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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism

Chapter 10
Introduction to Metabolism


Fill in the Blank Questions

1. __________ reactions capture energy from the organisms energy source.

!. _________ is the total of all chemical reactions occurring in the cell.
". ________ reactions build ne# organic molecules from smaller inorganic and
organic compounds.
$. In thermodynamic studies% energy changes are analy&ed in a collection of matter
called a __________. 'll other matter in the uni(erse is called the __________.
). __________ is the science that analy&es energy changes in a collection of matter.
*. ' reaction in #hich the for#ard rate is e+ual to the re(erse rate is said to be at
,. Cells must efficiently transfer energy from their energy-trapping systems to the
systems actually carrying out #ork and also use (arious metabolic processes to
replace the energy used in doing #ork. .his is called the __________.
/. In order for the cell to be able to input energy into necessary endergonic reactions%
energy-generating processes such as photosynthesis% fermentation% and respiration
are used to produce __________.

0. 1isruption of an en&ymes structure #ith loss of acti(ity caused by e2tremes of p3%
temperature% or other factors is called _________.
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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism
10. ' molecule that binds to an en&yme at a location other than the acti(e site and
thereby alters the en&ymes shape% making it inacti(e or less acti(e is a4n5
__________ inhibitor.

11. ' molecule that binds nonco(alently to an en&yme at the acti(e site and thereby
pre(ents a substrate from binding and reacting is a4n5 __________ inhibitor.
1!. .he molecules formed by an en&yme-cataly&ed reaction are called __________.
1". .he reacting molecules in an en&yme-cataly&ed reaction are called __________.
1$. .he __________ __________ is the substrate concentration needed for an
en&yme to achie(e half ma2imal (elocity.
1). ' comple2 formed during a reaction that resembles both the substrates and the
products is called the __________ state comple2.
1*. 67' molecules that ha(e catalytic acti(ity are kno#n as ____________.
Multiple Choice Questions

1,. Cells carry out three ma8or types of #ork9 #hich of the follo#ing in(ol(es the
synthesis of macromolecules as #ell as the breakdo#n of substances for their
energy:
'. Chemical #ork.
B. .ransport #ork.
C. Mechanical #ork.
1. 7one of these.
1/. Cells carry out three ma8or types of #ork9 #hich of the follo#ing in(ol(es nutrient
uptake and #aste elimination:
'. Chemical #ork.
B. .ransport #ork.
C. Mechanical #ork.
1. 7one of these.

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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism
10. Cells carry out three ma8or types of #ork9 #hich of the follo#ing in(ol(es energy
for cell motility and the mo(ement of structures #ithin cells:
'. Chemical #ork.
B. .ransport #ork.
C. Mechanical #ork.
1. 7one of these.

.rue ; False Questions

!0. <nergy can be redistributed #ithin a collection of matter 4called a system5 or can
be redistributed bet#een the system and its surroundings.
Multiple Choice Questions

!1. __________ is a measure of the randomness or disorder of a system.
'. <ntropy
B. <nthalpy
C. Free energy
1. =ynergy
!. .he __________ la# of thermodynamics states that energy can be neither created
nor destroyed.
'. first
B. second
C. third
!". .he __________ la# of thermodynamics states that physical and chemical
processes occur in such a #ay that randomness 4disorder5 increases to a ma2imum.
'. first
B. second
C. third
1. fourth
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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism
!$. .he amount of heat energy needed to raise 1 gram of #ater from 1$.)C to 1).)C
is called a4n5
'. 8oule.
B. calorie.
C. erg.
1. thermal unit.

.rue ; False Questions

!). .he numerical (alue of the free energy change indicates ho# fast a reaction #ill
reach e+uilibrium.
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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism

Multiple Choice Questions

!*. __________ is the total energy change that accompanies a chemical reaction.
'. <ntropy
B. <nthalpy
C. Free energy
1. =ynergy
!,. For the reaction ' > B C > 1% the e+uilibrium constant 4?e+5 is defined as
'. @'A@BA;@CA@1A.
B. @CA@1A;@'A@BA.
C. @'A@1A;@BA@CA.
1. @BA@CA;@'A@1A.

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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism
!/. .he change in __________ is the amount of energy in a system that is a(ailable
to do #ork.
'. entropy
B. enthalpy
C. free energy
1. synergy


.rue ; False Questions

!0. .he most commonly used practical form of energy used in cells is adenosine
diphosphate.
Multiple Choice Questions

"0. ' reaction that releases energy is __________.
'. e2ergonic
B. endergonic
C. impossible
1. none of the choices

.rue ; False Questions

"1. =ome endergonic reactions can be made to proceed for#ard if they are coupled
to hydrolysis of one or more of the phosphates of '.B.
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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism

Multiple Choice Questions

"!. 'n chemical reaction that re+uires an input of energy in order to proceed is
__________.
'. e2ergonic
B. endergonic
C. impossible
1. one of the choices

"". .he __________ is the electron acceptor in a redo2 reaction.
'. reductant
B. o2idant
C. en&yme
1. product
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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism
"$. .he __________ is the electron donor in a redo2 reaction.
'. reductant
B. o2idant
C. en&yme
1. product

"). .he standard reduction potential of a redo2 reaction is a measure of the tendency
of the __________ to __________ electrons.
'. reductant9 gain
B. reductant9 lose
C. o2idant9 gain
1. o2idant9 lose


.rue ; False Questions

"*. .he e+uilibrium constant for a redo2 reaction is called the standard reduction
potential.
Multiple Choice Questions

",. Chich of the follo#ing is used as an electron carrier by li(ing organisms:
'. 7'1
>
B. 7'1B
>
C. ubi+uinone
1. all of the choices


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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism
.rue ; False Questions

"/. .he electron transport chain is based on the principle that redo2 couples #ith
more positi(e reduction potentials #ill donate electrons to couples #ith more negati(e
potentials.
"0. Dne of the components used during photosynthetic electron transport is
ferredo2in% a nonheme iron protein.
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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism

Multiple Choice Questions

$0. <lectron transport molecules that only transfer electrons include
'. ubi+uinone.
B. 7'1B.
C. F'1.
1. ferredo2in.

$1. Chich of the follo#ing is not true about en&ymes:
'. <n&ymes are catalysts that speed up reactions.
B. <n&ymes are proteins that can be denatured by changes in p3 or temperature.
C. <n&ymes are highly specific for the substrates they react #ith and cataly&e only
one or a limited set of possible reactions #ith those substrates.
1. all of the choices

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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism

.rue ; False Questions

$!. <ach en&yme normally has specific p3 and temperature optima at #hich they
function best.

$". .he Michaelis constant 4?m5 of an en&yme is the substrate concentration that
produces ma2imum (elocity.

$$. <n&yme acti(ity can be greatly affected by the p3 and the temperature of the
en(ironment in #hich the en&yme must function.

$). Chen the amount of en&yme present is held constant% the rate of a reaction #ill
continue to increase as long as the substrate concentration increases.

$*. <n&ymes increase the rate of a reaction but do not alter e+uilibrium constants.

$,. <n&ymes increase the rate of a reaction by increasing molecular motion% thereby
pro(iding kinetic energy to dri(e the reaction.
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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism

Multiple Choice Questions

$/. <n&ymes are usually named based on
'. the substrates they act on.
B. their molecular structure.
C. the type of reaction they cataly&e.
1. all of the choices.
<. the substrates they act on and the type of reaction they cataly&e.
$0. .he most specific term usually used to describe a substance in a biological
system that increases the rate of a reaction #ithout being permanently changed by
the reaction is a4n5
'. cataly&er.
B. catalyst.
C. en&yme.
1. rate increaser.
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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism
)0. .he substrate of an en&yme binds at the
'. affinity site.
B. acti(e site.
C. determinati(e site.
1. reaction site.

)1. ' complete en&yme that consists of a protein component and a nonprotein
component is called a4n5
'. apoen&yme.
B. heteroen&yme.
C. holoen&yme.
1. multien&yme.
)!. ' nonprotein component of an en&yme that is loosely attached to the protein
component is referred to as a4n5
'. apoen&yme.
B. coen&yme.
C. holoen&yme.
1. prosthetic group.

)". .he nonprotein component of an en&yme that is firmly attached to the protein is
called a4n5
'. apoen&yme.
B. coen&yme.
C. holoen&yme.
1. prosthetic group.

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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism
)$. If an en&yme consists of a protein component and a non-protein component% the
protein component is referred as the
'. apoen&yme.
B. coen&yme.
C. holoen&yme.
1. prosthetic group.
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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism

)). If all a(ailable en&yme molecules are binding substrate and con(erting it to
produce as rapidly as possible% the reaction is said to be proceeding at __________
(elocity.
'. terminal
B. ma2imal
C. optimal
1. infinite
)*. '4n5 _______________ increases the rate of a reaction #ithout being
permanently altered by the reaction.
'. cataly&er
B. catalyst
C. en&yme
1. rate increaser
),. <n&ymes function as catalysts by
'. bringing the substrates together at the acti(e site% in effect concentrating them.
B. bringing the substrates together at the acti(e site correctly oriented for the
reaction.
C. bringing the substrates together at the acti(e site% in effect concentrating them and
bringing the substrates together at the acti(e site correctly oriented for the reaction.
1. none of the choices
)/. <n&ymes cataly&e a reaction by
'. decreasing the amount of energy released by the reaction.
B. increasing the amount of energy released by the reaction.
C. decreasing the acti(ation energy of the reaction.
1. increasing the acti(ation energy of the reaction.

)0. .he energy re+uired to bring the substrates of a reaction together in the correct
#ay to reach the transition state is called
'. free energy.
B. acti(ation energy.
C. enthalpy.
1. entropy.

.rue ; False Questions

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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism
*0. Dne important ribo&yme located in mitochondria is responsible for cataly&ing
peptide bond formation during protein synthesis.


Multiple Choice Questions

*1. Chich of the follo#ing is a reason for metabolic regulation:
'. Maintain cell components at appropriate le(els.
B. Conser(e materials.
C. <nsure efficient use energy stores.
1. 'll of the choices.
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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism
*!. In metabolic channeling% the regulation of metabolic path#ays is controlled by the
__________ of metabolites and en&ymes in(ol(ed in the path#ay.
'. amount
B. location
C. acti(ity
1. all of the choices
*". Metabolic channeling in(ol(es the locali&ation of __________ in different parts of
a cell in order to influence the acti(ity of metabolic path#ays.
'. acti(ators
B. repressors
C. substrates and en&ymes
1. inhibitors


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Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism
*$. Chen the end product of a path#ay inhibits catalysis of the first step of that
path#ay% this phenomenon is called
'. re(ersible co(alent modification.
B. feedback inhibition.
C. metabolic channeling.
1. non-competiti(e inhibition.

*). <n&yme acti(ity can be controlled by
'. allosteric regulation.
B. co(alent modification.
C. feedback 4end product5 inhibition.
1. all of the choices
**. In allosteric regulation% effector molecules usually bind
'. re(ersibly and co(alently.
B. irre(ersibly and co(alently.
C. re(ersibly and nonco(alently.
1. irre(ersibly and nonco(alently.

*,. In a branched path#ay #ith many end products% an abundance of one of the end
products #ill usually inhibit
'. the first step in the set of path#ays.
B. the first committed step in the branch of the path#ay leading to the production of
that particular product.
C. the last step before the branch leading to the production of that particular end
product.
1. the last step in the production of that particular product.
.rue ; False Questions
*/. Isoen&ymes are different en&ymes that cataly&e the same reaction but can be
regulated independently of one another.

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