannot currently handle streams with solids substreams.

Specifying HTRI-Xist

Flash Specifications

Physical Properties

Solids

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