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SPECIAL FINITE VERBS = (AUXILIARY VERBS)

1. Have to .- It expreses: obligation, necessity


e.g. You have to work hard nowadays to make a living
I had to walk to the office.

negative form = dont have to ( in any verbal tense : didnt have to .)
2. can could- be able to.- It expresses permission, ability, power, capacity.
e.g. He can speak English well
can I come in?
can you swim?
negative form = cannot or cant. = impossibility.
Verbs of senses use can: I can see well, I can hear.
3. May might.- It expresses possibility, prohibition
e.g. you may go
people may not pick flowers in this park
In exclamatory sentences to indicate a wish
May all your dreams come true!; May you pass the course! (ojal)

4. Shall- should ( they are defectives and have neither infinitives, participles, gerunds or
imperatives. They are used in future (shall) and conditional (should =advice)

5. Will- would (will expresses future and would conditional) (Habitual action in past)

6. Must (defective verb having only one form)It is always a special finite.
It expresses obligation, or a command.
*negative form = must not =mustnt
e.g. You must wipe your feet before coming into the house
You mustnt walk on the grass
In England traffic must keep to the left
(In other verbal tenses we use had to)
7. Need.- There are two verbs, one is regular and the other is an auxiliary verb.
e.g. He doesnt need to work so hard (regular form)
The past tense is needed to; e.g. I needed to get new tyres for my car, the old ones were
very badly worn.
e.g. As a defective verb means have to = Need he work? Need you
go soon?. I hardly need say how much I love you. (It has no s in 3
rd
persons).
8. Ought to.- It expresses the idea of moral obligation, duty. It is often replaced by
should.
e.g. You ought to study hard
I told him that he ought to see you.

9. Dare.- (It can be a normal verb or a special finite.) (atreverse a, osar)
e.g. dare you climb that tree?
How dare you say such a thing?

10. Used to. It expresses contrast, Something existed in the past but no longer exists.
I used to go to the cinema with my parents when I was a child
She used to smoke, (not any more)
The past form in negative : didnt use to (There is no present form)

11. Be used to//get used to + ing = (be accustomed to) (very important) e.g. He is used
to getting up early.

12. Had better . ( it implies polite obligation) .

eg. Youd better come on time