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The Marketing Concept

The term marketing concept holds that achieving organizational goals depends on knowing the
needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions. It proposes that in
order to satisfy its organizational objectives, an organization should anticipate the needs and
wants of consumers and satisfy these more effectively than competitors.

Production Oriented: The focus of the business is not the needs of the customer, but of
reducing costs by mass production. By reaching economies of scale the business will maximize
profits by reducing costs.
Sales Orientation: The focus here is to make the product, and then try to sell it to the target
market. It is basically a push concept of marketing concerned with selling the produced products
and making profits, without caring what the customer needs are?
Market Orientation: Puts the customer first and at the heart of the business. The organization
tries to understand the needs of the customers by using appropriate research methods, processes
and developing products to satisfy their needs. In essence all activities in the organisation are
based around the customer. The customer is the truly king.
In todays competitive world putting the customer at the heart of the operation is strategically
important. Whilst some organizations in certain industries may follow anything other then the
market orientation concept, those that follow the market orientation concept have a greater
chance of being successful.

Apart from these there can be many concepts of marketing like societal concept, product
concept, branding concept, etc.
Meaning and definition of Marketing:

According to Philip Kotler, "Marketing Management is the analysis, planning, implementation
and control of programmes designed to bring about desired exchanges with target audiences for
the purpose of personal and of mutual gain. It relies heavily on the adoption and coordination of
product, price, promotion and place for achieving responses."

Nature of Marketing:

After studying both the above, it might be said that marketing is both an art and a science, since
in it the scientific techniques and art are used, and thereafter various decisions undertaken.

1. Dynamic Process: Marketing is an ongoing activity which does not stop at any step. After
finding customers needs and wants it needs to develop such products or services which can
satisfy these needs and after this there is need to advertising, promotion, distribution, etc the
process goes on.
2. Customer Oriented: Marketing is customer oriented. Marketing is the process of finding needs
and wants of customers and satisfying those needs profitably.
3. Integrating: It integrates all the departments of an enterprise be it production, finance, IT, HR,
4. Creative: Marketing is creative in nature; it looks out for new ideas, views and activities and
solves problems or enacts opportunities in a creative way.
5. Marketing as a 'Science. It is essential for being called marketing that there be some of the
rules or principles of its own and in it the scientific practices are followed. Marketing proves to
be the most effective in the form of a science since it has some of its own principles and rules,
and in it are used the scientific methods like those of other social sciences. Today, before
undertaking the manufacturing of a product, the producer tries to collect various kinds of
researches and knowledge for instance, marketing research, purchaser-behavior research, etc. All
these facts prove the marketing to be a science.
6. Marketing as an Art. Along with a special qualification and ability, if some work is undertaken,
it is known as 'art'. Within the marketing itself, is covered the salesmanship. On the basis of sales
man ship, some of the shopkeepers extend their sales too much in comparison to that of their
other contemporary sellers. Marketing too is an art which is acquired by studies and ability and
by the proper training this art is led to perfection. The various problems of marketing are solved
by a special art only.

Scope of Marketing:
Marketing has a very wide scope it covers all the activities from conception of ideas to realization of
profits. Some of them as discussed as below:
1. Product Planning: It includes the activities of product research, marketing research, market
segmentation, and product development, determination of the attributes, quantity and quality of
the products.
2. Branding: Branding of products is adopted by many reputed enterprises to make their products
popular among their customer and for many other benefits. Marketing manager has to take
decision regarding the branding policy, procedures and implementation programs.
3. Packaging: Packaging is to provide a container or wrapper to the product for safety, attraction
and ease of use and transportation of the product.
4. Channels of Distribution: Decision regarding selection of most appropriate channel of
distribution like wholesaling, distribution and retailing is taken by the marketing manager and
sales manager.
5. Sales Management: Selling is a part of marketing. Marketing is concerned about all the selling
activities like customer identification, finding customer needs, persuading customer to buy
products, customer service, etc.
6. Advertising: Advertisement decisions like scope and time of advertisement, advertisement
message, selection of media, etc comes into marketing.
7. Finance: Marketing is also concerned about the finance, as for every marketing activity be it
packaging, advertising, sales force budget is fixed and all the activities have to be completed
with in the limit of that budget.
8. After Sales services: Marketing covers after sales services given to customers, maintaining
good relationships with customers, attending their queries and solving their problems.