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LABORATORY MANUAL

AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING
LIST OF THE EXPERIMENTS
S.
No.
Name of the Experiment Page No
From To
1. To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e "$ut"!es*
a. +o#$ , Sr#ng "$ut"!
-. .#a!ragm sr#ng "$ut"!
". .ou-$e d#s' "$ut"!
1 /
0. To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e transm#ss#on systems*
a. Syn"!romes! , (our seed range
-. Transa1$e &#t! dua$ seed range
". Four &!ee$ dr#)e and trans(er "ase
d. Steer#ng "o$umn and ($oor s!#(t2 $e)er
3 14
5.

To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e tyres 6 &!ee$*
a. 7ar#ous tyes o( -#as and rad#a$ $#es tyres
-. 7ar#ous tyes o( &!ee$s
11 04
8. To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e steer#ng systems*
a. Manua$ steer#ng system% e.g. #tman arm steer#ng% ra"' and
#n#on steer#ng
- Po&er steer#ng system% e.g. ra"' 6 #n#on o&er steer#ng
systems
" Steer#ng &!ee$s 6 "o$umn% e.g. t#$t and te$es"o#" steer#ng
&!ee$s% "o$$as#-$e steer#ng "o$umns
01 0/
9. To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e -ra'e systems*
a. :ydrau$#" 6 neumat#" -ra'e system
-. .rum -ra'e system
". .#s' -ra'e system
-. Ant#$o"' -ra'e system
03 51
/. To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and 50 5;
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e susens#on systems*
a. Front susens#on system
-. Rear susens#on system
3. To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e dr#)e $#nes and d#((erent#a$s*
a. Rear &!ee$ dr#)e $#ne
-. Front &!ee$ dr#)e $#ne
". .#((erent#a$% dr#)e a1e$ and (our &!ee$ dr#)e $#ne
5< 80
;. To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e automot#)e em#ss#on = o$$ut#on "ontro$ systems. 85 83
<. To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e (ue$ su$y systems*
a. +ar-uretor
-. .#ese$ (ue$ #n>e"t#on systems
". Gaso$#ne (ue$ #n>e"t#on systems
8; 95
14. To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e eng#ne systems and su- systems*
a. Mu$t# "y$#nder* d#ese$ and etro$ eng#ne
-. Eng#ne "oo$#ng and $u-r#"at#ng systems
". Eng#ne start#ng systems
d. +onta"t o#nt and e$e"tron#" #gn#t#on systems
98 9;
AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING LAB
INSTRUCTION SHEET
EXPERIMENT
Aim
To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and oerat#on o(
t!e (o$$o&#ng Automo-#$e "$ut"!es*
a? +o#$ Sr#ng +$ut"!
-? .#a!ragm Sr#ng +$ut"!
"? Mu$t# $ate +$ut"!
THEOR!
.#agram% +onstru"t#ona$ .eta#$s% @or'#ng Pr#n"#$e and Oerat#on o( t!e a-o)e
A s#m$#(#ed s'et"! o( a s#ng$e $ate "$ut"! #s g#)en #n (#g 1 Fr#"t#on $ate #s !e$d -et&een
t!e ($y&!ee$ and t!e ressure $ate. T!ere are sr#ngs At!e num-er may )ary% deend#ng
uon des#gn? arranged "#r"um(erent#a$$y% &!#"! ro)#de a1#a$ (or"e to 'ee t!e "$ut"! #n
engaged os#t#on. T!e (r#"t#on $ate #s mounted on a !u- &!#"! #s s$#ned (rom #ns#de and
#s t!us (ree to s$#de o)er t!e gear -o1 s!a(t. Fr#"t#on (a"#ng #s atta"!ed to t!e (r#"t#on $ate
-ot! s#des to ro)#de t&o annu$ar (r#"t#on sur(a"es (or t!e transm#ss#on o( o&er. A eda$ #s
ro)#ded to u$$ t!e ressure $ate aga#nst t!e sr#ng (or"e &!ene)er #t #s reBu#red to -e
d#sengaged. Ord#nar#$y #t rema#ns #n engaged os#t#on as #s s!o&n #n (#g.1
@!en t!e "$ut"! eda$ #s ressed% t!e ressure $ate #s mo)ed to t!e r#g!t aga#nst t!e (or"e
o( t!e sr#ngs. T!#s #s a"!#e)#ng -y means o( a su#ta-$e $#n'age and a t!rust -ear#ng. @#t!
t!#s mo)ement o( t!e ressure $ate% t!e (r#"t#on $ate #s re$eased and t!e "$ut"! #s
d#sengaged.
In a"tua$ ra"t#"e t!e "onstru"t#on o( t!e "$ut"! d#((ers. T!e ressure $ate% t!e sr#ngs% t!e
re$ease $e)ers and t!e "o)er (orm a su- assem-$y% "a$$ed t!e "o)er assem-$y &!#"! "an -e
mounted d#re"t$y to t!e eng#ne -$o"'% o( "ourse% $a"#ng t!e "$ut"! $ate #n -et&een t!e
($y&!ee$ and t!e ressure $ate &#t! t!e "$ut"! s!a(t #nserted #n t!#s arrangement.
A"#anta$e%
1 &#t! t!e s#ng$e $ate "$ut"!% gear "!ang#ng #s eas#er t!an &#t! t!e "one "$ut"!% -e"ause
t!e eda$ mo)ement #s $ess #n t!#s "ase
0 #t does not su((er (rom d#sad)antages o( "one "$ut"! #.e. -#nd#ngs o( "ones et". and
!en"e #t #s more re$#a-$e
&i%a"#anta$e%
As "omared to "one "$ut"!% t!e sr#ngs !a)e to -e more st#(( and t!#s means greater (or"e
reBu#re to -e a$#ed -y t!e dr#)er &!#$e d#sengag#ng.
In t!e assem-$ed os#t#on re$eases $e)er rest aga#nst t!e "entre oen#ng o( t!e "o)er ress#ng
t!ere #s an eye-o$t nut &!#"! "auses t!e strut to u$$ t!e ressure $ate aga#nst t!e sr#ngs%
t!us !o$d#ng toget!er t!e assem-$y. @!en t!e "o)er #s -o$ted onto t!e ($y&!ee$% t!e
ressure $ate #s (urt!er us!ed -a"' aga#nst t!e sr#ngs% "aus#ng t!em to -e "omressed
(urt!er% &!#"! re$a1es t!e re$ease $e)ers. Ant# ratt$e sr#ngs ser)e to re)ent t!e undes#ra-$e
no#se due to re$ease $e)ers &!en t!e "$ut"! #s #n t!e engaged os#t#on.
&iaphra$m Sprin$ T'pe Sin$(e P(ate C()t*h
T!e "onstru"t#on o( t!#s tye o( "$ut"! #s s#m#$ar to t!at o( t!e s#ng$e $ate tye o( "$ut"!
des"r#-ed a-o)e e1"et t!at !ere d#a!ragm sr#ngs Aa$so "a$$ed Be$$e)#$$e sr#ngs? are used
#nstead #( t!e ord#nary "o#$ sr#ngs. In t!e (ree "ond#t#on% t!e d#a!ragm sr#ng #s o( "on#"a$
(orm -ut &!en assem-$ed% #t #s "onstra#ned to an aro1#mate$y ($at "ond#t#on -e"ause o(
&!#"! #t e1erts a $oad uon t!e ressure $ate.
A d#a!ragm sr#ng tye "$ut"! #s s!o&n #n (#g. &!ere s!o&s t!e "$ut"! #n t!e engaged
os#t#on and #n t!e d#sengaged os#t#on.
It #s seen (rom t!e a-o)e (#gures t!at t!e d#a!ragm sr#ng #s suorted on a (u$"rum
reta#n#ng r#ng so t!at any se"t#on t!roug! t!e sr#ng "an -e regarded as a s#m$e $e)er. T!e
ressure $ate E #s mo)a-$e a1#a$$y% -ut #t #s (#1ed rad#"a$$y &#t! rese"t to t!e "o)er. T!#s
#s done -y ro)#d#ng a ser#es o( eBua$$y sa"ed $ugs "ast uon t!e -a"' sur(a"e o( t!e
ressure $ate. T!e dr#)e (rom t!e eng#ne ($y&!ee$ #s transm#tted t!roug! t!e "o)er%
ressure $ate and t!e (r#"t#on $ate to t!e gear -o1 #nut s!a(t.
T!e "$ut"! #s d#sengaged -y ress#ng t!e "$ut"! eda$ &!#"! a"tuates t!e re$ease (#ngers -y
means o( a re$ease r#ng. T!#s #)ots t!e sr#ng a-out #ts (u$"rum% re$#e)#ng t!e sr#ng $oad
on t!e outs#de d#ameter% t!ere-y d#s"onne"t#ng t!e dr#)e.
In t!#s "$ut"!% t!ree stras o( sr#ng stee$ are $a"ed eBu#$atera$$y so t!at t!e#r outer ends are
r#)eted to t!e "o)er% &!#$e t!e#r "enters are r#)eted to t!e ressure $ate. .r#)e #s
transm#tted (rom t!e "o)er to t!e ressure $ate )#a t!e stras a$ong $#nes o( a"t#on t!roug!
t!e stra r#)et "enters. Sr#ng ($e1ure o( t!e stras erm#ts t!e a1#a$ mo)ement o( t!e
ressure $ate re$at#)e to t!e "o)er.
Ad)antages o( t!e d#a!ragm sr#ng tye "$ut"!
T!#s tye o( "$ut"! !as no& )#rtua$$y suerseded t!e ear$#er "o#$ sr#ng des#gn #n many
"ountr#es #n "$ut"! s#Ces rang#ng uto 034 mm% #n d#ameter% a$t!oug! #n "ase o( !ea)y
)e!#"$es% t!e "o#$ sr#ng tye "$ut"!es are st#$$ -e#ng used -e"ause o( t!e d#((#"u$ty to
ro)#de su((#"#ent "$am#ng (or"e -y a s#ng$e d#a!ragm sr#ng. T!e d#a!ragm sr#ng
!o&e)er% o((ers "erta#n d#st#n"t ad)antages.
#? #t #s more "oma"t means o( stor#ng energy. T!us "oma"t des#gn resu$ts
#n sma$$er "$ut"! !ous#ng.
##? As t!e d#a!ragm sr#ng #s "omarat#)e$y $ess a((e"ted -y t!e "entr#(uga$
(or"es% #t "an &#t!stand !#g!er rotat#ona$ seeds. On t!e ot!er !and% "o#$
sr#ngs !a)e tenden"y to d#stort #n t!e trans)erse d#re"t#on at !#g!er
seeds.
###? In "ase o( "o#$ sr#ngs% $oad de($e"t#on "ur)e #s $#near. T!ere(ore% &#t! t!e
&ear o( t!e "$ut"! (a"#ng t!e sr#ngs !as $ess de($e"t#on due to &!#"!
t!ey &ou$d a$y $ess (or"e aga#nst t!e "$ut"! $ate. On t!e ot!er !and%
#n "ase o( d#a!ragm sr#ng% t!e $oad de($e"t#on "ur)e #s not $#near
t!ere(ore% #n t!#s "ase% as t!e "$ut"! (a"#ng &ears% (or"e on t!e $ate
gradua$$y #n"reases% &!#"! means t!at e)en #n t!e &orn out "ond#t#on%
t!e sr#ng (or"e #s not $ess t!an #ts )a$ue #n "ase o( ne& "$ut"!. Furt!er%
#t #s a$so seen t!at t!e $oad de($e"t#on "ur)e deends uon t!e rat#os !=t
&!ere ! #s t!e (ree d#s! !e#g!t and t #s t!e t!#"'ness o( t!e sr#ng.
T!ere(ore% #n t!#s "ase &#t! su#ta-$e des#gn% t!e $oad de($e"t#on "ur)e "an
-e #mro)ed to g#)e $o&er re$ease $oads.
#)? T!e d#a!ragm a"ts as -ot! "$am#ng sr#ng and re$ease $e)ers.
T!ere(ore% many e1tra arts $#'e struts% eye -o$ts% $e)ers et". are
e$#m#nated #n t!e d#a!ragm sr#ng% -e"ause o( &!#"! t!e $oss o(
e((#"#en"y due to (r#"t#on &ear o( t!ese arts a$so does not o""ur% &!#"!
resu$ts #n t!e e$#m#nat#on o( sBuea's and ratt$es.
M)(tip(ate *()t*h
T!ese "$ut"!es are used #n !ea)y "ommer"#a$ )e!#"$es% ra"#ng "ars and motor "y"$es (or
transm#tt#ng !#g! torBue. In "omar#son to s#ng$e $ate tye% t!ese s&#t"!es are smoot!er and
eas#er to oerate due to t!e#r assem-$y o( (r#"t#on sur(a"es "onta"t. T!ey may -e used &!ere
sa"e #s )ery $#m#ted% #.e. #n automat#" transm#ss#on and motor "y"$es. In t!e $atter "ases a
mu$t#$ate "$ut"! o( sma$$ oerator transm#ts aro1#mate$y t!e same torBue as a s#ng$e $ate
"$ut"! o( t&#"e t!at d#ameter. T!ese are a$so used #n "ases &!ere )ery $arge torBues are to -e
transm#tted #.e. #n !ea)y "ommer"#a$ )e!#"$es% "ars% se"#a$ urose m#$#tary and agr#"u$tura$
)e!#"$es. T!ese "$ut"!es may -e dry or &et. @!en t!e "$ut"! o( t!#s tye #s oerated #n a -at!
o( o#$% #t #s "a$$ed a &et "$ut"!. But t!ese o#$ #mmersed or &et "$ut"!es are genera$$y used #n
"on>un"t#on &#t! or as a art o( t!e automat#" transm#ss#on. It "ons#sts o( a num-er o( t!#n
$ates "onne"ted a$ternate$y to #nut and outut s!a(t resu$t#ng #n a )ery $arge area o( &or'#ng
sur(a"e #n a "omarat#)e$y sma$$ sa"e. T!e #n"reased num-er o( $ates ro)#des t!e #n"reased
torBue transm#tt#ng a-#$#ty o( t!e "$ut"!.
REFERENCE BOO+S
1 Automot#)e Me"!an#"s , +rouse = Ang$#n
0 Automo-#$e Eng#neer#ng -y .r D#ra$ S#ng!
7#)a Euest#ons
1. @!at #s t!e (un"t#on#ng o( a "$ut"!F
.#s"uss )ar#ous (a"tors a((e"t#ng t!e torBue transm#ss#ons #n a "$ut"!
0. E1$a#n t!e &or'#ng o( mu$t# $ate dry "$ut"!
5. @!at are t!e essent#a$ roert#es reBu#red (or a "$ut"! (a"#ng mater#a$s
8. E1$a#n #n deta#$ )ar#ous "auses o( "$ut"! trou-$es. :o& "an t!ese -e remed#edF
9. +omare t!e !ydrau$#" and me"!an#"a$ met!ods o( oerat#ng "$ut"!es
/. @!ere and &!y &e use mu$t# $ate "$ut"!es
3. .#s"uss t!e "onstru"t#ona$ (eatures o( a "$ut"! $ate
;. .es"r#-e sem# and (u$$y "entr#(uga$ "$ut"!es
<. @#t! t!e !e$ o( a su#ta-$e d#agram% des"r#-e t!e "onstru"t#ona$ (eatures o( a d#a!ragm
tye sr#ng "$ut"!
14. .er#)e mat!emat#"a$ e1ress#ons (or t!e torBue transm#tted #n a mu$t#$ate "$ut"! &#t! n
no o( $ates
11. +omare dry and &et tye o( (r#"t#on "$ut"!es.
10. @!y are t!e "$ut"! (r#"t#on $ates er(oratedF
15. @!at #s t!e need o( a "$ut"! #n an automo-#$e
18. @!y do &e !a)e sr#ngs #n "$ut"! (r#"t#on $ates
19. @!at are t!e (un"t#ons o( a damer sr#ngs #n a "$ut"! dr#)#ng d#s"
AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING LAB
INSTRUCTION SHEET
EXPERIMENT NO, -
Aim
To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and oerat#on o(
t!e (o$$o&#ng Automot#)e Transm#ss#on Systems*
a? S$#d#ng Mes!
-? +onstant Mes!
"? Syn"!romes! , (our seed range
.
S(i"in$ Me%h t'pe Gear Box
T!#s #s t!e s#m$est tye o( gear -o1 AF#g 5?. T!e o&er #s trans(erred (rom t!e eng#ne to t!e
"$ut"! s!a(t and t!en to t!e "$ut"! gear &!#"! #s a$&ays #n mes! &#t! a gear on t!e $ays!a(t. A$$
t!e gears on t!e $ay s!a(t are (#1ed and as su"! t!ey are a$$ t!e t#me rotat#ng &!en t!e eng#ne #s
runn#ng and t!e "$ut"! #s engaged. T!ree d#re"t and one re)erse seeds are atta#ned -y su#ta-$y
mo)#ng t!e gear on t!e ma#n s!a(t -y means o( se$e"tor me"!an#sm.
Con%tant Me%h Gear Box
In t!#s tye o( gear -o1% a$$ t!e gears are #n "onstant mes! &#t! t!e "orresond#ng gears on t!e
$ays!a(t. T!e gears on t!e ma#n s!a(t &!#"! #s s$#ned% are (ree. T!e dog "$ut"!es are ro)#ded
&!#"! s$#de on t!e ma#n s!a(t. T!e gears on t!e $ays!a(t are% !o&e)er% (#1ed.
@!en t!e $e(t dog "$ut"! #s s$#ded to t!e $e(t -y means o( t!e se$e"tor me"!an#sm% #ts teet! o(
t!e gear are engaged &#t! t!e "$ut"! gear. T!e same dog "$ut"!% !o&e)er% &!en s$#de to r#g!t
ma'es "onta"t &#t! t!e se"ond gear and se"ond gear rat#o #s o-ta#ned. S#m#$ar$y mo)ement o(
t!e r#g!t dog "$ut"! to t!e $e(t resu$ts #n $o& gear and to&ards r#g!t #n re)erse gear.
S'n*hrome%h Gear Box
T!#s tye o( gear -o1 #s s#m#$ar to t!e "onstant mes! tye. In t!#s a$$ t!e gears on t!e ma#ns!a(t
are #n "onstant mes! &#t! t!e "orresond#ng gears on t!e $ays!a(t. T!e gears on t!e $ays!a(t
are (#1ed to #t &!#$e t!ose on t!e ma#ns!a(t are (ree to rotate on t!e same s!a(t. Its &or'#ng #s
a$so s#m#$ar to t!e "onstant mes! tye% -ut #n t!e (ormer t!ere #s one de(#n#te #mro)ement o)er
t!e $atter. T!#s #s t!e ro)#s#on o( syn"!romes! de)#"e &!#"! a)o#ds t!e ne"ess#ty o( dou-$e
de"$ut"!#ng. T!e arts &!#"! u$t#mate$y are reBu#red to -e engaged% are (#rst -roug!t #nto
(r#"t#ona$ "onta"t &!#"! eBua$#Ces t!e#r seed% a(ter &!#"! t!ese may -e engaged smoot!$y.
F#g s!o&s t!e "onstru"t#on and &or'#ng o( a syn"!romes! gear -o1. In most o( t!e "ars%
!o&e)er% t!e syn"!romes! de)#"es are not (#tted to a$$ t!e gears. T!ey are on$y on t!e !#g!
seed gears -ut on t!e $o& seed and re)erse gears% ord#nary dog "$ut"!es are on$y ro)#ded.
T!#s #s done to redu"e t!e "ost.
In ot!er &ords% t!e gear &!ee$s &!#"! are to -e os#t#)e$y "onne"ted are (#rst -roug!t #nto
(r#"t#ona$ "onta"t and &!en t!e (r#"t#on !as eBua$#Ced t!e#r seeds% t!e os#t#)e "onne"t#ons are
made. Syn"!romes! de)#"es "an -e a$#ed to t!e s$#d#ng mes! gear -o1 -ut t!ey are
un#)ersa$$y used &#t! "onstant mes! gear -o1es used #n d#((erent motor )e!#"$es. T!e ma#n
(eatures o( t!#s gear -o1 are*
a? T!e outut gears are (ree to rotate on -us!es on t!e outut s!a(t. T!ey are #nterna$$y
$o"ated -y s$#ned t!rust -ear#ngs. S#ng$e or dou-$e !e$#"a$ gears rema#n #n "onstant
mes! &#t! t!e $ay s!a(t gears.
-? T!e outut gears are $o"'ed to t!e#r s!a(t -y t!e dog "$ut"!
"? +!ange o( t!e syn"!ron#C#ng !u- ta'es $a"e &!en #ts seed eBua$#Ces or
syn"!ron#Ces -y t!e#rs "ones.
In "ase t!#s gear #s not used% #t #s $e(t to t!e s'#$$ o( t!e dr#)er to -r#ng one or more gears (or
mes!#ng. By t!e s'#$$(u$ use o( t!#s "$ut"! and a""e$erator eda$% !e "an -r#ng t!e gears
aro1#mate$y t!e same seed. E)en (or t!e uns'#$$ed dr#)er #t #s not d#((#"u$t to a((e"t Bu#te
sat#s(a"tory t!e "!ange o( gears. :e "an do #t s#m$y -y us#ng t!e "$ut"! eda$ gear $e)er &#t!
t!e !e$ o( su""ess(u$ "ommer"#a$ gear syn"!ron#Cers.
Referen*e Boo.%/
1 Automot#)e Me"!an#"s , +rouse=Ang$#n
0 Automo-#$e Eng#neer#ng -y .r D#ra$ S#ng!
5 Automo-#$e Eng#neer#ng -y P#tman
7#)a Euest#ons
0 @!y gear -o1 #s used #n a )e!#"$e
5 @!at #s a syn"!romes! de)#"eF
8 E1$a#n "$ear$y t!e ne"ess#ty o( a transm#ss#on #n a )e!#"$e
9 .#s"uss t!e ad)antages o( a "onstant mes! gear -o1 o)er t!e s$#d#ng mes! tye gear -o1
/ .es"r#-e t!e &or'#ng o( a syn"!romes! gear -o1 &#t! t!e !e$ o( a neat s'et"!
3 @!at #s trans(er -o1 F &!ere #t #s used F
; @!at are t!e mer#ts and demer#ts o( syn"!romes! gear -o1 "omared to a s$#d#ng mes!
on "onstant mes! tye
< E1$a#n t!e "ommon trou-$es en"ountered #n gear -o1es and suggest su#ta-$e remed#es
14 @!at #s a syn"!ron#Cer
11 @!y #s syn"!romes! de)#"e usua$$y not em$oyed (or t!e re)erse gear
10 @!at may -e t!e oss#-$e reason &!en t!e gear s$#s out o( engagement
15 @!at s!ou$d -e t!e "ause &!en t!e )e!#"$e #s runn#ng &#t! e1"ess#)e no#se #n t!e gear
-o1
AUTOMOBILES ENGINEERING LAB
INSTRUCTON SHEET
EXPERIMENT 0
Aim
To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and oerat#on o(
t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e tyres and &!ee$s.
a? 7ar#ous tyes o( B#as 6 Rad#a$ P$#es Tyres
-? 7ar#ous tyes o( @!ee$s
&i%* 1hee(
T!#s tye o( &!ee$ "ons#sts o( t&o arts% a stee$ r#m &!#"! #s -ase to re"e#)e t!e tyre and a
ressed stee$ d#s". T!e r#m and t!e d#s" may -e % ermanent$y atta"!ed or atta"!a-$e%
deend#ng uon des#gn. A ty#"a$ stee$ d#s" &!ee$ #s s!o&n #n (#g A5?. #n &!#"! t!e ressed
stee$ d#s" #s &e$ded to t!e r#m.
@!en t!e -ead o( t!e tyre #s rests #n t!e r#m% #t -e"omes oss#-$e to (#t #n os#t#on o( t!e r#m.
@#t!out t!e &e$$ #t &ou$d not -e oss#-$e to mount or remo)e t!e tyre (rom t!e &!ee$. T!e seat
o( t!e r#m &!ere t!e tyre rests usua$$y !as a 9 degree or 19 deg taer Anot s!o&n? so t!at as t!e
tyre #s #n($ated% t!e -eads are (or"ed u t!e taer to g#)e a &edge (#t. @#t! tu-e$ess tyres% t!e
taer !e$s to -u#$d a good sea$.
T!e stee$ d#s" er(orms t!e (un"t#ons o( t!e so'es. T!e &!ee$ !u- #s (#tted on t!e a1$e. Some
s$ots are genera$$y ro)#ded #n t!e &!ee$ d#s" to a$$o& t!e a#r to ass to t!e #nner s#de (or -etter
"oo$#ng o( t!e -ra'e drum #ns#de. S#n"e t!ese !o$es tend to &ea'en t!e d#s"% t!e !o$es #n
modern &!ee$s are s&aged &!#"! means t!at some ort#on o( t!e d#s" around ea"! !o$e #s
turned #n&ard smoot!$y to "omensate (or t!e $oss o( strengt! due to !o$es. A searate "o)er #s
a$so ro)#ded on t!e &!ee$ d#s". A !o$e #n t!e r#m ser)es to a""ommodate tu-e )a$)e.
A &!ee$ may -e #nset% Cero set or outset% deend#ng uon t!e os#t#on o( t!e r#m #n re$at#on to
atta"!ment (a"e o( t!e d#s". In t!e #nset &!ee$ t!e "entre $#ne o( t!e r#m #s% $o"ated #n-oard o(
t!e atta"!ment (a"e o( t!e d#s". Inset #s d#stan"e t!e d#stan"e (rom t!e atta"!ment (a"e o( t!e
d#s" to t!e "entre $#ne o( t!e r#m. A Cero set &!ee$ #s t!e one #n &!#"! t!e r#m "entre $#ne
"o#n"#des &#t! t!e atta"!ment (a"e o( t!e d#s" &!#$e #n t!e outset &!ee$ t!e "entre $#ne o( t!e
r#m #s $o"ated out-oard o( t!e atta"!ment (a"e o( t!e d#s". A &!ee$ &!ose d#s" "an -e mounted
on e#t!er (a"e to ro)#de #nset or outset% t!us de"reas#ng or #n"reas#ng t!e &!ee$ tra"' #s "a$$ed
re)ers#-$e &!ee$. @!ee$ "onstru"ted #n t&o arts% &!#"! &!en se"ure$y (astened toget!er
"om-#ne to (orm a r#m !a)#ng t&o (#1ed ($anges #s "a$$ed a d#)#ded &!ee$ r#m.
2ire 2hee(
Un$#'e t!e d#s" &!ee$ t!e &#re &!ee$ !as a searate !u- &!#"! #s atta"!ed to t!e r#m t!roug!
t!e num-er o( &#re so'es. T!e so'es "arry t!e &e#g!t% transm#t t!e dr#)#ng and -ra'#ng
torBues and &#t!stand t!e s#de (or"es &!#$e "orner#ng% #n tens#on. So'es are $ong% t!#n &#res
and as su"! t!ese "an not ta'e any "omress#)e or -end#ng stresses. A$$ tyes o( $oads are
susta#ned -y t!e so'es #n tens#on .T!e so'es are mounted #n a "om$#"ated "r#ss2"ross (as!#on
#nsta$$ed #n t!e t!ree $anes. T!e "omonent o( )e!#"$e &e#g!t #n t!e d#re"t#on o( so'es a-o)e
t!e !u- #s susta#ned -y t!ese so'es #n tens#on. S#m#$ar$y% t!e dr#)#ng and t!e -ra'#ng torBues
are ta'en u -y t!e tens#on #n t!e so'es #n t!e des#red d#re"t#on as s!o&n -y (#g rese"t#)e$y.
T!e s#de (or"es on "orner#ng are ta'en u -y t!e so'es (orm#ng tr#angu$ar arrangement. T!us
#t #s seen t!at t!e so'es !a)e to -e mounted on t!e &!ee$. T!e #n#t#a$ tens#on o( t!e so'es "an
-e ad>usted -y means o( s"re& n#$es &!#"! a$so ser)e to se"ure t!e so'es to t!e r#m. T!e
!u- #s ro)#ded &#t! #nterna$ s$#nes to "orresond to t!e s$#nes ro)#ded on t!e a1$e s!a(t. A
&#ng nut s"re&s t!e !u- on t!e a1$e s!a(t. T!e ad)antages o( t!#s tye o( &!ee$ are $#g!t
&e#g!t and !#g! strengt!% and a-o)e a$$ #t ro)#des mu"! -etter "oo$#ng o( t!e -ra'e drum. It #s
a$so easy to "!ange t!e &!ee$ &!en reBu#red% -e"ause on$y one nut !as to -e oened. :o&e)er%
&#re &!ee$s are e1ens#)e due to t!e#r #ntr#"ate "onstru"t#on. T!e r#m o( a &#red &!ee$ #s not
"aa-$e to (#t tu-e$ess tyres.
Li$ht a((o' *a%t or for$e" 1hee(
T!e $atest trend #n "ase o( automo-#$e &!ee$s #s t!e use o( &!ee$s made (rom a$um#num or
magnes#um a$$oys "ast &!ee$s are genera$$y used (or "ars &!#$e (orged &!ee$s are re(erred (or
&!ee$s o( !ea)#er )e!#"$es. T!e ma#n ad)antage o( $#g!t2a$$oy &!ee$s #s t!e#r redu"ed &e#g!t
&!#"! redu"es unsrung &e#g!t. A magnes#um a$$oy &!ee$ &e#g!s a-out 94 er "ent o( a stee$
&!ee$ and a-out 34 er "ent o( an a$um#num a$$oy &!ee$ (or s#m#$ar strengt!. Moreo)er% $#g!t
a$$oys !a)e -etter "ondu"t#)#ty o( !eat &!#"! !e$s t!e &!ee$s to d#ss#ate !eat generated -y
t!e tyres or -ra'es and t!ere-y run "oo$er. Furt!er% &#der r#ms #mro)e sta-#$#ty on "orner#ng.
T!roug! "ast or (orged &!ee$s !a)e to -e ma"!#ned% yet t!#s !e$s to ma#nta#n "$ose to$eran"es
and a$so rodu"e -etter aearan"e. Magnes#um a$$oys !a)e !#g! #ma"t and (at#gue strengt!
so t!at t!ey "an stand )#-rat#ons and s!o"' $oad#ng -etter. :o&e)er% -e#ng tune to "orros#on%
t!ese !a)e to -e g#)en some rote"t#)e "oat#ng. A$um#num a$$oys do not !a)e !#g! res#stan"e
to )#-rat#on and s!o"' as #n "ase o( magnes#um a$$oys% -ut t!ese are re$at#)e$y eas#er to "ast or
(orge and a$so $ess tune to "orros#on. Genera$$y% a$um#num a$$oys are used (or "ars sorts and
ra"#ng "ars usua$$y !a)e magnes#um a$$oy &!ee$s. :#g!er "ost #s t!e on$y d#sad)antage o(
$#g!t a$$oy &!ee$s.
@!ee$ sty$#ng -e#ng a modern trend #n automot#)e #ndustry% &!ee$ d#)#s#on o( .un$o L#m#ted
!as des#gned a range o( &!ee$s o( "ast a$um#num a$$oy and des#gnated t!#s range as Formu$a .
T!#s range a$so #n"$udes "omos#te &!ee$s% #.e. t!e &!ee$s &#t! "ast a$um#num -ody a$$oy and
stee$ r#ms.
T're
A tyre #s a "us!#on ro)#ded &#t! an automo-#$e &!ee$. It "ons#sts o( ma#n$y t!e outer "o)er #.e
t!e tyre and t!e tu-e #ns#de. T!e tyre tu-e assem-$y #s mounted o)er t!e &!ee$ r#m. It #s t!e
a#r #ns#de t!e tu-e t!at "arr#ers t!e ent#re $oad and ro)#des t!e "us#on. .
T!e tyre er(orms t!e (o$$o&#ng (un"t#ons
1 Suorts t!e )e!#"$e $oad
0 Pro)#des "us!#on aga#nst s!o"'s
5 Transm#ts dr#)#ng and -ra'#ng (or"e to t!e road
8 Pro)#des "orner#ng o&er (or smoot! steer#ng
Tyre Proert#es
Non s'#dd#ng
T!#s #s one o( t!e most #mortant tyre roert#es. T!e tread attern on t!e tyre must -e su#ta-$y
des#gned to erm#t $east s'#dd#ng e)en on &et roads.
Un#(orm &ear
To ma#nta#n t!e non s'#dd#ng roerty% #t #s )ery essent#a$ t!at t!e &ear o( t!e tyre treat must -e
un#(orm. T!e r#--ed tread attern !e$s to a"!#e)e t!#s.
Load "arry#ng "aa"#ty
T!e tyre #s su->e"ted to a$ternat#ng stresses dur#ng ea"! re)o$ut#on o( t!e &!ee$. T!e tyre
mater#a$ and des#gn must -e a-$e to ensure t!at t!e tyre susta#ns t!e stresses.
+us!#on#ng
T!e tyre s!ou$d -e a-$e to a-sor- !#g! (reBuen"y )#-rat#ons set u -y t!e road sur(a"e and t!us
ro)#de "us!#on#ng e((e"t
Po&er "onsumt#on
T!e automot#)e tyre s!ou$d a-sor- some o&er &!#"! #s due to (r#"t#on -et&een t!e tread
ru--er and road sur(a"e and a$so due to !yster#"s $oss on a""ount o( t!e tyre -e#ng "ont#nuous$y
(#1ed and re$eased. T!#s o&er "omes (rom t!e eng#ne and s!ou$d -e $east. It #s seen t!at t!e
synt!et#" tyres "onsume more o&er &!#$e ro$$#ng t!an t!e ones made out o( natura$ ru--er.
Tyre no#se
T!e tyre no#se must -e #n t!e (orm o( de(#n#te attern% a seBue$ or a $oud roar. In a$$ t!ese "ases%
#t #s des#ra-$e t!at t!e no#se s!ou$d -e m#n#mum.
Ba(an*in$
Ba$an"#ng #s )ery #mortant "ons#derat#on (or tyres. T!e tyre -e#ng a rotat#ng art o( t!e
automo-#$e% #t must -e -a$an"ed stat#"a$$y as &e$$ as dynam#"a$$y. T!e a-sen"e o( -a$an"#ng
g#)es r#se to e"u$#ar os"#$$at#ons "a$$ed &!ee$ tram and &!ee$ &o--$e.
T'pe% of t're%
T!e use o( so$#d tyres #n automo-#$es #s a$most o-so$ete and on$y t!e neumat#" tyres are used
un#)ersa$$y. T!ese neumat#" tyres are o( t&o tyes )#C. t!e "on)ent#ona$ tyre &#t! a tu-e and
t!e tu-e$ess tyre.
Con#entiona( T)3e t're
F#g g#)es #n a s#m$#(#ed (orm t!e "ross se"t#on o( su"! a tyre. It "ons#sts o( t&o ma#n arts%
)#C. t!e "ar"ass and t!e tread. T!e "ar"ass #s t!e -as#" stru"ture ta'#ng ma#n$y t!e )ar#ous $oads
and "ons#sts o( a num-er o( $#es &ound #n a art#"u$ar (as!#on (rom t!e "ords o( rayon or any
ot!er su#ta-$e mater#a$. Ea"! "ord #n ea"! $y #s "o)ered &#t! res#$#ent ru--er "omounds and
a$$ t!e $#es are #nsu$ated aga#nst ea"! ot!er. T!e term $y rat#ng &!#"! #s o(ten used #n tyre
#ndustry does not #nd#"ate e1a"t num-er o( $#es #n t!e tyre. It #s on$y a re$at#)e #nde1 o( tyre
strengt! and $oad "arry#ng "aa"#ty. A (our $y rat#ng tyre% may !a)e on$y t&o $#es. In order
to re)ent t!e tyre (rom -e#ng t!ro&n o(( t!e r#m% t!e $#es are atta"!ed to t&o r#ngs o( !#g!
tens#on stee$ &#re. T!ese r#ngs are made to (#t snug$y aga#nst &!ee$ r#m t!ere-y an"!or#ng t!e
tyre to t!e r#m. T!ese r#ngs are "a$$ed -eads.
T!e tread #s t!e art o( t!e tyre &!#"! "onta"ts t!e road sur(a"e &!en t!e &!ee$ ro$$s.It #s
genera$$y made o( synt!et#" ru--er and t!e des#gn o( t!e tyre tread deend on )ar#ous tyre
roert#es )#C t!e gr#% t!e no#se and t!e &ear. T!e tread #s mou$ded #nto a ser#es o( groo)es and
r#-s. T!e r#-s ro)e t!e tra"t#on edges reBu#red (or gr##ng t!e road sur(a"e &!#$e t!e groo)es
ro)#de assage (or Bu#"' es"ae o( any (ore#gn matter su"! as &ater et". Tra"t#on edges and
s#es are ro)#ded on t!e r#-s. S#es are t!e sma$$ gro)es mou$ded #nto t!e r#-s o( t!e tyre
tread% t!ese #n"rease t!e tra"t#on a-#$#ty o( t!e tyre -y #n"reas#ng num-er o( tra"t#on edges. As
t!e tyre ($e1es on t!e road sur(a"e% t!e s#es oen to ro)#de e1tra gr##ng a"t#on. T!e s#es
aear to -e s!a$$o& -ut #n (a"t t!ese tra)e$ t!e ent#re det! o( t!e tread. T!e des#gn o( t!e tyre
tread !as a d#re"t e((e"t on t!e tyre $#(e% #ts !and$#ng "!ara"ter#st#"s% Bua$#ty o( r#de "om(ort%
no#se% and tra"t#on. Bet&een t!e !ead and t!e tread t!e outer ru--er "o)er#ng o( t!e "ar"ass #s
"a$$ed s#de &a$$. T!e s#de&a$$s are des#gned to ($e1 and -end &#t!out "ra"'#ng &!en su->e"ted
to "ont#nuous de($e"t#on &!#$e runn#ng. In ot!er &ords% t!e s#de&a$$ mater#a$ must !a)e !#g!
(at#gue strengt!. At t!e #nner edges% -eads are (ormed -y re#n(or"#ng &#t! stee$ &#res. T!#s
ro)#des t!e tyre &#t! strong s!ou$ders (or -ear#ng aga#nst t!e &!ee$ r#m. A$$ $#es are t#ed to
t!e -eads &!#"! re)ent any "!ange o( s!ae.
Ins#de t!e tyre% t!ere #s a tu-e &!#"! "onta#ns t!e a#r under ressure. T!e tu-e -e#ng )ery t!#n
and ($e1#-$e% ta'es u t!e s!ae o( t!e tyre "o)er &!en #n($ated. A )a$)e stem #s atta"!ed to t!e
tu-e (or #n($at#ng or de($at#ng t!e same.
T)3e(e%% t're
T!#s tye o( tyre does not need a searate tu-eG #nstead t!e a#r under ressure #s (#$$ed #n t!e
tyre (or &!#"! urose a non2return )a$)e #s (#tted to t!e r#m A(#g /? T!e #nner "onstru"t#on o(
t!e tyre #s a$most same as t!at o( tu-e tyre% e1"et t!at #t #s $#ned on #ns#de &#t! a se"#a$ a#r2
reta#n#ng $#ner.
T!e tu-e$ess tyres ossess (o$$o&#ng ad)antages o)er t!e "on)ent#ona$ tu-ed tyres.
1. Lesser usrung &e#g!t , -e#ng $#g!ter% unsrung &e#g!t #s redu"ed% and u$t#mate$y
redu"es &!ee$ -oun"#ng.
0. Better "oo$#ng 2 In "ase o( tu-e tyres% !eat #n t!e "omressed a#r !as to ass t!roug! t!e
tu-e mater#a$% #.e. ru--er% &!#"! #s not a good "ondu"tor o( !eat. S#n"e t!ere #s no tu-e #n t!e
tu-e$ess tyres% !en"e !eat asses to t!e atmos!ere d#re"t$y resu$t#ng -etter "oo$#ng t!ere-y
#n"reas#ng t!e tyre $#(e.
5. S$o&er $ea'age o( a#r , s#n"e t!e #nner $#ner #n t!e tu-e$ess tyres #s not stret"!ed $#'e t!e
tu-e% #t reta#ns t!e a#r -etter resu$t#ng #n #ts s$o&er $ea'age.
8. S#m$er assem-$y , On$y t!e tyre !as to -e (#tted o)er t!e r#m. T!ere #s no danger o(
t!e tu-e -e#ng un"tured dur#ng assem-$y.
9. Imro)ed sa(ety , In "ase o( any t#ny !o$e -e#ng "aused #n t!e tyre% t!e same "an -e
rea#red s#m$y -y $ugg#ng% &!ereas #n "ase o( t!e "on)ent#ona$ tyres #t ta'es Bu#te some t#me
to remo)e t!e tu-e (or rea#r. Aart (rom t!#s% a tu-e$ess tyre reta#ns t!e a#r ressure (or $onger
er#od e)en &!en un"tured -y na#$ ro)#ded t!e same #s !e$d #n $a"e.
Car*a%% T'pe%
+ar"ass or s'e$eton o( t!e tyre #s o( 5 tyes
1 +ross $y or -#as $y
0 Rad#a$ P$y
5 Be$ted -#as tye
T!e tyre #s named a(ter t!e art#"u$ar tye o( "ar"ass #t "onta#ns as t!#s #s t!e ma#n stru"ture
ta'#ng t!e stresses &!#$e #n oerat#on.
Cro%% P(' t'pe
In t!#s tye% t!e $y "ords are &o)en at an ang$e A54deg , 84deg? to t!e tyre a1#s. T!ere are t&o
$ayers &!#"! run #n oos#te d#re"t#ons. :o&e)er% t!e "ords are not &o)en $#'e &ra and &e(t
o( ord#nary "$ot! -e"ause t!at &ou$d $ead to ru--#ng o( t!e t&o $ayers and t!us rodu"e !eat
&!#"! &ou$d damage t!e tyre mater#a$ A(#g 1?.
Ra"ia( p(' t'pe
In t!#s $y "ords run #n t!e rad#a$ d#re"t#on #.e. #n t!e d#re"t#on o( t!e tyre a1#s. O)er t!#s -as#"
stru"ture% run a num-er o( -rea'er str#s #n t!e "#r"um(erent#a$ d#re"t#on. T!e mater#a$ (or t!e
-rea'er str#s must -e ($e1#-$e -ut #ne1tens#-$e% so t!at no "!ange o( "#r"um(eren"e ta'es $a"e
&#t! "!ange o( t!e amount o( #n($at#on. @#t!out t!e -rea'er str#s% rad#a$ $#es &ou$d g#)e )ery
so(t r#de% -ut t!ere &#$$ not -e any $atera$ sta-#$#ty. T!e e1tens#-$e -rea'er str# -e!a)es $#'e a
g#rder #n #ts o&n $ane and ro)#des t!e d#re"t#ona$ sta-#$#ty A(#g 0?.
Be(te" 3ia% t'pe
T!#s #s a "om-#nat#on o( "ross $y 6 "ross $y tyres. T!e -as#" "onstru"t#on #s t!e -#as $y o)er
&!#"! run a num-er o( -rea'er -e$ts. T!e -e$ts #mro)e t!e "!ara"ter#st#"s o( t!e -#as2$y tyre
to a $arge e1tent. A1? t!e stresses #n t!e "ar"ass are restr#"ted and t!e tread area #s sta-#$#Ced -y
-e$ts. T!#s resu$ts #n redu"t#on o( tread2s"ru--$#ng and t!us are"#a-$e #n"rease #n tyre $#(e A0?
t!e -rea'er -e$ts !o$d t!e tread ($atter aga#nst t!e road sur(a"e% t!us "aus#ng #n"rease o( tra"t#on
and sa(ety% A5? t!e -e$ts #n"rease t!e res#stan"e o( t!e tyre aga#nst un"ture.
Referen*e Boo.%/
1. Automot#)e Me"!an#"s , +rouse=Ang$#n
0. Automo-#$e Eng#neer#ng -y .r D#ra$ S#ng!
5. Automo-#$e Eng#neer#ng -y P#tman

7#)a Euest#ons
1 .es"r#-e t!e reBu#rements o( an automo-#$e &!ee$
0 @!at #s a $#g!t a$$oyF .#s"uss t!e mer#ts and demer#ts o( $#g!t a$$oy #n
automo-#$e &!ee$s
5 @!at are t!e ad)antages o( a d#s" &!ee$
8 @!at are #nset% Cero set and outset &!ee$s
9 :o& #s t!e )e!#"$e &e#g!t suorted #n "ase o( a &#re &!ee$
/ @!at are t!e ad)antages o( a &#re &!ee$
3 @!y &#re &!ee$s "an not -e used to mount a tu-e$ess tyre
; Name t!e d#((erent mater#a$s (or automo-#$e &!ee$s
< State t!e ad)antages o( A#? Magnes#um a$$oys A##? A$um#num a$$oy &!ee$s
14 @!at are t!e (un"t#ons o( an automo-#$e tyre
11 State )ar#ous des#ra-$e roert#es o( an automo-#$e tye
10 State )ar#ous (a"tors a((e"t#ng tyre $#(e
15 :o& does a tyre &ear #n "ase o( A#? o)er2#n($at#on A##? under2#n($at#on
18 :o& tyre #s des#gnated
19 @!at #s tye "ar"ass
1/ @!at #s a (un"t#on o( a -rea'er -e$t
13 State t!e (a"tors &!#"! road gr# o( a tyre deends
1; @!at #s stat#" un-a$an"e and dynam#" un-a$an"e
1< @!at #s t!e reasons (or !#g!er -ra'#ng e((#"#en"y on &et roads #n "ase o( rad#a$
$y tyres
04 @!at #s $y rat#ng o( a tyre
01 .ra& "ross se"t#on o( an automo-#$e tyre and s!o& on #t )ar#ous "onstru"t#ona$
(eatures
00 :o& #s tyre manu(a"turedF E1$a#n -r#e($y.
05 +omare t!e rad#a$ and -#as $y tye "ar"ass tyres
08 :o& does !eat a((e"t t!e tyre $#(e
09 State reasons (or t!e (o$$o&#ng tyre de(e"ts*
A#? P$y searat#ons
A##? Une)en &ear
A###? Tread "ra"'#ng
AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING LAB
INSTRUCTION SHEET
EXPERIMENT 4
Aim
To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and oerat#on o(
t!e (o$$o&#ng Automot#)e Steer#ng Systems*
a? Manua$ Steer#ng systems e.g. P#tman Arm Steer#ng% Ra"' 6 P#n#on Steer#ng
-? Po&er Steer#ng Systems e.g. Ra"' and P#n#on Po&er Steer#ng System
P)rpo%e of Steerin$ S'%tem
T!e steer#ng system a$$o&s t!e dr#)er to gu#de t!e )e!#"$e a$ong t!e road and turn $e(t or r#g!t
as des#red. T!e system #n"$udes t!e steer#ng &!ee$% &!#"! "ontro$s t!e steer#ng gear. It "!anges
t!e rotary mot#on o( t!e &!ee$ #nto stra#g!t $#ne mot#on. Manua$ systems &ere ou$ar -ut no&
o&er steer#ng !as -e"ome ou$ar. It #s no& #nsta$$ed on a-out <4H o( t!e )e!#"$es -e#ng
manu(a"tured.
T'pe% of Steerin$ S'%tem%
F#gure s!o&s a s#m$#(#ed #tman2arm tye o( steer#ng system. T!e ra"'2and2#n#on tye #s
s!o&n #n (#g. des"r#-es !o& t!e &!ee$s are suorted on steer#ng 'nu"'$es. T!e steer#ng
'nu"'$es are atta"!ed to t!e steer#ng arms -y -a$$ >o#nts. T!e -a$ >o#nts at ea"! &!ee$ erm#t
t!e steer#ng 'nu"'$e to s&#ng (rom s#de to s#de. T!#s mo)ement turns t!e (ront &!ee$s $e(t or
r#g!t so t!at t!e "ar "an -e steered.
T!e re"#r"u$at#ng -a$$ steer#ng gear #s s!o&n #n (#g. In t!ese un#ts% t!e &orm gear on t!e end o(
t!e steer#ng s!a(t !as a se"#a$ nut% runn#ng on #t. T!e nut r#des on ro&s o( sma$$ re"#r"u$at#ng
-a$$s. T!e re"#r"u$at#on -a$$s mo)e (ree$y t!roug! groo)es #n t!e &orm and #ns#de t!e nut. As
t!e steer#ng s!a(t #s rotated% t!e -a$$s (or"e t!e nut to mo)e u and do&n t!e &orm gear. A
s!ort ra"' o( gear teet! on one s#de o( t!e nut mes! &#t! t!e se"tor gear. T!ere(ore% as t!e nut
mo)es u and do&n t!e &orm % t!e se"tor gear turns #n on d#re"t#on or t!e ot!er (or steer#ng.

T!e re"#r"u$at#ng -a$$s are t!e on$y "onta"ts -et&een t!e &orm and t!e nut. T!#s great$y
redu"es (r#"t#on and t!e turn#ng e((ort or (or"e a$#ed -y t!e dr#)er (or steer#ng.
T!e -a$$s are "a$$ed re"#r"u$at#ng -a$$s -e"ause t!ey "ont#nuous$y re"#r"u$ate (rom one end o(
t!e -a$$ nut to t!e ot!er end t!roug! a a#r o( -a$$ return gu#des. For e1am$e% suose t!e
dr#)er ma'es a r#g!t turn% t!en t!e &orm gear rotated #n a "$o"'&#se d#re"t#on &!en )#e&ed
(rom t!e dr#)ers seat. T!#s "auses t!e -a$$ nut to mo)e u&ard. T!e -a$$ ro$$ -et&een t!e
&orm and t!e -a$$ nut. As t!e -a$$s rea"! t!e uer end o( t!e nut% t!ey enter t!e return gu#de
and t!e ro$$ -a"' to t!e $o&er end. T!ere t!ey reenter t!e groo)e -et&een t!e &orm and t!e
-a$$ nut.
Ra*. an" pinion %teerin$ $ear%
T!e ra"' and #n#on steer#ng gear !as -e"ome #n"reas#ng ou$ar (or todayIs sma$$er "ars. It #s
s#m$er% more d#re a"t#ng and may -e stra#g!t me"!an#"a$ or o&er ass#sted oerat#on. F#gure
s!o&s a "om$ete ra"' and #n#onJ
Ra*. an" Pinion Po1er Steerin$
A o&er ra"' and #n#on steer#ng gear #s anot!er des#gn o( #ntegra$ o&er steer#ng T!e ra"'
(un"t#ons as t!e o&er #ston. T!e t#e rods are atta"!ed -et&een t!e ra"' and t!e s#nd$e
steer#ng arms. T!e "ontro$ )a$)e #s "onne"ted to t!e #n#on gear
Oerat#on o( t!e "ontro$ )a$)e #s s#m#$ar to t!at (or t!e #ntegra$ o&er steer#ng gear @!en t!e
steer#ng &!ee$ #s turned% t!e res#stan"e o( &!ee$s and t!e &e#g!t o( )e!#"$e "ause t!e tors#on
-ar to t&#st. T!#s t&#st#ng "auses rotary )a$)e to mo)e #n #ts s$ee)e% a$#gn#ng t!e ($u#d assages
(or t!e $e(t% r#g!t% or neutra$ os#t#on. O#$ ressure e1erts (or"e on t!e #ston and !e$s mo)e
t!e ra"' to ass#st t!e turn#ng e((ort. T!e #ston #s atta"!ed d#re"t$y to t!e ra"'. T!e !ous#ng
tu-e (un"t#ons as t!e o&er "y$#nder.
T!e gear assem-$y #s a$&ays (#$$ed &#t! ($u#d% and a$$ #nterna$ "omonents are #mmersed #n
($u#d. T!#s ma'es er#od#" $u-r#"at#on unne"essary% and a$so a"ts as a "us!#on to !e$ a-sor-
road s!o"'s. On some ra"' and #n#on o&er steer#ng gears a$ ($u#d assages are #nterna$
e1"et (or t!e ressure and return !oses -et&een t!e gear and um.
Steerin$ Lin.a$e%
Steer#ng $#n'age deends uon t!e tye o( t!e )e!#"$e% &!et!er #t #s a "ar &!#"! !as
#ndeendent (ront susens#on or a "ommer"#a$ )e!#"$e !a)#ng genera$$y a r#g#d a1$e tye (ront
susens#on. Ea"! o( t!ese $#n'ages &#$$ no& -e des"r#-ed.
Steerin$ (in.a$e for #ehi*(e 1ith ri$i" ax(e front %)%pen%ion,
F#gs s!o& su"! a steer#ng $#n'age. T!e dro arm Aa$so "a$$ed #tman arm ? #s r#g#d$y "onne"ted
to t!e "ross s!a(t o( t!e steer#ng gear at #ts uer end% &!#$e #ts $o&er end #s "onne"ted to t!e
$#n' rod t!roug! a -a$$ >o#nt. To t!e ot!er end o( t!e $#n' rod #s "onne"ted t!e $#n' rod arm
t!roug! a -a$$ >o#nt. Atta"!ed r#g#d$y to t!e ot!er end o( t!e $#n' rod arm #s t!e stu- a1$e on
&!#"! t!e road &!ee$ #s mounted. Ea"! stu- a1$e !as a (orge tra"' rod arm r#g#d$y -o$ted to t!e
&!ee$ a1#s. T!e ot!er ends o( t!e tra"' rod arms are "onne"ted to t!e tra"' rod -y means o(
-a$$ >o#nts . T!e des#gn o( t!ese -a$$ >o#nts #s su"! t!at t!e e1and#ng sr#ng "omensates (or
&ear or m#s2ad>ustments. An ad>uster #s a$so ro)#ded #n t!e tra"' rod to "!ange #ts $engt! (or
ad>ust#ng &!ee$ a$#gnment.
T!e steer#ng gear ro)#des me"!an#"a$ ad)antage so t!at on$y a sma$$ e((ort #s reBu#red at t!e
steer#ng &!ee$ to a$y a mu"! $arger (or"e to t!e steer#ng $#n'age. Moreo)er #t a$so ro)#des
t!e des#red )e$o"#ty rat#o so t!at mu"! sma$$er mo)ement o( t!e stu- a1$e #s o-ta#ned &#t! $arge
angu$ar mo)ement o( t!e steer#ng &!ee$. @!en t!e steer#ng &!ee$ #s turned% t!e s&#ng#ng
a"t#on o( t!e dro arm #marts a near $#near mo)ement to t!e $#n' rod. T!#s mo)ement #s
transm#tted t!roug! t!e $#n' rod arm to t!e stu- a1$e so as to turn t!e $ater a-out #ts #)ot% &!#"!
may -e a '#ng #n or -a$$ >o#nts. T!e ot!er &!ee$ #s steered t!roug! t!e tra"' rod. T!us on$y
one &!ee$ #s os#t#)e$y steered.
Ra*. an" pinion %teerin$ $ear
T!#s tye o( steer#ng gear #s used on $#g!t )e!#"$es $#'e "ars and #n o&er steer#ng. Marut# ;44
"ars em$oy t!#s steer#ng gear. It #s s#m$e% $#g!t and resons#)e. It o""u#es )ery sma$$ sa"e
and uses $esser num-er o( $#n'age "omonents "omared to t!e &orm and &!ee$ tye o( gear.
Po1er Steerin$
Larger amount o( torBue #s reBu#red to -e a$#ed -y t!e dr#)er (or steer#ng o( med#um and
!ea)y )e!#"$es. T!e o&er steer#ng system ro)#des automat#" !ydrau$#" ass#stan"e to t!e
turn#ng e((ort a$#ed to t!e manua$ steer#ng system. T!e o&er system #s des#gned to -e"ome
oerat#)e &!en t!e e((ort at &!ee$ e1"eeds a redeterm#ned )a$ue% say 14N. t!e system #s
a$&ays so des#gned t!at #n t!e e)ent o( t!e (a#$ure o( t!e o&er system% t!e dr#)er #s a-$e to
steer t!e )e!#"$e manua$$y a$t!oug! &#t! #n"reased e((ort. F#g s!o&s a ty#"a$ o&er steer#ng
system #nsta$$ed on a "ar.
T!e o&er steer#ng systems are oerated -y ($u#d under ressure. T!e ($u#ds usua$$y used are
o#$s o( )#s"os#ty rat#ng SAE 9 @ or SAE 14 @ or !#g!er deend#ng uon atmos!er#"
"ond#t#ons. T!e systems oerate under (a#r$y !#g! ressures &!#"! may -e as mu"! as 3 MPa.
T!e r#n"#$e o( &or'#ng o( a$$ t!e o&er steer#ng systems #s same. T!e s$#g!t mo)ement o(
t!e steer#ng &!ee$ a"tuates a )a$)e so t!at t!e ($u#d under ressure (rom t!e reser)o#r enters on
t!e aror#ate s#de o( a "y$#nder% t!ere-y a$y#ng ressure on t!e s#de o( a #ston to oerate
t!e steer#ng $#n'age% &!#"! steers t!e &!ee$ #n t!e aror#ate d#re"t#on.
@!en t!e dr#)er a$#es a (or"e on t!e steer#ng &!ee$ to steer% t!e (ar end o( t!e tors#on -ar%
-e#ng "onne"ted to t!e soo$ o( t!e rotary )a$)e and t!e &orm o((ers res#stan"e. @!en t!e
(or"e at t!e &!ee$ e1"eeds a redeterm#ned )a$ue% t!e soo$ turns t!roug! a sma$$ ang$e% &!en
t!e return $#ne #s "$osed and t!e ($u#d under ressure goes to one s#de o( t!e ra"' #ston and
mo)es #t to e((e"t steer#ng #n t!e des#red d#re"t#on. T!e tors#on -ar #s meant to g#)e a (ee$ o( t!e
steer#ng to t!e dr#)er. T!e rotat#on o( t!e steer#ng &!ee$ #n t!e oos#te d#re"t#on "onne"ts t!e
ot!er s#de o( t!e steer#ng gear to t!e ressure $#ne. In t!e neutra$ steer os#t#on -ot! s#des o( t!e
#ston Anut? are s!ut o(( to t!e ressure $#ne and so t!ey are at t!e same ressure -ut t!e return
$#ne #s oen due to &!#"! t!e ($u#d goes on "#r"u$at#ng t!roug! t!e )a$)e &#t!out "aus#ng any
steer#ng e((e"t.
Referen*e Boo.%
1 Automot#)e Me"!an#"s 2 +rouse=Ang$#n
0 Automo-#$e Eng#neer#ng -y .r D#ra$ S#ng!
5 T!e Motor 7e!#"$e , Ne&ton% Steeds% Garret% Butter @ort!s

7#)a Euest#ons
1 State t!e reBu#rements o( a steer#ng system
0 @!at #s t!e mater#a$ used (or (ront a1$e F :o& #t #s manu(a"turedF
5 @!at #s stu- a1$eF
8 @!at #s t!e (un"t#on o( a '#ng #nF
9 @!at #s steer#ng a1#sF
/ @!at #s &!ee$ a$#gnmentF .es"r#-e
3 .e(#ne +am-er% SAI and +astor.
; @!at #s s$# ang$eF .e(#ne
< .e(#ne under steer and o)er steer.
14 @!at #s t!e (un"t#on o( -a$$s #n re"#r"u$at#ng -a$$ tye steer#ng gearF
11 State t!e ad)antages o( a ra"' and #n#on tye steer#ng gear
10 @!at #s o&er steer#ng
15 .e(#ne "orner#ng (or"e and "orner#ng o&er
18 .e(#ne t!e term KToe #n 6 KToe outI
19 .e(#ne t!e term K"am-erI 6 "astor
1/ State )ar#ous (a"tors o( &!ee$ a$#gnment
13 .#s"uss t!e steer#ng $#n'age (or a )e!#"$e &#t! #ndeendent susens#on
1; @!at are t!e e((e"ts o( "am-er "astor% toe out and steer#ng a1#s #n"$#nat#on on t!e
steer#ng "!ara"ter#st#"s o( a )e!#"$e
1< E1$a#n t!e ne"ess#ty o( o&er steer#ng #n automo-#$es
04 .#s"uss )ar#ous tyes o( steer#ng gears &#t! s#m$e s'et"! and d#s"uss
ad)antages o( ra"' and #n#on tye steer#ng gear o)er ot!er gears.
AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING LAB,
INSTRUCTION SHEET
EXPERIMENT 5
Aim
To study and reare reot on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and oerat#on o(
Automot#)e Bra'e Systems.
a? :ydrau$#" and Pneumat#" Bra'e Systems
-? .rum Bra'e System
"? .#s" Bra'e System
Theor'
La-e$$ed .#agram% +onstru"t#ona$ .eta#$s% @or'#ng Pr#n"#$e and Oerat#on o( t!e a-o)e
Steer#ng Systems
PRINCIPLE
It goes &#t!out say#ng t!at -ra'es are one o( t!e most #mortant "ontro$ "omonents o( )e!#"$e.
T!ey are reBu#red to sto t!e )e!#"$e &#t!#n t!e sma$$est oss#-$e d#stan"e and t!#s #s done -y
"on)ert#ng t!e '#net#" energy o( t!e )e!#"$e #nto t!e !eat energy &!#"! #s d#ss#ated #nto t!e
atmos!ere.
BRA+ING RE6UIREMENTS
1 T!e -ra'es must -e strong enoug! to sto t!e )e!#"$e &#t!#n a m#n#mum d#stan"e #n an
emergen"y. But t!#s s!ou$d a$so -e "ons#stent &#t! sa(ety. T!e dr#)er must !a)e roer
"ontro$ o)er t!e )e!#"$e dur#ng emergen"y -ra'#ng and t!e )e!#"$e must not s'#d.
0 T!e -ra'es must !a)e good ant#(ade "!ara"ter#st#"s #.e. t!e#r e((e"t#)eness s!ou$d not
de"rease &#t! "onstant ro$onged a$#"at#on e.g. &!#$e des"end#ng !#$$s. T!#s
reBu#rement demands t!at t!e "oo$#ng o( t!e -ra'es s!ou$d -e )ery e((#"#ent.
H!&RAULIC BRA+ES
Most o( t!e "ars today use !ydrau$#"a$$y oerated (oot -ra'es on a$$ t!e (our &!ee$s &#t! an
add#t#ona$ !and -ra'e me"!an#"a$$y oerated on t!e rear &!ee$s. An out$#ne o( t!e !ydrau$#"
-ra'#ng system #s s!o&n #n (#g. t!e ma#n "omonent #n t!#s #s t!e master "y$#nder &!#"!
"onta#ns reser)o#r (or t!e -ra'e ($u#d. Master "y$#nder #s oerated -y t!e -ra'e eda$ and #s
(urt!er "onne"ted to t!e &!ee$ "y$#nders #n ea"! &!ee$ t!roug! stee$ #e $#nes% un#ons and
($e1#-$e !oses. In "ase o( :#ndustan Am-assador "ar% on (ront &!ee$s ea"! -ra'e s!oe #s
oerated -y searate &!ee$ "y$#nder At!us ma'#ng t!e -ra'e t&o s!oe $ead#ng? &!ereas #n "ase
o( rear &!ee$s t!ere #s on$y one "y$#nder on ea"! &!ee$ &!#"! oerates -ot! t!e s!oes At!us
g#)#ng one $ead#ng and one tra#n#ng s!oe -ra'es.? As t!e rear &!ee$ "y$#nders are a$so oerated
me"!an#"a$$y &#t! t!e !and -ra'e% t!ey are made ($oat#ng. Furt!er% a$$ t!e s!oes #n t!e
Am-assador "ar are o( t!e ($oat#ng an"!or tye.
T!e system #s so des#gned t!at e)en &!en t!e -ra'es are #n t!e re$eased os#t#on% a sma$$
ressure o( a-out 94 'Pa #s ma#nta#ned #n t!e #e $#nes to ensure t!at t!e "us o( t!e &!ee$
"y$#nder are 'et e1anded. T!#s re)ents t!e a#r (rom enter#ng t!e &!ee$ "y$#nders &!en t!e
-ra'es are re$eased. Bes#des% t!#s ressure a$so ser)es t!e (o$$o&#ng uroses.
A#? #t 'ees t!e (ree tra)e$ o( t!e eda$ m#n#mum -y oos#ng t!e -ra'e s!oe retra"t#on
sr#ngs.
A##? .ur#ng -$eed#ng% #t does not a$$o& t!e ($u#d umed #nto t!e $#ne to return% t!us Bu#"'$y
urg#ng a#r (rom t!e system.
&RUM BRA+ES
In t!#s tye o( -ra'es% a -ra'e drum #s atta"!ed "on"entr#" to t!e a1$e !u- &!ereas on t!e a1$e
"as#ng #s mounted a -a"' $ate. In "ase o( (ront a1$e% t!e -a"' $ate #s -o$ted to t!e steer#ng
'nu"'$e. T!e -a"' $ate #s made o( ressed stee$ s!eet and #s r#-ed to #n"rease r#g#d#ty and to
ro)#de suort (or t!e e1ander% an"!or and -ra'e s!oes. It a$so rote"ts t!e drum and s!oe
assem-$y (rom mud and dust. Moreo)er% #t a-sor-s t!e "om$ete torBue rea"t#on o( t!e s!oes
due to &!#"! reason #t #s somet#mes a$so "a$$ed torBue $ate. T&o -ra'e s!oes are an"!ored on
t!e -a"' $ate as s!o&n #n (#g. Fr#"t#on $#n#ngs are mounted on t!e -ra'e s!oes. One or t&o
retra"tor sr#ngs are used &!#"! ser)e to 'ee t!e -ra'e s!oes a&ay (rom t!e drum &!en t!e
-ra'es are not a$#ed. T!e -ra'e s!oes are an"!ored at one end% &!ereas on t!e ot!er ends
(or"e F #s a$#ed -y means o( some -ra'e a"tuat#ng me"!an#sm &!#"! (or"es t!e -ra'e s!oe
aga#nst t!e re)o$)#ng drum% t!ere-y a$y#ng t!e -ra'es. An ad>uster #s a$so ro)#ded to
"omensate (or &ear o( (r#"t#on $#n#ng &#t! use. T!e re$at#)e -ra'#ng torBue o-ta#ned at t!e
s!oes (or t!e same (or"e a$#ed at t!e eda$ )ar#es deend#ng uon &!et!er t!e e1ander A"am
or togg$e $e)er? #s (#1ed to t!e -a"' $ate or #t #s ($oat#ng% &!et!er t!e an"!or #s (#1ed or ($oat#ng
and &!et!er t!e s!oes are $ead#ng or tra#$#ng.
&ISC BRA+ES
As s!o&n #n (#g. a d#s" -ra'e "ons#sts o( a "ast #ron d#s" -o$ted to t!e &!ee$ !u- and a
stat#onary !ous#ng "a$$ed "a$#er. T!e "a$#er #s "onne"ted to some stat#onary art o( t!e
)e!#"$e% $#'e t!e a1$e "as#ng or t!e su- a1$e and #s "ast #n t&o arts% ea"! art "onta#n#ng a
#ston. In -et&een ea"! #ston and d#s"% t!ere #s (r#"t#on ad !e$d #n os#t#on -y reta#n#ng #ns%
sr#ng $ates et". Passages are dr#$$ed #n t!e "a$#er (or t!e ($u#d to enter or $ea)e ea"! !ous#ng.
T!ese assages are a$so "onne"ted to anot!er one (or -$eed#ng. Ea"! "y$#nder and "onta#ns a
ru--er sea$#ng r#ng -et&een t!e "y$#nder and t!e #ston.
@!en t!e -ra'es are a$#ed% !ydrau$#"a$$y a"tuated #stons mo)e t!e (r#"t#on ads #nto "onta"t
&#t! t!e d#s"% a$y#ng eBua$ and oos#te (or"es on t!e $ater. On re$eas#ng t!e -ra'es% t!e
ru--er sea$#ng r#ngs a"t as return sr#ngs and retra"t t!e #stons and t!e (r#"t#on ads a&ay (rom
t!e d#s".
For a -ra'e o( t!#s tye
T L 0MaR
@!ere
M L "oe((#"#ent o( (r#"t#on
L ($u#d ressure
a L "ross se"t#ona$ area o( one #ston
R L d#stan"e o( t!e $ong#tud#na$ a1#s o( t!e #ston (rom t!e &!ee$ a1#s
BRA+E S!STEM FOR MARUTI 7SU8U+I9 :;; CAR
T!e (ront &!ee$ -ra'es are o( t!e d#s" tye% &!ereas (or rear &!ee$s drum tye -ra'es A$ead#ng
tra#$#ng s!oes? are em$oyed. Par'#ng -ra'e #s me"!an#"a$$y oerated -y a &#re and $#n' system
and &or's on t!e rear &!ee$s on$y. Same -ra'e s!oes are used (or ser)#"e and ar'#ng -ra'es.
T!e $ayout o( t!e system #s s!o&n #n (#g.
A tandem master "y$#nder #s em$oyed. T!e !ydrau$#" ressure rodu"ed t!ere #s a$#ed to
t&o #ndeendent "#r"u#ts. One "#r"u#t #s (or (ront $e(t and rear r#g!t -ra'es% &!ereas t!e ot!er #s
(or (ront r#g!t and rear $e(t -ra'es. .ue to t!#s reason% t!e -ra'#ng system #n t!e Marut# !as
greater sa(ety -e"ause e)en #( a ressure $ea' o""urs #n t!e -ra'e $#ne o( one "#r"u#t% t!e ot!er
-ra'#ng "#r"u#t &or's% due to &!#"! a "erta#n degree o( -ra'#ng #s st#$$ a)a#$a-$e to t!e )e!#"$e.
Referen*e Boo.%
1 Automot#)e Me"!an#"s 2 +rouse=Ang$#n
0 Automo-#$e Eng#neer#ng 2 .r D#ra$ S#ng!
7#)a Euest#ons
1 @!at #s t!e r#n"#$e o( automot#)e -ra'e
0 @!at do t!e -ra'es do to t!e energy as t!ey sto a mo)#ng "ar
5 @!at are t!e r#mary and se"ondary -ra'es
8 @!y -ra'es &#t! more t!an ;4H e((#"#en"y are not used #n automo-#$es
9 @!at #s (ad#ng o( -ra'es
/ On &!at (a"tors does t!e (or"e o( ad!er#on -et&een t!e road &!ee$s and t!e road
deends
3 :o& does s'#dd#ng ta'es $a"e
; @!at #s $ead#ng s!oe
< @!at #s t!e d#((eren"e -et&een o&er ass#sted and o&er oerated -ra'es
14 @!at #s t!e ad)antage o( a t&o s!oe tra#$#ng -ra'e
11 Name #mortant "omonents o( a d#s" -ra'e
10 @!at #s t!e ad)antage o( a s&#ng#ng "a$#er tye d#s" -ra'e
15 Name #mortant "omonents o( a drum -ra'e
18 @!at #s a s$#t !ydrau$#" -ra'e system
19 @!at #s t!e (un"t#on o( a meter#ng )a$)e #n t!e -ra'#ng system
1/ @!at are t!e ma#n "onst#tuents o( a -ra'#ng ($u#d
13 @!at are t!e ad)antages o( !ydrau$#" -ra'es o)er me"!an#"a$ -ra'es
1; @!at #s t!e urose o( -ra'e s!oe ad>uster
1< E1$a#n "$ear$y reBu#rements o( automo-#$e -ra'e
04 .#s"uss #n deta#$ t!e -ra'#ng system em$oyed #n "ase o( Marut# ;44 "ars
01 @!at #s tandem master "y$#nder. .e(#ne.
00 .es"r#-e t!e r#n"#$es o( )ar#ous te"!n#Bues em$oyed to re)ent s'#dd#ng
05 .ra& a neat s'et"! s!o&#ng t!e $#n'age to oerate -ra'e master "y$#nder
08 @!at are t!e ad)antages o( us#ng s$#t -ra'e system
09 @!at are t!e essent#a$ "!ara"ter#st#"s reBu#red o( a good -ra'#ng ($u#d.
AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING LAB
INSTRUCTION SHEET
EXPERIMENT NO <
Aim
To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#on deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and oerat#on o( t!e
(o$$o&#ng automot#)e susens#on systems.
a? Front susens#on system
-? Rear susens#on system
Theor'
La-e$ed d#agram% "onstru"t#on deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$e and oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng
susens#on systems
a? Front susens#on system
#? .ou-$e @#s!-one Susens#on
##? Ma"!erson Strut Front Susens#on
-? Rear susens#on system
#? Lea( Sr#ng Rear Susens#on
##? +o#$ Sr#ng Rear Susens#on
###? Ma"!erson Strut Rear Susens#on
O3=e*t% of S)%pen%ion
1 To re)ent t!e road s!o"'s (rom -e#ng transm#tted to t!e )e!#"$e "omonents
0 To sa(eguard t!e o""uants (rom road s!o"'s
5 To reser)e t!e sta-#$#ty o( t!e )e!#"$e #n #t"!#ng or ro$$#ng% &!#$e #n mot#on
Lea( Sr#ngs
Sem# e$$#t#" $ea( sr#ngs are a$most un#)ersa$$y use (or susens#on #n $#g!t and !ea)y
"ommer"#a$ )e!#"$es. For "ars a$so% t!ese are &#de$y used (or rear susens#on.
Tapere" Leaf Sprin$%
Eng$#s! Stee$ +ororat#on Ltd. O( Eng$and !as rodu"ed KTaer$#teI sr#ngs &!#"! !a)e t!e
(o$$o&#ng ad)antages o)er t!e "on)ent#ona$ $ea( sr#ngs due to &!#"! t!ese are -e"om#ng
#n"reas#ng$y ou$ar "omared to "onstant se"t#on "on)ent#ona$ $ea( sr#ngs.
1. L#g!t &e#g!t , near$y /4H o( t!e "orresond#ng "on)ent#ona$ sr#ng
0. T!ere #s no #nter$ea( (r#"t#on #n "ase o( s#ng$e taer $ea( sr#ng. E)en #n "ase o( !ea)y
)e!#"$es &!ere more $ea)es may -e reBu#red% t!e num-er o( su"! $ea)es #s st#$$ $ess t!an
#n "ase o( "on)ent#ona$ sr#ngs. Furt!er% t!ese ru- aga#nst ea"! ot!er on$y at t!e ends.
.ue to t!ese reasons e)en #n mu$t# taer $ea( sr#ngs re$at#)e$y $ess #nter $ea( (r#"t#on
&#$$ -e resent.
5 A-sen"e o( sBuea'#ng
8. T!e stresses are $o&er and more un#(orm "omared to t!e "on)ent#ona$ sr#ngs% t!us
g#)#ng $onger $#(e.
9. T!ey o""uy $ess sa"e.
/. In "ase o( s#ng$e taer $ea( sr#ng% t!ere #s no "o$$e"t#on o( mo#sture -et&een t!e $ea)es
and !en"e no (rett#ng (at#gue.
Coi( Sprin$%
T!e "o#$ sr#ngs are used ma#n$y &#t! #ndeendent susens#on% t!oug! t!ey !a)e a$so -een used
#n t!e "on)ent#ona$ r#g#d a1$e susens#on as t!ey "an -e &e$$ a""ommodated #n restr#"ted
sa"es. T!e energy stored er un#t )o$ume #s a$most dou-$e #n t!e "ase o( "o#$ sr#ngs t!an t!e
$ea( sr#ngs.
+o#$ sr#ngs do not !a)e no#se ro-$ems nor do t!ey !a)e stat#" (r#"t#on "aus#ng !ars!ness o(
r#de as #n "ase o( $ea( sr#ngs.
T!e sr#ng ta'es t!e s!ear as &e$$ as -end#ng stresses. T!e "o#$ sr#ngs% !o&e)er% "annot ta'e
torBue rea"t#on and s#de t!rust% (or &!#"! a$ternat#)e arrangements !a)e to -e ro)#ded.
A !e$er "o#$ sr#ng #s a$so somet#mes used to ro)#de rogress#)e st#((ness aga#nst #n"reas#ng
$oad.
Sho*. A3%or3er%
A sr#ng#ng de)#"e must -e a "omrom#se -et&een ($e1#-#$#ty and st#((ness. I( #t #s more r#g#d%
#t &#$$ not a-sor- road s!o"'s e((#"#ent$y and #( #t #s more ($e1#-$e% #t &#$$ "ont#nue to )#-rate
e)en a(ter t!e -um !as assed. So &e must !a)e su((#"#ent dam#ng o( t!e sr#ng to re)ent
e1"ess#)e ($e1#ng.
T!e (r#"t#on -et&een t!e $ea)es o( a $ea( sr#ng ro)#des t!#s dam#ng% -ut -e"ause o( t!e
un"erta#n$y o( t!e $u-r#"at#on "ond#t#ons% t!e amount o( (r#"t#on a$so )ar#es and !en"e t!e
dam#ng "!ara"ter#st#"s do not rema#n "onstant. For t!#s reason% t!e (r#"t#on -et&een t!e
sr#ngs #s redu"ed to m#n#mum and add#t#ona$ dam#ng #s ro)#ded -y means o( de)#"es "a$$ed
damers or s!o"' a-sor-ers. In "ase o( "o#$ sr#ngs% t!e &!o$e o( dam#ng #s ro)#ded -y t!e
s!o"' a-sor-ers. T!e s!o"' a-sor-ers t!us "ontro$ t!e e1"ess#)e sr#ng )#-rat#ons.
In (a"t t!e name s!o"' a-sor-er #s rat!er m#s$ead#ng s#n"e #t #s t!e sr#ng and not t!e s!o"'
a-sor-er t!at #n#t#a$$y a-sor-es t!e s!o"'. T!e s!o"' a-sor-er a-sor-s t!e energy o( s!o"'
"on)erted #nto )ert#"a$ mo)ement o( t!e a1$e -y ro)#d#ng dam#ng and d#ss#at#ng t!e same
#nto !eat. T!us% #t mere$y ser)es to "ontro$ t!e am$#tude and (reBuen"y o( sr#ng )#-rat#ons. It
"an not suort &e#g!t and !as Cero res#$#en"e. T!ere(ore% KdamerI #s a -etter term te"!n#"a$$y
to des"r#-e t!e s!o"' a-sor-er.
T!e s!o"' a-sor-ers are -as#"a$$y o( t&o tyes , t!e (r#"t#on tye and t!e !ydrau$#" tye. T!e
(r#"t#on tye !as a$most -e"ome o-so$ete due to #ts non red#"ta-$e dam#ng "!ara"ter#st#"s.
T!e r#n"#$e o( oerat#on o( a !ydrau$#" s!o"' a-sor-er #s t!at &!en a #ston (or"es t!e ($u#d #n
a "y$#nder to ass t!roug! some !o$e a !#g! res#stan"e to t!e mo)ement o( #ston #s de)e$oed%
&!#"! ro)#des t!e dam#ng e((e"t. T!e !ydrau$#" tye !as t!e add#t#ona$ ad)antage t!at t!e
dam#ng #s roort#ona$ to t!e sBuare o( t!e seed. So (or sma$$ )#-rat#ons% t!e dam#ng #s a$so
sma$$% &!#$e (or $arger ones t!e dam#ng -e"omes automat#"a$$y more.
2i%h3one t'pe %)%pen%ion
F#g s!o&s a d#agrammat#" s'et"! o( &#s!-one tye susens#on &#t! "o#$ sr#ngs. T!e use o(
"o#$ sr#ngs #n t!e (ront a1$e susens#on o( "ars #s no& a$most un#)ersa$.
It "ons#sts o( uer and t!e $o&er &#s!-one arms #)oted to t!e (rame mem-er. T!e sr#ng #s
$a"ed #n -et&een t!e $o&er &#s!-one and t!e unders#de o( t!e "ross mem-er. T!e )e!#"$e
&e#g!t #s transm#tted (rom t!e -ody and t!e "ross mem-er to t!e "o#$ sr#ng t!roug! &!#"! #t
goes to t!e $o&er &#s!-one mem-er. A s!o"' a-sor-er #s $a"ed #ns#de t!e "o#$ sr#ng and #s
atta"!ed to t!e "ross mem-er and to $o&er &#s!-one mem-er.
T!e &#s!-one arms are $#'e t!e "!#"'en &#s!-one or $etter 7 #n s!aem -e"ause o( &!#"! t!e
system #s so "a$$ed. Be"ause o( t!#s 7 s!ae% t!e &#s!-ones not on$y os#t#on t!e &!ee$s and
transm#t t!e )e!#"$e $oad to t!e sr#ngs -ut t!ese a$so res#st a""e$erat#on% -ra'#ng and "orner#ng
As#de? (or"es. T!e uer arms are s!orter arms are s!orter #n $engt! t!an t!e $o&er ones. T!#s
!e$s to 'ee t!e &!ee$ tra"' "onstant% t!ere-y a)o#d#ng t!e tyre s"ru- t!us m#n#m#C#ng tyre
&ear. :o&e)er% sma$$ "!ange #n t!e "am-er ang$e does o""ur &#t! su"! an arrangement.
T!e &#s!-one tye #s t!e most ou$ar #ndeendent susens#on system.
Ma* Pher%on Str)t t'pe of %)%pen%ion
In t!#s $ayout on$y $o&er &#s!-ones are used. A strut "onta#n#ng s!o"' a-sor-er and t!e sr#ng
"arr#es a$so t!e stu- a1$e on &!#"! t!e &!ee$ #s mounted. T!e &#s!-one #s !#nged to t!e "ross
mem-er and os#t#ons t!e &!ee$ as &e$$ as res#sts a""e$erat#ng% -ra'#ng and s#de (or"es. T!#s
system #s s#m$er t!an dou-$e &#s!-one tye des"r#-ed a-o)e and #s a$so $#g!ter% 'ee#ng t!e
unsrung &#e!t $o&er. Furt!er% t!e "am-er a$so does not "!ange &!en t!e &!ee$ mo)es u and
do&n. T!#s tye o( susens#on g#)es t!e ma1#mum room #n t!e eng#ne "omartment and #s
t!ere(ore "ommon$y used on (ront &!ee$ dr#)e "ars.
In Ind#a t!#s system !as -een used #n Marut# ASuCu'#? ;44 "ars. T!#s tye o( susens#on &#t!
ant# ro$$ -ar as em$oyed #n 7o$'s&agen Netta and Passat "ars #s s!o&n #n (#g. t!#s #s "$a#med t
ro)#de #n"reased road sa(ety% #mro)e r#de "om(ort and $#g!t and se$( sta-#$#C#ng steer#ng
&!#"! means t!at "ar "ont#nues a$ong #ts "!osen $#ne o( tra)e$ &!en t!e -ra'es are a$#ed e)en
t!oug! t!e road sur(a"e may )ary.
Rear 2hee( In"epen"ent S)%pen%ion
T!oug! t!e rear &!ee$s are not to -e steered% yet t!ere #s a "ons#dera-$e d#((#"u$ty #n t!e rear
&!ee$ sr#ng#ng #( t!e o&er !as to -e transm#tted to t!e rear &!ee$s. But e)en t!e rear &!ee$
#ndeendent sr#ng#ng #s "om#ng #nto rom#nen"e -e"ause o( #ts d#st#n"t ad)antages o)er t!e
r#g#d a1$e tye.
F#g s!o&s one met!od o( rear &!ee$ #ndeendent susens#on. Un#)ersa$ "ou$#ngs A and B
'ee t!e &!ee$ )ert#"a$% &!#$e t!e s$#d#ng "ou$#ng + #s reBu#red to ma#nta#n t!e &!ee$ tra"'
"onstant% t!ere-y a)o#d#ng s"ru--#ng o( t!e tyres. T!#s met!od !as -een used #n t!e de .#on
tye o( a1$e.
Referen*e Boo.%
1? Automot#)e Me"!an#"s , +rouse = Ang$#n
0? Automo-#$e Eng#neer#ng , .r D#ra$ S#ng!
7#)a Euest#ons
1 @!at are t!e o->e"t#)es o( a )e!#"$e susens#on
0 @!at do you understand -y #t"!#ng and ro$$#ng o( a )e!#"$e
5 @!at #s a (un"t#on o( a sr#ng #n automo-#$e susens#onI
8 @!at #s u2srung &e#g!tF
9 :o& does a s#de t!rust "ountered #n a )e!#"$e
/ @!at #s a (un"t#on o( a s!a"'$e &#t! a $ea( sr#ng
3 E1$a#n t!e (un"t#on o( a $ea( sr#ng and s!o& !o& #t #s mounted on rear and
(ront
; @!at are t!e ad)antages o( an #ndeendent susens#on system o)er a r#g#d a1$e
susens#onF
< @!at are t!e ad)antages o( Ma" P!erson strut susens#onF
14 @!at #s a (un"t#on o( a s!o"' a-sor-er
11 @!at are !e$er sr#ngsF
10 :o& #s t!e (at#gue strengt! o( a $ea( sr#ngs #n"reasedF
15 @!at #s t!e e((e"t o( mo#sture on t!e $ea( sr#ngsF
18 .es"r#-e t!e ad)antages o( taered $ea( sr#ngs
19 @!#"! tye o( #ndeendent susens#on used #n M2;44 "ar
1/ @!at #s &#s!-one tye susens#onF
13 @!at (or"es are suorted -y a $ea( sr#ngs
1; State t!e ad)antages and d#sad)antages o( a tors#on -ar
1< @!at #s tors#on -arF
04 State t!e ad)antages and d#sad)antages o( a "o#$ sr#ngs
AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING LAB
INSTRUCTION SHEET
EXPERIMENT NO,>
Aim
To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#on deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and oerat#on o( t!e
(o$$o&#ng automot#)e dr#)e $#nes and d#((erent#a$.
a? Rear &!ee$ dr#)e $#nes
-? Front &!ee$ dr#)e $#nes
"? .#((erent#a$s% dr#)e a1$es and (our &!ee$ dr#)e $#nes
Theor'
La-e$ed d#agram% "onstru"t#on deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$e and oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng dr#)e
$#nes and d#((erent#a$.
PROPELLER SHAFT
T!#s #s t!e s!a(t &!#"! transm#ts t!e dr#)e (rom t!e transm#ss#on to t!e -e)e$ #n#on or &orm o(
(#na$ dr#)e #n (ront eng#ne% rear dr#)e )e!#"$es. It #s a$so "a$$ed dr#)e s!a(t. It "ons#sts ma#n$y o(
t!ree arts.
Aa? S!a(t , As t!#s !as to &#t!stand ma#n$y tors#ona$ $oads% #t #s usua$$y made o( tu-u$ar
"ross se"t#on. It a$so !as to -e &e$$ -a$an"ed to a)o#d &!#r$#ng at !#g! seeds.
A-? One or t&o un#)ersa$ >o#nts% deend#ng uon t!e tye o( rear a1$e dr#)e used= t!e
un#)ersa$ >o#nts a""ount (or t!e u and do&n mo)ements o( t!e rear a1$e &!en t!e )e!#"$e #s
runn#ng
A"? S$# No#nt , .eend#ng uon t!e tye o( dr#)e% one s$# >o#nt may -e t!ere #n s!a(t. T!#s
ser)es to ad>ust t!e $engt! o( t!e roe$$er s!a(t &!en demanded -y t!e rear a1$e mo)ements.
Uni#er%a( ?oint%
A un#)ersa$ >o#nt #s a art#"u$ar tye o( "onne"t#on -et&een t&o s!a(ts &!ose a1es are #n"$#ned
to ea"! ot!er. T!e most s#m$e tye o( un#)ersa$ >o#nt #s t!e :oo'eIs >o#nt A(#g. ? &!#"! #s most
&#de$y used -e"ause o( t!e (a"t t!at #t #s s#m$e and "oma"t #n "onstru"t#on and reasona-$y
e((#"#ent at sma$$ ang$es o( roe$$er s!a(t mo)ement u and do&nm say uto 1; deg T!e a1es
o( s!a(ts A and B are #nterse"t#ng. Ea"! o( t!ese s!a(ts "onta#ns a yo'e. T!e "ross + !as (our
arms. T!e t&o oos#te arms o( t!e "ross are suorted #n -us!es #n t!e yo'e o( s!a(t B. T!us
s!a(t A "an !a)e angu$ar rotat#on a-out a1#s OO and t!e s!a(t B% a-out t!e a1#s YY. It #s t!us
seen t!at #t &#$$ -e oss#-$e &#t! t!e :oo'es >o#nt (or t!e s!a(ts A and B to !a)e os#t#)e dr#)e
&!#$e a$$o&#ng angu$ar mo)ement -et&een t!em.
An #mro)ed (orm o( !oo'eIs >o#nt uses need$e ro$$er -ear#ng to suort t!e "ross #n t!e yo'es.
T!#s resu$t #n #n"rease o( >o#nt e((#"#en"y.
&IFFERENTIAL
@!en t!e "ar #s ta'#ng a turn% t!e outer &!ee$s &#$$ !a)e to tra)e$ greater d#stan"e as "omared
to t!e #nner &!ee$s #n t!e same t#me A(#g ? #( t!ere(ore% t!e "ar !as a so$#d rear a1$e on$y and no
ot!er de)#"e% t!ere &#$$ -e tenden"y (or t!e &!ee$s to s'#d. :en"e #( t!e &!ee$ s'#dd#ng #s to -e
a)o#ded% some me"!an#sm must -e #n"ororated #n t!e rear a1$e% &!#"! s!ou$d redu"e t!e seed
o( t!e #nner &!ee$s and #n"rease t!e seed ( t!e outer &!ee$s &!en ta'#ng turnsG #t s!ou$d at t!e
same t#me 'ee t!e seeds o( a$$ t!e &!ee$s same &!en go#ng stra#g!t a!ead. Su"! a de)#"e
&!#"! ser)es t!e a-o)e (un"t#on #s "a$$ed a d#((erent#a$.
In "ase o( t!e non2dr#)#ng &!ee$s% !o&e)er% t!e d#((eren"e #n seeds o( t!e #nner and t!e outer
&!ee$s oses no ro-$em s#n"e su"! &!ee$s are #ndeendent o( ea"! ot!er and as su"! t!ey "an
ad>ust t!e#r seeds a""ord#ng to t!e reBu#rements.
To understand t!e r#n"#$e on &!#"! d#((erent#a$ &or's% "ons#der (#g. To t!e "ro&n &!ee$ o(
t!e (#na$ dr#)e #s atta"!ed a "age% &!#"! "arr#es a "ross #n A#n "ase t&o $anet #n#ons are
em$oyed? or a s#der A#n "ase (our $anet #n#ons are used #n t!e d#((erent#a$?. T&o sun gears
mes! &#t! t!e t&o or (our $anet #n#ons. A1$e !a$( s!a(ts are s$#ned to ea"! o( t!ese sun
gears. T!e "ro&n &!ee$ #s (ree to rotate on t!e !a$( s!a(t as s!o&n. @!en t!e )e!#"$e #s go#ng
stra#g!t t!e "age and t!e #nner gears rotate as a s#ng$e un#t and t!e t&o !a$( s!a(ts re)o$)e at t!e
same seed. In t!#s s#tuat#on% t!ere #s no re$at#)e mo)ement among t!e )ar#ous d#((erent#a$
gears. To understand &!at !aens &!en t!e )e!#"$e #s ta'#ng a turn% assume t!at t!e "age #s
stat#onary. T!en turn one sun gear &#$$ "ause t!e ot!er to rotate #n t!e oos#te d#re"t#on. T!at
means t!at #( $e(t sun gear rotates% n t#mes #n a art#"u$ar t#me% t!e r#g!t sun gear &#$$ a$so rotate
n t#mes #n t!e same er#od -ut o( "ourse #n t!e oos#te d#re"t#on. T!#s rotat#on #s suer
#mosed on t!e norma$ &!ee$ seed &!en t!e )e!#"$e #s ta'#ng a turn. T!us% (or e1am$e%
"ons#der a )e!#"$e &#t! &!ee$ seed N r..m. go#ng stra#g!t% &!en #t ta'es a turn to&ard r#g!t.
At t!#s t#me% t!ere &#$$ -e a res#stan"e to t!e mot#on o( t!e r#g!t &!ee$ and as a resu$t o(
d#((erent#a$ a"t#on #( t!e r#g!t &!ee$ rotates -a"' at n rm t!en t!e $e(t &!ee$ &#$$ rotate (or&ard
at n rm. T!#s &#$$ g#)e t!e resu$tant seed o( t!e $e(t &!ee$ as AN P n? and t!at o( t!e r#g!t
&!ee$ as AN2n? rm.
T!e torBue (rom t!e (#na$ dr#)e #s a$so d#)#ded -et&een t!e t&o !a$( s!a(ts. As t!e $anet
#n#ons are (ree to rotate on t!e "ross #n or t!e s#der arm t!ey "annot a$y d#((erent torBue to
t!e teet! on one s#de (rom t!e one on t!e ot!er s#de. T!ere(ore% t!ey a"t as a -a$an"e and d#)#de
t!e torBue eBua$$y -et&een t!e t&o &!ee$s on t!e a1$e% e)en &!en t!e#r seeds are d#((erent.
Referen*e Boo.%
1 Automot#)e Me"!an#"s , +rouse = Ang$#n
0 Automo-#$e Engg , .r D#ra$ S#ng!

7#)a Euest#ons
1 @!at are t!e ma#n "omonents o( an automo-#$eF .es"r#-e a$$ o( t!em -r#e($y.
0 @!at ad)antages are t!ere #n "ase o( (ront &!ee$ dr#)eF
5 @!at #s trans(er -o1F
8 State )ar#ous "ons#derat#ons on t!e -as#s o( &!#"! automo-#$es are "$ass#(#edF
9 @!at #s t!e ma#n ad)antage o( (or &!ee$ dr#)e )e!#"$eF
/ @!at #s t!e (un"t#on o( !oo'Is >o#ntF
3 :o& #s t!e $engt! o( Proe$$er s!a(t )ar#ed automat#"a$$yF
; .e(#ne t!e &!#r$#ng o( t!e s!a(tsF
< @!at #s t!e need (or "onstant )e$o"#ty un#)ersa$ >o#nt &!en t!e "!eaer :oo'Is >o#nt #s
a)a#$a-$eF
14 @!at #s t!e mater#a$ used (or Proe$$er s!a(tF
11 :o& #s t!e dr#)e (rom roe$$er s!a(t turned at r#g!t ang$es.
10 E1$a#n t!e (un"t#on#ng o( d#((erent#a$.
15 E1$a#n t!e (un"t#on o( a un#)ersa$ >o#nt.
18 :o& many un#)ersa$ >o#nts are used &#t! a torBue tu-e dr#)e and a !ot"! '#ss dr#)e and
&!yF
AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING LAB
INSTRUCTION SHEET
EXPERIMENT NO, :
Aim
To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#on deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and oerat#on o( t!e
automot#)e em#ss#on = o$$ut#on "ontro$ systems.
Theor'
La-e$ed d#agram% "onstru"t#on deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$e and oerat#on o( t!e automot#)e
em#ss#on = o$$ut#on "ontro$ systems
Intro")*tion
T!ere are (our areas #n t!e automo-#$e% &!#"! "an em#t o$$utants #nto t!e atmos!ere. T!ese
are% t!e (ue$ tan'% "ar-uretor% t!e "ran' "ase and t!e e1!aust system. T!e (ue$ tan' and t!e
"ar-uretor em#t (ue$ )aours% t!e "ran'"ase g#)es out t!e art$y -urnt2a#r2(ue$ m#1ture -$o&n o((
t!roug! t!e #ston r#ngs% &!#$e t!e em#ss#ons (rom t!e e1!aust system #n"$ude un-urnt
!ydro"ar-ons% "ar-on mono1#de% n#trogen o1#des and su$!ur o1#des. T!ese e1!aust
"onst#tuents "ause many ser#ous d#seases as g#)en #n ta-$e 13.1 O-)#ous$y% t!e atmos!er#"
o$$ut#on "an -e de"reased -y "ontro$$#ng t!ese areas o( t!e automo-#$e. To do t!#s% t&o
d#((erent aroa"!es !a)e -een (o$$o&ed*
1 To redu"e t!e (ormat#on o( o$$utants #n t!e em#ss#ons -y redes#gn#ng t!e eng#ne
)ent#$at#ng system% "ar-uretor and (ue$ tan'. T!e "om-ust#on "!am-er% a$ong&#t! (ue$
system "oo$#ng system% #gn#t#on system and t!e e1!aust system are a$so redes#gned t!us
#mro)#ng uon t!e "om-ust#on e((#"#en"y &!#"! redu"es t!e em#ss#ons.
0. To destroy t!e o$$utants a(ter t!ese !a)e -een (ormed. T!e deta#$s o( -ot! t!ese
aroa"!es !a)e -een d#s"ussed #n t!e (o$$o&#ng art#"$es.
S
No
+onst#tutent .#sease
1 +ar-on Mono1#de A+O? :eart=B$ood "#r"u$atory ro-$ems
0 :ydro"ar-ons A:+? Lung d#seases
5 N#trogen o1#des ANO1? Ast!ma = Bron"!#t#s
8 Lead AP-? B$ood +an"er
9 Susended art#"u$ate matter APM? Ast!ma = Bron"!#t#s
RE&UCTION OF FORMATION OF POLLUTANTS
T!#s #s a"!#e)ed -y t!e (o$$o&#ng*
1. +$osed "ran'"ase )ent#$at#on
0. Fue$ tan' and "ar-uretor )ent#$at#on
5. Redes#gn#ng t!e eng#ne*
#? "om-ust#on "!am-er
##? "oo$#ng system
###? (ue$ su$y system
#)? #gn#t#on system
CLOSE& CRANC+CASE @ENTILATION
T!ere are t&o )ar#at#ons o( t!#s system )#C. t!e os#t#)e "ran'"ase )ent#$at#on and t!e (#1ed
or#(#"e system. In t!e (ormer% (#$tered a#r (rom t!e "ar-uretor a#r "$eaner #s #ntrodu"ed #n t!e
"ran'"ase (rom &!ere #t "arr#es a&ay t!e -$o& -y gases and t!e gaso$#ne )aours enter t!e
eng#ne "om-ust#on "!am-er a$ong&#t! (res! "!arge and are -urnt t!ere.
In t!e (#1ed or#(#"e system% a (#1ed or#(#"e #n t!e -ase o( t!e "ar-uretor ta'es t!e $a"e o( t!e
P+7 )a$)e. T!e -$o& -y gases are d#)erted to t!e #n$et man#(o$d t!roug! t!#s or#(#"e.
In -ot! t!ese tyes o( "$osed "ran'"ase )ent#$at#on systems% t!e s$udge and t!e ot!er s#m#$ar
e$ements dur#ng t!e "ourse o( t#me% "$og t!e P+7 )a$)e or t!e or#(#"e &!#"! may de"rease and
u$t#mate$y sto t!e ($o& o( t!e -$o& -y gases a$toget!er% &!#"! &ou$d a((e"t t!e eng#ne
er(orman"e )ery ser#ous$y. A "oat#ng o( o#$ on t!e a#r "$eaner (#$ter% aart (rom )ar#ous eng#ne
trou-$es% #nd#"ates t!at ser)#"e o( t!e system #s needed urgent$y% &!#"! ma#n$y reBu#res t!e
"$ean#ng o( t!e P+7 )a$)e or t!e or#(#"e% t!e a#r "$eaner (#$ter !oses et".
RE&ESIGNING THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER
To a)o#d t!e add#t#on o( $ead #s gaso$#ne% t!e eng#ne "om-ust#on "!am-ers !a)e -een
redes#gned &#t! $o&er "omress#on rat#os A(rom aro1#mate$y 14.9 * 1 to ;.9 * 1? T!#s $oss o(
e((#"#en"y !as -een made good -y #n"reas#ng t!e temerature #n t!e "om-ust#on "!am-er &!#"!
resu$ts #n #mro)ed "om-ust#on o( t!e a#r (ue$ m#1ture and "onseBuent$y #n t!e de"rease o(
o$$utants #n t!e e1!aust.
CHANGES IN FUEL SUPPL! S!STEM
Su#ta-$e mod#(#"at#ons !a)e -een made #n t!e #nta'e man#(o$ds so t!at ra#d )aor#Cat#on o(
(ue$ ta'es $a"e dur#ng &arm u o( t!e eng#ne. Furt!er% "ross o)er o( t!e #n$et and t!e e1!aust
man#(o$ds #s a$so redes#gned so as to redu"e t!e t#me reBu#red (or t!e trans(er o( !eat (rom t!e
e1!aust gases to t!e #n$et gases. Moreo)er% #n "ase o( eng#nes &#t! etro$ #n>e"t#on #n art#"u$ar%
a tuned #nta'e man#(o$d #s em$oyed% &!ere#n a$$ runners are o( eBua$ $engt! &#t! )ery $#tt$e
restr#"t#on so t!at eBua$ a#r ($o& ta'es $a"e to a$$ t!e "y$#nders. T!#s "om-#nat#on o( etro$
#n>e"t#on and tuned #nta'e man#(o$d !e$s redu"e em#ss#on o( :+ and NO1.
Aart (rom #n"reas#ng t!e )a$)e o)er$a d#s"ussed a-o)e% a -etter met!od o( d#$ut#ng t!e #nta'e
"!arge o( t!e eng#ne &#t! e1!aust gas #s t!e e1!aust gas re"#r"u$at#on AEGR? system% &!#"!
redu"es NO1 em#ss#on. .ue to a-sen"e o( o1ygen% e1!aust gas #tse$( &#$$ not -urnG #t on$y
$o&ers t!e "om-ust#on temerature t!ere-y redu"#ng t!e (ormat#on o( NO1 T!e amount o(
e1!aust gas adm#tted #s regu$ated -y a )a"uum "ontro$$ed )a$)e% "a$$ed t!e EGR )a$)e.
T!e e1!aust gases (rom t!e eng#ne are assed t!roug! "ata$yt#" "on)erters. A "ata$yt#"
"on)erter #s a "y$#ndr#"a$ un#t a-out t!e s#Ce o( a sma$$ s#$en"er and #s #nsta$$ed #nto t!e e1!aust
system o( a )e!#"$e su"! as a "ar% s"ooter% moed% motor "y"$e or auto r#"'s!a&. It #s $a"ed
-et&een t!e e1!aust man#(o$d and t!e s#$en"er. Ins#de t!e "on)erter t!ere #s a !oney"om-
stru"ture o( a "eram#" or meta$% &!#"! #s "oated &#t! a$um#na -ase mater#a$s and t!erea(ter a
se"ond "oat#ng o( re"#ous meta$s $at#num% a$$ad#um or r!od#um or "om-#nat#ons o( t!e
same. T!#s se"ond "oat#ng ser)es as a "ata$yst. A "ata$yst #s a su-stan"e &!#"! "auses a
"!em#"a$ rea"t#on t!at norma$$y does not !aen #n t!e g#)en "ond#t#on. As a resu$t o( "ata$yt#"
rea"t#ons% as t!e e1!aust gases ass o)er t!e "on)erter su-trate% to1#" gases su"! as +O% :+ and
NO1 are "on)erted #nto !arm$ess +O0 :0 and N0.
T!ere are t&o tyes o( "ata$yt#" "on)erters.
1. A t&o &ay "on)erter% &!#"! #s used to "ontro$ on$y +O and :+ em#ss#ons -y
o1#dat#on.
0. A t!ree &ay "on)erter% &!#"! #s used a$most #n a$$ "ars. It "ontro$s +O and :+ -y
o1#dat#on as &e$$ as NO1 -y redu"t#on.
T!ree &ay "on)erters AT@+? are no& "ommon$y -e#ng used (or etro$ eng#nes and oerate #n
t&o stages. T!e (#rst "on)erter stage uses r!od#um to redu"e t!e NO1 #n t!e e1!aust #nto
n#trogen and o1ygen. In t!e se"ond stage% "on)erter $at#num or a$$a d#um a"ts as o1#dat#on
"ata$yst to "!ange :+ and +O #nto !arm$ess &ater and +O0.
Referen*e Boo.%
1? Automot#)e Me"!an#"s , +rouse = Ang$#n
0? Automo-#$e Eng#neer#ng , .r D#ra$ S#ng!
7#)a Euest#ons
1 :o& does an automo-#$e "ontr#-ute to&ards o$$ut#on o( t!e atmos!ereF
0 @!at #s "$osed "ran'"ase )ent#$at#onF E1$a#n.
5 .#s"uss #n deta#$s )ar#ous "!anges #n t!e (ue$ su$y system o( eng#nes (or "ontro$$#ng
em#ss#onF
8 .es"r#-e "$ear$y !o& t!e eng#ne e1!aust gases to "on)ert t!e o$$utants t!ere #n #nto
!arm$ess "onst#tuents.
9 Name t!e areas o( automo-#$e em#tt#ng o$$utants and a$so name t!e ma#n o$$utants #n
t!e eng#ne e1!aust.
/ @!at #s P+7% and &!at urose #t ser)eF
3 @!at are t!e t&o -as#" aroa"!es to de"rease o$$ut#on (rom automo-#$esF
; :o& does t!e s!ae o( "om-ust#on "!am-er e((e"t t!e "om-ust#on e((#"#en"yF
< @!at #s t!e ad)antage o( redu"#ng "omress#on rat#o o( t!e eng#neF
14 @!at #s a QT!ree &ay "on)erterRF E1$a#n "$ear$y !o& #t #s used to "on)ert t!e
o$$utants.
11 E1$a#n t!e (un"t#on o( "ata$yt#" "on)erterF
10 :o& does t!e (ue$ #n>e"t#on !e$ to redu"e automo-#$e o$$ut#onF
15 @!at #s t!e e((e"t o( !eat#ng t!e su$y a#r on t!e eng#ne em#ss#onF
18 @!at o$$utants #n t!e eng#ne e1!aust are "ontro$$ed -y t!e a#r #n>e"t#on systemF
19 @!at #s "ata$yt#" "on)erterF
1/ @!at #s "ata$ystF
13 @!at are t!e ad)antages and dra&-a"' o( "ata$yt#" "on)erter met!od "omared to
-$o&#ng o( a#r on$y #nto e1!aust man#(o$d.
1; @!#"! "ata$y$#st #s used (or redu"t#on o( no#seF
1< @!#"! "ata$yst #s em$oyed (or o1#d#C#ng o( :+ and +oF
04 @!at a#r (ue$ rat#o g#)es -est (ue$ e"onomyF
AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING LAB
INSTRUCTION SHEET
EXPERIMENT NO, A
Aim
To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and oerat#on o(
t!e (o$$o&#ng (ue$ su$y systems
a? +ar-uretor
-? .#ese$ (ue$ #n>e"t#on system
"? Gaso$#ne (ue$ #n>e"t#on system
Theor'
La-e$ed d#agram% "onstru"t#on deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$e and oerat#on o( t!e (ue$ su$y
systems
F)n*tion% of a *ar3)retor
T!e ma#n (un"t#ons &!#"! a "ar-uretor #s reBu#red to er(orm are
1 To 'ee a sma$$ reser)e o( (ue$ at a "onstant !ead
0 To )aor#Ce t!e (ue$ to reare a !omogeneous a#r (ue$ m#1ture
5 To su$y "orre"t amount or t!e a#r (ue$ m#1ture at t!e "orre"t strengt! under a$$
"ond#t#ons o( $oad and seed o( t!e eng#ne
Simp(e *ar3)retor
To understand t!e r#n"#$e on &!#"! a "ar-uretor &or's% "ons#der a s#m$e "ar-uretor as
s!o&n #n (#g. T!e ma#n arts are a ($oat "!am-er% (ue$ >et% )entur#% noCC$e and a t!rott$e )a$)e.
T!e ($oat #n t!e ($oat "!am-er #s made o( dee dra&n -rass s!eet and #s 'et !o$$o& (or
$#g!tness. Su"! ($oats !a)e a tenden"y to $ea' a$ong t!e >o#nt seams. .ue to t!#s reason ($oats
are no& made o( ny$on $ast#" or e1anded synt!et#" ru--er. T!e need$e )a$)e atta"!ed to t!e
($oat $e)er ser)es to "$ose or oen t!e (ue$ #n$et to t!e ($oat "!am-er deend#ng uon t!e
reBu#rements. T!e need$e )a$)e "ons#sts o( a "y$#ndr#"a$ stem &#t! a "on#"a$ t# made o( stee$
or e$se a so$#d stee$ stem &#t! a ru--er seat t#. A$ternat#)e$y% t!ere may -e a t!ree #e"e )a$)e
&#t! a ru--er seat t# and a sr#ng , $oaded -a$$ #n t!e -ody o( t!e stem. T!e $ater t&o tyes
ma#nta#n t!e $#Bu#d , t#g!t sea$ dur#ng )#-rat#ons% &!#"! #s not oss#-$e &#t! ord#nary s#ng$e
#e"e need$e )a$)e. @!en t!e (ue$ $e)e$ (a$$s -e$o& a de(#n#te redeterm#ned )a$ue% t!e ($oat
a$so (a$$s a$ong &#t! (ue$ $e)e$% t!us oen#ng t!e assage (or t!e (ue$ su$y. T!e (ue$ starts
($o&#ng #n and t!e ($oat r#ses gradua$$y t#$$ t!e (ue$ $e)e$ rea"!es t!e des#red )a$ue. At t!#s t#me%
t!e ($oat need$e "$oses t!e (ue$ #n$et assage. T!us a "onstant !ead o( (ue$ #s ma#nta#ned #n t!e
($oat "!am-er. T!#s "onstant $e)e$ o( (ue$ #s s$#g!t$y -e$o& t!e noCC$e out$et% so t!at t!e (ue$
may not dro a$$ t!e t#me (rom t!e noCC$e% e)en &!en t!e eng#ne #s not &or'#ng. T!#s ro)#s#on
a$so re)ents t!e (ue$ (rom s#$$#ng out &!en t!e "ar #s t#$ted on a""ount o( !#$$y or !#g!$y
"am-ered road. In ra"t#"e (ue$ $e)e$ #n t!e ($oat "!am-er #s ma#nta#ned a-out 9mm -e$o& t!e
noCC$e out$et. A sma$$ )ent #n t!e ($oat "!am-er 'ees t!e ressure #ns#de atmos!er#". In
modern ra"t#"e #t #s re(erred to )ent t!e ($oat "!am-er to t!e a#r #nta'e o( t!e "ar-uretor.
Su"! an arrangement re)ents dust art#"$es (rom m#1#ng &#t! t!e etro$ t!roug! t!e )ent as
t!ere #s a$&ays an a#r "$eaner on t!e #nta'e s#de o( t!e "ar-uretor &!#"! (#$ters t!e #n"om#ng a#r.
F)e( In=e*tion S'%tem
T!e (un"t#on o( a (ue$ #n>e"t#on system #s to #n>e"t roer Buant#ty o( (ue$ #nto t!e eng#ne
"y$#nders at t!e "orre"t t#me and at a redeterm#ned rate. T!e (ue$ #n>e"t#on systems may -e
-road$y "$ass#(#ed #nto t!e so$#d #n>e"t#on system and t!e a#r #n>e"t#on system. In t!e so$#d
#n>e"t#on system% on$y t!e $#Bu#d (ue$ #s #n>e"ted% &!ereas #n t!e #n>e"t#on system $#Bu#d (ue$ #s
#n>e"ted a$ong &#t! "omressed a#r. T!e a#r #n>e"t#on system #s $ess re$#a-$e% $ess e((#"#ent and
reBu#res an a#r "omressor (or su$y#ng a#r at 3 Ma or !#g!er ressures A&!#"! "onsumes
uto 14H o( t!e o&er outut o( t!e eng#ne? due to &!#"! reasons #t !as -e"ome o-so$ete. T!e
so$#d #n>e"t#on system &#$$% t!ere(ore% -e d#s"ussed !ere #n deta#$.
T&o tyes o( so$#d #n>e"t#on systems are #n use*
1. "ommon ra#$ (ue$ #n>e"t#on system
0. #nd#)#dua$ um (ue$ #n>e"t#on system
Layout o( a "ommon ra#$ (ue$ #n>e"t#on system #s s!o&n #n (#g. T!#s tye o( (ue$ su$y system
#s used #n t!e .etro#t d#ese$ eng#ne% "ommon$y 'no&n as N#mmy d#ese$. In t!#s a s#ng$e
#n>e"t#on um &#t! #n>e"tor% "a$$ed as un#t #n>e"tor #s em$oyed on ea"! "y$#nder. T!e un#t
#n>e"tors are oerated -y ro"'er arms and sr#ngs s#m#$ar to t!e eng#ne )a$)es. A $#n'age
"onne"ts t!e "ontro$ ra"'s o( a$$ t!e un#t #n>e"tors% so t!at (ue$ #n>e"t#on #n a$$ t!e "y$#nders may
-e eBua$ and s#mu$taneous$y "ontro$$ed.
T!e (ue$ #s ta'en (rom t!e (ue$ tan' -y t!e (eed um and #s su$#ed at $o& ressure t!roug! a
(#$ter% to a$$ t!e un#t #n>e"tors. T!#s a)o#ds t!e !#g! ressure (ue$ $#nes ne"essary #n t!e
#nd#)#dua$ um system. Any e1"ess (ue$ (rom t!e re$#e( )a$)e #s returned to t!e (ue$ tan'.
Ind#)#dua$ um (ue$ #n>e"t#on system us#ng #n $#ne #n>e"t#on um #s s!o&n #n (#g. Fue$ #s
dra&n (rom t!e (ue$ tan' -y means o( a (ue$ (eed um &!#"! #s oerated (rom t!e #n>e"t#on
um "ams!a(t. Genera$$y% t!e $unger tye or t!e d#a!ragm tye o( (ue$ (eed ums are
em$oyed #n automo-#$es. T!e um #s ro)#ded &#t! !and r#m#ng $e)er so t!at t!e d#ese$ o#$
"an -e (or"ed #nto t!e system and t!e a#r -$ed out &#t!out turn#ng t!e eng#ne. T!e (ue$ #s t!en
assed t!roug! a (#$ter and t!en"e to t!e (ue$ #n>e"t#on um. @#t!out t!e (#$ter or &#t! a oor
Bua$#ty (#$ter% a-ras#)e matter &ou$d rea"! t!e (ue$ #n>e"t#on um and #n>e"tors% resu$t#ng #n
oor start#ng% #rregu$ar #d$#ng and deter#orat#on #n er(orman"e due to de"reased (ue$ de$#)ery
(rom t!e #n>e"t#on um. T!e a-ras#)e matter &ou$d a$so "ause (au$ty sray#ng and $ea'age #n
t!e #n>e"tors t!us resu$t#ng #n #n"reased (ue$ "onsumt#on and !ea)y e1!aust smo'e.
Referen*e Boo.%
1? Automot#)e Me"!an#"s , +rouse = Ang$#n
0? Automo-#$e Eng#neer#ng , .r D#ra$ S#ng!

7#)a Euest#ons
1 Name o( t!e )ar#ous (ue$ su$y systemF
0 @!#"! one #s most a""urate (ue$ su$y system (or etro$ "arsF
5 @!ere t!e (ue$ um #s usua$$y $o"ated #n t!e "arF
8 @!y t!e "ar-uretor ($oat #s made !o$$o&F
9 @!at #s t!e (un"t#on o( "!e"' )a$)e #s t!e "ar-uretorF
/ @!at #s t!e (un"t#on o( )entur# #n t!e "ar-uretorF
3 Name any Ind#an )e!#"$e us#ng so$e1 "ar-uretorF
; @!at #s t!e urose o( etro$ #n>e"t#onF
< @!at #s t!e "ommon ra#$ (ue$ #n>e"t#on systemF
14 @!at are t!e )ar#ous tyes o( etro$ #n>e"t#on systemF
11 @!at #s t!e (un"t#on o( a (ue$ (eed um=
10 @!at #s t!e (un"t#on o( (ue$ #n>e"torF
AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING LAB
INSTRUCTION SHEET
EXPERIMENT NO, ;
Aim
To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s &or'#ng r#n"#$es and oerat#on o(
t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e eng#ne systems and su- systems
a? Mu$t# "y$#nderG d#ese$ and etro$ eng#nes
-? Eng#ne "oo$#ng and $u-r#"at#ng system
Theor'
La-e$ed d#agram% "onstru"t#on deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$e and oerat#on o( t!e eng#ne systems
and su- systems
Metho"% of *oo(in$
7ar#ous met!ods used (or "oo$#ng o( automo-#$e eng#nes are
1 A#r "oo$#ng
0 @ater "oo$#ng
Air *oo(in$
T!e -as#" r#n"#$e #n)o$)ed #n t!#s met!od #s to !a)e "urrent o( a#r ($o&#ng "ont#nuous$y o)er
t!e !eated meta$ sur(a"e (rom &!ere t!e !eat #s to -e remo)ed. T!e !eat d#ss#ated deends
uon (o$$o&#ng (a"torsG
a? Sur(a"e area o( meta$ #nto "onta"t &#t! a#r
-? Mass ($o& rate o( a#r
"? Temerature d#((eren"e -et&een t!e !eated sur(a"e and a#r
d? +ondu"t#)#ty o( meta$
A"#anta$e%
1 A#r "oo$ed eng#nes are $#g!ter -e"ause o( t!e a-sen"e o( t!e rad#ator% t!e
"oo$#ng >a"'ets and t!e "oo$ant
0 T!ey "an -e oerated #n e1treme "$#mates &!ere t!e &ater may (reeCe.
5 In "erta#n areas &!ere t!ere #s s"ar"#ty o( "oo$#ng &ater% t!e a#r "oo$ed
eng#ne #s an ad)antage.
8 Ma#ntenan"e #s eas#er -e"ause t!e ro-$em o( $ea'age #s not t!ere.
9 A#r "oo$ed eng#nes get &armed u ear$#er t!an t!e &ater "oo$ed eng#ne
&i%a"#anta$e%
1 It #s not easy to ma#nta#n e)en "oo$#ng a$$ around t!e "y$#nder% so t!at t!e d#stort#on o(
t!e "y$#nders ta'e $a"e. T!#s de(e"t !as -een remed#ed somet#mes -y us#ng (#ns
ara$$e$ to t!e "y$#nder a1#s. T!#s #s a$so !e$(u$ &!ere a num-er o( "y$#nders #n a ro&
are to -e "oo$ed. :o&e)er% t!#s #n"reases t!e o)era$$ eng#ne $engt!.
0 As t!e "oe((#"#ent o( !eat trans(er (or a#r #s $ess t!an t!at (or &ater% t!ere #s $ess e((#"#ent
"oo$#ng #n t!#s "ase and as a resu$t t!e !#g!est use(u$ "omress#on rat#o #s $esser #n t!e
"ase o( a#r "oo$ed eng#nes t!an #n t!e &ater "oo$ed ones.
5 T!e (an used #s )ery -u$'y and a-sor-s a "ons#dera-$e ort#on o( t!e eng#ne o&er
Aa-out 9H? to dr#)e #t.
8 A#r "oo$ed eng#nes are more no#sy% -e"ause o( t!e a-sen"e o( "oo$#ng &ater &!#"! a"ts
as sound #nsu$ator.
9 Some eng#ne "omonents may -e"ome #na""ess#-$e eas#$y due to t!e gu#d#ng -a(($es
and "oo$#ng &!#"! ma'es t!e ma#ntenan"e d#((#"u$t.
2ater *oo(in$
In &ater "oo$#ng system% t!e "oo$#ng med#um used #s &ater. In t!#s% t!e eng#ne "y$#nders are
surrounded -y &ater >a"'ets t!roug! &!#"! t!e "oo$#ng &ater ($o&s. :eat ($o&s (rom t!e
"y$#nder &a$$s #nto &ater &!#"! goes to t!e rad#ator &!ere #t $oses #ts !eat to t!e a#r. Usua$$y
some ant#(reeCe #s added to t!e "oo$#ng &ater% due to &!#"! #t #s o(ten re(erred to as "oo$ant.
Bot! t!ese terms !a)e -een used #n t!#s "!ater% o(ten mean#ng same un$ess t!e "onte1t reBu#res
ot!er&#se.
@ater "oo$#ng systems are o( t&o tyesG
1 T!ermosy!on system
1 Pum "#r"u$at#on system
A"#anta$e%
1 As t!e "#r"u$at#on o( "oo$ant #s ma#nta#ned -y natura$ "on)ent#on on$y% t!e "oo$#ng #s
rat!er s$o&. T!ere(ore% to !a)e adeBuate "oo$#ng% t!e "aa"#ty o( t!e system !as to -e
$arge.
0 .ue to t!e Buant#ty o( "oo$ant -e#ng $arge% #t ta'es% more t#me (or t!e eng#ne to rea"! t!e
oerat#ng temerature.
5 Rad#ator !eader tan' must -e $o"ated !#g!er t!an t!e to o( t!e "y$#nder "oo$ant >a"'ets%
&!#"! #s no more oss#-$e &#t! t!e modern -ody sty$es.
8 +erta#n m#n#mum $e)e$ o( "oo$ant &ater must -e ma#nta#ned #n t!e system. I( t!e
"oo$ant (a$$s -e$o& t!at $e)e$% "ont#nu#ty o( ($o& &ou$d -rea' and t!e system &ou$d
"onseBuent$y (a#$.
S'%tem% of en$ine ()3ri*ation
T!e )ar#ous systems adoted (or t!e $u-r#"at#on o( automo-#$e eng#ne are
1 Petro#$ system
Sp(a%h %'%tem
0 Pressure system
5 .ry sum system
Petroi( %'%tem
T!#s #s used genera$$y (or sma$$ t&o stro'e eng#nes% e.g. #n ma>or#ty o( s"ooter and motor "y"$e
eng#nes. It #s t!e s#m$est o( a$$ tyes o( eng#ne $u-r#"at#on systems. +erta#n amount o( t!e
$u-r#"at#ng o#$ #s m#1ed &#t! t!e etro$ #tse$(% t!e usua$ rat#o -e#ng 0H to 5H o( o#$. I( #t #s $ess%
t!ere #s danger o( o#$ star)at#on or #nsu((#"#ent $u-r#"at#on "aus#ng damage to t!e eng#neG #(
!o&e)er% #t #s more% t!ere &#$$ -e e1"ess#)e "ar-on deos#ts #n t!e "y$#nder !ead and t!e eng#ne
&#$$ a$so g#)e dar' smo'e.
@!en t!e etro$ m#1ture enters t!e "ran'"ase% due to !#g! temeratures t!ere% t!e etro$
"omonent )aor#Ces $ea)#ng a t!#n (#$m o( $u-r#"at#ng o#$ on t!e "ran'"ase% "y$#nder &a$$s%
"ran's!a(t and -ear#ngs.
T!e ma#n reBu#rements o( $u-r#"at#ng o#$ (or t&o stro'e eng#ne are t!at #t s!ou$d read#$y m#1
&#t! etro$ and -urn &#t!out $ea)#ng mu"! res#due.
Sp(a%h %'%tem
T!#s &as em$oyed (or t!e eng#nes o( ear$y motor "y"$es. It #s one o( t!e "!eaest met!ods o(
eng#ne $u-r#"at#on. A s"oo #s made #n t!e $o&est art o( t!e "onne"t#ng rod and t!e o#$ #s
stored #n t!e o#$ troug! A(#g.? #t -e#ng umed t!ere (rom t!e "ran'"ase o#$ sum. @!en t!e
eng#ne runs t!e s"oo "auses t!e o#$ to s$as! on t!e "y$#nder &a$$s ea"! t#me #t asses t!roug!
#ts B.+ os#t#on. T!#s a((e"ts t!e $u-r#"at#on o( eng#ne &a$$s% gudgeon #n% ma#n "ran's!a(t
-ear#ngs% -#g end -ear#ngs et".
Pre%%)re %'%tem
T!#s system #s used a$most un#)ersa$$y #n modern "ar eng#nes. T!e s$as! system t!oug!
"!eaer% #s not su#ta-$e (or automo-#$e eng#nes -e"ause o( t!e a-sen"e o( os#t#)e $u-r#"at#on.
In t!e ressure system A(#g ? an o#$ um ta'es t!e o#$ (rom t!e &et sum t!roug! a stra#ner and
de$#)ers #t t!roug! a (#$ter to t!e ma#n o#$ ga$$ery at a ressure o( 044 to 844 'Pa. T!e o#$
ressure #s "ontro$$ed -y means o( a ressure re$#e( )a$)e% s#tuated #n t!e (#$ter un#t or t!e um
!ous#ng.
&r' %)mp %'%tem
T!#s system #s em$oyed #n some ra"#ng "ar eng#nes (or s#tuat#ons &!ere t!e )e!#"$e !as to -e
oerated at )ery stee ang$es% (or e1am$e% sorts "ars% >ees et". #( ord#nary ressure system o(
$u-r#"at#on #s used #n su"! "ases% t!e s#tuat#ons may ar#se &!en t!ere #s no o#$ at t!e $a"e &!ere
o#$ um #s #nsta$$ed. To a)o#d su"! #nstan"es% dry sum system #s used A(#g ?&!ere#n t&o
ums% #nstead o( one% are used. T!e s"a)enge um A #s #nsta$$ed #n t!e "ran'"ase ort#on
&!#"! #s t!e $o&est. It ums o#$ to a searate reser)o#r B% (rom &!ere t!e ressure um +
ums t!e o#$ t!roug! (#$ter .% due to t!e "y$#nder -ear#ngsG a (u$$ ressure system o(
$u-r#"at#on #s em$oyed. T!e o#$ ressure #s ma#nta#ned at 844294 'Pa (or t!e ma#n and -#g end
-ear#ngs &!#$e a-out 92 2 144 'a ressure #s used (or t#m#ng gears and "am s!a(t -ear#ngs et".
Referen*e Boo.%
1? Automot#)e Me"!an#"s , +rouse = Ang$#n
0? Automo-#$e Eng#neer#ng , .r D#ra$ S#ng!
7#)a Euest#ons
1 @!at #s t!e ne"ess#ty (or "oo$#ng an eng#neF
0 Name )ar#ous met!od o( eng#ne "oo$#ngF
5 Name t!e ma#n "omonents o( &ater "oo$#ng systemF
8 @!at #s t!e (un"t#on o( rad#ator #n "oo$#ng systemF
9 @!at #s t!e ne"ess#ty o( eng#ne "oo$#ngF
/ State d#((erent S.A.E. )#s"os#ty rat#ng o( o#$F
3 @!at #s t!e mu$t#grade o#$F
; @!#"! so$#d $u-r#"ant #s most "ommon$y used #n automo-#$esF
< @!at #s )#s"#d#tyF
14 G#)e an e1am$e o( synt!et#" $u-r#"antF
AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING LAB , ME , 84<+
Li%t of Experiment%/B
1 To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e "$ut"!es*
a? +o#$ , Sr#ng "$ut"!
-? .#a!ragm sr#ng "$ut"!
"? .ou-$e d#s' "$ut"!
0 To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e transm#ss#on systems*
a? Syn"!romes! , (our seed range
-? Transa1$e &#t! dua$ seed range
"? Four &!ee$ dr#)e and trans(er "ase
d? Steer#ng "o$umn and ($oor , s!#(t $e)er
5 To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e tyres 6 &!ee$*
a? 7ar#ous tyes o( -#as and rad#a$ $#es tyres
-? 7ar#ous tyes o( &!ee$s
8 To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e steer#ng systems*
a? Manua$ steer#ng system% e.g. #tman arm steer#ng% ra"' and #n#on steer#ng
-? Po&er steer#ng system% e.g. ra"' 6 #n#on o&er steer#ng systems
"? Steer#ng &!ee$s 6 "o$umn% e.g. t#$t and te$es"o#" steer#ng &!ee$s% "o$$as#-$e steer#ng
"o$umns
9 To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e -ra'e systems*
a? :ydrau$#" 6 neumat#" -ra'e system
-? .rum -ra'e system
"? .#s' -ra'e system
d? Ant#$o"' -ra'e system
/ To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e susens#on systems*
a? Front susens#on system
-? Rear susens#on system
3 To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e dr#)e $#nes and d#((erent#a$s*
a? Rear &!ee$ dr#)e $#ne
-? Front &!ee$ dr#)e $#ne
"? .#((erent#a$% dr#)e a1e$ and (our &!ee$ dr#)e $#ne
; To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e automot#)e em#ss#on = o$$ut#on "ontro$ systems.
< To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e (ue$ su$y systems*
a? +ar-uretor
-? .#ese$ (ue$ #n>e"t#on systems
"? Gaso$#ne (ue$ #n>e"t#on systems
14 To study and reare reort on t!e "onstru"t#ona$ deta#$s% &or'#ng r#n"#$es and
oerat#on o( t!e (o$$o&#ng automot#)e eng#ne systems and su- systems*
a? Mu$t# "y$#nder* d#ese$ and etro$ eng#ne
-? Eng#ne "oo$#ng and $u-r#"at#ng systems
"? Eng#ne start#ng systems
d? +onta"t o#nt and e$e"tron#" #gn#t#on systems