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Integrated City Planning And Transport Policy


Lesson Learn From The Netherlands
















ANDI HARDIANTO/S2649861









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I. Introduction

II. Literature Review

a. Definition of City Planning
b. Definition of Transport Policy

III. Analysis
a. Actual Condition of The City of Groningen
b. Actual Condition of The City of Yogyakarta
c. City Planning in The City of Groningen and The City of Yogyakarta
d. Transport Policy in The City of Groningen and The City of Yogyakarta
e. Lessons from The Netherlands that can be applied in Indonesia

IV. Conclusion

V References























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I. Introduction

Travel is derived demand, as a result of social and economic activity. Within the
framework of macro economic, Transport is the backbone of the national economy,
regionally and locally, both in urban and rural areas. The economic growth in developing
countries generate positive impacts for people to travel from one place to another.
The increasing number of travel demand are not balanced with quality and quantity of
Transport infrastructure causing congestion. The Transport problems faced by Indonesia
as developing country is the increasing of private vehicle used, which caused negative
effects on the environment such as air pollution, noise, and waste of energy.

There is a tendency that economic growth would encourage the increasing of
Transportation problem. The problem not only about transport convenience, but can also
degrade the quality of the environment. The problem of transport is an issue that is quite
complex so it requires the involvement of the citizen as transport users, transport
operators, as well as the Government as regulator and policies maker. Transportation
infrastructure provision in developing countries tending to facilitate private vehicles. It can
be seen from the increasing of private vehicle used and increasing of parking lot. The
infrastructure development of highway is important to encourage economic growth, but
unplanned development will cause problems and negative impact to low class economy
peoples. For example in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, They not planning public transport
system, but plan to build new toll roads. It will increase traffic jam in Yogyakarta, because
the peoples which have middle to high economy level compete to buy private cars since
they feel facilitated by the government. The increase of providing infrastructure that
facilitate private vehicles will boost the growth of private vehicles, it is like a problem that
is no end. It is get rid of the existence of a bikers and pedestrians and reducing the
performance of public transport. To answer the challenges of transport problem required
integrated land use planning and transport policy.

The main objective of land use and transport planning is to guarantee the efficiency
between activity and transport capability. In the transport system, the goal of planning is to
provide facilities for the movement of passengers and goods from one place to another or
from a variety of land use. while in the land use, the goal of planning is to achieve the
function of the building and should be useful.




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This paper will discuss transport and city planning in The City of Groningen, the city
and Transport problem in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The reasons of city selection on this
paper because both cities have fairly similarities characteristic in terms of population, wide
area, and the city functions.Yogyakarta as education center and economic center for
agglomerating area have problems in transport. The increasing number of vehicle
ownership and number of travel commuter causing traffic jam in the working hours. Like
other cities in europe, The City of Groningen have good city planning and transport policy.
The success story of Groningen and other cities in The Netherlands could be a lesson to
solve the transport problems in Yogyakarta. The interaction and cooperation between city
planning and transport policy required toward transport, city, and environment
sustainability. This strategy can success if there is strong commitment from government
and public awareness. But not all transport policy and planning in The Netherlands could
be applied in Indonesia. The aim of this paper is to define Integrated City Planning And
Transport Policy which can adopted from The City of Groningen that can be applied in
Indonesia especially The City Of Yogyakarta. The first section of this paper explain the
definition of land use and transport policy from literature review. The second section will
analyze the policy and city planning which can be applied in Yogyakarta. After that in the
final section offer conclusion about planning and policy concepts that can be applied in
Indonesia and especially Yogyakarta.


II. Literature Review

a. Definition of City Planning

City planning is the process of preparing the city spatial plan which contained
directives of city spatial. City planning which often called urban planning is an effort to
create an orderly development in urban areas and reduce social conflicts and
economic will harm life and property rights (Gallion and Eisner, 1993). Urban planning
closely associated with land use. In effort to fulfill their needs, people will be forced to
perform movements (mobilization) from one land use to other land uses, such as from
residential (housing) to market (shops). In urban planning known various forms of land
use such as :

1. Compact City
Compact City can defined as urban strategy towards sustainable development with
high population density, mix use and concentrated activity. The term compact city
conveys the opposite of urban sprawl. The compact city, we are told, is more energy
efficient and less polluting because compact city dwellers can live closer to shops
and work and can walk, bike, or take transit (Neuman, 2005)
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2. Mix Use
It is argued that greater mixture of complimentary land use types, which may include
housing, retail, offices, commercial services, industrial and civic uses, can be
beneficial since it can promote transit-supportive development, preserve open space
and other landscape amenities (American Planning Association, 1998).

3. Transit Oriented Development
Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is alternative form of urban development that
reduces dependence on private vehicles. This concept develop new areas that
adopts a mixture of spatial and maximization of the use of public transport. TOD
aims to strengthen the integration between public transport systems and urban
development by creating places in which public transport is readily accessible for
many activities. (Song et al, 2013)

b. Definition of Transport Policy

Transport Policy is the development of a set of constructs and propositions that
are established to achieve particular objectives relating to socio-economic
development, and the functioning and performance of the transport system (Rodrigue
et al, 2006). Generally policy is proactive and problem solving. The aim of Transport
policy is to create transport system that is reliable, comfortable, safe punctual and
sustainable. Several transport policies that often applied for example :

1. Travel Demand Management (TDM)

The Strategies to maximize the efficiency of urban transportation system through
private vehicles restriction and managing travel demand to reduce traffic congestion.
There are kind of TDM such as, electronic road pricing, car sharing, and traffic
limitation in peak hours.

2. Non Motorized Transport

Non Motorized Transport (NMT) is the transport of people and goods which are
not driven by fuel or powered engine. Bicycle and walk are kind of non motorized
transport toward sustainability.

3. Public Transport

Public Transport is passenger transportation services, usually local in scope, that
are available to any person who pays a prescribed fare. It operates on established
schedules along designated routes or lines with specifi c stops and is designed to
move relatively large numbers of people at one time (Rodrigue et al, 2006). Mass rapid
transit, bus, and monorail are kind of public transport.
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III. Analysis
a. Actual Condition of The City of Groningen

The City of Groningen located in the Northern Region of the Netherlands. Its
have 195.453 population in 2013 with total area 84 km
2
(Municipality of Groningen,
2013). The City of Groningen in year 2012 has 15.919 firm and 135.537 employees.
The employees growing from 132.527 in year 2010 and 135.901 in year 2011 (Van
Steen, 2014). The City of Groningen has very high economic growth and hold the role
of economic in the Northern Netherland so causing very high levels of commuters
come into and out of Groningen. Groningen become a centre in the sector of health,
education, economy, jobs, and shopping destinations for the residents in Northern
areas. Its attract people from out of Groningen to perform the activities in this city. The
data show the majority of daily travel in Groningen is commuter. Number of passengers
by bus from and towards Groningen (daily) in 2011 is 33.850 people and the number of
passengers in the train stations on a working day in 2011 is 38.300 people
(Municipality of Groningen, 2013).




Figure 1. Traffic and Transport in The City Of Groningen
Source: Keyfigures 2013, Onderzoek Statistiek Groningen

The people who have daily commuting are come from other cities or municipalities
around The City of Groningen. The amount of Daily commuters went into and out of the
City of Groningen in 2004 is 320.000 people, and predicted that in 2020 it will be 430.000
people (Engelmoer, 2012). The travel commuter which use private vehicle (car) always
dominate in percentage of modal split. The increasing number of commuter travel with car
should be reduced with providing the transport infrastructure (station) as the centre of
intermodality and establishing networks of interconnected modes which make easier for
passengers to change the mode of travel.
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
Number of
passengers by
bus
Number of
passengers in
the train
stations
Number of
passengers in
Groningen
Airport Elde
Bicycles stabled
in city center
Motor-vehicle
stock
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b. Actual Condition of The City of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta is the Capital of Province of Yogyakarta. Its similar with The City of
Groningen, which the capital city have same name with the province. Yogyakarta have
390.553 population in 2011 with total area 32,5 km
2
(BPS Yogyakarta, 2012). Yogyakarta
and Groningen have many characteristic similarity. Both of cities as capital of province,
centre of culture, and centre of education. Yogyakarta is known as a student city, because
nearly 20% of the population are students and there are 135 colleges
(www.jogjakota.go.id, 2014). Yogyakarta has an exotic and unique character so its called
as City of Culture. The term City of Culture is related to high cultural relics during the
kingdoms period which until now still remain preserved. In Yogyakarta, there are some old
buildings, Netherlands colonial relics such as the post office building, Indonesian Bank
and museum Vredeburg Fort.













Figure 2. Map of Yogyakarta
Source : http://jogjakota.go.id, 2014

The city has strategic location in south lane which connecting Yogyakarta,
Bandung, Surakarta, Surabaya, and the southern cities of Java. The City is accessible by
air, road and rail. Yogyakarta and Groningen have Transport characteristic similarity, most
of the trip dominated by commuter travel. If Groningen have a lot of bicycle, Yogyakarta
have a lot of motor cycle. The number of motor cycle in 2011 is 204.972 which have 81 %
of total vehicles in Yogyakarta (BPS, 2012). This causing traffic congestion during work
hours.



Yogyakarta
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VI. References

Auer, Barbara; Intermodal Transport Key Factors For a Successful Cooperation of
Sustainable Transport Modes; Vancouver; 2012

BPS Yogyakarta; Yogyakarta in Figure 2012; Yogyakarta; 2012

De Knegt, P; Planning Light Rail In Dutch Towns; Rotterdam; 1998

Engelmoer, Wiebe; The E-Bike: Opportunities For Commuter Traffic; Groningen; 2012

Gronau, Werner; Intermodality: The EU Vision for a More Sustainable Transport System;
Nicosia; 2008

Henry, Lyndon et.al; Intermodal Surface Public Transport Hubs: Harnessing Synergy for
Success in Americas Urban and Intercity Travel; Texas; 2008

Kandee, S; Intermodal Concept in Railway Station; Bangkok, 2010

Ministry of Transport; Act Number 15; Blue Print of Intermode Transport; Jakarta; 2010

Onderzoek Statistiek Groningen; Keyfigures 2013; Groningen; 2013

Rietveld, Piet; The Accessibility of Railway Stations: The Role of The Bicycle in The
Netherlands; Amsterdam; 2000

Rodrigue, Jean-Paul; Intermodal Transport and Integrated Transport Systems: Spaces,
Networks and Flows; New York, 2006

Van Steen, Paul; The City of Groningen; Groningen; 2014

Zuidgeest, Mark et.al; Integrating Non-motorized Transport to Public Transport; Enschede; 2009



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