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Change and conLlnulLy: chronology, archaeology and arL ln Lhe norLh klmberley, norLhwesL AusLralla

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rofessor Mlke Morwood (unL) AssoclaLe rofessor !une 8oss (unL) ur klrra WesLaway (Macu)

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,456
1he sLraLeglc poslLlon of Lhe klmberley ln norLhwesL AusLralla, glves lL enormous poLenLlal for
Lackllng fundamenLal lssues ln AusLrallan archaeology. lL lles aL Lhe lnLerface beLween Asla and
AusLralla, whlle aL Llmes of low sea level durlng Lhe lelsLocene waLer crosslngs of only ~100 km
separaLed 1lmor, ln lsland SouLheasL Asla, from Lhe exLended klmberley coasLllne (8lrdsell 1977). lL ls,
Lherefore, a llkely beach-head for Lhe lnlLlal peopllng of AusLralla-apua (Sahul) Lhe age of whlch ls of
crlLlcal lmporLance for debaLes abouL Lhe Llmlng, rouLe and pace of modern human dlspersal ouL of
Afrlca - all blg quesLlons ln world archaeology (Coebel 2007, Mellars 2006). 8elevanL archaeologlcal
and geneLlc evldence, however, ls noL enLlrely congruenL: radlocarbon ages from basal occupaLlon ln
a number of slLes lndlcaLe LhaL modern humans were ln SouLheasL Asla and Sahul around 43,000
years (43 ka) ago (e.g. 8arker !" $% 2007, 8owler !" $% 2003, Clllesple 2002, Clover 1981, C'Connor
2007, 1urney !" $% 2001), whlle lumlnescence ages for nauwalablla l and Malakunan[a ll ln Arnhem
Land, anoLher llkely beach-head reglon ln norLhwesL AusLralla, suggesLs LhaL 30-60 ka ls a beLLer
esLlmaLe (e.g. 8oberLs !" $% 1994, 1998 c.f. C'Connell & Allen 2003, 2004), as do some geneLlc sLudles
of exLanL groups ln Lhe reglon (e.g. Pud[ashov !" $% 2007: Macaulay !" $%& 2003, Cppenhelmer 2004,
1hangara[ !" $%. 2003). Comparable use of lumlnescence daLlng ln Lhe klmberley wlll help resolve Lhe
quesLlon.

roxlmlLy Lo Asla and conLlnulng culLure conLacL may also explaln ma[or dlfferences apparenL
beLween Aborlglnal groups ln Lhe norLhwesL and Lhe resL of AusLralla, ln language dlverslLy, rock arL
and sLone arLefacL Lechnology (e.g. 8owdler & C'Connor 1991, McConvell 1990, Morwood and
1rezlse 1989). lor lnsLance, of Lhe 29 Aborlglnal language phylla recorded ln AusLralla, 28 are found
only ln Lhe klmberley, Arnhem Land and ad[acenL reglons: Lhe remalnder of Lhe conLlnenL only has
languages of Lhe ama-nyungan phylla (McConvell 1990). ln hlsLorlc Llmes, vlslLs by Aslan seafarers
and Luropean navlgaLors Lo Lhe coasLs of norLhwesL AusLralla were lnlLlaLed by a range of
lnLernaLlonal pollLlcal, soclal and markeL forces, and had demographlc, geneLlc, economlc, soclal,
Lechnologlcal, llngulsLlc, arLlsLlc and ldeologlcal lmpacLs on local Aborlglnal groups (MacknlghL 1976,
8eld 1988). Larller Asla-AusLralla conLacLs and exchange may have been slmllarly complex ln cause
and lmpacL, buL all we know for cerLaln ls LhaL people had arrlved here by 43 ka and LhaL Lhe dlngo
was lnLroduced around 4 ka (8owler !" $% 2003, 1urney !" $% 2001, Collan 1984). Some archaeologlcal
slLes ln Lhe klmberley could provlde much more lnformaLlon on Lhe naLure and causes of culLural
change. ln parLlcular, Lhe reglon has one of Lhe largesL concenLraLlons of rock palnLlngs ln AusLralla,
wlLh a sequence of vlsually-speclflc, flguraLlve sLyles - perhaps exLendlng well back lnLo Lhe
lelsLocene (Morwood !" $% 1994, Walsh & Morwood 1999, Walsh 2000). Powever, Lhere are few
numerlcal ages now avallable for speclflc rock arL sLyles ln Lhe reglon and, wlLh one excepLlon
(8oberLs !" $% 1997), Lhey all apply Lo Lhe mosL recenL, Wand[lna phase of rock palnLlng (WaLchman !"
$% 1997).

LlLLle archaeologlcal research has been underLaken ln Lhe klmberley, desplLe lLs poLenLlal. Powever,
whaL ls known lndlcaLes a long, complex culLural sequence spannlng ma[or perlods of cllmaLe change
(Morwood & Pobbs 2000, C'Connor 1993, 1996). Cur pro[ecL wlll help recLlfy Lhls gap ln research
coverage, and aL a Llme when Lechnologlcal developmenLs, especlally ln daLlng, may yleld some real
surprlses for AusLrallan archaeology. 8y comblnlng numerlcal daLlng, wlLh Lhe sLudy of rock arL and
recovery of a range of excavaLed evldence, we wlll be able Lo monlLor and correlaLe several llnes of
evldence for pasL behavloural changes, and relaLe Lhese Lo Lhe wlder culLural and envlronmenLal
conLexLs. Such hlgh quallLy daLa wlll allow aspecLs of Lhe archaeologlcal record Lo be explalned far
more hollsLlcally.

1he 789:; :456 of our pro[ecL are Lherefore Lo:

uocumenL when people flrsL arrlved ln Lhe klmberley, and how Lhey responded Lo subsequenL
changes ln cllmaLe, local envlronmenLs, '( )'"* soclal processes and ouLslde conLacLs.

use a range of numerlcal daLlng Lechnlques Lo obLaln a more robusL reglonal chronology for
changes ln Aborlglnal landuse, Lechnology economy and rock arL.

Cur 6<=<> 6?<@4A4@ :456 areB

1. ldenLlfy areas wlLh slLes conLalnlng culLural deposlLs and rock arL assemblages poLenLlally
coverlng Lhe whole Llme span of human occupaLlon of Lhe reglon. Slnce Lhe earllesL rock
palnLlng sLyles ln Lhe reglon generally only survlve ln Lhe *98CD 1457<8E<F, our work wlll
focus Lhere (see below).

2. LxcavaLe a range of open and shelLer slLes wlLh poLenLlal Lo yleld evldence for culLural
conLlnulLy, change and conLacL.

3. underLake deLalled sLudy of rock arL Lo esLabllsh Lhe spaLlal dlsLrlbuLlon and age of
speclflc sLyles.

4. CollecL eLhnographlc and hlsLorlc lnformaLlon on Lhe slgnlflcance of speclflc slLes and
areas by lnLervlews wlLh lndlgenous lnformanLs and by archlval research.

3. 1he Lralnlng of lndlgenous people from local communlLles, sLudenLs and oLher
sLakeholder organlsaLlons ln archaeologlcal Lechnlques (e.g. slLe recordlng, excavaLlon)
and provlde opporLunlLles for lndlgenous LourlsL or ranger Lralnlng.

6. use remoLe senslng Lechnlques comblned wlLh sysLemaLlc surveys Lo record culLural
herlLage slLes and Lhelr envlronmenLal conLexLs (e.g. slLes of slgnlflcance, shelLers wlLh
sLraLlfled deposlLs, rock arL, mlddens, hlsLorlc slLes).

7. LsLabllsh an elecLronlc archlve of recorded slLes. When comblned wlLh oLher elecLronlc
daLabases (e.g. geologlcal and Lopographlc maps, aerlal phoLographs, resulLs of faunal
and floral surveys), Lhls wlll allow Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of slLes and Lhelr envlronmenLal
conLexLs Lo be mapped and analysed. 1he archlve wlll be lnvaluable for herlLage
managemenL, as well as research.


0:@GH89I>;B
1he klmberley ls a deflned geographlc reglon coverlng ~420,000 km
2
ln Lhe norLhwesL corner of
AusLralla, and bounded by Lhe CreaL Sandy and 1anaml ueserLs Lo Lhe souLh, Lhe norLhern 1errlLory
border Lo Lhe easL, Lhe 1lmor Sea Lo Lhe
norLh and Lhe lndlan Ccean Lo Lhe wesL
(llgure 1). Powever, Lhere are ma[or lnLra-
reglonal dlfferences ln geology and
Lopography, whlch have slgnlflcanL
lmpllcaLlons for Lhe archaeologlcal record
and research.

MosL of Lhe *98CD 1457<8E<F lles wlLhln
Lhe klmberley 8asln, domlnaLed by Lhe klng Leopold and WarLon SandsLones LhaL conLaln exLremely
hard and sLable sandsLones (CelaLley & Sofoulls 1969). 8ockshelLers ln Lhls area, formed by
undercuLLlng and block collapse, ofLen conLaln whlLe or pale grey rock surfaces LhaL provlded ldeal
surfaces for rock palnLlngs. Some of Lhese palnLlngs have survlved for exLended perlods and are sLlll
clearly vlslble ln a way noL posslble ln mosL oLher parLs of AusLralla, where sandsLone and llmesLone
surfaces are frlable, more geochemlcally acLlve and noL conduclve Lo long Lerm preservaLlon of rock
palnLlngs. ln mosL areas, rock palnLlngs older Lhan a few Lhousand years have usually eroded away or
are now obscured by overlylng mlneral encrusLaLlons (e.g. Cole !" $% 1993).

Clven Lhese condlLlons of preservaLlon, Lhe mulLl-phase norLh klmberley rock arL sequence ls llkely Lo
prove one of Lhe longesL and mosL complex anywhere ln Lhe world, rlvalled only by Lhe rock arL of
wesLern Arnhem Land - where rockshelLer walls are slmllarly hard, sLable and sulLable for rock
palnLlng (see Chaloupka 1993, Lewls 1988, Chlppendale & 1aon 1993). Powever, Lhe sLablllLy of rock
surfaces ln Lhe norLh klmberley also means LhaL Lhere ls less opporLunlLy for accumulaLlon of deep
sand deposlLs and sLraLlfled culLural remalns, whlle Lhe acldlLy of sedlmenLs generally means poor
Figure 1: General location of the Kimberley, Northwest Australia
preservaLlon of faunal remalns. As a resulL, mosL rock shelLers ln Lhe reglon only conLaln a veneer of
relaLlvely recenL, dlsLurbed deposlLs wlLh assoclaLed charcoal and sLone arLefacLs, buL llLLle bone.
Many parLs of norLh klmberley are also exLremely rugged wlLh llmlLed and dlfflculL road access: such
loglsLlc dlfflculLles have parLly been responslble for Lhe relaLlvely small number of archaeologlcal
excavaLlons ln Lhe area.

ln Lhe )9ICD 1457<8E<F, geologlcal clrcumsLances are very dlfferenL. SklrLlng Lhe souLhern edge of Lhe
reglon, uevonlan reef llmesLones of Lhe napler and Cscar 8anges have formed caves and shelLers
conLalnlng deposlLs wlLh some of Lhe earllesL evldence for human occupaLlon of AusLralla. ueposlLs aL
Lhese slLes have also preserved organlc remalns LhaL provlde superb evldence for envlronmenLal and
economlc change spannlng Lhe enLlre sequence of human occupaLlon - and Lo a degree uncommon ln
Lhe archaeologlcal record anywhere (8alme 2000, McConnell & C'Connor 1997, C'Connor 1993).
Powever, Lhe assoclaLe llmesLone surfaces are much more geochemlcally acLlve and usually noL
conduclve Lo long-Lerm preservaLlon of rock palnLlngs: wlLh a few excepLlons, only Lhe more recenL
rock palnLlng sLyles are represenLed.

!"#$%&' %) %**+,-$"%.
LxcavaLlons aL CarpenLer Cap 1 and 8lwl ln Lhe napler 8ange show LhaL people had seLLled Lhe
klmberley by ~43 ka (8alme 2000, C'Connor 1993). 8y 30 ka human use of Lhe reglon had lnLenslfled,
wlLh slLes such as Wldglngarrl 1, Wldglngarrl 2 and koolan ShelLer 2 along Lhe souLhern klmberley
coasL, and urysdale 3 ln Lhe norLhern lnland belng occupled for Lhe flrsL Llme (C'Connor 1996,
Morwood & Pobbs 2000). 1hese slLes have ylelded evldence for long dlsLance exchange beLween
people on Lhe now-drowned coasL and Lhe hlnLerland - e.g. baler shell and pearl shell daLed Lo 28 ka
and 19 ka, respecLlvely (C'Connor 1996) - as well as use of edge-ground axes and plgmenLs. 1he
klmberley, along wlLh Arnhem Land SouLheasL Cape ?ork enlnsula, now provldes Lhe earllesL
evldence for edge-ground Lechnology anywhere ln Lhe world: ln conLrasL, Lhe Lechnology only
appeared ln Lhe resL of malnland AusLralla wlLhln Lhe lasL 4 ka (Morwood and 1rezlse 1989).

LaLer, aL Lhe helghL of Lhe LasL Claclal Maxlmum (LCM), an occupaLlon hlaLus seems evldenL aL some
slLes, suggesLlng abandonmenL of much of Lhe klmberley ln response Lo lncreaslng arldlLy.
resumably, people moved Lo beLLer-waLered areas or refuges, lf Lhls was an opLlon: aL CarpenLer's
Cap very sparse use of Lhe slLe conLlnued LhroughouL Lhe LCM lndlcaLlng LhaL (seml)-permanenL
waLers were reLalned ln deep gorges of Lhe napler 8ange (McConnell and C'Connor 1997). ln
conLrasL, Mlrlwun ShelLer on Lhe Crd 8lver, LasL klmberley, was flrsL occupled aL Lhe LCM and
conLlnued ln use up unLll Lhe end of Lhe lelsLocene, when condlLlons began Lo lmprove around 12 ka
ago (uorLch 1977). 1he Crd ls Lhe mosL llkely caLchmenL ln Lhe general reglon llkely Lo have reLalned
permanenL waLer aL Lhls Llme.

8e-occupaLlon of Lhe klmberley, as condlLlons lmproved and sea levels rose, ls flrsL evldenL aL koolan
from 10.3 ka. ln addlLlon Lo LerresLrlal fauna, Lhe dleL of people aL Lhe slLe now lncluded marlne
shellflsh. lrom sLablllsaLlon of sea level around 6.3 ka, Lhere appears Lo have been an exponenLlal
lncrease ln number of occupled slLes, whlch lncluded shell mlddens along Lhe newly esLabllshed coasL
(velLch 1996). uaLes from flve excavaLed rockshelLers ln Lhe WalcoLL lnleL hlnLerland flL Lhls paLLern
well: Lhe oldesL slLe has a basal occupaLlon of 6.3 ka (CaLhy SLokes: pers. comm).
lrom Lhls Llme, many changes are evldenL ln Lhe archaeologlcal record, for lnsLance, Lhe mld-
Polocene appearance of flaked sLone polnLs ln excavaLed sLone arLefacL assemblages (8owdler &
C'Connor 1991), as well as Wand[lna palnLlngs ln Lhe reglonal rock arL sequence (below). WheLher
populaLlon lncrease, as lndlcaLed by number of slLes, or 'ouLslde' conLacL, as lndlcaLed by Lhe
lnLroducLlon of Lhe dlngo (Collan 1984), was Lhe maln deLermlnanL ls noL clear. LaLer ln Lhe sequence,
sporadlc conLacL beLween Luropean navlgaLors and local Aborlglnal people began ln Lhe 17Lh CenLury
(e.g. 1asman ln 1644, uampler ln 1688), buL Lhe flrsL large-scale and regular conLacLs beLween
klmberley Aborlglnes and 'ouLslders' daLe Lo Lhe early 18Lh CenLury, wlLh Aslan seafarers vlslLlng
norLh AusLrallan waLers Lo collecL marlne resources, such as Lrepang, LurLle shell, clam meaL and
sharkflns (e.g. Crawford 2001, MacknlghL 1976, Morwood & Pobbs 1997). 1he llngulsLlc, geneLlc,
arLlsLlc, ldeologlcal and maLerlal effecLs of Lhls Aslan-AusLrallan conLacL lncluded use of a 'Malay'
%'(+*$ ,-$(.$ by Aborlglnal groups along Lhe coasL, conLacL sub[ecLs deplcLed ln rock arL, Lhe
lnLroducLlon of new dlseases, such as smallpox, and access Lo exoLlc raw maLerlals, such as glass and
meLal for manufacLure of spear heads (e.g. Crawford 2001, MacknlghL 1976, urry and Walsh 1981).
More recenLly, 'ouLslde' conLacLs ln Lhe norLh klmberley lncluded overland explorlng expedlLlons
(e.g. Ceorge Crey ln 1838, !oseph 8radshaw ln 1891), Lhe arrlval of mlsslonarles, Lhe Laklng up of
pasLoral leases, mlneral explolLaLlon and a large mlllLary presence aL Mungalalu 1ruscoLL Alrbase ln
World War ll (8easy & 8easy 1993). 1hese conLacLs had profound and ofLen dlsrupLlve lmpacLs on
local Aborlglnal people.

/"012&32' &%*4 -&$
1he recovery of a slab of llmesLone coaLed wlLh red plgmenL ln deposlLs abouL 40 ka old aL CarpenLer
Cap ln Lhe souLhern klmberley now provldes a mlnlmum age for rock palnLlng ln AusLralla (C'Connor
& lankhouser 2001), whlle archaeologlcal excavaLlons ln Arnhem Land Lo Lhe easL have recovered
lumps of hlgh quallLy red ochres ln levels daLed by CSL Lo 33 - 60 ka (8oberLs !" $% 1994). ArL was
clearly parL of Lhe culLural herlLage of Lhe flrsL people Lo reach AusLralla.

As wlLh WesL Arnhem Land, Lhe numerous rock palnLlng sLyles ln Lhe klmberley sequence have
emphasls on flguraLlve moLlfs, wlLh a degree of deLall noL evldenL ln Aborlglnal rock arL ln mosL oLher
reglons, and wlLh clear vlsual cues for recognlLlon of deplcLed sub[ecLs. 1he sequence of rock arL
sLyles, lnferred from sLudles of superlmposlLlons and dlfferenLlal weaLherlng, shows LhaL Lhere have
been assoclaLed changes ln arLlsLlc convenLlons, sub[ecL maLLer, conLexL of producLlon and funcLlon
(e.g. Crawford 1970, 1977, Welch 1993, Walsh 1988, 2000, Walsh and Morwood 1999).

1he oldesL klmberley rock palnLlng moLlfs evldenL ln Lhe
klmberley sequence comprlse large deplcLlons of anlmals,
humans and yams, as well as sLencllled hands and lmplemenLs - a
phase of rock arL producLlon Lermed Lhe lrregularly lnfllled
Anlmal erlod (Walsh 1988, 2000, llgure 2). 1hls phase ls
followed by Lhe 8radshaw (Cwlon Cwlon) rock palnLlng sLyle,
characLerlsed by deplcLlons of humans wlLh greaL aLLenLlon Lo
anaLomlcal deLall, accouLremenLs, and composlLlon, only
maLched ln AusLralla by Lhe uynamlc llgure palnLlngs of wesLern
Arnhem Land (Chaloupka 1993, Lewls 1988). ulfferenLlal
weaLherlng of palnLlngs wlLhln Lhe followlng 8radshaw palnLlng
developmenLal sequence lndlcaLes LhaL Lhey may span a
conslderable Llme. lor lnsLance, Lhe earllesL 1assel and
Sash 8radshaws are concenLraLed ln Lhe reglon where Lhe
exposed rock ls exLremely hard, alLhough lsolaLed
examples occur as far souLh as Lhe napler 8ange and as far
easL as Lhe keep 8lver ln Lhe norLhern 1errlLory (Morwood
& Pobbs 2000). ln conLrasL, laLer 8radshaw palnLlngs of Lhe CloLhes eg llgures sLyle are more evenly
dlsLrlbuLed LhroughouL Lhe general klmberley reglon, suggesLlng LhaL Lhey are conslderably younger.

8ased on Lhe evldence of dlfferenLlal weaLherlng and superlmposlLlons, Lhere may have been a
dlsconLlnulLy ln Lhe rock arL sequence beLween Lhe end of Lhe 8radshaw rock palnLlng sLyle and Lhe
followlng Clawed Pand sLyle (Walsh 2000), whlch could correspond Lo Lhe abandonmenL of much of
Lhe klmberley durlng Lhe LCM. LaLer, Lhe Clawed Pand palnLlng sLyle musL be of Polocene age, for
laLe panels of Lhe sLyle lnclude deplcLlons of sLone spear polnLs LhaL were lnLroduced Lo Lhe
klmberley around 3600 8 (Walsh and Morwood 1999). Cn Lhe basls of AMS ages for assoclaLed
charcoal plgmenLs and sLyllsLlc LranslLlons, Lhe Clawed Pand sLyle seems Lo have ulLlmaLely glven rlse
Lo Lhe Wand[lna rock palnLlng sLyle, feaLurlng large anLhropomorphlc belngs lacklng mouLhs and
usually deplcLed on a background of whlLe plgmenL. Wand[lna palnLlngs were a focus of Aborlglnal
rellglous bellefs ln Lhe klmberley unLll recenL Llmes.

1he ma[or problem wlLh use of Lhe klmberley rock arL as a source of lnformaLlon abouL Lhe pasL ls
daLlng. AL presenL, Lhere are very few numerlcal daLes avallable Lo anchor Lhe rock arL sequence and,
wlLh one excepLlon, all are of Polocene age (Morwood / Pobbs 2000). 8uL Lhe excepLlon, an
anLhropomorphlc palnLlng parLlally covered by a mudwasp nesL wlLh a lumlnescence age of ~17 ka,
shows LhaL some survlvlng palnLlngs are of lelsLocene age (8oberLs !" $% 1997).

)-2*-J-&,*&% ,*/ -**#K,'-#*
1here are A4=< hlghly slgnlflcanL and lnnovaLlve aspecLs of Lhls pro[ecL:
1. AL presenL only a handful of slLes have been excavaLed ln Lhe vasL klmberley reglon, desplLe lLs
poLenLlal for documenLlng Lhe lnlLlal arrlval of modern people ln AusLralla and subsequenL
Figure 2: Some of the Kimberley rock art
styles- a c) Irregularly Infilled Animal;
d-f) Bradshaw; g-h) Clawed Hand;
culLural conLacLs wlLh Asla, and mosL excavaLlons have been underLaken ln souLhern or coasLal
areas. 1hls pro[ecL wlll help recLlfy Lhe gap ln archaeologlcal coverage by speclflcally LargeLlng
hlnLerland secLlons of Lhe *98CD 1457<8E<F, where Lhere ls currenLly only one known slLe of
lelsLocene age (Morwood & Pobbs 2000). lL wlll also help klck-sLarL large-scale mulLl-dlsclpllnary
research on culLural herlLage ln Lhls parL of norLhwesL AusLralla. We have developed mulLl-
sLrand, mulLl-dlsclpllnary research meLhods very successfully on !ava, llores and 1lmor wlLh
paradlgm-changlng ouLcomes (e.g. 8rown !" $%& 2004, Morwood !" $%& 2007, SldarLo and
Morwood 2004, WesLaway !" $%& 2007). We Lhus have a Lrack record for underLaklng pro[ecLs of
Lhls scope and complexlLy, buL have found LhaL Lhe unlque clrcumsLances of each lnvesLlgaLed
reglon always requlre lnnovaLlve use of meLhods for selecLlng, excavaLlng and daLlng slLes.

2. Cur use of lumlnescence Lo daLe Lhe earllesL levels of excavaLed slLes could also push back Lhe
known age of occupaLlon of Lhe klmberley beyond Lhe 30 ka llmlL of radlocarbon daLlng, as ln
Arnhem Land. 1he pro[ecL wlll also faclllLaLe furLher developmenLs and appllcaLlon of Lhe
lumlnescence and uranlum-serles Lechnlques for daLlng of rock arL - by klra WesLaway and Max
AuberL, respecLlvely. 1he proposed research wlll provlde Lhe venue, as well as comparaLlve ages
from 1lMS u-serles and radlocarbon daLlng for WesLaway, as parL of her Au research
(u0772371), Lo furLher lmprove Lhe accuracy, preclslon and rellablllLy of lumlnescence daLlng
procedures. Such recenL developmenLs ln lumlnescence daLlng, ln whlch researchers aL Lhe
unlverslLy of Wollongong are playlng a leadlng role, have allowed oLher long-sLandlng, and
lnLernaLlonally slgnlflcanL problems Lo be resolved (e.g. 8oberLs !" $% 2003, !acobs !" $% 2008).

3. 1he klmberley has a rock arL body of World PerlLage slgnlflcance LhaL conLalns lnformaLlon on
pasL envlronmenLs, anlmals, human responses Lo cllmaLe change and maLerlal culLure noL
represenLed ln oLher Lypes of archaeologlcal evldence. 1he enLlre sequence ls 9>EF represenLed ln
Lhe *98CD 1457<8E<FL and many of Lhe Lype-slLes for speclflc sLyles and superlmposlLons used by
Crawford (1977), Walsh (2000) and Welch (2000) Lo consLrucL a relaLlve rock arL sequence for Lhe
reglon, occur along Lhe MlLchell and Lawley 8lvers - Lwo of Lhe areas selecLed for our sLudy
(below). We wlll be able Lo carefully check and reflne Lhls sequence.

4. 1he ma[or problem wlLh rock arL as a source of evldence for Lhe pasL ls Lhe dlfflculLy ln obLalnlng
credlble ages. Clven Lhe number and varleLy of klmberley rock arL sLyles, Lhe Llme-depLh Lhey
represenL, Lhelr frequenL assoclaLlon wlLh occupaLlon deposlLs, and Lhe amounL of eLhnographlc
lnformaLlon avallable on recenL Wand[lna palnLlngs, Lhe reglon ls an ldeal place Lo apply new
meLhods for sLudylng rock arL and Lo develop new Lechnlques for deLermlnlng lLs age. 1he speclflc
alms of our pro[ecL lnclude such lnlLlaLlves, whlle our reconnalssance survey ln Lhe norLh
klmberley has already locaLed rock arL complexes LhaL offer excellenL opporLunlLy (below).

3. underLaklng sysLemaLlc surveys and seLLlng up an assoclaLed elecLronlc base for slLes of all Lypes
and ages ln Lhe norLh klmberley has never been aLLempLed before. lf Lhe pro[ecL esLabllshes Lhe
value of such an approach for culLural herlLage managemenL, as well as research, lL wlll provlde a
much-needed role model for use ln oLher parLs of Lhe klmberley by uLC, Aborlglnal communlLles,
and oLher landholders.


uear AppllcanL
1hank you for your enqulry .
lollowlng ls an ouLllne of our klmberley pro[ecL. We kepL Lhe adverLlsemenL very broad Lo ensure
LhaL we capLured all lnLeresLed parLles - our hope ls LhaL Lhls wlll allow sLudenLs Lo sLyle a pro[ecL
whlch reflecLs Lhelr own parLlcular lnLeresLs and experLlse wlLhln Lhe framework of Lhe pro[ecL.
lleldwork beglns ln !une Lhls year, our preferred commencemenL daLe for Lhe hu, buL we are
happy Lo conslder someone sLarLlng ln !an 2011.
1wo scholarshlps are avallable. 1he scholarshlps are pald aL A8C raLes, whlch are hlgher (and Lhe
scholarshlp more presLlglous) Lhan unlverslLy scholarshlps. We would prefer sLudenLs who are
prepared Lo reslde ln Armldale whlle noL ln Lhe fleld - buL we are prepared Lo walve Lhls requlremenL
lf an ouLsLandlng candldaLe/s flnds Lhls dlfflculL for sound famlly or flnanclal reasons. ln Lhls case,
sLudenLs would be enrolled aL unL buL could be based elsewhere provlded Lhey saLlsfled Lhe
resldency requlremenLs. 1he cosL of comlng Lo Armldale would be meL by Lhe sLudenL.
1he research Leam ls led by rof. Mlke Morwood (uCW and unL Ad[uncL, archaeology and rock arL),
myself (unL, rock arL) and ur klra WesLaway (Macquarle unl, CSL and oLher daLlng). ur Mark Moore
wlll be worklng on Lhe excavaLlons and Lhe archaeology, (unL, A8C 8esearch lellow), ur Slmone
Paberle (Anu) ls worklng on phyLollLhs and we hope LhaL ur Max AuberL (Anu) wlll also be dolng
some work on daLlng sklns. l also have a Lop hu sLudenL worklng on x8l and we have a posL-
graduaLe ClS experL worklng on a mapplng pro[ecL so lL's a mulLldlsclpllnary Leam, whlch we belleve
wlll ensure we achleve Lhe alms ouLllned for our pro[ecL. 1hls means LhaL Lhe Lwo hu sLudenLs wlll
be parL of an exclLlng and broadly based Leam. A rock arL hu would be supervlsed by myself and
Mlke Morwood, whlle Mark Moore and Mlke Morwood wlll supervlse Lhe broader archaeologlcal
sLudles.
ln addlLlon Lo Lhe opporLunlLy Lo [oln Lhe research Leam, Lhe scholarshlps provlde access Lo prevlous
research flndlngs and Lhe chance Lo work alongslde Lhe 1radlLlonal Cwners, Lhe kandlwal Aborlglnal
CorporaLlon who are Llnkage arLners ln Lhe pro[ecL. lleld expenses and alrfares are funded by Lhe
pro[ecL, and asslsLance wlLh ln-fleld loglsLlcs wlll be glven, whlch means LhaL worklng ln Lhls remoLe
area becomes feaslble. 1he granL ls a Lhree year A8C Llnkage CranL wlLh lndusLry arLners - Lhe
klmberley loundaLlon of AusLralla, 1he kandlwal Aborlglnal CorporaLlon, Sllngalr and Pellworks , and
Lhe ueparLmenL of LnvlronmenL and ConservaLlon of WesLern AusLralla. 1he pro[ecL does noL resulL
from Lhe openlng up of Lhe klmberley Lo mlnlng pro[ecLs buL raLher Lhe prospecL of conLrlbuLlng Lo
some of Lhe ma[or quesLlons faclng Lhe dlsclpllne Loday.
We are looklng for someone who recognlses Lhe opporLunlLy Lhe scholarshlps brlng Lo develop a
career ln one of Lhe mosL exclLlng archaeologlcal reglons of AusLralla. We need someone who ls
keen Lo work as parL of a Leam and wlLh Aborlglnal communlLles, someone who can work ln remoLe
areas under challenglng condlLlons, and someone wlLh an ouLsLandlng academlc record, sound
wrlLlng skllls and a record of compleLlng research pro[ecLs. We expecL Lhe sLudenL Lo work full Llme
for Lhree years and publlsh flndlngs as Lhey progress.
lf you declde Lo apply, we would llke you address Lhe quallLles l have ouLllned above. We would also
llke you Lo flag whlch aspecL/s of Lhe pro[ecL you would llke Lo research and relaLe Lhls Lo your pasL
experlence. lease feel free Lo ask any addlLlonal quesLlons. We look forward Lo hearlng from you.
8egards
!une 8oss
Ad[uncL AssoclaLe rofessor
School of PumanlLles
unlverslLy of new Lngland
Armldale nSW 2330
hone 0411131361 or 02 67 781317

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