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# Please answer following 4 problems in English, with 1 page of a letter size paper

for each.
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Requirement:
You have total 3 hours to answer.
You can refer any textbook. However, make answer by yourself.
If there is any problem to make answer by using a word processor, the answer can be
handwriting. In that case, please send it back by following methods:
FAX +81-22-795-5775
E-mail fujiwara@pat.gp.tohoku.ac.jp misawa@pparc.gp.tohoku.ac.jp
[with Phone +81-22-795-5776 or 6734 or Skype: fujiwarahitoshi1 ]
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Problem 1 (Kinetics)
A small object X (mass: m) is turning around the planet P (mass: M, radius: R) under
the gravitational force (gravitational constant: G). M is much larger than m, so assume
the position of the planet P can be fixed.

1-1. The small object X moves with a speed of v at the constant distance of r
from the center O of the planet P. Obtain the kinetic energy E with using
terms with r and v.

1-2. Derive the equation of motion regarding the small object X, and show the areal
velocity S of the small object X around the planet center O is constant regardless of
time.

1-3. Derive the speed of the small object X when it makes circular motion around the
planet P keeping a constant height of H.

1-4. The small object X kept a circular motion around the planet P with a constant
height H. When a small object Y collided with X from just behind X, X started to
make a motion toward infinity from the planet center O. Derive the range of speed
of Y just before the collision with X. Here Y has the same mass as X, the collision
was perfect elastic, and the size of the objects and the gravity force between X and
Y can be negligible.

1-5. Regarding 1-4, briefly explain the motion of Y after the collision with X.

Problem 2 (Physical Mathematics)
2-1. Show the eigen values and eigenvectors for the following matrix assuming that the
eigenvectors are in a direction perpendicular to each other and the vector length is
1.

0 1 0
1 0 0
0 0 1

2-2. Solve the following differential equations.

(a) ( )
y
e x x x x
dx
dy

+ =
2 2

(b) 0 5 4
2
2
= + + y
dx
dy
dx
y d

2-3. Using the Taylor expansion, show the following relation.

sin cos i e
i
+ =

Problem 3 (Electromagnetism)
3-1. Derive the wave equations for the electric field E
r
and the magnetic field B
r

from the following Maxwells equations (
0
and
0
are permittivity and
permeability in free space, respectively). Assume that charge and current are zero
( 0 = and 0
r r
= J ) and that the electromagnetic wave propagates in free space
(vacuum space).
t
B
E

=
r
r

J
t
E
H
r
r
r
+

=
0

0

= E
r

0 = B
r

3-2. Obtain the expressions for the electric field ( E
r
) and the magnetic field ( B
r
) as the
solutions of the wave equations derived above. Show that E
r
and B
r
are
perpendicular to each other.

Problem 4 (Planetary and Space Physics)

4-1. Regarding the upper atmosphere of the Earth, describe your answers to the
following questions. Here, height is z, Boltzmann constant is k, and gravitational
acceleration is g. For atmospheric particles, the mass is m, the number density is n,
and the temperature is T. Planck constant h is 410
15
eVs, and light velocity c is
310
8
m/s.
(a) Atmospheric particles in the upper atmosphere are ionized by the solar radiation.
Assuming the ionized energy is 10eV for the atmospheric particles, derive wave
length condition of the solar radiation which contributes to their ionization.
(b) Assuming the upper atmosphere is in hydrostatic equilibrium under a constant
temperature, the condition of atmospheric stratification is given by,
. nmg
dz
dn
kT =
Obtain the vertical distribution of the number density n. Assume the number
density is n
0
at z=0.
(c) When the solar activity is high, orbit and/or attitude of low Earth orbiting
satellites are sometimes unstable. Briefly describe one of the reasons for the