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BUTTON OPERATED

ELECTROMAGENETIC GEAR CHANGER


FOR TWO WHEELER
PROJECT REPORT - 2013 2014
BUTTON OPERATED
ELECTROMAGENETIC GEAR CHANGER
FOR TWO WHEELER
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
NO
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
LIST OF FIGURES
1 Introduction
2 Description of equipments
21 !prin"
22 DC #un
3 Desi"n $nd dr$%in"
31 &$c'ine Components
4 (or)in" princip*e
+ &erits , demerits
- .pp*ic$tions
/ 0ist of m$teri$*s
1 Cost Estim$tion
2 Conc*usion
Bibliography
photography
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
Number
TITLE
1
3*oc) di$"r$m
2
O4er$** di$"r$m
SYNOPSIS
SYNOPSIS
In our project we are using dc gun to change the gear in two
wheelers. It is very useful for the development in automobile field.
The total operation can be controlled by the microcontroller. The
block diagram with explanation is given below.
CHAPTER-1
INDRODUCTION
CHAPTER-1
INDRODUCTION
A motorcycle (also called a motor bicycle, motorbike, bike, or
cycle is a single!track, two!wheeled

motor vehicle powered by an
engine. "otorcycles vary considerably depending on the task for
which they are designed, such as long distance travel, navigating
congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and racing, or off!road
conditions. In many parts of the world, motorcycles are among the
least expensive and most widespread forms of motori#ed
transport.
In the two wheelers the transmission is carried out by
manually. This may result in fatigue during driving in cities
or traffic areas.
CHAPTER-2
DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT
CHAPTER-II
DESCRIPTION OF EQUPMENTS
2.1. SPRING
A spring is a flexible elastic object used to store mechanical
energy. $prings are usually made out of hardened steel. $mall
springs can be wound from pre!hardened stock, while larger ones.
A spring is a mechanical device, which is typically used to store
energy and subse%uently release it, to absorb shock, or to
maintain a force between contacting surfaces. They are made of
an elastic material formed into the shape of a helix which returns to
its natural length when unloaded this is called return spring.
$prings are placed between the road wheels and the vehicle body.
&hen the wheel comes across a bump on the road, it rises and
deflects the spring, thereby storing energy therein. 'n releasing,
due to the elasticity of the spring, material, it rebounds thereby
expending the stored energy. In this way the spring starts vibrating,
with amplitude decreasing gradually on internal friction of the
spring material and friction of the suspension joints till vibrations
die down.
2.2 D.C GUN:
INTRODUCTION:
In ()(*, +rench inventor ,ouis 'ctave +auchon!-illeplee
invented electric cannon which bear a strong resemblance to the
linear motor. .e filed for a /$ patent on ( April ()(), which was
issued in 0uly ()11 as patent no. (,21(,234 56lectric Apparatus for
7ropelling 7rojectiles5. In his device, two parallel busbars are
connected by the wings of a projectile, and the whole apparatus
surrounded by a magnetic field. 8y passing current through
busbars and projectile, a force is induced which propels the
projectile along the bus!bars and into flight.
9uring &orld &ar II the idea was revived by 0oachim
.:nsler of ;ermany<s 'rdnance 'ffice, and an electric anti!aircraft
gun was proposed. 8y late ()22 enough theory had been worked
out to allow the ,uftwaffe<s +lak =ommand to issue a specification,
which demanded a mu##le velocity of 1,>>> m?s (@,@>> ft?s and a
projectile containing >.4 kg ((.( lb of explosive. The guns were to
be mounted in batteries of six firing twelve rounds per minute, and
it was to fit existing (1.* cm +laA 2> mounts. It was never built.
&hen details were discovered after the war it aroused much
interest and a more detailed study was carried out, culminating in a
()2B report which concluded that it was theoretically feasible, but
that each gun would need enough power to illuminate half of
=hicago
CONSTRUCTION:
A rail gun consists of two parallel metal rails (hence the
name connected to an electrical power supply. &hen a
conductive projectile is inserted between the rails (from the end
connected to the power supply, it completes the circuit. 6lectrons
flow from the negative terminal of the power supply up the
negative rail, across the projectile, and down the positive rail, back
to the power supply.
This current makes the railgun behave similar to an
electromagnet, creating a powerful magnetic field in the region of
the rails up to the position of the projectile. In accordance with the
right!hand rule, the magnetic field circulates around each
conductor. $ince the current is in opposite direction along each
rail, the net magnetic field between the rails (B is directed
vertically. In combination with the current (I across the projectile,
this produces a ,orent# force which accelerates the projectile
along the rails. There are also forces acting on the rails attempting
to push them apart, but since the rails are firmly mounted, they
cannot move. The projectile slides up the rails away from the end
with the power supply.
A very large power supply providing, on the order of, one
million amperes of current will create a tremendous force on the
projectile, accelerating it to a speed of many kilometres per second
(km?s. 1> km?s has been achieved with small projectiles
explosively injected into the railgun. Although these speeds are
theoretically possible, the heat generated from the propulsion of
the object is enough to rapidly erode the rails. $uch a railgun
would re%uire fre%uent replacement of the rails, or use a heat
resistant material that would be conductive enough to produce the
same effect.
CONSIDERATIONS IN RAILGUN DESIGN
MATERIALS
The rails and projectiles must be built from strong conductive
materialsC the rails need to survive the violence of an accelerating
projectile, and heating due to the large currents and friction
involved. The recoil force exerted on the rails is e%ual and opposite
to the force propelling the projectile. The seat of the recoil force is
still debated. The traditional e%uations predict that the recoil force
acts on the breech of the railgun. Another school of thought
invokes AmpDre<s force law and asserts that it acts along the
length of the rails (which is their strongest axis. The rails also
repel themselves via a sideways force caused by the rails being
pushed by the magnetic field, just as the projectile is. The rails
need to survive this without bending, and must be very securely
mounted.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The power supply must be able to deliver large currents,
sustained and controlled over a useful amount of time. The most
important gauge of power supply effectiveness is the energy it can
deliver. As of +ebruary 1>>*, the largest known energy used to
propel a projectile from a railgun was 31 million joules.. The most
common forms of power supplies used in railguns are capacitors
and compulsators.
The rails need to withstand enormous repulsive forces during
firing, and these forces will tend to push them apart and away from
the projectile. As rail?projectile clearances increase, arcing
develops, which causes rapid vapori#ation and extensive damage
to the rail surfaces and the insulator surfaces. This limited some
early research railguns to one shot per service interval.
The inductance and resistance of the rails and power supply
limit the efficiency of a railgun design. =urrently different rail
shapes and railgun configurations are being tested, most notably
by the /nited $tates Eavy, The Institute for Advanced Technology,
and 8A6 $ystems.
HEAT DISSIPATION
"assive amounts of heat are created by the electricity
flowing through the rails, as well as the friction of the projectile
leaving the device. The heat created by this friction itself can cause
thermal expansion of the rails and projectile, further increasing the
frictional heat. This leads to three main problemsF melting of
e%uipment, safety of personnel, and detection by enemy forces. As
briefly discussed above, the stresses involved in firing this sort of
device re%uire an extremely heat!resistant material. 'therwise the
rails, barrel, and all e%uipment attached would melt or be
irreparably damaged.
In practice the rails are, with most designs of railgun, subject
to erosion due to each launchC and projectiles can be subject to
some degree of ablation also, and this can limit railgun life, in
some cases severely.
MATHEMATICAL FORMULA
In relation to railgun physics, the magnitude of the force
vector can be determined from a form of the 8iot!$avart ,aw and a
result of the ,orent# force. It can be expressed mathematically in
terms of the permeability constant (G
>
, the radius of the rails
(which are assumed to be circular in cross section(r, the distance
between the counterpoints of the rails(d and the current in amps
through the system (I as follows
The formula is based on the assumption that the distance(l
between the point where the force (F is measured and the
beginning of the rails is greater than the separation of the rails (d
by a factor of about 3 or 2 (l H 3d. $ome other simplifying
assumptions have also been madeC to describe the force more
accurately, the geometry of the rails and the projectile must be
taken into consideration.
RAIL GUN:
Iailguns are being pursued as weapons with projectiles that
do not contain explosives, but are given extremely high velocitiesF
34>> m?s (((,4>> ft?s, approximately "ach (> at sea level or more
(for comparison, the "(@ rifle has a mu##le speed of )3> m?s, or
3,>>> ft?s, which would make their kinetic energy e%ual or superior
to the energy yield of an explosive!filled shell of greater mass. This
would allow more ammunition to be carried and eliminate the
ha#ards of carrying explosives in a tank or naval weapons
platform. Also, by firing at higher velocities railguns have greater
range, less bullet drop and less wind drift, bypassing the inherent
cost and physical limitations of conventional firearms ! 5the limits of
gas expansion prohibit launching an unassisted projectile to
velocities greater than about (.4 km?s and ranges of more than 4>
miles J*> kmK from a practical conventional gun system.5
If it were possible to apply the technology as a rapid!fire
automatic weapon, a railgun would have further advantages in
increased rate of fire. The feed mechanisms of a conventional
firearm must move to accommodate the propellant charge as well
as the ammunition round, while a railgun would only need to
accommodate the projectile. +urthermore, a railgun would not
have to extract a spent cartridge case from the breech, meaning
that a fresh round could be cycled almost immediately after the
previous round has been shot.
RESISTANCE
6lectrical resistance is a major limitation because when
dumping large amounts of electrical energy into a conductor the
majority of the energy is converted to heat due to resistance and
therefore effectively lost as it is not driving the projectile. This could
be overcome through the use of a superconducting material.
ENERGY DISSIPATION
The coils have an electrical resistance, and resistive losses
are often very significant indeed.
The energy in the magnetic field itself does not simply
dissipateC much of it returns to the capacitor when the electric
current is decreasing. /nfortunately it does this in the reverse
direction (via a <ringing< mechanism due to inductance of the coils,
which can seriously damage polari#ed capacitors (such as
electrolytics.
In the circuit the magnetic field keeps the current in the coil
flowing after the capacitor has discharged, so that it keeps
discharging and builds up a negative voltage (see ,en#<s law. This
is similar to an ,= oscillator.
The capacitor charging to a negative voltage can be
prevented by placing a diode across the capacitor terminals.
$ome designs bypass this limitation by using couple of
diodes. Then, diodes reverse polarity to charge capacitors instead
with proper polarity again, effectively re!using remaining coil
energy.
A coilg! is a type of synchronous linear electric motor
which is used as a projectile accelerator that consists of one or
more electromagnetic coils. These are used to accelerate a
magnetic projectile to high velocity. The name G"## g! is
sometimes used for such devices in reference to =arl +riedrich
;auss, who formulated mathematical descriptions of the
electromagnetic effect used by magnetic accelerators.
=oilguns consist of one or more coils arranged along the
barrel that are switched in se%uence so as to ensure that the
projectile is accelerated %uickly along the barrel via magnetic
forces. =oilguns are distinct from railguns, which pass a large
current through the projectile or sabot via sliding contacts.
=oilguns and railguns also operate on different principles.
ELCTRO MAGNATIC GUN DETAILS:
&hile playing with my can crusher, I noticed that a can
placed off center tended to be pushed out of the solenoid. A little
searching of the patent literature convinced me that I had
inadvertently created a very poor, single stage, coil gun.
7resented below is a summary of what I have found so far.
7ropellant powered guns are typically limited to mu##le
velocities on the order of 1,>>> meters per second. This limit is
inherent to the use of expanding gas to drive the projectile down a
barrel. 8arrels simply can<t withstand the temperatures and
pressures re%uired for higher expansion rates of the propellant
combustion products (normally ='1 and E'x. 'ne attempt at a
gun for higher velocities used differential pistons (a large one,
driven by methane?oxygen combustion, connected to a small one
for compression of the drive gas to provide a high pressure of
hydrogen gas (hydrogen is the lightest, and hence fastest
expanding, of all gasses. &hile some success was achieved, the
apparatus was cumbersome and the velocities were still limited.
+or some applications, particularly orbital launching, this is
insufficient (earth escape velocity is ((,1>> m?s.
Two basic types of electromagnetic gun are described in the
patent literature, the rail gun and the coil gun. 8oth use stored
energy sources to produce a large magnetic field and a high
electric current through a driving armature. The interaction of the
current with the magnetic field generates a force which propels the
armature (and any projectile connected to it. 8eyond that, they
differ substantially, and each has practical difficulties which has
prevented them from being more than laboratory curiosities.
CHAPTER-$
DESIGN AND DRA%ING
CHAPTER-$
DESIGN AND DRA%ING
$.1 MACHINE COMPONENTS
The automatic gear changer in two wheeler is consists of the
following components to full fill the re%uirements of complete
operation of the machine.
=ontrol unit
9.c gun
;ear system
DRA%ING
BLOC& DIAGRAM
DRAWING FOR BUTTON OPERATED ELECTROMAGENETIC
GEAR CHANGER FOR TWO WHEELER
CHAPTER -'
%OR&ING PRINCIPLE
CHAPTER-'
%OR&ING PRINCIPLE
5ere %e '$4e t%o dc "un $rr$n"ements %'ic' $re $rr$n"ed on
eit'er side of t'e 4e'ic*e ped$* rest for $pp*6in" t'e "e$r T'e dc "un is
fi7ed $t t'e end of t'e f*$t ped$* rest T'e p*$te rest '$s pi4ot $t t'e center
T'e "uns $re oper$ted %it' t'e 'e*p of e*ectric po%er supp*6 $nd it is
contro**ed 86 t'e contro* unit 9not'in" 8ut $ s%itc': One of t'e "uns is
used to $pp*6 t'e "e$r $nd $not'er one for reducin" t'e "e$rs T'e "e$rs
$re $pp*ied on t'e 4e'ic*e dependin" up on t'e speed of t'e 4e'ic*e
.ccordin" to t'e speed t'e dri4er c$n c'$n"e t'e 4e'ic*e ;ust 86 pressin"
t'e 8utton inste$d of c'$n"in" t'e "e$r 86 "e$r *e4er
CHAPTER -(
MERITS AND DEMERITS
CHAPTER-(
MERITS AND DEMERITS
MERITS
<uic) response is $c'ie4ed
!imp*e in construction
E$s6 to m$int$in $nd rep$ir
Cost of t'e unit is *ess
Continuous oper$tion is possi8*e %it'out stoppin"
DEMERITS
It may increase slight weight to the vehicle.
CHAPTER -)
APPLICATIONS
CHAPTER-)
APPLICATIONS
It is applicable in all types of two wheelers which has gear
transmission.
CHAPTER-*
LIST OF MATERIALS
CHAPTER-7
LIST OF MATERIALS
FACTORS DETERMINING THE CHOICE OF
MATERIALS
The various factors which determine the choice of material
are discussed below.
1. P+o,-+.i-#:
The material selected must posses the necessary properties
for the proposed application. The various re%uirements to be
satisfied. =an be weight, surface finish, rigidity, ability to withstand
environmental attack from chemicals, service life, reliability etc.
The following four types of principle properties of materials
decisively affect their selection
a. 7hysical
b. "echanical
c. +rom manufacturing point of view
d. =hemical
The various physical properties concerned are melting point,
thermal =onductivity, specific heat, coefficient of thermal
expansion, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, magnetic
purposes etc.
The various "echanical properties =oncerned are strength
in tensile, =ompressive shear, bending, torsional and buckling
load, fatigue resistance, impact resistance, eleastic limit,
endurance limit, and modulus of elasticity, hardness, wear
resistance and sliding properties.
The various properties concerned from the manufacturing
point of view are,
=ast ability
&eld ability
$urface properties
$hrinkage
9eep drawing etc.
2. M"!/"c.+i!g c"#-:
$ometimes the demand for lowest possible manufacturing
cost or surface %ualities obtainable by the application of suitable
coating substances may demand the use of special materials.
$. Q"li.0 R-1i+-2:
This generally affects the manufacturing process and
ultimately the material. +or example, it would never be desirable to
go casting of a less number of components which can be
fabricated much more economically by welding or hand forging the
steel.
'. A3"il"4ili.0 o/ M".-+i"l:
$ome materials may be scarce or in short supply. It then
becomes obligatory for the designer to use some other material
which though may not be a perfect substitute for the material
designed. the delivery of materials and the delivery date of product
should also be kept in mind.
(. S,"c- co!#i2-+".io!:
$ometimes high strength materials have to be selected
because the forces involved are high and space limitations are
there.
). Co#.:
As in any other problem, in selection of material the cost of
material plays an important part and should not be ignored.
$ome times factors like scrap utili#ation, appearance, and
non!maintenance of the designed part are involved in the selection
of proper materials.
CHAPTER-5
COST ESTIMATION
CHAPTER-5
COST ESTIMATION
1. LABOUR COST:
,athe, drilling, welding, grinding, power hacksaw, gas cutting cost
2. O6ERGHEAD CHARGES:
The overhead charges are arrived byLmanufacturing costL
"anufaturing =ost M"aterial =ost N,abour =ost
M
M
'verhead =harges M1>Oof the manufacturing cost
M
$. TOTAL COST:
Total cost M "aterial =ost N,abour =ost N'verhead =harges
Total cost for this project M
CHAPTER-7
CONCLUSION
CHAPTER-7
CONCLUSION
The project carried out by us made an impressing task in the
field of automobile department. It is very useful for driver while
drive the vehicle at any places without any tension.
This project has also reduced the cost involved in the
concern. 7roject has been designed to perform the entire
re%uirement task which has also been provided.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIORAPHY
(. 9esign data book !7.$.;.Tech.
1. "achine tool design handbook P =entral machine tool
Institute, 8angalore.
3. $trength of "aterials ! I.$.Aurmi
2. "anufacturing Technology ! "..aslehurst.
4. 9esign of machine elements! I.s.Aurumi
PHOTOGRAPHY