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Aspen Plus 11.

1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-1


C H A P T E R 3
Heat Exchangers
This chapter describes the unit operation models for heat
exchangers and heaters (and coolers), and for interfacing to the B-
JAC heat exchanger programs. The models are:
Model Description Purpose Use For
Heater Heater or cooler Determines thermal and
phase conditions of
outlet stream
Heaters, coolers, condensers, and so on
HeatX Two-stream heat
exchanger
Exchanges heat between
two streams
Two-stream heat exchangers. Rating shell
and tube heat exchangers when geometry is
known.
MHeatX Multistream heat
exchanger
Exchanges heat between
any number of streams
Multiple hot and cold stream heat
exchangers. Two-stream heat exchangers.
LNG exchangers.
Hetran Shell and tube heat
exchanger
Provides interface to the
B-JAC Hetran shell and
tube heat exchanger
program
Shell and tube heat exchangers, including
kettle reboilers
Aerotran Air-cooled heat
exchanger
Provides interface to the
B-JAC Aerotran air-
cooled heat exchanger
program
Crossflow heat exchangers, including air
coolers
HxFlux Heat transfer
calculation
Perform heat transfer
calculations between a
heat sink and a heat
source, using convective
heat transfer
Two single-sided heat exchangers
HTRI-Xist Shell and tube heat
exchanger
Provides interface to
HTRIs Xist shell and
tube heat exchanger
program
Shell and tube heat exchangers, including
kettle reboilers
3-2 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
Heater Reference
You can use Heater to represent:
Heaters
Coolers
Valves
Pumps (whenever work-related results are not needed)
Compressors (whenever work-related results are not needed)
You also can use Heater to set the thermodynamic condition of a
stream.
When you specify the outlet conditions, Heater determines the
thermal and phase conditions of a mixture with one or more inlet
streams.
Use the following forms to enter specifications and view results for
Heater:
Use this form To do this
Input Enter operating conditions and flash convergence
parameters
Hcurves Specify heating or cooling curve tables and view
tabular results
Block Options Override global values for physical properties,
simulation options, diagnostic message levels,
and report options for this block
Results View Heater results
Heat (optional)
Material
Material
(any number)
Heat
(optional)
Water (optional)
Material Streams
inlet At least one material stream
outlet One material stream
One water decant stream (optional)
Heat Streams
inlet Any number of heat streams (optional)
outlet One heat stream (optional)
Flowsheet
Connectivity for
Heater
Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-3
If you give only one specification (temperature or pressure) on the
Specifications sheet, Heater uses the sum of the inlet heat streams
as a duty specification. Otherwise, Heater uses the inlet heat stream
only to calculate the net heat duty. The net heat duty is the sum of
the inlet heat streams minus the actual (calculated) heat duty.
You can use an optional outlet heat stream for the net heat duty.
Use the Heater Input Specifications sheet for all required
specifications and valid phases.
Dew point calculations are two- or three-phase flashes with a vapor
fraction of unity.
Bubble point calculations are two- or three-phase flashes with a
vapor fraction of zero.
Use the Heater Input FlashOptions sheet to specify temperature
and pressure estimates and flash convergence parameters.
Use the Hcurves form to specify optional heating or cooling
curves.
This model has no dynamic features. The pressure drop is fixed at
the steady state value. The outlet flow is determined by the mass
balance.
Heater can simulate fluid phases with solids when the stream
contains solid substreams or when you request electrolyte
chemistry calculations.
All phases are in thermal equilibrium. Solids leave at the same
temperature as fluid phases.
Solid Substreams Materials in solid substreams do not participate
in phase equilibrium calculations.
Electrolyte Chemistry Calculations You can request these on the
Properties Specifications Global sheet or the Heater BlockOptions
Properties sheet. Solid salts participate in liquid-solid phase
equilibrium and thermal equilibrium calculations. The salts are in
the MIXED substream.
All features of Heater are available in the EO formulation, except
the features which are globally unsupported.
Specifying Heater
Solids
EO Usage Notes for
Heater
3-4 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
HeatX Reference
HeatX can model a wide variety of shell and tube heat exchanger
types including:
Countercurrent and co-current
Segmental baffle TEMA E, F, G, H, J, and X shells
Rod baffle TEMA E and F shells
Bare and low-finned tubes
HeatX can perform a full zone analysis with heat transfer
coefficient and pressure drop estimation for single- and two-phase
streams. For rigorous heat transfer and pressure drop calculations,
you must supply the exchanger geometry.
If exchanger geometry is unknown or unimportant, HeatX can
perform simplified shortcut rating calculations. For example, you
may want to perform only heat and material balance calculations.
HeatX has correlations to estimate sensible heat, nucleate boiling,
and condensation film coefficients.
HeatX can
Perform design calculations
Perform mechanical vibration analysis
Estimate fouling factors
Use the following forms to enter specifications and view results for
HeatX:
Use this form To do this
Setup Specify shortcut, detailed or Hetran-rigorous
calculations, flow direction, exchanger pressure
drops, heat transfer coefficient calculation methods,
and film coefficients
Options Specify different flash convergence parameters and
valid phases for the hot and cold sides, HeatX
convergence parameters, and block-specific report
option
Hetran Options Specify the name of the Hetran input file,
parameters for calculating the property curves,
optional Hetran program inputs.
Hetran Browser Specify data when using the Hetran-Rigorous
calculation type.
Geometry Specify the shell and tube configuration and indicate
any tube fins, baffles, or nozzles
Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-5
Use this form To do this
Hot-Hcurves Specify hot stream heating or cooling curve tables
and view tabular results
Cold-Hcurves Specify cold stream heating or cooling curve tables
and view tabular results
User Subroutines Specify parameters for user-defined Fortran
subroutines to calculate overall heat transfer
coefficient, LMTD correction factor, tube-side
liquid holdup, or tube-side pressure drop
Dynamic Specify parameters for dynamic simulations
Block Options Override global values for physical properties,
simulation options, diagnostic message levels, and
report options for this block
Thermal Results View a summary of results, mass and energy
balances, pressure drops, velocities, and zone
analysis profiles
Geometry Results View detailed shell and tube results, and information
about tube fins, baffles, and nozzles
Hetran Thermal
Results
View overall results and detailed results for the shell
side and tube side when using the Hetran-Rigorous
calculation type.
Cold Outlet
Water (optional)
Hot Outlet
Water
(optional)
Hot
Inlet
Cold Inlet
Material Streams
inlet One hot inlet
One cold inlet
outlet One hot outlet
One cold outlet
One water decant stream on the hot side (optional)
One water decant stream on the cold side (optional)
Flowsheet
Connectivity for
HeatX
3-6 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
Consider these questions when specifying HeatX:
Should rating calculations be simple (shortcut) or rigorous?
What specification should the block have?
How should the log-mean temperature difference correction
factor be calculated?
How should the heat transfer coefficient be calculated?
How should the pressure drops be calculated?
What equipment specifications and geometry information are
available?
The answers to these questions determine the amount of
information required to complete the block input. You must
provide one of the following specifications:
Heat exchanger area or geometry
Exchanger heat duty
Outlet temperature of the hot or cold stream
Temperature approach at either end of the exchanger
Degrees of superheating/subcooling for the hot or cold stream
Vapor fraction of the hot or cold stream
Temperature change of the hot or cold stream
HeatX has three calculation methods: shortcut, detailed, and
Hetran-rigorous. Use the Calculation field on the Setup
Specifications sheet to specify the appropriate calculation
method.
With the shortcut calculation method you can simulate a heat
exchanger block with the minimum amount of required input. The
shortcut calculation does not require exchanger configuration or
geometry data.
With the detailed calculation method, you can use exchanger
geometry to estimate:
Film coefficients
Pressure drops
Log-mean temperature difference correction factor
The detailed calculation method provides more specification
options for HeatX, but it also requires more input.
The detailed calculation method provides defaults for many
options. You can change the defaults to gain complete control over
the calculations. The following table lists these options with valid
values. The values are described in the following sections.
Specifying HeatX
Shortcut Versus Rigorous
Rating Calculations
Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-7
The Hetran-rigorous method allows you to design new
equipment, and to rate or simulate the performance of existing
equipment. In addition to the more rigorous heat transfer and
hydraulic analyses, the program will also determine possible
operational problems such as vibration or excessive velocities. You
can use the Hetran-rigorous method to estimate the cost for the
equipment. The modules used in the Hetran-rigorous method are
the same as those used in the Aspen Hetran standalone product for
shell and tube heat exchanger analysis.
Variable Calculation Method
Available in
Shortcut Mode
Available in
Detailed Mode
Available in
Hetran-rigorous mode
LMTD
Correction
Factor
Constant
Geometry
User subroutine
Calculated
Single tube pass
No
No
Multiple tube pass
Yes
Default
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Heat Transfer
Coefficient
Constant value
Phase-specific values
Power law expression
Film coefficients
Exchanger geometry
User subroutine
Yes
Default
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Default
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Film
Coefficient
Constant value
Phase-specific values
Power law expression
Calculate from geometry
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Default
No
No
No
No
Pressure Drop Outlet pressure
Calculate from geometry
Default
No
Yes
Default
No
No
In shortcut mode, a constant LMTD must be supplied for
exchangers with a single tube pass. For exchangers with multiple
tube passes, the LMTD correction factor will be calculated.
The standard equation for a heat exchanger is:
Q U A LMTD
where LMTD is the log-mean temperature difference. This
equation applies for exchangers with pure countercurrent flow.
The more general equation is:
Q U A F LMTD
where the LMTD correction factor, F, accounts for deviation from
countercurrent flow.
Use the LMTD Correction Factor field on the Setup Specifications
sheet to enter the LMTD correction factor.
In shortcut rating mode, the LMTD correction factor is constant for
a cocurrent or countercurrent exchanger. For a multipass
Calculating the Log-Mean
Temperature Difference
Correction Factor
3-8 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
exchanger, HeatX will calculate the correction factor. See
Shortcut Model of a System of Multiple Tube Pass Exchangers in
Series, for more information.
In rigorous rating mode, use the LMTD Correction Method field
on the Setup Specifications sheet to specify how HeatX calculates
the LMTD correction factor. You can choose from the following
calculation options:
If LMTD Correction
Method is
Then
Constant The LMTD correction factor you enter is
constant.
Geometry HeatX calculates the LMTD correction factor
using the exchanger specification and stream
properties
User subroutine You supply a user subroutine to calculate the
LMTD correction factor.
To determine how the heat transfer coefficient is calculated, set the
Calculation Method on the Setup U Methods sheet. You can use
these options in shortcut or rigorous rating mode:
If Calculation
Method is
HeatX uses And you
specify
Constant value A constant value for the heat
transfer coefficient
The constant
value
Phase-specific
values
A different heat transfer coefficient
for each heat transfer zone of the
exchanger, indexed by the phase for
the hot and cold streams
A constant
value for each
zone
Power law
expression
A power law expression for the heat
transfer coefficient as a function of
one of the stream flow rates
Constants for
the power law
expression
In rigorous rating mode, three additional values are allowed:
If Calculation
Method is
Then
Exchanger
geometry
HeatX calculates the heat transfer coefficient using
exchanger geometry and stream properties to
estimate film coefficients.
Film coefficients HeatX calculates the heat transfer coefficients using
the film coefficients. You can use any option on the
Setup Film Coefficients sheet to calculate the film
coefficients.
User subroutine You supply a user subroutine to calculate the heat
transfer coefficient.
Calculating the Heat
Transfer Coefficient
Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-9
HeatX does not calculate film coefficients in shortcut rating mode.
In rigorous rating mode, if you use film coefficients or exchanger
geometry for the heat transfer coefficient calculation method,
HeatX calculates the heat transfer coefficient using:
1 1 1
U h h
c h
+
Where:
h
c
= Cold stream film coefficient
h
h
= Hot stream film coefficient
To choose an option for calculating film coefficients, set the
Calculation Method on the Setup Film Coefficients sheet. The
following are available:
If Calculation Method is HeatX uses And you
specify
Constant value A constant value for the
film coefficient
A constant
value to be used
throughout the
exchanger
Phase-specific values A different film coefficient
for each heat transfer zone
(phase) of the exchanger,
indexed by the phase of the
stream
A constant
value for each
phase
Power law expression A power law expression for
the film coefficient as a
function of the stream flow
rate
Constants for
the power law
expression
Calculate from geometry The exchanger geometry
and stream properties to
calculate the film
coefficient
The hot stream and cold stream film coefficient calculation
methods are independent of each other. You can use any
combination that is appropriate for your exchanger.
To enter exchanger pressure or pressure drop for the hot and cold
sides, use the Outlet Pressure fields on the Setup Pressure Drop
sheet. In shortcut rating mode the pressure drop is constant.
In rigorous rating mode, you can choose how pressure drops are
calculated by setting the pressure options on the Setup
PressureDrop sheet. The following pressure drop options are
available:
Film Coefficients
Pressure Drop
Calculations
3-10 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
If Pressure Option is Then
Outlet Pressure You must enter the outlet pressure or pressure
drop for the stream.
Calculate from geometry HeatX calculates the pressure drop using the
exchanger geometry and stream properties
HeatX calls the Pipeline model to calculate tube-side pressure
drop. You can set the correlations for pressure drop and liquid
holdup that the Pipeline model uses on the Setup PressureDrop
sheet.
Exchanger configuration refers to the overall patterns of flow in
the heat exchanger. If you choose Calculate From Geometry for
any of the heat transfer coefficients, film coefficients, or pressure
drop calculation methods, you may be required to enter some
information about the exchanger configuration on the Geometry
Shell sheet. This sheet includes fields for:
TEMA shell type (see the next figure, TEMA Shell Types)
Number of tube passes
Exchanger orientation
Tubes in baffle window
Number of sealing strips
Tube flow for vertical exchangers
Exchanger Configuration
Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-11
Two Pass Shell
with Longitudinal Baffle
One Pass Shell
E Shell
F Shell
G Shell
H Shell
J Shell
X Shell
Split Flow
Double Split Flow
Divided Flow
Cross Flow
TEMA Shell Types
3-12 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
The Geometry Shell sheet also contains two important dimensions
for the shell:
Inside shell diameter
Shell to bundle clearance
The next figure shows the shell dimensions.
Outer Tube
Limit
Shell to Bundle
Clearance
Shell Diameter
Shell Dimensions
Calculation of shell-side film coefficient and pressure drop require
information about the baffle geometry within the shell. Enter baffle
geometry on the Geometry Baffles sheet.
HeatX can calculate shell-side values for both segmental baffle
shells and rod baffle shells. Other required information depends on
the baffle type. For segmental baffles, required information
includes:
Baffle cut
Baffle spacing
Baffle clearances
For rod baffles, required information includes:
Ring dimensions
Support rod geometry
The next two figures show the baffle dimensions. The Baffle Cut
in the Dimensions for Segmental Baffles figure is a fraction of the
shell diameter. All clearances are diametric.
Baffle Geometry
Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-13
Baffle Cut
Tube Hole
Shell to Baffle
Clearance
Dimensions for Segmental Baffles
Ring Outside
Diameter
Ring Inside
Diameter
Rod Diameter
Dimensions for Rod Baffles
Calculation of the tube-side film coefficient and pressure drop
require information about the geometry of the tubebank. HeatX
also uses this information to calculate the heat transfer coefficient
from the film coefficients. Enter tube geometry on the Geometry
Tubes sheet.
You can select a heat exchanger with either bare or low-finned
tubes. The sheet also includes fields for:
Total number of tubes
Tube length
Tube diameters
Tube layout
Tube material of construction
The next two figures show tube layout patterns and fin dimensions.
Tube Geometry
3-14 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
Tube
Pitch
30
o
Triangle
45
o
Tube
Pitch
Rotated
Square
60
o
Tube
Pitch
Rotated
Triangle
90
o
Tube
Pitch
Square
Direction of Flow
Tube Layout Patterns
Outside
Diameter
Fin Thickness
Root Mean
Diameter
Fin Height
Fin Dimensions
Calculations for pressure drop include the calculation of pressure
drop in the exchanger nozzles. Enter nozzle geometry on the
Geometry Nozzles sheet.
HeatX uses open literature correlations for calculating film
coefficients and pressure drops. The next four tables list the model
correlations.
Tube-side Heat Transfer Coefficient Correlations
Mechanism Flow Regime Correlation References
Single-phase Laminar
Turbulent
Schlunder
Gnielinski
[1]
[1]
Boiling -
vertical tubes
Steiner/Taborek [2]
Boiling -
horizontal tubes
Shah [3, 4]
Condensation -
vertical tubes
Laminar
Laminar wavy
Turbulent
Shear-dominated
Nusselt
Kutateladze
Labuntsov
Rohsenow
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
Condensation -
horizontal tubes
Annular
Stratifying
Rohsenow
Jaster/Kosky method
[8]
[9]
Nozzle Geometry
Model Correlations
Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-15
Shell-side Heat Transfer Coefficient Correlations
Mechanism Flow Regime Correlation References
Single-phase
segmental
Bell-Delaware [10, 11]
Single-phase
ROD
Gentry [12]
Boiling Jensen [13]
Condensation -
vertical
Laminar
Laminar wavy
Turbulent
Shear-dominated
Nusselt
Kutateladze
Labuntsov
Rohsenow
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
Condensation -
horizontal
Kern [9]
Tube-side Pressure Drop Correlations
Mechanism Correlation
Single-phase Darcys Law
Two-phase See Pipeline
Shell-side Pressure Drop Correlations
Mechanism Correlation References
Single-phase segmental Bell-Delaware [10, 11]
Single-phase ROD Gentry [12]
Two-phase segmental Bell-Delaware method with
Grants correction for two-phase
flow
[10, 11], [14]
Two-phase ROD Gentry [12]
References
1 Gnielinski, V., "Forced Convection in Ducts." In: Heat
Exchanger Design Handbook. New York:Hemisphere
Publishing Corporation, 1983.
2 Steiner, D. and Taborek, J., "Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in
Vertical Tubes Correlated by an Asymptotic Model." In: Heat
Transfer Engineering, 13(2):43-69, 1992.
3 Shah, M.M., "A New Correlation for Heat Transfer During
Boiling Flow Through Pipes." In: ASHRAE Transactions,
82(2):66-86, 1976.
4 Shah, M.M., "Chart Correlation for Saturated Boiling Heat
Transfer: Equations and Further Study." In: ASHRAE
Transactions, 87(1):185-196, 1981.
5 Nusselt, W., "Surface Condensation of Water Vapor." Z. Ver.
Dtsch, Ing., 60(27):541-546, 1916.
6 Kutateladze, S.S., Fundamentals of Heat Transfer. New York:
Academic Press, 1963.
3-16 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
7 Labuntsov, D.A., "Heat Transfer in Film Condensation of Pure
Steam on Vertical Surfaces and Horizontal Tubes." In:
Teploenergetika, 4(7):72-80, 1957.
8 Rohsenow, W.M., Webber, J.H., and Ling, A.T., "Effect of
Vapor Velocity on Laminar and Turbulent Film
Condensation." In: Transactions of the ASME, 78:1637-1643,
1956.
9 Jaster, H. and Kosky, P.G., "Condensation Heat Transfer in a
Mixed Flow Regime." In: International Journal of Heat and
Mass Transfer, 19:95-99, 1976.
10 Taborek, J., "Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers: Single Phase
Flow." In: Heat Exchanger Design Handbook. New York:
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1983.
11 Bell, K.J., "Delaware Method for Shell Side Design." In:
Kakac, S., Bergles, A.E., and Mayinger, F., editors, Heat
Exchangers: Thermal-Hydraulic Fundamentals and Design.
New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1981.
12 Gentry, C.C., "RODBaffle Heat Exchanger Technology." In:
Chemical Engineering Progress 86(7):48-57, July 1990.
13 Jensen, M.K. and Hsu, J.T., "A Parametric Study of Boiling
Heat Transfer in a Tube Bundle." In: 1987 ASME-JSME
Thermal Engineering Joint Conference, pages 133-140,
Honolulu, Hawaii, 1987.
14 Grant, I.D.R. and Chisholm, D., "Two-Phase Flow on the Shell
Side of a Segmentally Baffled Shell-and-Tube Heat
Exchanger." In: Journal of Heat Transfer, 101(1):38-42, 1979.
Use the Options Flash Options sheet to enter flash specifications.
If you want to perform
these calculations Solids? Set Valid Phases to
Vapor phase Yes or no Vapor-only
Liquid phase Yes or no Liquid-only
2-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid
3-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-Liquid
3-fluid phase free-water flash Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-FreeWater
Solids only Yes Solid-only
To override global or flowsheet section property specifications, use
the BlockOptions Properties sheet. You can use different physical
property options for the hot side and cold side of the heat
exchanger. If you supply only one set of property specifications,
HeatX uses that set for both hot and cold side calculations.
All phases are in thermal equilibrium. Solids leave at the same
temperature as the fluid phases.
Flash Specifications
Physical Properties
Solids
Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-17
HeatX can simulate fluid phases with solids when the stream
contains solid substreams, or when you request electrolyte
chemistry calculations.
Solid Substreams: Materials in solid substreams do not participate
in phase equilibrium calculations.
Electrolyte Chemistry Calculations: You can request these on the
Properties Specifications Global sheet or HeatX BlockOptions
Properties sheet. Solid salts participate in liquid-solid phase
equilibrium and thermal equilibrium calculations. The salts are in
the MIXED substream.
HeatX can perform a shortcut calculation of a system of multiple
tube pass heat exchangers in series. The following restrictions
apply:
All units in series are identical
Each unit in series has one shell pass and an even number of
tube passes
The overall heat transfer coefficient is the same for each unit
To do this, on the Setup Specifications sheet:
1 Select the Shortcut calculation type
2 Select Multiple tube passes for flow direction.
3 In the No. shells in series field, enter the number of units in
series.
When this option is chosen, Aspen Plus will calculate the LMTD
correction factor.
You can also choose to specify a minimum value for the calculated
LMTD correction factor. HeatX will issue a warning if the
calculated value is less than this value.
The LMTD correction factor is calculated as follows:
If R, the ratio of heat capacities, is not equal to 1, then:
]
]
]
]
,
,

,
+ + +
+ +
]
]
]
,

) 1 1 ( 2
) 1 1 ( 2
ln
1
1
ln
1
1
2
2
2
R R P
R R P
P
R P
R
R
F
If R = 1, then:
]
]
]
,

,
+

) 2 2 ( 2
) 2 2 ( 2
ln ) 1 (
2
P
P
P
P
F
Shortcut Model of a
System of Multiple Tube
Pass Exchangers in
Series
3-18 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
Where:
F = LMTD correction factor
R =
Ratio of heat capacities:
hot cold
) /( ) (
p p
WC WC

P
= Thermal effectiveness of each unit, calculated by the
Bowman transformation
The Bowman transformation gives the thermal effectiveness of
each unit based on the overall thermal effectiveness. If R 1, then:
R
P
PR
P
PR
P
N
N

]
]
]
,

]
]
]
,

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
If R=1, then:
N NP P
P
P
+

Where:
P = Thermal effectiveness for the overall heat
exchanger:
(temp. increase of cold fluid)/(inlet T hot fluid
inlet T cold fluid)
N = Number of shells in series
Reference
Dodd, R., "Mean Temperature Difference and Temperature
Efficiency for Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Connected in
Series with Two Tube Passes per Shell Pass." In: Trans. IChemE,
Vol. 58, 1980.
The features listed below are not supported in equation-oriented
formulation. However, the capabilities are still available for the EO
solution strategy via the Perturbation Layer.
Rigorous method (with geometry)
Phase-specific heat transfer coefficients and zone analysis
Features which are globally unsupported
EO Usage Notes for
HeatX
Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-19
MHeatX Reference
Use MHeatX to represent heat transfer between multiple hot and
cold streams, such as in an LNG exchanger. You can also use
MHeatX for two-stream heat exchangers. Free water can be
decanted from any outlet stream. MHeatX ensures an overall
energy balance but does not account for the exchanger geometry.
MHeatX can perform a detailed, rigorous internal zone analysis to
determine the internal pinch points and heating and cooling curves
for all streams in the heat exchanger. MHeatX can also calculate
the overall UA for the exchanger and model heat leak to or from an
exchanger.
MHeatX uses multiple Heater blocks and heat streams to enhance
flowsheet convergence. Aspen Plus automatically sequences block
and stream convergence unless you specify a sequence or tear
stream.
Use the following forms to enter specifications and view results for
MHeatX:
Use this form To do this
Input Specify operating conditions, flash convergence
parameters, parameters for zone analysis, flash table,
MHeatX convergence parameters, and block-
specific report options
Hcurves Specify heating or cooling curve tables and view
tabular results
Block Options Override global values for physical properties,
simulation options, diagnostic message levels and
report options for this block
Results View stream results, exchanger results, zone
profiles, stream profiles, flash profiles, and material
and energy balance results
Hot Inlets
(any number)
Hot Outlets
Water (optional)
Hot Outlets
Water (optional)
Water
(optional)
Cold
Outlets
Cold Inlets
(any number)
Flowsheet
Connectivity for
MHeatX
3-20 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
Material Streams
inlet At least one material stream on the hot side, unless a load
stream is used.
At least one material stream on the cold side, unless a load
stream is used.
outlet One outlet stream for each inlet stream.
One water decant stream for each outlet stream (optional).
Load Streams
inlet Any number of load streams on either or both sides.
outlet One outlet load stream for each inlet load stream.
The inlet stream sides are non-contacting.
You must give outlet specifications for each stream on one side of
the heat exchanger. On the other side you can specify any of the
outlet streams, but you must leave at least one unspecified stream.
Different streams can have different types of specifications.
MHeatX assumes that all unspecified streams have the same outlet
temperature. An overall energy balance determines the temperature
of any unspecified stream(s).
You can use a different property method for each stream in
MHeatX. Specify the property methods on the BlockOptions
Properties sheet.
MHeatX can perform a detailed, rigorous internal zone analysis to
determine:
Internal pinch points
UA and LMTD of each zone
Total UA of the exchanger
Overall average LMTD
To obtain a zone analysis, specify Number of zones greater than 0
on the MHeatX Input Zone Analysis sheet. During zone analysis
MHeatX can add:
Stream entry points (if all feed streams are not at the same
temperature)
Stream exit points (if all product streams are not at the same
temperature)
Phase change points (if a phase change occurs internally)
MHeatX can also account for the nonlinearities of zone profiles by
adding zones adaptively. MHeatX can perform zone analysis for
both countercurrent and co-current heat exchangers.
Specifying MHeatX
Zone Analysis
Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-21
Use Flash Tables to estimate zone profiles and pinch points
quickly. These tables are most useful for heat exchangers that have
many streams, for which zone analysis calculations can take a long
time.
To use a Flash Table for a stream, specify the number of flash
points for the stream on the MHeatX Input Flash Table sheet.
When you specify a flash table for a stream, MHeatX generates a
temperature-enthalpy profile of that stream before zone analysis,
and interpolates that profile during zone analysis, rather than
flashing the stream.
You can also specify the fraction of total pressure drop in each
phase region of a stream on the MHeatX Input Flash Table sheet.
Aspen Plus uses these fractions to determine the pressure profile
during Flash Table generation.
The computational structure of MHeatX may affect your
specifications.
Unlike other unit operation blocks, MHeatX is not simulated by a
single computation module. Instead, Aspen Plus generates heaters
and heat streams to represent the multistream heat exchanger. A
Heater block represents streams with outlet specifications. A
multistream heater block represents streams with no outlet
specifications. The next figure shows the computational structure
generated for a sample exchanger.
S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
S1 S2
LNGIN LNGOUT
$LNGH03
$LNGQ03
$LNGQ02
HEATER HEATER
$LNGH02
$LNGQ04
HEATER
$LNGH04
$LNGHTR
MHEATER
Example of MHeatX Computational Structure
This computational sequence converges much more rapidly than
simulation of MHeatX as a single block. Block results are given
for the entire MHeatX sequence. In most cases, you do not need to
know about the individual blocks generated in the sequence. The
following paragraphs describe the exceptions.
Simulation history and control panel messages are given for the
generated Heater blocks and heat streams.
Using Flash Tables in
Zone Analysis
Computational Structure
for MHeatX
3-22 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
You can provide an estimate for duty of the internally generated
heat stream. If the heat stream is a tear stream in the flowsheet,
Aspen Plus uses this estimate as an initial value.
You can give convergence specifications for the flowsheet
resulting when MHeatX blocks are replaced by their generated
networks. The generated Heater block and heat stream IDs must be
used on the Convergence SequenceSpecifications and
Convergence TearSpecifications sheets.
Automatic flowsheet analysis is based on the flowsheet resulting
when MHeatX blocks are replaced by generated Heater blocks.
The generated Heater blocks, instead of the MHeatX block, appear
in the calculation sequence. You can select generated heat streams
as tear streams.
MHeatX can simulate fluid phases with solids when the stream
contains solid substreams, or when you request electrolyte
chemistry calculations.
All phases are in thermal equilibrium. Solids leave at the same
temperature as the fluid phases.
Solid Substreams: Materials in solid substreams do not participate
in phase equilibrium calculations.
Electrolyte Chemistry Calculations: You can request these on the
Properties Specifications Global sheet or the MHeatX
BlockOptions Properties sheet. Solid salts participate in liquid-
solid phase equilibrium and thermal equilibrium calculations. The
salts are in the MIXED substream.
Solids
Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-23
Hetran Reference
Hetran is the interface to the B-JAC Hetran program for designing
and simulating shell and tube heat exchangers. Hetran can be used
to simulate shell and tube heat exchangers with a wide variety of
configurations. To use Hetran, place the block in the flowsheet,
connect inlet and outlet streams, and specify a small number of
block inputs, including the name of the B-JAC input file for that
exchanger.
You enter information related to the heat exchanger configuration
and geometry through the Hetran standalone program interface.
The exchanger specification is saved as a B-JAC input file. You do
not have to enter information about the exchangers physical
characteristics through the Aspen Plus user interface or through
input language.
Use the following forms to enter specifications and view results for
Hetran:
Use this form To do this
Input Specify the name of the B-JAC input file,
parameters for calculating the property curves,
optional Hetran program inputs, flash
convergence parameters, and valid phases
Block Options Override global values for physical properties,
simulation options, diagnostic message levels,
and report options for this block
Results View inlet and outlet stream conditions and
material and energy balance results
Detailed Results View overall results and detailed results for the
shell side and tube side
Cold Inlet
Hot Inlet
Hot Water (optional)
Hot Outlet
Cold Outlet
Cold Water (optional)
Material Streams
inlet One hot inlet
One cold inlet
Flowsheet
Connectivity for
Hetran
3-24 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
outlet One hot outlet
One cold outlet
One water decant stream on the hot side (optional)
One water decant stream on the cold side (optional)
Enter the input for the shell and tube heat exchanger through the
Hetran programs graphical user interface. The input for Hetran in
Aspen Plus is limited to:
The B-JAC input file name that contains the heat exchanger
specification
A set of parameters to control how property curves are
generated
A set of Hetran program inputs that you can change from
within
Aspen Plus (for example, fouling factors and film coefficients)
Use the Flash Options sheet to enter flash specifications.
If you want to perform these
calculations
Solids? Set Valid Phases to
Vapor phase Yes or no Vapor-only
Liquid phase Yes or no Liquid-only
2-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid
3-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-Liquid
3-fluid phase free-water flash Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-FreeWater
Solids only Yes Solid-only
To override global or flowsheet section property specifications, use
the Flash Options sheet. You can use different physical property
methods for the hot side and cold side of the heat exchanger. If you
supply only one set of property specifications, Hetran uses that set
for both hot- and cold-side calculations.
Hetran cannot currently handle streams with solids substreams.
Specifying Hetran
Flash Specifications
Physical Properties
Solids
Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-25
Aerotran Reference
Aerotran is the interface to the B-JAC Aerotran program for
designing and simulating air-cooled heat exchangers. Aerotran can
be used to simulate air-cooled heat exchangers with a wide variety
of configurations. It can also be used to model economizers and the
convection section of fired heaters. To use Aerotran, place the
block in the flowsheet, connect inlet and outlet streams, and
specify a small number of block inputs, including the name of the
B-JAC input file for that exchanger.
You enter information related to the air cooler configuration and
geometry through the Aerotran standalone program interface. The
air cooler specification is saved as a B-JAC input file. You do not
have to enter information about the air coolers physical
characteristics through the Aspen Plus user interface or through
input language.
Use the following forms to enter specifications and view results for
Aerotran:
Use this form To do this
Input Specify the name of the B-JAC input file,
parameters for calculating the property curves,
optional Aerotran program inputs, flash
convergence parameters, and valid phases
Block Options Override global values for physical properties,
simulation options, diagnostic message levels,
and report options for this block
Results View inlet and outlet stream conditions and
material and energy balance results
Detailed Results View overall results, detailed results for the
outside and tube side, and fan results
Cold (Air) Inlet
Cold (Air) Outlet
Hot Outlet
Hot Inlet
Hot Water (optional)
Cold Water (optional)
Flowsheet
Connectivity for
Aerotran
3-26 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
Material Streams
inlet One hot inlet
One cold (air) inlet
outlet One hot outlet
One cold (air) outlet
One water decant stream on the hot side (optional)
One water decant stream on the cold side (optional)
Enter the input for the air-cooled heat exchanger through the
Aerotran programs graphical user interface. The input for Aerotran
in Aspen Plus is limited to:
The B-JAC input file name that contains the heat exchanger
specification
A set of parameters to control how property curves are
generated
A set of Aerotran program inputs that you can change from
within Aspen Plus (for example, fouling factors and film
coefficients)
Use the FlashOptions sheet to enter flash specifications.
If you want to perform these
calculations
Solids? Set Valid Phases to
Vapor phase Yes or no Vapor-only
Liquid phase Yes or no Liquid-only
2-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid
3-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-Liquid
3-fluid phase free-water flash Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-FreeWater
Solids only Yes Solid-only
To override global or flowsheet section property specifications, use
the FlashOptions sheet. You can use different physical property
methods for the hot side and cold side of the air cooler. If you
supply only one set of property specifications, Aerotran uses that
set for both hot- and cold-side calculations.
Aerotran blocks cannot currently handle streams with solids
substreams.
Specifying Aerotran
Flash Specifications
Physical Properties
Solids
Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-27
HxFlux Reference
HxFlux is used to perform heat transfer calculations between a heat
sink and a heat source, using convective heat transfer. The driving
force for the convective heat transfer is calculated as a function of
log-mean temperature difference (LMTD).
Specify variables among inlet and outlet stream temperatures, duty,
heat transfer coefficient, and heat transfer area. HxFlux calculates
the unknown variable and determines the log-mean temperature
difference, using either the rigorous or the approximate method.
Use the following forms to enter specifications and view results for
HxFlux:
Use this form To do this
Input Specify required and optional variables for heat transfer
calculations
Results View a summary of results and mass and energy
balances.
Heat (optional)
Heat
(optional)
inlet Inlet heat stream (optional)
outlet Outlet heat stream (optional)
You have to specify inlet hot stream temperature or temperature
from a reference stream, and inlet cold stream temperature or
temperature from a reference stream. You also have to specify four
of the following variables:
Outlet hot stream (temperature or temperature from a reference
stream)
Outlet cold stream (temperature or temperature from a
reference stream)
Duty, duty from a reference heat stream, or inlet heat stream
Overall heat transfer coefficient
Heat transfer area
You can select the flow direction for either counter-current or co-
current flow. When there is an inlet heat stream or when the duty is
Flowsheet
Connectivity for
HxFlux
Specifying HxFlux
3-28 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
from a reference heat stream, you can select the heat stream
direction to indicate whether the duty value is positive or negative.
You can also select the calculation method in determining the log-
mean temperature difference.
The standard equation for convective heat transfer is:
LMTD UA Q
Where:
Q = Heat duty
U = Overall heat transfer coefficient
A = Heat transfer area
LMTD = Log-mean temperature difference
This equation applies for heat transfer with either counter-current
or co-current flow.
Two methods are used in determining log-mean temperature
difference (LMTD). For the rigorous method:
(
,
\
,
(
j

2
1
2 1
ln
T
T
T T
LMTD
For the approximate method:
3
2 1
3
1
3
1
2
(
,
\
,
(
j +

T T
LMTD
where
1
T
and
2
T
are the approach temperatures.
The approximate method is used even if the rigorous method is
specified when:
Either of the approach temperatures is zero.
There is no difference in the approach temperatures.
All features of HXFlux are available in the EO formulation, except
the features which are globally unsupported.
Convective Heat
Transfer
Log-Mean
Temperature
Difference
EO Usage Notes for
HXFlux
Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models Heat Exchangers 3-29
HTRI-Xist Reference
HTRI-Xist is the interface to HTRIs Xist program for designing
and simulating shell and tube heat exchangers. HTRI-Xist can be
used to simulate shell and tube heat exchangers with a wide variety
of configurations. To use HTRI-Xist, place the block in the
flowsheet, connect inlet and outlet streams, and specify a small
number of block inputs, including the name of the Xist input file
for that exchanger.
You can enter information related to the heat exchanger
configuration and geometry through the Xist standalone program
interface. The exchanger specification is saved as an Xist input
file. You do not have to enter information about the exchangers
physical characteristics through the Aspen Plus user interface or
through input language.
Use the following forms to enter specifications and view results for
HTRI-Xist:
Use this form To do this
Input Specify the name of the Xist input file, parameters
for calculating the property curves, optional Xist
program inputs, flash convergence parameters, and
valid phases
Block Options Override global values for physical properties,
simulation options, diagnostic message levels, and
report options for this block
Results View inlet and outlet stream conditions and material
and energy balance results
Detailed
Results
View inlet and outlet stream conditions and material
and energy balance results
Cold Inlet
Hot Inlet
Hot Water (optional)
Hot Outlet
Cold Outlet
Cold Water (optional)
Material Streams
inlet One hot inlet
One cold inlet
Flowsheet
Connectivity for
HTRI-Xist
3-30 Heat Exchangers Aspen Plus 11.1 Unit Operation Models
outlet One hot outlet
One cold outlet
One water decant stream on the hot side (optional)
One water decant stream on the cold side (optional)
Enter the input for the shell and tube heat exchanger through the
Xist programs graphical user interface. The input for HTRI-Xist in
Aspen Plus is limited to:
The Xist input file name that contains the heat exchanger
specification
A set of parameters to control how property curves are
generated
A set of Xist program inputs that you can change from within
Aspen Plus (for example, fouling factors and film coefficients)
Use the FlashOptions sheet to enter flash specifications.
If you want to perform these
calculations
Solids? Set Valid Phases to
Vapor phase Yes or no Vapor-only
Liquid phase Yes or no Liquid-only
2-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid
3-fluid flash phase Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-Liquid
3-fluid phase free-water flash Yes or no Vapor-Liquid-FreeWater
Solids only Yes Solid-only
To override global or flowsheet section property specifications, use
the FlashOptions sheet. You can use different physical property
methods for the hot side and cold side of the heat exchanger. If you
supply only one set of property specifications, HTRI-Xist uses that
set for both hot- and cold-side calculations.
HTRI-Xist cannot currently handle streams with solids substreams.
Specifying HTRI-Xist
Flash Specifications
Physical Properties
Solids