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Hydrocephalus

Also called: Water on the brain



Hidrosefalus adalah suatu kondisi dimana terdapat atau terkumpulnya cairan serebrospinal yang
terlalu banyak di otak. Normalnya, cairan ini merupakan bantalan di otak. Saat cairan tersebut
terlalu banyak, maka akan menyebabkan tekanan yang berbahaya bagi otak.
Hydrocephalus is the buildup of too much cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. Normally, this fluid
cushions your brain. When you have too much, though, it puts harmful pressure on your brain.
Hidrosefalus dapat terjadi secara kongenital. Penyebabnya termasuk masalah genetic dan
masalah saat masa perkembangan janin. Pembesaran kepala yang tidak biasa adalah gejala utama
hidrosefalus kongenital.
Hydrocephalus can be congenital, or present at birth. Causes include genetic problems and
problems with how the fetus develops. An unusually large head is the main sign of congenital
hydrocephalus.
Hidrosefalus dapat juga terjadi setelah lahir. Hal ini disebut hidrosefalus didapat. Keadaan ini
dapat terjadi pada semua usia. Penyebabnya bias karena trauma otak, stroke, infeksi, tumor, dan
perdarahan di otak. Gejalanya yaitu:
1. Sakit kepala
2. Mual dan muntah
3. Penglihatan yang kabur
4. Gangguan keseimbangan
5. Gangguan control kandung kemih
6. Gangguan berpikir dan ingatan
Hydrocephalus can also happen after birth. This is called acquired hydrocephalus. It can occur
at any age. Causes can include head injuries, strokes, infections, tumors, and bleeding in the
brain. Symptoms include
Headache
Vomiting and nausea
Blurry vision
Balance problems
Bladder control problems
Thinking and memory problems
Hidrosefalus dapat menyebabkan kerusakan permanen pada otak, menyebabkan ganggua
perkembangan fisik dan mental. Jika tidak ditangani, biasanya akan menjadi fata. Dengan
pebobatan, banyak orang yang menderita hidrosefalus akan hidup normal dengan keterbatasan
yang minimal. Pengobatannya biasanya berpa operasi untuk memasukkan
Hydrocephalus can permanently damage the brain, causing problems with physical and mental
development. If untreated, it is usually fatal. With treatment, many people lead normal lives with
few limitations. Treatment usually involves surgery to insert a shunt. A shunt is a flexible but
sturdy plastic tube. The shunt moves the cerebrospinal fluid to another area of the body where it
can be absorbed. Medicine and rehabilitation therapy can also help.
NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Diseases and Conditions
Hydrocephalus
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Hydrocephalus is the buildup of fluid in the cavities (ventricles) deep within the brain. The
excess fluid increases the size of the ventricles and puts pressure on the brain.
Cerebrospinal fluid normally flows through the ventricles and bathes the brain and spinal
column. But the pressure of too much cerebrospinal fluid associated with hydrocephalus can
damage brain tissues and cause a large spectrum of impairments in brain function.
Although hydrocephalus can occur at any age, it's more common among infants and older adults.
Surgical treatment for hydrocephalus can restore and maintain normal cerebrospinal fluid levels
in the brain. A variety of interventions are often required to manage symptoms or functional
impairments resulting from hydrocephalus.
The signs and symptoms of hydrocephalus vary generally by age of onset:
Infants
Common signs and symptoms of hydrocephalus in infants include:
An unusually large head
A rapid increase in the size of the head
A bulging or tense soft spot (fontanel) on the top of the head
Vomiting
Sleepiness
Irritability
Poor feeding
Seizures
Eyes fixed downward (sunsetting of the eyes)
Deficits in muscle tone and strength, responsiveness to touch, and expected growth
Toddlers and older children
Among toddlers and older children, signs and symptoms may include:
Abnormal enlargement of a toddler's head
Headache
Nausea or vomiting
Fever
Delays in walking or talking
Problems with previously acquired skills, such as walking or talking
Blurred or double vision
Unstable balance
Poor coordination
Irritability
Change in personality
Problems with attention
Decline in school performance
Poor appetite
Seizures
Sleepiness
Difficulty remaining awake or waking up
Young and middle-aged adults
Common signs and symptoms in this age group include:
Headache
Difficulty in remaining awake or waking up
Loss of coordination or balance
Loss of bladder control or a frequent urge to urinate
Impaired vision
Decline in memory, concentration and other thinking skills that may affect job performance
Older adults
Among adults 60 years of age and older, the more common signs and symptoms of
hydrocephalus are:
Loss of bladder control or a frequent urge to urinate
Memory loss
Progressive loss of other thinking or reasoning skills
Difficulty walking, often described as a shuffling gait or the feeling of the feet being stuck
Poor coordination or balance
Slower than normal movements in general
When to see a doctor
Seek emergency medical care for infants and toddlers experiencing these signs and symptoms:
A high-pitched cry
Problems with sucking or feeding
Unexplained, recurrent vomiting
An unwillingness to bend or move the neck or head
Breathing difficulties
Seizures
Seek prompt medical attention for other signs or symptoms in any age group.
Because more than one condition can result in the problems associated with hydrocephalus, it's
important to get a timely diagnosis and appropriate care.
Hydrocephalus is caused by an imbalance between how much cerebrospinal fluid is produced and how
much is absorbed into the bloodstream.
Cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by tissues lining the ventricles of the brain. It flows through the
ventricles by way of interconnecting channels and eventually flows into spaces around the brain
and spinal column. It's absorbed primarily by blood vessels in tissues near the base of the brain.
Cerebrospinal fluid plays an important role in brain function by:
Keeping the brain buoyant, allowing the relatively heavy brain to float within the skull
Cushioning the brain to prevent injury
Removing waste products of the brain's metabolism
Flowing back and forth between the brain cavity and spinal column to maintain a constant
pressure within the brain compensating for changes in blood pressure in the brain
Excess fluid
Excess cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles occurs for one of the following reasons:
Obstruction. The most common problem is a partial obstruction of the normal flow of
cerebrospinal fluid, either from one ventricle to another or from the ventricles to other spaces
around the brain.
Poor absorption. Less common is a problem with the mechanisms that enable the blood vessels
to absorb cerebral spinal fluid. This is often related to inflammation of brain tissues from disease
or injury.
Overproduction. Rarely, the mechanisms for producing cerebrospinal fluid create more than
normal and more quickly than it can be absorbed.
In many cases, the exact event leading to hydrocephalus is unknown. However, a number of
developmental or medical problems can contribute to or trigger hydrocephalus.
Newborns
Hydrocephalus present at birth (congenital) or shortly after birth may occur because of any of the
following:
Abnormal development of the central nervous system that can obstruct the flow of cerebral
spinal fluid
Bleeding within the ventricles, a possible complication of premature birth
Infection in the uterus during a pregnancy, such as rubella or syphilis, that can cause
inflammation in fetal brain tissues
Other contributing factors
Other factors that can contribute to hydrocephalus among any age group include:
Lesions or tumors of the brain or spinal cord
Central nervous system infections, such as bacterial meningitis or mumps
Bleeding in the brain from stroke or head injury
Other traumatic injury to the brain
Long-term complications of hydrocephalus can vary widely and are often difficult to predict.
If hydrocephalus has progressed by the time of birth, it may result in significant intellectual,
developmental and physical disabilities. Less severe cases, when treated appropriately, may have
few, if any, notable complications.
Adults who have experienced a significant decline in memory or other thinking skills generally
have poorer recoveries and persistent symptoms after treatment of hydrocephalus.
The severity of complications depends on:
Underlying medical or developmental problems
Severity of initial symptoms
Timeliness of diagnosis and treatment
How you learn about your child's condition if your child has hydrocephalus may depend
on how severe the symptoms are, when problems first appear, and whether there were any
significant risk factors during the pregnancy or delivery. In some cases, hydrocephalus may be
diagnosed at birth or prior to birth.
Well-baby visits
It's important to take your child to all regularly scheduled well-baby visits. These visits are an
opportunity for your child's doctor to monitor your child's development in key areas, including:
Head size and rate of head growth
Growth
Muscle tone
Muscle strength
Coordination
Posture
Age-appropriate motor skills
Sensory abilities vision, hearing and touch
Questions you should be prepared to answer during regular checkups might include the
following:
What concerns do you have about your child's growth or development?
How well does he or she eat?
How does your child respond to touch?
Is your child reaching certain milestones in development, such as rolling over, pushing up, sitting
up, crawling, walking or speaking?
Preparing for other doctor visits
If you're seeing your doctor because of the recent onset of symptoms, you'll likely start by seeing
your general practitioner or your child's pediatrician. After an initial evaluation, your doctor may
refer you to a doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions that affect the
brain and nervous system (neurologist).
Be prepared to answer the following questions about your symptoms or on your child's behalf:
What signs or symptoms have you noticed? When did they begin?
Have these signs or symptoms changed over time?
Do these signs or symptoms include nausea or vomiting?
Have you or your child had any vision problems?
Have you or your child had a headache or fever?
Have you noticed any personality changes, including increased irritability?
Has your child experienced any changes in school performance?
Have you noticed any new problems with movement or coordination?
Have signs or symptoms included abnormal sleepiness or lack of energy?
In infants: Have signs and symptoms included seizures?
In infants: Have signs and symptoms included problems with eating or breathing?
In older children and adults: Have signs and symptoms included headache?
In older children and adults: Have signs and symptoms included urinary incontinence?
Have you or your child had a recent head injury?
Are you or is your child being treated for any other medical conditions?
Have you or your child recently begun a new medication?
A diagnosis of hydrocephalus is usually based on:
Your answers to the doctor's questions about signs and symptoms
A general physical
A neurological exam
Brain imaging tests
Neurological exam
The type of neurological exam will depend on a person's age. The neurologist may ask questions
and conduct relatively simple tests in the office to judge:
Reflexes
Muscle strength
Muscle tone
Sense of touch
Vision and eye movement
Hearing
Coordination
Balance
Mental status
Mood
Brain imaging
Brain imaging tests can show enlargement of the ventricles caused by excess cerebrospinal fluid.
They may also be used to identify underlying causes of hydrocephalus or other conditions
contributing to the symptoms. Imaging tests may include:
Ultrasound. Ultrasound imaging, which uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images, is
often used for an initial assessment for infants because it's a relatively simple, low-risk
procedure. The ultrasound device is placed over the soft spot (fontanel) on the top of a baby's
head. Ultrasound may also detect hydrocephalus prior to birth when the procedure is used
during routine prenatal examinations.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses radio waves and a magnetic field to produce detailed
3-D or cross-sectional images of the brain. This test is painless, but it is noisy and requires lying
still. Some MRI scans can take up to an hour and require mild sedation for children. However,
some hospitals may use a quick version of MRI that takes about five minutes and doesn't require
sedation.
Computerized tomography (CT) is a specialized X-ray technology that can produce cross-
sectional views of the brain. Scanning is painless and takes about 20 minutes. This test also
requires lying still, so a child usually receives a mild sedative. CT scans for hydrocephalus are
usually used only for emergency exams.
One of two surgical treatments may be used to treat hydrocephalus.
Shunt
The most common treatment for hydrocephalus is the surgical insertion of a drainage system,
called a shunt. It consists of a long, flexible tube with a valve that keeps fluid from the brain
flowing in the right direction and at the proper rate. One end of the tubing is usually placed in
one of the brain's ventricles. The tubing is then tunneled under the skin to another part of the
body where the excess cerebrospinal fluid can be more easily absorbed such as the abdomen
or a chamber in the heart.
People who have hydrocephalus usually need a shunt system for the rest of their lives, and
regular monitoring is required.
Ventriculostomy
Ventriculostomy is a surgical procedure that can be used for some people. In the procedure, your
surgeon uses a small video camera to have direct vision inside the brain and makes a hole in the
bottom of one of the ventricles or between the ventricles to enable cerebrospinal fluid to flow out
of the brain.
Complications of surgery
Both surgical procedures can result in complications. Shunt systems can stop draining
cerebrospinal fluid or poorly regulate drainage because of mechanical malfunctions, blockage or
infections. The passage created during a ventriculostomy can suddenly close.
Any failure requires prompt attention, surgical revisions or other interventions. Signs and
symptoms of problems may include:
Fever
Irritability
Drowsiness
Nausea or vomiting
Headache
Vision problems
Redness, pain or tenderness of the skin along the path of the shunt tube
Abdominal pain when the shunt valve is in the abdomen
Recurrence of any of the initial hydrocephalus symptoms
Other treatments
Some people with hydrocephalus, particularly children, may need additional treatment,
depending on the severity of long-term complications of hydrocephalus.
A care team for children may include a:
Pediatrician or physiatrist, who oversees the treatment plan and medical care
Pediatric neurologist, who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders
in children
Occupational therapist, who specializes in therapy to develop everyday skills
Developmental therapist, who specializes in therapy to help your child develop age-appropriate
behaviors, social skills and interpersonal skills
Mental health provider, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist
Social worker, who assists the family with accessing services and planning for transitions in care
Special education teacher, who addresses learning disabilities, determines educational needs
and identifies appropriate educational resources
Adults with more severe complications may also require the services of occupational therapists,
social workers, specialists in dementia care or other medical specialists.
With the help of rehabilitative therapies and educational interventions, many people with
hydrocephalus live with few limitations.
There are many resources available to provide emotional and medical support as you parent a
child with hydrocephalus. Children with developmental problems due to hydrocephalus may be
eligible for government-sponsored health care and other support services. Check with your state
or county social services agency.
Hospitals and voluntary organizations serving people with disabilities are good resources for
emotional and practical support, as are doctors and nurses. Ask these resources to help you
connect with other families who are coping with hydrocephalus.
Adults living with hydrocephalus may find valuable information and support from organizations
dedicated to hydrocephalus education and support, such as the Hydrocephalus Association.
Hydrocephalus is not a preventable condition. However, there are ways to reduce the risk of
hydrocephalus:
If you're pregnant, get regular prenatal care. Following your doctor's recommended schedule
for checkups during pregnancy can reduce your risk of premature labor, which places your baby
at risk of hydrocephalus and other complications.
Protect against infectious illness. Follow the recommended vaccination and screening
schedules for your age and sex. Preventing and promptly treating the infections and other
illnesses associated with hydrocephalus may reduce your risk.
To prevent head injury:
Use appropriate safety equipment. For babies and children, use a properly installed, age- and
size-appropriate child safety seat on all car trips. Make sure all your baby equipment crib,
stroller, swing, highchair meets all safety standards and is properly adjusted for your baby's
size and development. Children and adults should wear a helmet while riding a bicycle,
skateboard, motorcycle, snowmobile or all-terrain vehicle.
Always wear a seat belt in a motor vehicle. Small children should be secured in child safety
seats or booster seats. Depending on their size, older children may be adequately restrained
with seat belts.
Should you be vaccinated against meningitis?
Ask your doctor if you or your child should receive a vaccine against meningitis, once a common
cause of hydrocephalus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends meningitis
vaccination for preteen children and boosters for teenagers. It's also recommended for younger
children and adults who may be at increased risk of meningitis for any of the following reasons:
Traveling to countries where meningitis is common
Having an immune system disorder called terminal complement deficiency
Having a damaged spleen or having had the spleen removed
Living in a college dormitory
Joining the military
Causes
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Multimedia

Brain ventricles

Hydrocephalus is caused by an imbalance between how much cerebrospinal fluid is produced and how
much is absorbed into the bloodstream.
Cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by tissues lining the ventricles of the brain. It flows through the
ventricles by way of interconnecting channels and eventually flows into spaces around the brain
and spinal column. It's absorbed primarily by blood vessels in tissues near the base of the brain.
Cerebrospinal fluid plays an important role in brain function by:
Keeping the brain buoyant, allowing the relatively heavy brain to float within the skull
Cushioning the brain to prevent injury
Removing waste products of the brain's metabolism
Flowing back and forth between the brain cavity and spinal column to maintain a constant
pressure within the brain compensating for changes in blood pressure in the brain
Excess fluid
Excess cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles occurs for one of the following reasons:
Obstruction. The most common problem is a partial obstruction of the normal flow of
cerebrospinal fluid, either from one ventricle to another or from the ventricles to other spaces
around the brain.
Poor absorption. Less common is a problem with the mechanisms that enable the blood vessels
to absorb cerebral spinal fluid. This is often related to inflammation of brain tissues from disease
or injury.
Overproduction. Rarely, the mechanisms for producing cerebrospinal fluid create more than
normal and more quickly than it can be absorbed.
Risk factors
By Mayo Clinic Staff
In many cases, the exact event leading to hydrocephalus is unknown. However, a number of
developmental or medical problems can contribute to or trigger hydrocephalus.
Newborns
Hydrocephalus present at birth (congenital) or shortly after birth may occur because of any of the
following:
Abnormal development of the central nervous system that can obstruct the flow of cerebral
spinal fluid
Bleeding within the ventricles, a possible complication of premature birth
Infection in the uterus during a pregnancy, such as rubella or syphilis, that can cause
inflammation in fetal brain tissues
Other contributing factors
Other factors that can contribute to hydrocephalus among any age group include:
Lesions or tumors of the brain or spinal cord
Central nervous system infections, such as bacterial meningitis or mumps
Bleeding in the brain from stroke or head injury
Other traumatic injury to the brain
Complications
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Long-term complications of hydrocephalus can vary widely and are often difficult to predict.
If hydrocephalus has progressed by the time of birth, it may result in significant intellectual,
developmental and physical disabilities. Less severe cases, when treated appropriately, may have
few, if any, notable complications.
Adults who have experienced a significant decline in memory or other thinking skills generally
have poorer recoveries and persistent symptoms after treatment of hydrocephalus.
The severity of complications depends on:
Underlying medical or developmental problems
Severity of initial symptoms
Timeliness of diagnosis and treatment
Tests and diagnosis
By Mayo Clinic Staff

Appointments & care
At Mayo Clinic, we take the time to listen, to find answers and to provide you the best care.
Learn more. Request an appointment.
A diagnosis of hydrocephalus is usually based on:
Your answers to the doctor's questions about signs and symptoms
A general physical
A neurological exam
Brain imaging tests
Neurological exam
The type of neurological exam will depend on a person's age. The neurologist may ask questions
and conduct relatively simple tests in the office to judge:
Reflexes
Muscle strength
Muscle tone
Sense of touch
Vision and eye movement
Hearing
Coordination
Balance
Mental status
Mood
Brain imaging
Brain imaging tests can show enlargement of the ventricles caused by excess cerebrospinal fluid.
They may also be used to identify underlying causes of hydrocephalus or other conditions
contributing to the symptoms. Imaging tests may include:
Ultrasound. Ultrasound imaging, which uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images, is
often used for an initial assessment for infants because it's a relatively simple, low-risk
procedure. The ultrasound device is placed over the soft spot (fontanel) on the top of a baby's
head. Ultrasound may also detect hydrocephalus prior to birth when the procedure is used
during routine prenatal examinations.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses radio waves and a magnetic field to produce detailed
3-D or cross-sectional images of the brain. This test is painless, but it is noisy and requires lying
still. Some MRI scans can take up to an hour and require mild sedation for children. However,
some hospitals may use a quick version of MRI that takes about five minutes and doesn't require
sedation.
Computerized tomography (CT) is a specialized X-ray technology that can produce cross-
sectional views of the brain. Scanning is painless and takes about 20 minutes. This test also
requires lying still, so a child usually receives a mild sedative. CT scans for hydrocephalus are
usually used only for emergency exams.
Treatments and drugs
By Mayo Clinic Staff

Appointments & care
At Mayo Clinic, we take the time to listen, to find answers and to provide you the best care.
Learn more. Request an appointment.
Multimedia

Shunt system

One of two surgical treatments may be used to treat hydrocephalus.
Shunt
The most common treatment for hydrocephalus is the surgical insertion of a drainage system,
called a shunt. It consists of a long, flexible tube with a valve that keeps fluid from the brain
flowing in the right direction and at the proper rate. One end of the tubing is usually placed in
one of the brain's ventricles. The tubing is then tunneled under the skin to another part of the
body where the excess cerebrospinal fluid can be more easily absorbed such as the abdomen
or a chamber in the heart.
People who have hydrocephalus usually need a shunt system for the rest of their lives, and
regular monitoring is required.
Ventriculostomy
Ventriculostomy is a surgical procedure that can be used for some people. In the procedure, your
surgeon uses a small video camera to have direct vision inside the brain and makes a hole in the
bottom of one of the ventricles or between the ventricles to enable cerebrospinal fluid to flow out
of the brain.
Complications of surgery
Both surgical procedures can result in complications. Shunt systems can stop draining
cerebrospinal fluid or poorly regulate drainage because of mechanical malfunctions, blockage or
infections. The passage created during a ventriculostomy can suddenly close.
Any failure requires prompt attention, surgical revisions or other interventions. Signs and
symptoms of problems may include:
Fever
Irritability
Drowsiness
Nausea or vomiting
Headache
Vision problems
Redness, pain or tenderness of the skin along the path of the shunt tube
Abdominal pain when the shunt valve is in the abdomen
Recurrence of any of the initial hydrocephalus symptoms
Other treatments
Some people with hydrocephalus, particularly children, may need additional treatment,
depending on the severity of long-term complications of hydrocephalus.
A care team for children may include a:
Pediatrician or physiatrist, who oversees the treatment plan and medical care
Pediatric neurologist, who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders
in children
Occupational therapist, who specializes in therapy to develop everyday skills
Developmental therapist, who specializes in therapy to help your child develop age-appropriate
behaviors, social skills and interpersonal skills
Mental health provider, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist
Social worker, who assists the family with accessing services and planning for transitions in care
Special education teacher, who addresses learning disabilities, determines educational needs
and identifies appropriate educational resources
Adults with more severe complications may also require the services of occupational therapists,
social workers, specialists in dementia care or other medical specialists.
Coping and support
By Mayo Clinic Staff
With the help of rehabilitative therapies and educational interventions, many people with
hydrocephalus live with few limitations.
There are many resources available to provide emotional and medical support as you parent a
child with hydrocephalus. Children with developmental problems due to hydrocephalus may be
eligible for government-sponsored health care and other support services. Check with your state
or county social services agency.
Hospitals and voluntary organizations serving people with disabilities are good resources for
emotional and practical support, as are doctors and nurses. Ask these resources to help you
connect with other families who are coping with hydrocephalus.
Adults living with hydrocephalus may find valuable information and support from organizations
dedicated to hydrocephalus education and support, such as the Hydrocephalus Association.
Prevention
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Hydrocephalus is not a preventable condition. However, there are ways to reduce the risk of
hydrocephalus:
If you're pregnant, get regular prenatal care. Following your doctor's recommended schedule
for checkups during pregnancy can reduce your risk of premature labor, which places your baby
at risk of hydrocephalus and other complications.
Protect against infectious illness. Follow the recommended vaccination and screening
schedules for your age and sex. Preventing and promptly treating the infections and other
illnesses associated with hydrocephalus may reduce your risk.
To prevent head injury:
Use appropriate safety equipment. For babies and children, use a properly installed, age- and
size-appropriate child safety seat on all car trips. Make sure all your baby equipment crib,
stroller, swing, highchair meets all safety standards and is properly adjusted for your baby's
size and development. Children and adults should wear a helmet while riding a bicycle,
skateboard, motorcycle, snowmobile or all-terrain vehicle.
Always wear a seat belt in a motor vehicle. Small children should be secured in child safety
seats or booster seats. Depending on their size, older children may be adequately restrained
with seat belts.
Should you be vaccinated against meningitis?
Ask your doctor if you or your child should receive a vaccine against meningitis, once a common
cause of hydrocephalus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends meningitis
vaccination for preteen children and boosters for teenagers. It's also recommended for younger
children and adults who may be at increased risk of meningitis for any of the following reasons:
Traveling to countries where meningitis is common
Having an immune system disorder called terminal complement deficiency
Having a damaged spleen or having had the spleen removed
Living in a college dormitory
Joining the military

References
1. Hydrocephalus. American Association of Neurological Surgeons.
http://www.aans.org/Patient%20Information/Conditions%20and%20Treatments/Hydrocephalu
s.aspx. Accessed June 11, 2011.
2. Hydrocephalus fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/hydrocephalus/detail_hydrocephalus.htm. Accessed June
10, 2011.
3. Fishman MA. Hydrocephalus. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed May 10,
2011.
4. Diagnosis of hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus Association.
https://www.hydroassoc.org/hydrocephalus-education-and-support/learning-about-
hydrcephalus/diagnosis-of-hydrocephalus. Accessed June 11, 2011.
5. Graff-Radford NR. Normal pressure hydrocephalus.
http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed June 10, 2011.
6. Life-threatening complications of hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus Association.
https://www.hydroassoc.org/hydrocephalus-education-and-support/learning-about-
hydrcephalus/life-threatening-complications-of-hydrocephalus. Accessed June 11, 2011.
7. Hamilton MG. Treatment of hydrocephalus in adults. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology.
2009;16:34.
8. Meningococcal vaccine: Who and when to vaccinate. Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/mening/who-vaccinate.htm. Accessed June
28, 2011.
9. Wetjen NM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 6, 2011.
Sep. 13, 2011
Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-
conditions/hydrocephalus/basics/definition/CON-20030706
.
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