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Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

Technical Inputs
National Standard of Peoples Republic of China
GB/T 5490-2010
Inspection of grain and oils General rules














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As at
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Text
Shenzhen Institute of Standards and Technology (SIST), Shenzhen, PR China

The findings and conclusions expressed in this documentation are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily repre-
sent the view of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) or further organising parties. The informa-
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On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)


ICS 67.040
X 04



Nat|ona| Standard of eop|es kepub||c of Ch|na
GB/T 5490-2010
Replaces GB/T 5490-1985

Inspection of grain and oils General rules












Issue Date: June 30, 2010 Implementation Date: January 1, 2011

Issued by General Adm|n|strat|on of ua||ty Superv|s|on, Inspect|on and uarant|ne of the eop|es
kepub||c of Ch|na (ASI) and Standard|zat|on Adm|n|strat|on of the eop|es kepub||c of Ch|na
(SAC)

1

Foreword
This standard replaces the GB/T 5490-1985 Inspection of Grain, Oil Seeds and Vegetables Oils
General Rules.
Compare with GB/T 5490-1985, the major changes of this standard are listed as follows:
--- Add terms and definitions, choices of inspection methods, apparatuss requirement, and
inspection requirement related to inspection of grain and oils;
--- Supplement the arbitration method;
--- Revise and supplement the inspection result calculation;
--- Cite the corresponding national standard to replace the Annex A error and data processing
and Annex B preparation and calibration of several standard solutions of original standard;
--- Change the general procedures of inspection of grain and oils, describe the inspection
procedures of grain and oils and their products respectively according to the type of grain and
items of inspection, and include such description into informative annex.
Annex B of this standard is normative Annex; Annex A of this standard is informative Annex.
This standard is proposed by State Administration of Grain.
This standard is under jurisdiction of the National Standardization Technical Committee of Grain
and Oils.
The main organizations that participated in the drafting of this standard are: Standards &
Quality Center of the State Administration of Grain, Henan University of Technology, Sichuan
Province Industry and Trade School, Nanjing University of Finance & Economics, Heilongjiang
Province Grain and Oils Quality Inspection Station, Hubei Province Grain and Oils Quality
Inspection Station, China Grain Reserves Corporation Jilin Branch, Chengdu Institute of Grain
Storage Science, Beijing Institute of Food Science.
The major drafters of this standard are: Tang Ruiming, Zhang Yurong, Zhou Xianqing, Zhou
Zicheng, Yuan Jian, Song Xiujuan, Xiong Ning, Gu Xiangming, Bing Yongjin, Yang Zhengyao, Gao
Yanna, Yang Haoran, Zheng Jiafeng, Zhou Zhanming.
The past published version which is replaced is listed as follows:
--- GB/T 5490-1985
GB/T 54902010
2
Inspection of grain and oils General rules
1 Scope
This standard specifies terms and definitions, samples registration, samples requirements,
selection of inspection methods, reagents requirements, apparatuss requirements, original
record and inspection sheet as well as results calculation and processing related to quality
inspection of grain, oils and products.
This standard is applicable to quality inspection of grain, oils and products.

2 Normative references
The following standards contain provisions which, referred by this standard, constitute
provisions of this standard. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated
references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
However, it is encouraged for each party entering agreement according to this standard to
decide whether to use the latest versions of these documents. In addition, the latest versions of
all reference documents without dates are applicable to the standard.
GB/T 601 Chemical reagent Preparations of standard volumetric solutions
GB/T 602 Chemical reagent Preparations of standard solutions for impurity
GB/T 603 Chemical reagent Preparations of reagent and products for use in test methods
GB/T 8170 Rules of rounding off for numerical values & expression and judgment of limiting
values

3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions are applicable to this standard.
3.1
Sample
Few material object that can represent the quality of tested grain and oils. The samples can be
divided into increment, aggregate sample, submitted sample (laboratory sample), and
experiment sample.
3.2
Increment
GB/T 54902010
3
Few samples that sample from sampling unit of the tested grain and oils using specified
sampling tools according to specified method.
3.3
Aggregate sample
Sample that aggregates and mixes all the increment together according to the specified
representative quantity.
3.4
Submitted sample
Laboratory sample
Sample that fully mixes the aggregate samples and is split into certain amount by using sampling
tool according to specified method and then is sent to laboratory
3.5
Retention sample
Sample that is the same as the submitted sample or experiment sample which is obtained from
the splitting sample, backup for verification, recheck and unexpected circumstances.
3.6
Experiment sample
Sample that is used for laboratory inspection and prepared according to specified method.
3.7
Parallel test
Operation, starting from sample reduction of laboratory samples or sample weighing of
experiment samples after preparation, which uses the same analytical procedure, apparatus,
and reagent in order to acquire mutual independence of the test result
3.8
Blank test
Adopt the same analytical procedure, apparatus, and reagent operation as the experiment
sample test except adding experiment sample. The result is used to deduct the background of
experiment sample and calculate detection limit of the test method.
3.9
GB/T 54902010
4
Recovery test
Add tested component of known quantity to the experiment sample, adopt the same analytical
procedure, apparatus, and reagent operation as the experiment sample test, and then inspect
whether the added component is quantitatively recovered or not compared with the test result.
The acquired result is expressed in percentage which is called recovery. The result is used to
estimate whether there is system error in the test procedure and to verify the reliability and
veracity of the test method.

4 Samples registration
Sample must be registered. The items to be registered shall include (but not limited to): sample
number, sample name (category, variety), origin, representative amount, production year,
storage time, sampling location (vehicle, ship, warehouse, stacking), packaging or in bulk,
sampling unit and staff name, sampling date, etc.

5 Samples requirements
5.1 Sampling should be executed according to relevant provisions.
5.2 The amount of submitted samples should meet the requirement of inspection items, which
shall not be less than 2 kg in principle.
5.3 According to the requirement of inspection items, select appropriate container and
packaging to transport and store samples.
5.4 Appropriate measures (like seal, low temperature) should be taken during delivery and
storage to protect the samples from being damaged or lost and to avoid possible mildew,
worms, oxidation, effusion and contamination of volatile component.
5.5 Samples after inspection should be properly kept at least for one month in case of recheck.
Inspection items which are easily changeable will not be rechecked. Samples which are
perishable and whose inspection items are changeable will not be stored. However, a statement
should be made to inspection party in advance.

6 Selection of inspection methods
6.1 Inspection methods can be chose based on the scope of inspection method and laboratory
conditions when there are multiple standard inspection methods for one inspection item.
GB/T 54902010
5
6.2 Entrusted inspection should be conducted according to the inspection method specified by
the client or agreed by both parties.
6.3 Arbitration inspection should be conducted by the arbitration method specified in the
standard; The first method in this method standard should be taken as the arbitration method
when there is only one method standard for one inspection item and no specified arbitration
method; Relevant party should negotiate and determine the arbitration method when the first
method is not specified and there are several method standards for one inspection item.

7 Reagents requirements
7.1 The water for inspection refers to distilled water or deionized water when no other
requirements are specified. It refers to aqueous solution when the solution does not specify
which kind of solvent to prepare.
7.2 The reagents used in inspection are all analytical reagents except standard substance and
specifically specified reagents purity. It refers to the specified concentration of commercially
available reagents when the concentration of sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and
ammonium hydroxide are not specified.
7.3 Preparations of standard volumetric solutions should be executed according to GB/T 601.
Preparations of standard solutions for impurity should be executed according to GB/T 602.
Preparations of reagent solutions for use in testing methods should be executed according to
GB/T 603.
7.4 Drop of liquid: It refers to the drop amount of distilled water from standard burette. 1 ml is
consisted of about 20 drops at 20 .

8 Apparatus requirements
8.1 All selected apparatus should meet the range, accuracy and performance requirement
specified in the standard.
8.2 The metrical apparatus and measuring implement (including glass measuring device) should
be verified or corrected according to relevant national regulations.
8.3 Glass measuring device and glassware should be used after they are washed according to
relevant requirements.
8.4 Apparatus which are listed in the inspection method are major apparatus. Apparatus which
are commonly used in the laboratory should not be included.

GB/T 54902010
6
9 Inspection requirements
9.1 Conduct inspection according to the specified analytical procedure in the standard.
9.1.1 Weigh: use scale to weigh, and its accuracy is expressed by numerical significant digit. For
example: weigh 20.0 g means that the accuracy is 0.1 g; weigh 20.00 g means that
the accuracy is 0.01 g.
9.1.2 Accurate weight: Use scale to weigh and its accuracy is 0.0001 g.
9.1.3 Constant weight: Under specified conditions, the discrepancy of weight should not exceed
the specified scope after the sample is dried or burnt twice.
9.1.4 Measure: Use measuring cylinder or measuring glass to get the liquid substance.
9.1.5 Absorb: Use transfer pipette, measuring pipet to get the liquid substance.
9.2 In order to reduce random errors, parallel test should be conducted so that mutual
independent estimated value can be acquired and thereby reliable final test result could be
acquired.
9.3 Blank test should be conducted when there is background for the test and the detection
limit of the test method needs to be calculated.
9.4 Recovery test should be conducted to judge whether there is systematic error in the analytic
procedure and to verify the reliability and accuracy of the test method.
9.5 Protective measures should be taken for the possible insecurity factor (such as poisoning,
explosion, corrosion and burning) in the inspection.
9.6 For the quality inspection procedure of the main grain and oils, see Annex A.

10 Original record and inspection sheet
10.1 Complete original record should be kept in the experiment sample inspection. Original
record should be original, authentic and traceable.
10.2 Original record should include (but not limited to): sample number, sample name (category,
variety), inspection criteria, inspection item, inspection method, environment temperature,
humidity, major (name, type, number), test data, computational formula and result, inspector,
checker, inspection date.
10.3 Inspector should fill in the quality inspection sheet in accordance with the original record.

GB/T 54902010
7
11 Results calculation and handling
11.1 Calculation of estimated value and the rounding of valid figures should be in accordance
with GB/T 8170.
11.2 Final test result
11.2.1 Under the condition of repeatability, compare the absolute difference of two
independent test results with the allowable difference specified in the standard (repeatability
limit r=2.8*S
r
), if the absolute difference of these two test results is not more than allowable
difference, then take the average value of the two independent test result as the final test result.
11.2.2 If the absolute difference of two independent test results is greater than the allowable
difference, then two more independent tests should be conducted, and there will be four
independent test results. If the range (X
max
-X
min
) of the four independent test results is equal to
or less than 1.3 times of the allowable difference [or repetitive critical range C
r
R
95
(4)=3.6*S
r
],
then take the average value of the four independent test results as the final test result; If the
range (X
max
-X
min
) of the four independent test results is greater than 1.3 times of the allowable
difference [or repetitive critical range C
r
R
95
(4)=3.6*S
r
], then take the median of the four
independent test results as the final test result.
11.2.3 When more than two independent tests are required by the standard, the repetitive
critical range C
r
R
95
(n) is calculated according to Annex B and the final test result is determined
according to 11.2.1 and 11.2.2.
11.3 Non-detected could be used to describe the test result if the test result is under the
detection limit but its detection limit value should be noted.
11.4 The test report should include (but not limited to) the following contents:
--- Final test result, and the test number should be stated, whether the test result is the average
value or median;
--- All the information of the sample;
--- Sampling method (if known);
--- All the operation details which might influence the result and which are not specifically
described in the standard or are not considered to be optional.




GB/T 54902010
8
Annex A
(Informative Annex)
Quality inspection procedure of grain and oils
A. 1 Inspection procedure of paddy

Figure A.1 Inspection procedure of paddy
See Figure A.1

GB/T 54902010
9
A.2 Inspection procedure of wheat and corn
See Figure A.2.

Figure A.2 Inspection procedure of wheat and corn
GB/T 54902010
10
A. 3 Inspection procedure of soybean See Figure A.3

Figure A.3 Inspection procedure of soybean
content
Increment
Aggregate
Sample
Retention
Sample
Others
Storage
Quality
Experiment
Sample
Retention
Sample
Laboratory
Sample
Moisture
Nutritional
Ingredient
Color and
Lustre,
Smell
Bulk
Sample
Impurity
Skin
Color
Perfect
sample
Protein
solubilit
y ratio
Fatty acid
value
Damage
Sample
Hand Sample
Impurity
Nutrition
Facts
Crude fat
Crude
protein
Color and
Lustre,
Smell

odour
odour
Big
foreign
matter
Small
foreign
matter
GB/T 54902010
11
A.4 Inspection procedure of rice
See figure A.4


Figure A.4 Inspection procedure of rice




GB/T 54902010
12
A.5 Inspection procedure of wheat flour
See figure A.5



Figure A.5 Inspection procedure of wheat flour
GB/T 54902010
13
A.6 Inspection procedure of vegetable oils
See figure A.6


A.6 Inspection procedure of vegetable oils





GB/T 54902010
14
Annex B
(Informative annex)
Calculation of repeatability critical range
Repeatability critical range is calculated according to formula (B.1):
.. (B.1)
Where:
After n times of independent test under the condition of repeatability, the
repetitive critical range when the probability is 95%.
testing times
critical range coefficient, the critical range coefficient of different
independent testing times refers to Table B.1.
Srrepeatability standard difference.
Table B.1 Critical range coefficient

















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Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

Office China
Ta Yuan Diplomatic Office
14 Liangmahe South Street, Chaoyang District
100600 Beijing, PR China

Office Mongolia
Naiman Zovkhis Building
Seoul Street 21,
Ulaanbaatar 14251, Mongoli

E rci-asia@giz.de