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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION


The Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) is a skill training
program designed to expose and prepare students of Universities, Poltechnics,
!olleges of Technolog, !olleges of Education and !olleges of "griculture for the
industrial #ork situation the are likel to meet after graduation$ The scheme also
affords students the opportunit of familiari%ing and exposing themselves to the
needed experience in handling some devices, e&uipments and machineries that are
usuall not availa'le in the institutions$
(efore the esta'lishment of the scheme, there #as a gro#ing concern among
industrialist that graduates of our institutions of higher learning lacked ade&uate
'ackground studies preparator for emploment in industries$ Thus the emploers #ere
of the opinion that the theoretical education going on in the higher institutions #as
not responsive to their needs of the emploers of la'our$ It is against this 'ackground
that the rationale of initiali%ing and designing the scheme ' the Industrial Training
)und (IT)) during its formative ears*+,-./-0, #as introduced to ac&uaint student
#ith the skills of handling emploers1 e&uipment and machiner$
1.1 OBJECTIVES OF SIWES
The o'2ectives of the Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme are to3
(i) provide an avenue for students of higher institution learning to ac&uire industrial
skills and experience in the course of stud, #hich are restricted to Engineering and
Technolog, including Environmental studies and other courses that ma 'e approved$
(ii) prepare students for the industrial #ork situation the are to meet after graduation$
(iii) expose students to #ork methods and techni&ues in handling e&uipment and
machiner that ma not 'e availa'le in these institutions$
(iv) make the transition from school to the #orld of #ork easier, and enhance
practical kno#ledge to students$
1
1.2 PLACE OF ATTACHMENT
THE CENTRE FOR SPACE RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS (CESRA),
FUTA.
1.3 BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CENTRE
The centre for Space 4esearch and "pplications, )ederal Universit of
Technolog, "kure ()UT") #as set up in 5ecem'er 6778 follo#ing )UT" senate1s
approval in 9cto'er 6778, the 5irector #as appointed #hile in )e'ruar 677,, t#o
"ssociate 5irectors, one for Space 4esearch and the other for 4emote Sensing/:IS,
#ere appointed$ (et#een 5ecem'er 6778 and )e'ruar 677,, the :IS e&uipment of
the centre #ere ac&uired and installed$
1. OBJECTIVES OF THE CENTRE
The o'2ectives of the centre are to3
!arr out research in the area of 4emote Sensing technolog and :IS for
sustaina'le development$
Em'ark on internationall competitive research on space science and
technolog$
;ake meaningful contri'ution to the emergence of indigenous space
technolog$
Partner #ith the <ational Space 4esearch and 5evelopment "genc (<"S45")
and her activit centre as #ell as #ith other centres involved in space research
and :IS #ithin and outside <igeria$
(e ke participant in the )ederal :overnment1s Space Program in order to
make <igeria relevant in space exploration and exploitation=
)acilitate regular updating of the Universit1s digital map for facilit and
resource management= and
2
Serve as a foremost centre for training, research and consultanc services in
4emote Sensing/:IS and in Space 4esearch and "pplications$
1.! ORGANI"ATION CHART

F#$. 1.0 % T&' ()$*+#,*-#(+ .&*)- (/ CESRA.
3
University Governing
Council
Vice Chancellor
Board of CESRA
Director
Develo!ent
o"cer
#echnologist Sace Research
#ea!
Re!ote
Sensing$G%S #ea!
Associate
Director &Sace
Research'
Associate Director
&Re!ote
Sensing$G%S'
Secretary
E(ternal Colla)orators
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 WHAT IS REMOTE SENSING0
4emote Sensing is the science of ac&uiring information a'out the Earth>s surface
#ithout actuall 'eing in contact #ith it$ This is done ' sensing and recording
reflected or emitted energ$
2.1 ELEMENTS OF REMOTE SENSING
In remote sensing, the process involves an interaction 'et#een incident radiation and
the targets of interest$ This is exemplified ' the use of imaging sstems #here the
follo#ing six elements are involved=
Energ Source or Illumination 3 the first re&uirement for remote sensing is to
have an energ source #hich illuminates or provides electromagnetic energ to
the target of interest$
4adiation and the "tmosphere 3 the energ travels from its source to the target,
it #ill come in contact #ith and interact #ith the atmosphere it passes through$
This interaction ma take place a second time as the energ travels from the
target to the source$
Interaction #ith the Target 3 once the energ makes its #a to the target
through the atmosphere, it interacts #ith the target depending on the properties
of 'oth the target and the radiation$
4ecording of Energ ' the Sensor 3 after the energ has 'een scattered ', or
emitted from the target, a sensor is re&uired (remote * not in contact #ith the
target) to collect and record the electromagnetic radiation$
Transmission, 4eception, and Processing 3 the energ recorded ' the sensor
has to 'e transmitted, often in electronic form, to a receiving and processing
station #here the data are processed into an image (hardcop and/or digital)$
Interpretation and "nalsis 3 the processed image is interpreted, visuall and/or
digitall or electronicall, to extract information a'out the target #hich #as
illuminated$
*
2.2 DEFINITON OF GIS
:eographical Information Sstem (:IS) is an organi%ed collection of computer
hard#are, soft#are, geographical data, and personnel designed to efficientl capture,
store, update, manipulate, analse and displa of all forms of geographicall*
referenced information$ :IS can also 'e referred to as a sstem for storing,
manipulating, entering, displacing and anal%ing ?geospatial@ data$
2.3 COMPONENTS OF GIS
:IS consist of five components, these components #ork together to capture,
store, retrieve, anal%e and displa geographicall referenced information= these
components are as follo#s3
Aard#are
Soft#are
5ata
Procedures
People
2.3.1 H*)12*)'
These are technical e&uipments needed to run a :IS, #hich include the
follo#ing= computer sstem, scanners, servers, digiti%ers, digital camera, plotters,
:PS$
2.3.2 S(/-2*)'
The :IS soft#are is a ver important component as it is responsi'le for
generating, anal%ing, manipulating and displaing the data or geographical
information$ There are difference tpes of :IS soft#are #hich include "rc:IS,
"rcBie#, Surfer, ;apinfo, Il#is, I54ISSI etc$ The choice of soft#are depends on
scale of operation and the tpe of :IS desire$ "s a I$T student I #ork #ith
"rcBie# #hich is one of the contemporar soft#are that is eas and facilitates
geographic sstem operation design, map production, analsis and result
computation $ The soft#are #as #ritten ' Environmental Sstem 4esearch
Institute (ES4I) in various versions ranging from 6$7, .$7, .$+, .$6, .$6a and 8$C$
The "rcBie# .$6 has the follo#ing properties #hich are3
#. WI<59W T99D ("4
##. P49EE!T WI<59W
WI<59W T99D ("4
This consists of Ta'les ;enu, Tool'ar and "rcvie# tool'ars, these are the graphical
representation on the #indo#$ The follo#ing tools are used for the navigation
operation #hen the soft#are is 'eing explored= the are file, theme, vie#, graphic, edit,
analsis and so on$ "ll these tools have individual data and operation the are
#orking #ith$ )ig$ 6$+ sho#s an example of #indo# tool 'ar$
+
P49EE!T WI<59W
This allo#s us to create a ne# pro2ect or open an existing pro2ect$ This #indo#
includes several icon marked vie#s, ta'les, charts, laouts etc$ 5uring exploration, all
the graphic data #ill 'e added to the vie#= to #ork on an of the vie#, the icon
must 'e highlighted and the name vie# must 'e opened$ In case of attri'ute data, its
icon is on the Ta'le and that of the graph is !hart , Daout for information
presentation, Scripts for program$ )ig$ 6$6 sho#s an example of Pro2ect #indo#$
2.3.3 DATA
#his descri)ed the di,erent o)servations or infor!ation-
collected and stored .hich are relate to geograhy and secialty
/eld0 #his data is divided into t.o na!ely1
<on Spatial 5ata
Spatial 5ata
<on Spatial 5ata
These are attri'utes of features located on or referenced to the earth1s surface$
This is also referred to as attri'ute data$ )ig$ 6$. sho#s an attri'ute data prepared
#ith :IS soft#are$
Spatial 5ata
These are features located on or referenced to the earth1s surface$ This can 'e
divide into t#o namel3
4aster 5ata
Bector 5ata
4aster 5ata
This is made up of pixels, it is arra of grid cells #ith columns and ro#= each and
ever geographical feature is represented onl through pixels in raster data$ Examples
of raster data are3 satellite images, scanned maps, aerial photos etc$ )ig$ 6$0 sho#s
satellite image of 9'akekere area inside )UT" campus$
Bector 5ata
2
Bector data represents an geographical feature through point, line or polgon
or com'ination of these$ " point in :IS is represented ' one pair of coordinates (x
and )$ It is considered as dimensionless o'2ect$ ;ost of the times a point represent
location of a feature (like cities, #ell, mast, transformer etc)$ " Dine in :IS contains
at t#o pairs of coordinates (F
+
,G
+
and F
6
,G
6
), generall line represent roads, rail#a
tracks, streams etc$ " Polgon in :IS is a closed line #ith area, generall polgon
represent extent of cities, forests, land use, 'uilding etc$ )ig$ 6$C sho#s the vector
data of 9'akekere area inside )UT" campus$
2. SOME AREAS OF APPLICATION OF GIS
(#.) Telecommunication3
In telecommunication #orld, a :IS is ideall suited for information net#ork
planning and development$ The a'ilit to laer information onto the earth1s surface,
complete #ith attri'ute data, allo#s engineers the uni&ue a'ilit to model and assess
a net#ork from the office$
(ii$) (usiness "pplication3
The a'ilit of :IS technolog, helps to make #iser 'usiness decision through
the rapid portraal of geo*demographic data and interactive 'usiness site analsis$
(iii$) <atural 4esources ;anagement3
:IS is used in the monitoring of farm, forest, rangelands, #ildlife, #ater
resources, her's and so on$
2.! DEFINITION OF GPS
" :lo'al Positioning Sstem (:PS) is a device that is a'le to accuratel
pinpoint the geographical position of a location an#here in the #orld$
2.3 SEGMENT OF GPS
The segments of :PS are 3
Space Segment
!ontrol Segment
User Segment
6$H$+ Space Segment
3
This segment consist of 6- :PS satellites, 60 out of it or'it the earth t#ice in
a da in a specific pattern #hile the . are extras in case one fails$ The travel at
approximatel -,777 ;iles per hour and are located at a'out +6,777 ;iles a'ove the
earth1s surface$ The satellites are spaced so that a :PS receiver an#here in the
#orld can receive signals from at least four of them$
6$H$6 !ontrol Segment
The control segment is responsi'le for constantl monitoring satellite health,
signal integrit, and or'ital configuration from the ground= the control segment
includes the follo#ing sections3
(i) ;onitor station3 There are four of this station spread out in the #orld near the
e&uator, the are located in Aa#aii, "sension, 5iego :arcia, and I#a2alein, these
stations constantl monitor and receives information from :PS satellites, and then
sends the or'ital and clock information to the master control station$
(ii) ;aster control station3 this constantl receives :PS satellite or'ital and clock
information from the monitor stations$ The controllers in the master control station
make precise corrections to the data as necessar and send the information to the
:PS satellites using the ground antennas$
(iii) :round antennas3 this receives the corrected or'ital and clock information from
the master control station and send the corrected information to the appropriate
satellites$
6$H$. User Segment
This segment consist of :PS receiver= :PS receiver collects and processes
signals from the :PS satellite that are in vie# and then uses that information to
determine and displa location, speed, time$ :PS receiver does not transmit an
information 'ack to the satellites$
2.4 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF GPS
The 60 satellites that make up the :PS space segment are or'iting the earth
a'out +6,777 ;iles a'ove the earth1s surface$ The are constantl moving, making
t#o complete or'its in 60 hours= the also travel at speed of roughl -,777 ;iles
per hour$ Each :PS satellite transmits data that indicates its location and the current
time, all :PS satellite snchroni%e operations so that these repeating signals are
transmitted at the same instant$ The signals, moving at the speed of light arrive at a
:PS receiver at slightl different times 'ecause some satellite are further a#a than
others$ The distance to the :PS satellites can 'e determined ' estimating the amount
of time it takes for their signals to reach the receiver$
4
2.4.1 SIGNAL OF GPS
:PS satellites transmit t#o radio fre&uenc signals= these are designated as D
+
and D
6
'and (D+J+C-C$06;A%
,
D
6
J+66-$H7;A%)$ " civilian :PS uses the D
+
signal
fre&uenc(+C-C$06;A%) in the Ultra Aigh )re&uenc (UA)) 'and$ The signals travel
' line of sight, meaning the #ill pass through clouds, glass, plastic etc 'ut #ill not
travel through solid o'2ects such as 'uildings and mountains$ The :PS signal contains
three different 'its of information namel=
(i) Pseudo random code3 this is simpl identification code that identifies #hich
satellite is transmitting information, this num'er can often vie# on :PS unit1s
satellite information page$ The num'er attached to each signal 'ar identifies #hich
satellites it1s receiving a signal from$
(ii) "lmanac data3 this is the data that descri'es the state (health) of the entire :PS
satellite constellation and it also causes :PS receiver to ac&uire satellite signals
rapidl shortl after it is turned on$
(iii) Ephemeris data3 This is the data that tells the :PS receiver #here each satellite
should 'e at antime throughout the da$ Each satellite #ill 'roadcast its o#n
ephemeris data sho#ing the or'ital information for that satellite onl$
2.4.2 DETERMINATION OF POSITION
The :PS satellites transmit signal information to a handheld :PS receiver
#hich takes the information and uses it to calculate the receiver1s position$ It does so
' measuring the travel time of radio signal from availa'le satellites to the receiver
and gives a reference point or position in coordinates$ " :PS receiver re&uires a
minimum of three satellite to get 65*position (Datitude and Dongitude) and if four
satellites or more are in vie#, the receiver can get .5*position (Datitude, Dongitude
and "ltitude)$
2.4.3 GPS ACCURACY
The accurac of a position determined #ith :PS depends on the tpes of :PS
receiver, most :PS units have an accurac of a'out K/*(C7 to +77) meter$ )ig$ 6$H
sho# an example of :PS accurac, the coordinate= lat -$.767H, lon C$+.,C6 and ele
.7,m, #ere taken at 'ase of )UT" ,.$+ ); mast using handheld :PS receiver,
other tpe of receiver uses a method called 5ifferential :PS(5:PS) to o'tain much
higher accurac$ 5:PS is a techni&ue used to eliminate the errors in a :PS receiver,
it does this ' gauging :PS inaccurac at a stationar receiver station #ith a kno#n
location$ The receiver1s inaccurac can easil 'e calculated since the 5:PS receiver
at this station kno#s its o#n position$ The station then 'roadcasts a radio signal to
all 5:PS*e&uipped receivers in the area, providing signal correction information for
that area$
5
2.5 GPS ERROR
Some of the :PS errors are 3
(i) Ionosphere and Troposphere delas3 The satellite signal slo#s as it passes through
the atmosphere, the :PS sstem uses a 'uilt*in*model that calculates an average
amount of dela to partiall correct for this tpe of error$
(ii) Signal multipath3 This occurs #hen the :PS Signal is reflected off o'2ects such
as tall 'uildings or large rock surface 'efore it reaches the receiver, the increases the
travel time$
(iii) 4eceiver clock errors3 " receiver1s 'uilt*in clock is not as accurate as the atomic
clocks on'oard the :PS satellites, therefore it ma have ver slight timing errors$
(iv) 9r'ital errors3 This also kno#n as ephemeris errors, these are inaccuracies of the
satellite reported location$
2.6 GPS RECEIVER TYPES
Some of the tpes of the :PS receiver availa'le are3
Aandheld :PS receivers3 this is capa'le of pinpointing a user1s location and
eas to carr a'out$
In*car :PS receivers3 this is mainl intended for navigation purpose, it does
not onl provide geographic positioning information 'ut also great navigation
functionalit and detailed visual maps$ These receivers are tpicall designed
for installation inside a car$
;arine :PS receivers3 this is used on the sea providing information a'out
#eather and #ater temperature$
Personal 5igital "ssistant(P5") :PS receivers3 this is found in some phone,
P!, camera etc$
16
F#$. 2.1 % W#+1(2 -((7 8*)
F#$. 2.2 % P)(9'.- 2#+1(2
11
F#$. 2.3 % A--)#8:-' 1*-*
12
F#$. 2. % S*-'77#-' #;*$')< (/ O8*='=')' *)'* FUTA
13
F#$ 2.! %. P)(1:.'1 ;*> (/ O8*='=')' ?&(2+ -&' @'.-() 1*-*
1*
F#$. 2.3 % A..:)*.< (/ GPS )'.'#@')$
F#$. 2.4 % U?#+$ &*+1&'71 GPS )'.'#@') -( *.A:#)' 1*-* *- -&' 8*?' (/ * ;*?-.
1+
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 IT WORB
5uring m IT programme at The !entre for Space 4esearch and "pplications, I #as a'le
to do research on CGIS APPLICATION IN EFFECTIVE TELECOMMUNICATION
PLANNINGD CONSIDERING LAND TERRAIN FACTOR FOR DETERMINATION
OF MAST HEIGHT.E
3.1 STUDY AREA
The stud area is located in "kure south local government, 9ndo state, <igeria$
9ndo state lies 'et#een lat CL and 8L < and long 0L and HL E$ )ig$ .$+ sho#s the map of
<igeria and )ig$ .$6 sho#s map of 9ndo state and the stud area$ The Ta'le + 'elo#
sho#s the names of five 'roadcasting stations in "kure south local government and the
latitude, longitude and altitude of their mast positions taken #ith handheld :PS and
the height of each mast$
TABLE 1% SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE BROADCASTING STATION MAST
IN ABURE SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT$
SFN B)(*1.*?-#+$
S-*-#(+ N*;'?
L*- (GN) L(+$ (GE) A7-#-:1'
(;)
M*?-
H'#$&- (;)
1 FUTA FM -$.767H C$+.,C6 .,7 06$H-
2 FRCN,
POSITIVE FM
-$6C6-+ C$+.+C, .,C .77$77
3 NTA
CHANNEL 11
-$6C+,+ C$+.6.H 078 668$H7
OSRC -$.7.7H C$+H67C .88 .7+$-C
! ADABA FM -$.6.,, C$+6C,. 06C .70$87
12
MAP SHOWING THE STUDY AREA

F#$. 3.1 % M*> (/ N#$')#*.

F#$. 3.2 % M*> (/ O+1( ?-*-'.
3.2 OBJECTIVES
T&' (89'.-#@'? (/ -&#? ?-:1< #+.7:1'%
Identification of land terrain and the spatial distri'ution
To overla satellite imageries of 'roadcasting station #ith their contour lines and
their altitude
To produce the topographical map of the area and the laout
To esta'lish that #ith high altitude, high mast is not re&uired
13
3.3 METHODOLOGY
The main goal of this stud is to reveal the effect of altitude of an area over
the height of the mast sited there$ Aandheld glo'al positioning sstem (:PS) #as used
for the ground truthing information, the latitude, longitude and the altitude of the mast
site #ere gotten from it$ The satellite imageries #ere ac&uired ' the use of :oogle*
earth soft#are through the process of remote sensing at 4emote Sensing/:IS la'orator
of the !entre for Space 4esearch and "pplications, )UT"$ The satellite imageries
#ere 2oined together #ith the mosaic tool of "rcBie# .$6 soft#are, the contour lines
#ere created ' the contour tool of "rcBie# .$6, the text tool of "rcBie# .$6 #as used to
la'el the features of the satellite imageries$
3. ANALYSIS
T*87' 2% S&(2#+$ -&' *7-#-:1', &'#$&- *+1 -&' -(-*7 &'#$&- (/ -&' ;*?-
SF
N
B)(*1.*?-#+$ S-*-#(+ N*;'? A7-#-:1' (;) M*?- H'#$&-
(;)
T(-*7 H'#$&- (;)
1 FUTA FM .,7$77 06$H- 0.6$H-
2 FRCN, POSITIVE FM .,C$77 .77$77 H,C$77
3 NTA CHANNEL 11 078$77 668$H7 H.H$H7
OSRC .88$77 .7+$-C H8,$-C
! ADABA FM 06C$77 .70$87 -6,$87
Ta'le 6 sho#s that mast height of 9S4! is higher than the mast height of )4!<
Positive );, 'ut the total height of )4!< Positive ); is higher than total height of 9S4!
due to the high altitude of )4!< Positive );$ "lso the difference 'et#een the mast height
of 9S4! and <T" !hannel ++ has drasticall reduced compared to the difference 'et#een
the total height of 9S4! and <T" !hannel ++, this is due to the difference in their altitude$
)ig$ .$. sho#s the satellite imageries of <T" !hannel ++ and )4!< Positive ); #ith their
contour lines, altitude and the mast position$ )ig$ .$0 sho#s the satellite imager of )UT"
); #ith contour line, altitude and the mast position$ )ig$ .$C sho#s the satellite image of
9S4! #ith contour line, altitude and the mast position$ )ig$ .$H sho#s the satellite image
of "da'a ); #ith contour line, altitude and the mast position, #hile )ig$ .$- sho#s the
Topographic map of 'roadcasting stations in 9ndo state$
14
)ig$ .$. 3 Satellite imager of <T" !hannel ++ and )4!< positive ); #ith their contour
lines , altitude and the mast position$
)ig$ .$0 3 Satellite image of )UT" ); #ith their contour lines, altitude and the mast position$
15
)ig$ .$C 3 Satellite imager of 9S4! #ith their contour lines, altitude and the mast position$
)ig$ .$H 3 Satellite Imager of "da'a ); #ith their contour lines, altitude and the mast
position$
26
)ig$ .$- 3 Topographic map of 'roadcasting station in 9ndo state$
3.! CONCLUSION
This stud has sho#n that a place #ith high altitude does not re&uire high mast$ In conclusion
in siting a 'roadcasting station, :IS application #ill 'e useful$

21
CHAPTER FOUR
.0 BASIC WORB TOOLS
The 'asic #ork tools are handheld digisti%er, handheld :PS receiver and digital
camera= these are sho#n in figures 0$+ and 0$6 respectivel$
F#$. .1 % A HAND HELD DIGITI"ER
F#$. .2 % HANDHELD GPS RECEIVERS AND A DIGITAL CAMERA.
22
.1 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
!9<!DUSI9<
The industrial training (under the student industrial #ork experience scheme) I
under#ent #as of great and indispensa'le opportunit #ith countless and #orth#hile
experiences$
This program (SIWES) has availed me a life time exposure and experimental
confidence in m ver self and contacts #ith a threshold of 'ecoming a complete
man in m choice career$ The training I passed through is more of practical and
partiall theoretical$ Though, some office looks #ere done, application of ac&uired
kno#ledge al#as comes to m mind #hile at #ork on the field$ Exposure to #hat
outside #orld can offer such as relational ha'it to co*#orkers, attitude of a man
generall to life and #ork, are some of the &ualit I ac&uired during m IT$ I have
ac&uired much skill in the industrial training I passed through at !entre for Space
4esearch and "pplications(!ES4") "kure, )UT"$ I could do certain #ork pertaining
to ac&uisition of coordinate #ith handheld :PS receiver and some :IS #ork on m
o#n$ This is one of the usefulness of SIWES$
.2 4E!9;;E<5"TI9<
I recommend !entre for Space 4esearch and "pplications(!ES4"), )UT" for
the students of phsics department going on industrial training 'ecause the have the
section and facilities relevant to developing phsics electronics undergraduate students
practicall$
23
.3 REFERENCES
E%ra, P$A$ and Sunda, 9$S$9, (9cto'er, 677C$) ?:IS " Tool in the hand of a digital
map maker@
(astin, $E$ (+,88)$ ;easuring areas of coral reefs using satellite imager, smposium
on 4emote sensing of the !oastal Mone, :old !oast, Nueensland$
http3//maps$unomaha$edu/peterson/gis/notes/:IS"nali$html$
###$gpsonsale$com
###$gpsrecievers$pda$com
http3//en$#ikipedia$org/#iki/:lo'alOnavigationOsatelliteOsstem
###$#aado$org/nigeriaOscholars/archive
###$ngex$com/nigeria$com/nigeria/stateOnigeria/ondo*stateOmap
###$futa$edu$ng
###$scri'd$com/doc/67+-6.07/4emote*sensing$:IS*and*:PS$
http3//###$ccrs$nrcan$gc$ca/ccrs$

2*