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HP-UX 11i v3 Congestion Control

Management for Storage


March 2010
Technical white paper
Table of contents
Abstract........................................................................................................................................ 2
Overview...................................................................................................................................... 2
New scsimgr Attributes.................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction to Queue Depth............................................................................................................. 3
LUN Based Congestion Management............................................................................................. 3
Target Port Based Congestion Management..................................................................................... 4
Dynamic Target Port Based Congestion Management........................................................................ 5
Test Cases..................................................................................................................................... 5
LUN Based Queue Management (Current HP-UX Default)................................................................... 5
Target Port Based Queue Depth Enabled......................................................................................... 7
Dynamic Target Port Based Queue Depth Enabled (Clusters)............................................................... 9
Additional Information................................................................................................................... 11
Software Requirements............................................................................................................... 11
Additional Graphs.................................................................................................................... 12
Configuring scsimgr Scope......................................................................................................... 14
Disabling Congestion Control Management................................................................................... 15
Default Target Port Queue Sizes.................................................................................................. 15
Glossary..................................................................................................................................... 16
For More Information.................................................................................................................... 17
Call to Action............................................................................................................................... 17
2
Abstract
Storage Area Networks (SANs) have been successfully deployed in Enterprise Data Centers for a
number of years. SANs allow servers and storage systems to share common interconnect fabrics.
You can conveniently add and remove servers or storage systems without affecting the rest of the
fabric. This ease and transparency does have its issues. One issue is that it is easy to create a
configuration that does not give optimal performance. The symptom might be as mild as increased
access times to more severe device failures or application failures.
One cause is linked to the overloading of the storage systems. Typically, a storage system can handle
several hundred to several thousand requests per second. If it cannot satisfy the request immediately,
it holds the request until it is able to do so. Reasons for not being able to satisfy a request immediately
include waiting for multiple writes to complete, waiting for a heavily loaded LUN, or waiting for a
command to finish. If multiple servers are accessing the same array controller, the problem is
compounded.
To solve the problem of an overloaded storage system, vendors employ various algorithms and
buffering schemes. However, because the storage system is not able to control the servers, these
methods only work well for simple configurations.
This paper describes how to move these issues to the server. Servers are in a better position to know,
predict, and control the rate of requests to the storage system. This is especially true in clustered
configurations where the member servers can communicate with each other over a cluster interconnect
in order to synchronize access to the storage systems. This proposed scheme represents a paradigm
shift in terms of how storage system load is managed on todays servers. The overall benefit is simpler
manageability, increased utilization, and reduced cost to customers.
Overview
Sharing storage systems between several servers through one target port can result in excessive
congestion as the single target port creates a bottleneck. This results in reduced performance and
increased latency as the server might have to retry due to overflowing the target port queue.
This paper describes a new queue depth management method called Congestion Control
Management. This is a significant storage stack improvement compared to the original release of HP-
UX 11i v3. This paper examines use case opportunities in which the HP-UX 11i v3 storage stack can
deliver a very rich customer experience in standalone, shared storage, and clustered environments
working with the HP Serviceguard clustering product.
For software requirements and dependencies, see Software Requirements.
New scsimgr Attributes
The scsimgr command has been enhanced with the following new attributes to enable the new
features:
tport_qdepth_enable Enables Congestion Control Management.
tport_qd_dyn Enables dynamic target port queue depth resizing when Congestion Control
Management is enabled.
tport_max_qdepth Specifies the maximum target port queue depth on a server when
Congestion Control Management is enabled.
3
Introduction to Queue Depth
The number of requests that are being held while waiting for the storage system is referred to as the
Queue Depth. This depth is managed differently between different vendors and different models of
storage systems. If the queue depth on the servers is too high, performance is affected because the
number of requests coming from the servers is higher than the queue depth of the storage system. This
is because more requests are sent to the storage system than it can handle. For HP-UX, this results in a
retry of the request after a two-second delay. This causes a cascade where one retry creates another,
resulting in congestion failure. In this case, all servers connected to this storage system experience
major performance impacts. Poorly performing servers causes application productivity to decrease,
resulting inlost revenue for the customer.
If the queue is set too low, the number of requests sent to the storage system is below what it can
handle. Although this does not cause queue overflows, the storage system is underutilized. This can
be very expensive because the customer might buy more hardware than is needed.
LUN Based Congestion Management
The HP-UX 11i v3 server controls the queuing on a perLUN basis. It does not have a concept of
queuing based on the storage systems port queuing. The two methods are not compatible. Figure 1
shows what happens when multiple LUNs have many requests that go to one port on the storage
system even when the individual LUN queues are not exceeded.
Figure 1. LUN-based Queue Management Behavior
SAN
Server A
LUN q
LUN q
LUN q
Port q
A
B
C
Server B
LUN q
LUN q
LUN q
D
E
F
SAN
In this case, there are 24 requests, but the port queue depth is 10. Therefore, 14 requests will be
dropped (depicted by the trashcan). When the storage system port queue overflows, the requests are
dropped and a SCSI check condition is returned to the server with a status of S_QFULL. This causes
HP-UX to resend the request and increment the queue_overflow statistic. The servers and storage
systems work much harder as the data must be processed many times, even up to the maximum
max_retries (default is 45) set for the LUN. If this occurs, the LUN returns an error to the
application of EIO or EBUSY.
Currently, administrators have two solutions to solve the problem:
4
Overbuy the storage system with port queue space higher than what is anticipated from the server
or servers. In the previous example, the minimum port queue is 24. This might give the best
performance and is the easiest to configure, but might be very expensive.
Decrease the size of the LUN queues in the server so that if all of the LUNs had requests at the same
time the storage systems port queue does not overflow. In the previous example, the LUN queues
must be set to one. While this might work, it is an under utilization of the storage system and might
cause poor performance.
Target Port Based Congestion Management
Conceptually, target port congestion management attempts to manage the number of requests going
to the storage system in the most optimal way. The storage system has one or more connections to the
server either through a switch (Fibre Channel) or directly (SAS, Parallel SCSI, USB, or SATA). The
connection on the server is referred to as an initiator port; the connection on the storage system is
referred to as a target port (TPort). Most storage systems have buffer space (queue space) allocated to
each TPort. There might be some buffering (queuing) for each LUN, but typically most of the queuing
is managed on a per-port basis. Therefore, we want to manage the requests at the TPort.
The new scheme does not create a new queue in the server. Instead, the server has a reference to the
storage systems queue depth. This is configured by the administrator with the scsimgr command.
# scsimgr [set,save]_attr -H tgtpath \
-a tport_max_qdepth=depth \
-a tport_qd_dyn=0 -a tport_qdepth_enable=1
Figure 2 shows the relationship between the configured Tport Queue Depth in the server with respect
to the storage systems target queue (TPort queue).
Figure 2. Server target port queue depth referring to the storage systemTPort queue
SAN
Server A
LUN q
LUN q
LUN q
TPortqueue 10
A
B
C
Server B
LUN q
LUN q
LUN q
D
E
F
SAN
TPort
queue
depth
5
TPort
queue
depth
5
In this diagram, the TPort queue depth is 5 as the TPort queue on the storage system is 10 and there
are two servers. The TPort queue depth is a counter for the server to keep track of how many requests
are outstanding at the time. When the server tries to send another request, it first verifies the TPort
queue depth count. If there is space available, the request is sent to the storage system. If not, the
request is held on the LUN until space is available. With this configuration, the server does not
overflow the TPort.
5
Dynamic Target Port Based Congestion Management
Dynamic target port based congestion management adds the element of rebalancing requests
between multiple HBAs either in one system or between servers in a clustered environment. This works
by having the server periodically scan all of its TPort queue depth counters, add them up, take an
average, and match them against the tport_max_qdepth set by the administrator. The original
internal value set on each TPort queue depth is the value of tport_max_qdepth divided by the
number of HBAs. If the average is higher than the current load of a TPort queue depth, its depth is
lowered to match its load. If the average is lower than the current load, its depth is raised to match its
load. The total between the HBAs will not exceed tport_max_qdepth. Figure 3 shows a clustered
set of servers. In this example, there is Server A with a load of eight and Server B with a load of two.
The TPort queue on the storage system is set to 10. Originally, both servers had their TPort queue
depth set to five.
The same idea also works in a single server.
Figure 3. Dynamic TPort Based Congestion Management
SAN
Server A
LUN q
LUN q
LUN q
TPort queue 10
A
B
C
Server B
LUN q
LUN q
LUN q
D
E
F
SAN
TPort
queue
depth
5 2
TPort
queue
depth
5 8
Cluster
interconnect
The advantage of adding the dynamic element is that the servers will try to balance themselves
without the administrators help. This allows a server that is heavily loaded to be able to borrowsome
of the other servers queue depth. This keeps the storage system running at its peak, which allows all
of the servers to have good response time and performance no matter where the load is.
Test Cases
LUN Based Queue Management (Current HP-UX Default)
Figure 4 shows several servers using one storage system. The servers are not sharing the LUNs.
6
Figure 4. Test systemconfiguration
SAN
TPort
Server A
Server B
Server D
Server C
XP12000
Storage Array
Using the configuration in Figure 4, a read-only test using a disk I/ O test program ran with the
following parameters:
scsimgr attribute max_retries set to 4096
scsimgr attribute congest_max_retries set to 4096
A read rate of 20, 40, and 80 requests per second per LUN
1K block size
The total number of LUNs in the test was changed from 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, and 4096.
These were spread evenly across the servers.
Note
The value of 4096 was chosen for the max_retries and
congest_max_retries to ensure that the test application did not get
failures because of retries.
Figure 5 shows how the system behaves with the current software when managing the queue depth at
the LUN. For a more detailed graph, see Additional graphs, Figure 9.
7
Figure 5. LUN based results
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1000000
10000000
128 256 512 1024 2048 4096
m
i
l
l
i
s
e
c
o
n
d
s
LUNs
LUN Based Management
RSP Time
Peak RSP Time
QFull
This graph shows the Queue Full (QFull) messages start to climb as the number of LUNs increases.
(The QFull count is the total count that occurred during the test.) As the QFull count increases, the
Response time (RSP Tm) and Peak Response Time (Peak RSP) start to climb. This is due to the retries
that the SCSI stack does to recover from the QFull message. The application measures how long it
takes a request to be satisfied. A timer starts when a request is sent and is stopped when a response
is read. As the SCSI stack does more retries, the time between the request and the response keeps
growing. This results in higher Peak RSP. The higher Peak RSP results in a slower application.
Target Port Based Queue Depth Enabled
Using the same configuration as in Figure 4, a read-only test using a disk I/ O test program was run
with the following parameters:
scsimgr attribute max_retries set to 45 (default)
scsimgr attribute congest_max_retries set to 90 (default)
scsimgr attribute tport_max_qdepth set to 512 (XP12000 default (2048) / Number of Nodes
(4))
A read rate of 10, 20, 40, and 80 requests per LUN per second
1 KB I/ O size
The total number of LUNs in the test changed from 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, and 4096.
The storage system used one port to demonstrate TPort based management.
By using the TPort-based Congestion Control Management feature provided in the HP-UX SCSI stack,
the system monitors the queue depth of the TPort. This keeps the server from overflowing the queue of
the TPort. When LUN requests exceed the TPort queue, the requests are queued on the TPort queue in
the server and are sent as soon as there is space on the target.
8
Figure 6. Comparison of LUN and Tport based management
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1000000
10000000
128 256 512 1024 2048 4096
m
i
l
l
i
s
e
c
o
n
d
s
LUNs
LUN versus Tport Based Management
RSP Time LUN Based
Peak RSP Time LUN Based
RSP Time Tport Based
Peak RSP Time Tport Based
In this case, the QFull condition disappeared. Also, the Response Time (RSP Time) reduced by a factor
of 14 and the Peak Response Time (Peak RSP Time) reduced by a factor of six. This is an improvement
in server response time and application completion time.
Configuration Guidelines
You must determine the size of each systems target port queue. Typically, this is the size of the TPort
queue divided by the number of HBAs (see Default Target Port Queue Sizes for some well-known values).
Of course, this is a starting point. Depending on how you are using the servers, the configured depth
might be different. If the settings are to survive a reboot, use the save_attr option to scsimgr. Use
the set_attr option for a temporary setting.
To set a particular server target port queue, use the following command:
# scsimgr [set,save]_attr -H tgtpath \
-a tport_max_qdepth=depth \
-a tport_qd_dyn=0 -a tport_qdepth_enable=1
To set all devices under a specific target class, use the following command:
# scsimgr [set,save]_attr -N scope-of-target \
-a tport_max_qdepth=depth \
-a tport_qd_dyn=0 -a tport_qdepth_enable=1
Example
For a storage system like the XP series, which has a default Target Port queue depth of 2048, and
using four servers with one HBA or two servers with two HBAs connected to the storage system, the
tport_max_qdepth is set to 512 as follows:
# scsimgr [set,save]_attr \
-N "/escsi/esctl/0xc/HP /OPEN-XP12000 "\
-a tport_max_qdepth=512 -a tport_qd_dyn=0 \
-a tport_qdepth_enable=1
If the scope needed is not configured, see Configuring scsimgr scope.
9
Dynamic Target Port Based Queue Depth Enabled (Clusters)
Figure 7 shows an HP Serviceguard cluster system configuration.
Figure 7. HP Serviceguard cluster configuration
SAN
TPort
Server A
Server B
Server D
Server C
XP12000
Storage Array
HP Serviceguard
Cluster
Using this configuration, a read-only test using a disk I/ O test program the following parameters:
The HP Serviceguard cluster was set up that shared all of the LUNs between all of the servers.
scsimgr attribute max_retries set to 45 (default)
scsimgr attribute congest_max_retries set to 90 (default)
scsimgr attribute tport_max_qdepth set to 512 (XP12000 default (2048) / Number of Nodes
(4))
A read rate of 10, 20, 40, and 80 requests per LUN per second
1 KB I/ O size
The total number of LUNs in the test changed from 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, and 4096.
Unevenly spread LUNs were used to test the dynamic element.
The storage system used one port to demonstrate TPort based management.
The LUN access was unbalanced, meaning that each server can have different loads.
By using the dynamic TPort based Congestion Control Management feature provided in the HP-UX
11i v3 SCSI stack, the system monitors the queue depth of the TPort and dynamically rebalances the
load between the servers in an HP Serviceguard environment. Figure 8 shows the results.
10
Figure 8. Comparison of Tport and dynamic base management
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1000000
10000000
128 256 512 1024 2048 4096
m
i
l
l
i
s
e
c
o
n
d
s
LUNs
Tport versus Dynamic Based Management
RSP Time Tport Based
Peak RSP Time Tport Based
RSP Time Dynamic
Peak RSP Time Dynamic
The servers communicate among each other every second to rebalance the queue depth among the
servers that are available. Take special note of the Peak RSP Time as compared to the previous test. It
is much more consistent in this case. This shows that the rebalancing is working well.
Configuration Guidelines
For a clustered system, you must determine the size of the TPort queue depth for maximum utilization.
(See Default Target Port Queue Sizes for some well-known values) Typically, this is the size of the TPort
queue as configured on the array. If the settings are to survive a reboot, use the save_attr option
to scsimgr. For a temporary setting, use the set_attr option.
To set a particular server target port queue, use the following command:
# scsimgr [set,save]_attr -H tgtpath \
-a tport_max_qdepth=depth \
-a tport_qd_dyn=1 -a tport_qdepth_enable=1
To set all devices under specific class, use the following command:
# scsimgr [set,save]_attr -N scope-of-target \
-a tport_max_qdepth=depth \
-a tport_qd_dyn=0 -a tport_qdepth_enable=1
Example
For a storage system like the XP series, which has a default Target Port queue depth of 2048, and
using four servers with one HBA or two servers with two HBAs connected to the storage system, the
tport_max_qdepth is set to 512 as follows:
# scsimgr [set,save]_attr \
-N "/escsi/esctl/0xc/HP /OPEN-XP12000 "\
-a tport_max_qdepth=512 -a tport_qd_dyn=1 \
-a tport_qdepth_enable=1
If the scope needed is not configured, see Configuring scsimgr scope.
11
Additional Information
Software Requirements
HP-UX 11i v3 September 2009 Fusion release is required. If using HP Serviceguard, you must install
the PHSS_39614 patch.
12
Additional Graphs
Figure 9. LUN-based queuing results
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000
io's/ sec
MB/ sec
RSP Time in ms
Peak RSP Time in ms
Q Full count
io's/ sec MB/ sec RSP Time in ms
Peak RSP Time in
ms
Q Full count
LUNs 4096 Read Rate 80 45840 46.9 187654.932 6805671.5 9303633
LUNs 4096 Read Rate 40 22920 23.5 29159.937 741010.8 1367128
LUNs 4096 Read Rate 20 12647 13 3446.528 80059.2 25241
LUNs 2048 Read Rate 80 45920 47 19181.83 868610.7 102194
LUNs 2048 Read Rate 40 22920 23.5 16054.357 331567.8 515388
LUNs 2048 Read Rate 20 12508 12.8 2825.535 113609.5 29818
LUNs 1024 Read Rate 80 46000 47.1 20171.955 1087295.8 3357
LUNs 1024 Read Rate 40 22920 23.5 44521.478 1023734.6 2574347
LUNs 1024 Read Rate 20 12633 12.9 2885.911 111284.6 33136
LUNs 512 Read Rate 80 32720 33.5 37363.991 882039.1 3028772
LUNs 512 Read Rate 40 17794 18.2 11099.633 246612 267335
LUNs 512 Read Rate 20 9339 9.6 2007.516 90010.9 9804
LUNs 256 Read Rate 80 17682 18.1 7149.11 87161.9 22295
LUNs 256 Read Rate 40 8820 9 2820.138 52386.9 0
LUNs 256 Read Rate 20 5544 5.7 720.969 28579.3 0
LUNs 128 Read Rate 80 9373 9.6 1438.684 58310.9 2634
LUNs 128 Read Rate 40 7007 7.2 572.046 42975.1 0
LUNs 128 Read Rate 20 5327 5.5 323.092 15911.1 0
LUN Based Queuing
13
Figure 10. Tport-based queuing results
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000
io's/ sec
MB/ sec
RSP Time in ms
Peak RSP Time in ms
Q Full count
io's/ sec MB/ sec RSP Time in ms
Peak RSP Time in
ms
Q Full count
LUNs 4096 Read Rate 80 45873 47 12634.049 1032904.7 0
LUNs 4096 Read Rate 40 25054 25.7 8732.088 29315.1 0
LUNs 4096 Read Rate 20 12291 12.6 4609.654 13224.8 0
LUNs 2048 Read Rate 80 45900 47 13463.053 264850.2 0
LUNs 2048 Read Rate 40 25142 25.7 7735.453 16880.8 0
LUNs 2048 Read Rate 20 12268 12.6 4544.261 9175.6 0
LUNs 1024 Read Rate 80 45965 47.1 17880.723 741205.2 0
LUNs 1024 Read Rate 40 25125 25.7 7845.36 18895.8 0
LUNs 1024 Read Rate 20 12290 12.6 4645.208 11108.7 0
LUNs 512 Read Rate 80 32799 33.6 12700.464 86585 0
LUNs 512 Read Rate 40 18898 19.4 6580.83 17031.6 0
LUNs 512 Read Rate 20 8991 9.2 3510.292 10172.5 0
LUNs 256 Read Rate 80 16320 16.7 5616.56 19075.9 0
LUNs 256 Read Rate 40 9684 9.9 2582.625 15532.5 0
LUNs 256 Read Rate 20 4936 5.1 1402.467 12344.4 0
LUNS 128 Read Rate 80 8160 8.4 2576.669 18794.5 0
LUNs 128 Read Rate 40 6490 6.6 764.628 14968.4 0
LUNs 128 Read Rate 20 4602 4.7 379.297 6524.9 0
Target Port Based Queuing
14
Figure 11. Dynamic target port based queuing results
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
io's/ sec
MB/ sec
RSP Time in ms
Peak RSP Time in ms
Q Full count
io's/ sec MB/ sec RSP Time in ms
Peak RSP Time in
ms
Q Full count
LUNs 4096 Read Rate 80 46014 47.1 13081.048 905879.1 0
LUNs 4096 Read Rate 40 25094 25.7 8073.399 31198.2 0
LUNs 4096 Read Rate 20 12263 12.6 4861.888 22761.3 0
LUNs 2048 Read Rate 80 45942 47 11817.306 796924.6 0
LUNs 2048 Read Rate 40 24997 25.6 6979.882 31379.6 0
LUNs 2048 Read Rate 20 12310 12.6 4721.66 22555.4 0
LUNs 1024 Read Rate 80 45897 47 11216.174 486301 0
LUNs 1024 Read Rate 40 25088 25.7 7073.654 30887.7 0
LUNs 1024 Read Rate 20 12309 12.6 4829.691 29967.1 0
LUNs 512 Read Rate 80 32816 33.6 13143.812 31353.3 0
LUNs 512 Read Rate 40 17866 18.3 6706.355 31444.7 0
LUNs 512 Read Rate 20 9056 9.3 3162.209 29748.7 0
LUNs 256 Read Rate 80 16320 16.7 5429.122 31305.9 0
LUNs 256 Read Rate 40 9638 9.9 2712.789 18948.1 0
LUNs 256 Read Rate 20 4920 5 1414.284 10943.8 0
LUNS 128 Read Rate 80 8160 8.4 2607.471 18414.9 0
LUNs 128 Read Rate 40 6284 6.4 784.605 13633.3 0
LUNs 128 Read Rate 20 4612 4.7 375.155 4996.9 0
Dynamic Target Port Based Queuing
Configuring scsimgr Scope
To configure the scope for the scsimgr command, you might need to create it first. To see if it is
already configured, enter the following command:
# scsimgr ddr_list
If the scope needed does not exist, use the ioscan command as follows:
15
# ioscan -fnkNC ctl
Class I H/W Path Driver S/W State H/W Type Description
==================================================================
ctl 194 64000/0xfa00/0x3e esctl CLAIMED DEVICE HP HSV210
/dev/pt/pt194
ctl 222 64000/0xfa00/0xd5 esctl CLAIMED DEVICE HP OPEN-
XP12000 /dev/pt/pt222
ctl 223 64000/0xfa00/0xd6 esctl CLAIMED DEVICE HP OPEN-
XP12000 /dev/pt/pt223
ctl 199 64000/0xfa00/0x3ca esctl CLAIMED DEVICE EMC
SYMMETRIX /dev/pt/pt199
Then, to create the /escsi/esctl/0xc/* scope, follow these steps for each of the ctl class
devices:
1. # scsimgr ddr_name -D /dev/pt/pt199 pid
SETTABLE ATTRIBUTE SCOPE
"/escsi/esctl/0xc/EMC /SYMMETRIX "
2. # scsimgr -f ddr_add -N "/escsi/esctl/0xc/EMC /SYMMETRIX "
scsimgr: settable attribute scope '/escsi/esctl/0xc/EMC /SYMMETRIX
' added successfully
For more information, see scsimgr(1M).
Disabling Congestion Control Management
For all the different configurations, to disable Congestion Control Management and have the settings
survive a reboot, use the following scsimgr save_attr option:
# scsimgr save_attr -N scope-of-array \
-a tport_qdepth_enable=0 a tport_qd_dyn=0
For a temporary setting, use the set_attr option.
To reset one target, use the following command:
# scsimgr [set,save]_attr -H Hardware-path-of-target \
-a tport_qdepth_enable=0 a tport_qd_dyn=0
Default Target Port Queue Sizes
The default target port queue size is 1024. The following table lists the target port queue size for
different hardware.
Vendor Model Target Port Queue Size
HP OPEN-XP24000 4096
HP OPEN-XP12000 2048
HP OPEN-XP10000 2048
HP OPEN-XP1024 1024
HP OPEN-XP512 512
HP HSV200 1536
HP HSV210 1536
16
HP HSV300 1536
HP MSA Controller 512
EMC Symmetrix 4096
Glossary
Cluster: A group of systems working together using the same storage
congest_max_retries: Maximum number of I/ O retries when congested. For more information, see
scsimgr_esdisk(1M).
Controller: A mass storage HBA in the server.
ddr: Device Data Repository
HBA: Physical interface card that plugs into the server
HP Integrity VM: HP-UX implementation of virtual machines
initiator port: HBA connection on a server.
I-T: A nexus between a SCSI initiator port and a SCSI target port.
I-T-L: A nexus between a SCSI initiator port, a SCSI target port, and a logical unit.
LUN: Logical Unit Number (physical or virtual disk)
LUN-Path: Path through which a LUN is discovered.
max_q_depth: Maximum queue depth per LUN in the server. For more information, see
scsimgr_esdisk(1M).
max_retries: Maximum number of I/ O retries. For more information, see scsimgr_esdisk(1M).
Nexus: A relationship between two SCSI devices and the SCSI initiator port and SCSI target port
objects within those SCSI devices.
Shared Storage: A collection of devices used by multiple systems but not necessarily sharing the
data as in a cluster.
Standalone: A server that does not share LUNs with another server.
Target: Device that the initiator connects to in the storage system.
Target-Path: Path through which a target is discovered.
Tport: Target port on the disk array.
For More Information
To learn more about the Mass Storage Stack and HP-UX system administration, see the documents on
the HP Business Support Center at:
http:/ / www.hp.com/ go/ hpux-core-docs
Then, click on HP-UX 11i v3.
Call to Action
HP welcomes your input. Please give us comments about this white paper, or suggestions for the Mass
Storage Stack or related documentation, through our technical documentation feedback website:
http:/ / docs.hp.com/ en/ feedback.html
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Copyright 2010 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to
change without notice. The only warranties for HP products and services are set forth in the express warranty
statements accompanying such products and services. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an
additional warranty. HP shall not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein.
Trademark acknowledgments, if needed.
HP Part Number 5900-0596, March 2010