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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 2.
Link budget / Coverage Anal!i!
" #ntrodu$tion...................................................................................................................... 2%"
2 Link Budget...................................................................................................................... 2%"
2.1 Propagation related................................................................................................... 2-2
2.2 CDMA specific parameters........................................................................................ 2-4
2.3 Product specific parameters.................................................................................... 2-12
2.4 Reliability................................................................................................................. 2-12
2. !"ample #in$ budget............................................................................................... 2-1
2.% Propagation Model.................................................................................................. 2-1&
L#ST OF F#&'RES
'igure 2.1 #in$ le(el diagram............................................................................................ 2-1
'igure 2.2 Rise o(er noise floor in re(erse lin$.................................................................2-4
'igure 2.3 )oft *andoff gain in re(erse lin$.......................................................................2-%
'igure 2.4 )oft *andoff gain in for+ard lin$.......................................................................2-%
'igure 2. Re(erse lin$ le(el data..................................................................................... 2-&
'igure 2.% Re(erse lin$ le(el data..................................................................................... 2-,
'igure 2.- .eometry Diragrm......................................................................................... 2-1/
'igure 2.& Pat* loss (s distane at &// M01....................................................................2-1,
'igure 2., Pat* loss (s. distance at 2.01......................................................................2-2/
L#ST OF TABLES
2able 2.1 CDMA2///-13 for+ard lin$ budget table........................................................2-1%
2able 2.2 CDMA2///-13 re(erse lin$ budget table .......................................................2-1-
4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td. Page 8
SCBS-408L
BTS
2(((. ).
2able of Contents PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D //
Page 88 4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td.
T*i! +age intentionall le,t blank
CHAPTER 2
#in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis
" #ntrodu$tion
The design of a wireless system revolves around three main principles. Those
principles are coverage, capacity and quality. The coverage of a system relates to the
area within the system that has sufficient signal strength to provide for a quality call.
The capacity of a system relates to the ability of the system to support a given
number of users. Finally, the quality of the system reflects the degree of naturalism to
reproduce speech and ease of two-way communication. With CD!, all three of
these quantities are interrelated. To improve quality, one has to sacrifice some
coverage and capacity. To improve coverage, one would sacrifice capacity and
quality, and to improve capacity, one would sacrifice coverage and quality.
2 Link Budget
The "in# $udget is important because, in addition to a propagation model, it can
predict the %F coverage of a site, which ultimately determines the number of cells
required for system %F signal coverage.
The parameters within the %F lin# budget can be divided into four ma&or categories'
4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td. Page 2-1
r e c e i ( e d
: d ; <
(
) N C
n o i s e p o + e r s p e c t r a l
d e n s i t y : d ; m 9 0 1 <
*
(
N
r e c e i ( e r n o i s e
f i g u r e : d ; < NF
e f f e c t i ( e n o i s e p o + e r
s p e c t r a l d e n s i t y
: d ; m 9 0 1 <
(
N
R e c e i ( e r
s e n s i t i ( i t y
: d ; m <
th
P
' a d e m a r g i n
: d ; <
M
m a " . 2 " p o + e r
p e r t r a f f i c c * a n n e l
: d ; m <
T
P
2 " c a b l e 7 c o n n e c t o r
a n d c o m b i n e r l o s s
: d ; <
ft
L
2 " ! 8 R P p e r
t r a f f i c c * a n n e l
: d ; m <
EIRP
P
2 " a n t e n n a
g a i n : d ; i <
T
G
r e c e i ( e d
s i g n a l p o + e r
: d ; m <
R
P
P r o p a g a t i o n p a t * l o s s
: d ; <
P
L
R " c a b l e 7 c o n n e c t o r
a n d f i l t e r l o s s
: d ; <
fr
L
i n p u t s i g n a l l e ( e l
t o t * e r e c e i ( e r
: d ; m <
rec
P
R " a n t e n n a
g a i n : d ; i <
R
G
r e c e i ( e d
: d ; m " 0 1 <
(
) N E
b
i n f o r m a t i o n r a t e
b i t s 9 s e c
b
R
C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D //
Figure 2." Link level diagra-
Page 2-2 4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td.
PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D // C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis
2." Pro+agation related
CD! specific
+roduct specific
%eliability
+ropagation related parameters
Building +enetration lo!!
The signal strength received inside of a building due to an e,ternal transmitter is
important for wireless systems that share frequencies with neighboring buildings or
with outdoor systems. !s with propagation measurements between floors, it is
difficult to determine e,act models for penetration as only a limited number of
e,periments have been published, and they are sometimes difficult to compare.
-owever, some generali.ations can be made form the literature. %F penetration has
been found to be a function of frequency as well as height within the building. ost
measurements have considered outdoor transmitters with antenna heights far less
than the ma,imum height of the building under test. easurements in "iverpool
showed that penetration loss decreases with increasing frequency. easurements
made in front of windows indicated / d$ less penetration loss on average than did
measurements made in parts of the buildings without windows. Wal#er measured
radio signals into fourteen different buildings in Chicago from seven e,ternal cellular
transmitters. %esults showed that building penetration loss decreased at a rate of 0.1
d$ per floor from the ground level up to the fifteenth floor and the began increasing
above the fifteenth floor. The increase in penetration loss at higher floors was
attributed to shadowing effects of ad&acent buildings.
.e*i$le lo!!
2ehicle loss is the degradation of the %F signal strength caused by a vehicular
enclosure when a subscriber handset is operating within a vehicle while truing to
communicate to a cell site. 2ehicle loss has been seen to rage from 3 to 04 d$. 5f one
wishes to design a system assuming a vehicle penetration loss, an average range is
appro,imately 3 to 6 d$.
Cable lo!!
%F feeder losses include all of the losses that are encountered between the base
4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td. Page 2-3
C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D //
station cabinet and the base antenna, or with respect to a mobile, all of the losses
between the +! and the antenna. %F cable loss at the mobile is not considered in the
lin# budget. -owever, the cable loss at the base station can account for several d$s of
loss. Cable loss increases with length of cable and decrease with width of cable. !nd
transmission cables are more lossy at higher frequency.
Page 2-4 4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td.
PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D // C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis
Antenna
The antennas used by the cell site and mobile for establishing and maintaining the
communication lin# are a crucial element of the system. The two primary
classifications of antennas for a system are omni and directional. 7mni antennas are
used when the desire is to obtain refined pattern. Directional antennas are used when
a more to facilitate system growth through frequency reuse or to shape the system8s
contour. The antenna you use for a networ# should match the system design
ob&ectives.
Type
Two common types of antennas used in cellular communication systems are
collinear and log-periodic antennas. Collinear antennas can be either omni or
directional. They operate with a series of dipole elements that operate in phase
and are referred to as a broadside radiator. The ma,imum radiation for the
collinear antenna ta#es place along the dipole arrays a,is, and the array consists
of a number of parallel elements in one plane.
The other general type of antenna used is a log-periodic dipole array9"+D!:, a
directional antenna whose gains, standing-wave ratio9;W%:. The "+D! is used
where a large bandwidth is needed and the typical gain is 0( d$i. The actual
antenna consists of several dipole elements which have different lengths and
different relative spacing.
We can tell antenna type as direction of emission. 7mni antenna provides
appro,imately the same amount of gain throughout the entire </(degree
hori.ontal pattern. Directional antennas, sometimes referred to as sector
antennas, have a ma,imum gain in one direction with the bac#side being 03 to
43d$ below the ma,imum gain.
d$i = d$d
!nother item to #eep in mind is if the antenna gain is in reference to a dipole or
an isotropic antenna. The difference is usually signified by d$d or d$i. ! .ero
d$d gain antenna would correspond to a 4.0> d$i gain antenna. Thus, care
should be ta#en to ensure the correct antenna gain is used with the propagation
model.
4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td. Page 2-
C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D //
2.2 C/0A !+e$i,i$ +ara-eter!
5nterference rise The interference level measured with respect to receiver front end
noise defines the interference rise at a CD! cell where interference is due to the
power received from each mobile station in a CD! system. obile stations will
have to transmit more power to compensate for both an increased mean interference
rise level and pea# rise levels to maintain a desired ?b)@o at a serving base station as
loading increases. Figure 0 below shows rise CDFs for different loads.
The following equation can be used as a first pass appro,imation to the amount of
interference margin one should add to the lin# budget to account for loading the
CD! system with users.
5nterference %ise A -0( log 90-B:
Where B is the ma,imum allowed number of users, specified as a fraction of pole
capacity.
Figure 2.2 Ri!e over noi!e ,loor in rever!e link
Page 2-% 4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td.
PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D // C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis
Hando,, gain
The soft handoff gain improve the coverage and capacity of the CD! networ#.
Figure 4 and Figure < show the simulation results of 6 #bps speech in 5TC +edestrian
! channel, at < Dm)h, with soft handoff containing two base stations in the active set.
The relative path loss from the mobile to $;0 compared to $;4 was (, -<, -/ or -0(
d$. The highest gains are obtained when the path loss is the same to both base
stations, i.e. the relative path loss difference is ( d$. Figure 4 shows the soft handoff
gain in uplin# transmisson power with base station receive antenna diversity. Figure <
shows the corresponding gains in downlin# transmission power without transmit or
receive antenna diversity. The gains are relative to the single lin# case. 5t should be
noted that 5TC +edestrian ! channel has only little multipath diversity, and thus the
soft handoff gains are relatively high. With more multipath diversity, the handoff
gains are lower.
5n Figure 4 the ma,imum reduction of the mobile transmission power due to soft
handoff is 0.6 d$ if the path loss is the same to both soft handoff base stations. 7f the
path loss difference is very large, the soft handoff can cause an increase in the mobile
transmission power. This increase is caused by the signaling errors of the uplin#
power control commands which are transmitted in the downlin#. $ut, typically, the
base station would be in the active set of the mobile station if the path loss were <-/
d$ larger than the path loss to the nearest base station.
5n the downlin# the ma,imum soft handoff gain is 4.< d$, which is more than in the
uplin#. The reason is that no antenna diversity is assumed in the downlin#, and thus
in the downlin# there is more need for macro diversity in soft handoff. 5n the
downlin#, soft handoff causes an increase in the required downlin# transmission
power if the path loss difference is more than >-3 d$ in this e,ample. 5n that case the
mobile cannot receive effectively the signal from the more distant base station, and
no additional diversity gain is provided.
These soft handoff gains are e,ample values only. The gains depend on the multipath
profile, mobile speed, receiver algorithms and base station antenna configurations.
4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td. Page 2--
C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D //
Figure 2.1 So,t *ando,, gain in rever!e link
Figure 2.) So,t *ando,, gain in ,or2ard link
Page 2-& 4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td.
Gain in uplink transmissio n po wer
- 0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
- 10 - 8 - 6 - 3 0
Relative path loss to BS1 compared to BS2 [ dB]
[
d
B
]
Gain in downlink transmission power
- 3
- 2
- 1
0
1
2
3
- 10 - 8 - 6 - 3 0
Relative path loss to BS1 compared to BS2 [ dB]
[
d
B
]
PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D // C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis
Eb/No
5n digital communication, we are primarily interested in a lin# metric called ?b)@o,
or energy per bit per noise power density. This quantity can be related to the
conventional signal-to-noise9;@%: by recogni.ing that energy per bit equates to the
average modulating signal power allocated to each bit durationE that is,
Eb S T
equation 0
Where ; is the average modulating signal power and T is the time duration of each
bit. We can further manipulate 9eq.0: by substituting the bit rate %, which is the
inverse of bit duration T'
Eb
S
R
equation 4
?b)@o is thus
Eb
No
S
RNo
equation <
We further substitute the noise power density @o, which is the total noise power @
divided by the bandwidth WE that is,
No
N
W
equation >
4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td. Page 2-,
C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D //
;ubstituting 9eq.<: into 9eq.4: yields
Eb
No
S
N
W
R
equation 3
9eq.>: relates the energy per bit ?b)@o to two factorsE the signal to noise ratio ;)@ of
the lin# and the ratio of transmitted bandwidth W to bit rate %.
Figure 2.3 Rever!e link level data
Page 2-1/ 4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td.
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
1 2 3 4 5 6
Eb/No per A ntenna (dB)
F
E
R
9.6kbp! o"ter#oop
19.2kbp! o"ter#oop
38.4kbp! o"ter#oop
$6.8kbp! o"ter#oop
153.6kbp! o"ter#oop
30$.2kbp! o"ter#oop
PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D // C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis
Figure 2.4 Rever!e link level data
?b)@o is not the value to be calculated but simulated. !nd the values are different
according to mobile speed, data rate, F?% and channel model. !bove Figures show
forward ?b)@o at <#m)h and reverse ?b)@o at <(#m)h.
4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td. Page 2-11
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Eb/No (dB)
F
E
R
19.2kbp!2- pat% Ra&#e'(% )ad'n(
38.4kbp!2- pat% Ra&#e'(% )ad'n(
$6.8kbp!2- pat% Ra&#e'(% )ad'n(
153.6kbp!2- pat% Ra&#e'(% )ad'n(
30$.2kbp!2- pat% Ra&#e'(% )ad'n(
19.2*bp!1- pat% Ra&#e'(% )ad'n(
38.4*bp!1- pat% Ra&#e'(% )ad'n(
$6.8*bp!1- pat% Ra&#e'(% )ad'n(
153.6*bp!1- pat% Ra&#e'(% )ad'n(
30$.2kbp!1- pat% Ra&#e'(% )ad'n(
1- pat% Ra&#e'(% )ad'n(
2- pat% Ra&#e'(% )ad'n(
C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D //
&eo-etr
5or)95ocF@o: is first computed based on the path loss to all base station, where 5or is
the total received power from all $T;s that are in active set of the mobile and 5oc is
the total received power from all other $T;s. To determine the proper Geometry
value to use for a given mobile station at a specific location, the path losses from all
$;8s are first determined.
5f ; is located at edge area we can assume ; receive same signal strength from
both $;s li#e figure below. 5oc and @o is considered a fourth of $;8 signal.
0. case of soft handoff 4. case of no soft handoff
Figure 2.5 &eo-etr /iragr-
Page 2-12 4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td.
G
Ior
No Ioc
dB
+

+
+

0 0
0 > 0 >
> /
) )
G
Ior
No Ioc
dB
+

+

0
0 > 3 >
4 < 4
) )
)
BS"6
"
0S BS2=1
#o$6"/
)
No6"/
)
PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D // C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis
Re$eiver inter,eren$e /en!it #o$ 7dB-/H89
%eceiver interference density for forward lin# is the interference power per -. at the
mobile station receiver located at the edge of coverage, in an interior cell. This is the
in-band interference power divided by the system bandwidth. The in-band
interference power consists of both co-channel interference as well as ad&acent
channel interference.
5t is obtained by using formula for Geometry.
! can be determined as fowlling .
?quation above is replaced li#e below.
We can finally obtain receiver interference density.
4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td. Page 2-13
G
Ior
No Ioc
Ior G No G Ioc

+
+

H H
Ioc
Itc
Itc
Ior
Ioc
Ior
A
Ior
A
Ioc


0
0
0
A
Ioc G No G Ioc
Ioc
G
A
G
No
G
Ior
Ioc
G
No
+

H H
9 :
9 :

C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D //


2.1 Produ$t !+e$i,i$ +ara-eter!
Re$eiver Sen!itivit
The sensitivity of a radio receiver is the required minimum received signal power at
$; without margin and gain. This is the signal level needed at the receiver input that
&ust satisfies the required ?b)@o.
%, ;ensitivity A 9#T:d$m F W d$ F 9@f:d$ F 9?b)@o:d$ I 0(log9W)%:d$
Where
D ' $olt.man8s constant A 0.<6e I 4< W)9-. D:
T ' %oom temperature of 41( degree Delvin
W ' $andwidth of the carrier
@f ' @oise figure of the equipment
?b)@o ' ?nergy bit density over noise
% ' 5nformation bit rate
Differences will e,ist between the mobile station and base station due to the
differences in ?b)@o values and the noise figure of the equipment. The other
parameters will be the same for both ends of the lin#.
2.) Reliabilit
S*ado2 Fade 0argin
;hadow fade margin is a factor added to the lin# budget to account for the reduction
in received signal level that results from %F shadowing. The log normal distribution
has been found to be a good estimate of the statistical nature of shadowing and is
used to calculate the probability of %F coverage at each point in the cell. !t points
near the base station, the average received signal level and the probability of
coverage will be high. !t points near the edge of the cell, the average received signal
level and probability of coverage will be lower. The total probability of coverage for
the entire cell is determined by integrating the point probabilities over the cell area.
The desired area coverage is achieved by ad&usting the fade margin to the necessary
level.
?dge reliability is dependent on the standard deviation and fade margin assumed.
Depending on the propagation environment, the log-normal standard deviation can
Page 2-14 4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td.
PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D // C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis
easily between 3 and 1 d$ or even greater. The greater the standard deviation, the
lower the edge reliability assuming a constant fade margin.
;ince most systems are comprised of more than a single cell, one could ma#e use of
multiple cell effects. ;imulations can be performed given various assumptions to
determine the appropriate shadow fade margin to be added to the lin# budget to
provide for the reliability desired. This multiple cell effect accounts for the overlap of
ad&acent cells and the fast handoff capability of the CD! soft handoff method.
4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td. Page 2-1
C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D //
0 Cell-?dge Coverage 9or ;mall !rea Coverage:
x
' received signal strength 9"og-@ormal distribution: Jd$mK
x ' mean of "og-normal distribution v9median alue: Jd$mK
(
x
' receiver threshold Jd$mK
@ote
coverage' fraction of the locations at rA% wherein a mobile would e,perience
a received signal above LthresholdM
pdf of
x
1
]
1

4
4
4
: 9
e,p
4
0
: 9

x x
x p
Coverage A 0 I outage
[ ]

,
_

4
4
0
4
0
: 9 : 9
(
(
(
(

x x
erf
dx x p x x P R P
x
x
Fade argin A x x
(
4 !rea Coverage 95solated Cell:
@ote
Coverage in %TT is actually L!rea CoverageM
coverage' percentage of locations within a circle of radius % in which the
received signal strength from a radiating $; antenna e,ceeds a particular
threshold value
u
F
Page 2-1% 4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td.
PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D // C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis
Coverage A 0 I outage

A
x u
dA P
R
F
( 4
0

where
(
x
P
' prob. that the received signal
x
e,ceeds threshold
(
x
in an incremental
area dA
1
]
1

+

4
) log 0(
4
0
4
0
0( (
(

R r n x
erf P
x
,
where
R
r
n x
0(
log 0( Jd$mK,
n n
r R x

JlinearK, and

is determined
from T, power, antenna heights, and gains, and so on.
"et 4 ) log 0( , 4 ) : 9
0( (
e n b x a ,
( ) R r b a t ) ln
, then

'

1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
+ +

b
ab
erf
b
ab
a erf
dt t erf e
b
e
F
a
b t
b a
u
0
0
0 4
e,p : 9 0
4
0
: 9
4
4
0
4
) 4
) 4
@ote
b can be determined only by
n
and

.
For given coverage
u
F
,
a
can be determined.
e,:
n
A<,

A04d$,
u
F
A(.13, then
b A (.N/NN<0,
a
A (.61>4<</4
From obtained 4 ) : 9
(
x a ,

(
x
can be determined.
;ince
R
r
n x
0(
log 0( , x for R r . That is, x x
(
9fade margin
of isolated cell:.
Finally, we can calculate the cell-edge coverage.
Fade argin with $est-of-4);um-of-4 -andoff for the cell-edge Coverage
4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td. Page 2-1-
C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D //
$est-of-4 -andoff J2iterbiK
dx
b
x a
Q e P
x
out
4
4 )
4
4
0
1
]
1

,
_

,
where 4 ) 0 b a 9site-to-site correlation (.3:, fade margin A

for given
out
P
.
2.3 E:a-+le Link budget
The following tables provide as e,ample of %F lin# budget.
%eceiver ;ensitivity A Total interference noise plus interference density F
information rate F required ?b)9@oF5o:
+ath loss A Transmitter ?5%+ per traffic channel I %eceiver sensitivity F receiver ant
gain I cable loss F -andoff gain I fade margin I penetration loss F other gain
Page 2-1& 4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td.
PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D // C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis
Table 2." C/0A2(((%"; ,or2ard link budget table
4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td. Page 2-1,
C0AP2!R 1. 2itle #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis9 !D //
Table 2.2 C/0A2(((%"; rever!e link budget table
4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td. Page 1-2/
C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D //
2.4 Pro+agation 0odel
ost radio propagation models are derived using a combination of analytical and
empirical methods. The empirical approach is based on fitting curves or analytical
e,pressions that recreate a set of measured date. This has the advantage of implicitly
ta#ing into account all propagation factors, both #nown and un#nown, through actual
field measurements. -owever, the validity of an empirical model at transmission
frequencies or environments other than those used to derive the model can only be
established by additional measured data in the new environment at the required
transmission frequency. 7ver time, some classical propagation models have emerged,
which are now used to predict large-scale coverage for mobile communication
systems design. $y using path loss models to estimate the received signal level as a
function of distance, it becomes possible to predict the ;@% for a mobile
communication system. The following sections give additional detail concerning
statistical propagation models.
2.4." Hata +ro+agation -odel
The -ata model is an empirical formulation of the graphical path loss data provided
by 7#umura, and is valid from 03( -. to 03(( -.. -ata presented the urban
area propagation loss as a standard formula and supplied correction equations for
application to other situations. The standard formula for median path loss in urban
areas in given by
d h h a h f dB urban L
te re te c
log : log 33 . / 1 . >> 9 : 9 log 64 . 0< log 0/ . 4/ 33 . /1 : :9 9
3(
+ +
fc
The frequency 9in -.: from 0( -. to 03(( -.
te
h
The effective transmitter antenna height ranging from <( m to 4(( m
re
h
The effective receiver antenna height ranging from 0 m to 0( m
d The T-% separation distance 9in Dm:
: 9
re
h a
The correction factor for effective mobile antenna height which is a
function of the si.e of the coverage area
For a small to medium si.ed city, the mobile antenna correction factor is given by
dB f h f h a
c re c re
: 6 . ( log 3/ . 0 9 : N . ( log 0 . 0 9 : 9
Page 2-22 4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td.
C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D //
and for a large city, it is given by
MH f for dB h h a
MH f for dB h h a
c re re
c re re
<(( 1N . > : N3 . 00 9log 4 . < : 9
<(( 0 . 0 : 3> . 0 9log 41 . 6 : 9
4
4


To obtain the path loss in a suburban area the standard -ata formula is modified as
> . 3 :K 46 ) 9 Jlog 4 : 9 : 9
4
3( 3(

c
f urban L dB L
and for path loss in open rural, the formula is modified as
16 . >( log << . 06 : 9log N6 . > : 9 : 9
4
3( 3(

c c
f f urban L dB L
!lthough -ata8s model does not have any of the path specific corrections which are
available in 7#unura8s model, the above e,pressions have significant practical value.
The predictions of the -ata model compare very closely with the original 7#umura
model, as long as d e,ceeds 0 #m. This model is well suited which have cells on the
order of 0 #m radius.
Page 2-23 4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td.
Path loss Vs Distance at 8!"#
$
%
12
1&
18
'1 1'1 2'1 ('1 )'1 &'1 $'1 *'1
Distance+km,
P
a
t
h

l
o
s
s
+
d
B
,
+rban
,"b"rban
C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D //
Figure 2.< Pat* lo!! v! di!tane at <(( 0H8
Page 2-24 4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td.
PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D // C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis
2.4.2 COST%21" 0odel
The ?uropean Co-operative for ;cientific and Technical research 9?C%7-C7;T:
formed the C7;T-4<0 wor#ing committee to develop and e,tended version of the
-ata model. C7;T-4<0 proposed the following formula to e,tend -ata8s model to
4G-.. The proposed model for path loss is
! te re te c
C d h h a h f urban L + + + log : log 33 . / 1 . >> 9 : 9 log 64 . 0< log 1 . << < . >/ : 9
3(
where
: 9
re
h a
is defined in -ata propagation model above and
( d$ for medium si.ed city and suburban areas

!
C
< d$ for metropolitan centers
Figure 2.= Pat* lo!! v!. di!tan$e at 2&H8
4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td. Page 2-2
Path loss Vs Distance at 2G"#
&'
8'
11'
1)'
1*'
2'
'1 1' 1 2'1 ('1 )'1 &'1 $'1 *'1
Distance+-m,
P
a
t
h

l
o
s
s
+
d
B
,
+rban
,"b"rban
C0AP2!R 2. #in$ budget 9 Co(erage Analysis PAR2 2. CDMA Radio !ngineering 9 !D //
Page 2-2% 4 )AM)56. !lectronics Co.7 #td.