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TEACHING READING BY USING HERRINGBONE TECHNIQUE

THAT COMBINED WITH BUZZ GROUP TECHNIQUE


AT SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Oleh:
Imelyati
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YULMIATI Staff Pengajar Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa inggris
STKIP PGRI Sumatera Barat

ABSTRAK
Reading (membaca) adalah salah satu dari empat keahlian dasar dalam Bahasa
Inggris. Membaca merupakan proses untuk memahami makna yang terdapat
dalam teks dengan mencari ide yang terdapat dalam teks tersebut. Dalam proses
belajar mengajar, banyak cara atau teknik yang dapat digunakan untuk membantu
siswa memahami pelajaran dan memudahkan proses belajar mengajar, terutama
dalam reading (membaca).

Dalam makalah ini, penulis membahas tentang bagaimana mengajarkan reading
dengan menggabungkan dua teknik, yaitu Herringbone and Buzz Group
Technique. Herringbone technique adalah sebuah teknik yang membantu siswa
agar lebih mudah menemukan ide yang terdapat dalam sebuah bacaan dengan
memberikan enam pertanyaan pemahaman (5W+H). Sedangkan Buzz group
technique teknik pengajaran yang diaplikasikan dengan cara membagi siswa
kedalam beberapa kelompok untuk membahas sebuah bacaan. Dalam aplikasinya,
prosedur masing-masing teknik digabungkan atau di gunakan dalam whils-
teaching activity. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan pemahaman yang diberikan dalam
herringbone teknik, siswa melakukan diskusi dalam kelompok dengan
menggunakan buzz group teknik.

Penulisan makalah ini bertujuan untuk membantu guru dalam pengajaran reading,
yaitu supaya siswa lebih bersemangat dalam membaca dan mudah dalam
menemukan ide dalam sebuah bacaan. Selain itu, kedua teknik ini diharapkan
untuk bisa tercapainya tujuan pembelajaran membaca pada siswa Sekolah
Menengah Atas (SMA).

Key words: Reading, Herringbone and Buzz Group Technique

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Penulis
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Pembimbing
INTRODUCTION
Reading is an essential skill for the
students, because reading activities is
dominant in classroom. Besides that,
by reading, students will have much
knowledge and information. So,
reading is important skill that should
be matered well by the students.
Based on syllabus in KTSP 2006 at
senior high school, the students are
demanded to understand and to get
meaning from each text that have
been read. The purpose of teaching
reading is to improve students skill in
comprehending the text and getting
important information contained in
the text. On other hand, many
students have difficulties in
comprehend the text. Most of them
only read without knowing what they
read. For instance, the teacher gives a
text to students, and then asks them
to read it in order to build their
comprehension and show the
inference of what they have read.
There are some techniques that can
be used by the teacher in teaching
reading, but the writer choose two
technique which combined to applied
in teaching reading. The writer
suggest to combine Herringbone and
Buzz Group technique. By
combining these techniques in
teaching reading, it will help students
to more easily in comprehend the
text and they more enjoy in learning
process.
REVIEW OF RELATED
LITERATURE
Reading is one of four basic
language skill. Generally, Reading is
ability of someone to understand
about what they read and to find the
message from the text. According to
Nunan (2003:68) states that reading
is a fluent process of readers
combining information from a text
and their own background
knowledge to build meaning. Then,
Seyler (2004:3), states that reading is
the process of obtaining or
constructing meaning from a word or
cluster of words. Browne (2006:7)
states that once readers recognise
that reading is language activity, they
interact with the text by anticipating
meaning and interpreting what they
read. Wallace (2003:6) says, there
are have three reading purposes: (1)
Reading for survival. (2) Reading for
learning. (3) Reading for pleasure.
Furthermore, Linse (2005: 72) states
that there are two reasons why
people read: (1) Reading for
pleasure. (2) Reading for
information.
Teaching Reading
Teaching reading seems to have its
own importance in language
teaching. According to Nunan
(2003:68), teaching reading usually
has at least two aspects. First, who
are learning to read for the very first
time. A second, who already have
reading skills in their first language.
Furthermore, Harmer (2003:70)
notes that there are six basic reasons
to teach reading: (1) Reading is not
passive skill. (2) Students need to be
enganged with what they are reading.
(3) Students should be encouraged to
respond the content of reading text.
(4) Prediction is a major factor in
reading. (5) Match the task to the
topic. (6) Good teachers exploit
reading texts to the full.


The Combination Herringbone
and Buzz Group Technique in
Teaching Reading
The technique in in teaching should
match with condition of students,
teacher, and the activity in
classroom. The combining the
herringbone and buzz group
technique in teaching reading can
help students to be more interest and
focus.
Herringbone Technique
The herringbone technique is a
technique that used to find main idea
and important information in the text
by asking six comprehension
questions; Who?, What?, When?,
Where?, Why? and How?. McCune
(2002:34) explains that the
herringbone technique is introduced
as a tool to help students recognize
the important relationships in the
material by seeking answers to
specific types of questions. Then,
Edwards (2003:32) describe that
herringbone technique involving
reading, note-taking and
comprehension of the main idea and
supporting details.
Furthermore, Young and Hadaway
(2006:54) states that in herringbone
technique, students answer the
questions listed in the fishbone
graphic organizer. Then, Thaler
(2008:88) states that graphic
organizer provides students with a
structure by asking of the main idea
the six questions.
Procedure of Herringbone
Technique
There are have some opinions about
the procedures of herringbone
technique. According to Edwards
(2003:32), the procedures of
herringbone technique are:
1. Select reading material at the
students level
2. Construct a herringbone outline
with the 5W+H (Who? When?
Where? Why? What? How?) and
the main idea. (See following
diagram or graphic)
3. Students read, brainstorm and
write important information
about the story in their notebook.
4. After discussion, the students
write answers on the Herringbone
outline
5. Students discuss answers
(5W+H+main idea)
6. The herringbone outline is used
for the revision of the story.
On the other hands, Balajthy and
Lipa-Wade (2003:206) add that there
are some steps of herringbone in
teaching reading:
1. Teacher preparation
2. Read the selection
3. Complete the herringbone
diagram
4. Summarizing
Buzz Group Technique
Buzz group technique is small
groups of students find solutions and
report back to entire class. Tiberius
(1999:21) states that small group is
subdivided into groups of two to six
persons. Next, Egolf (2001:151)
states that the buzz group technique
was developed by Phillips. Then,
Brookfield and Preskill (2005)
explains about the structure of buzz
group technique is students have
twenty minutes to answer a few
questions about reading prepared by
the instructor. Furthermore, Duncan
and Goddard (2011:113), states that
buzz group technique usually last for
five minutes and each individual
contribute one idea to the group.
Procedure of Buzz Group
Technique
There are have two procedures, the
first according to Malawi Institute of
education (2004:5) the guidelines
for effective use of buzz group
technique are:
1. Explain the task to be discussed
before the class breaks into
groups
2. Organise pupils into mixed
ability groups or same ability
groups as need be
3. Supervise the discussion in the
groups so as to encourage and
help pupils in difficulty
4. Manage feedback concisely
5. Rotate group leadership roles
regularly
6. Try to give different but related
tasks to each group to motivate
and give each group a special
responsibility
7. If the tasks is the same for all
groups, organise feedback in
such a way that one group
present their ideas; with other
groups only contributing new
ideas or let one group report one
point at a time until all the groups
have contributed
8. Be time conscious
The second, accroding Fuhrman in
UGA Cooperative Extension
(2011:4) states that the procedures of
buzz group technique are:
1. The chairperson assigns limited
and specific objectives to the
buzz groups. Directions must be
clear and explicit.
2. Each group quickly chooses a
leader and a recorder.
3. The leader sees that every
member has a say. The recorder
makes a written record of each
contribution on the card
provided.
4. The leader or recorder of each
group gives an oral report to the
entire assembly.

DISCUSSION
The writer will discuss some topics
discussion as follow: preparation,
implementation and evaluation.
Preparation
Before teaching reading process
begins, the teacher have to prepare
everything to make teaching reading
succes, such as:
1. Prepare the lesson plan
2. Choosing a topic or reading
material
3. Time allocation
4. Media
Implementation
In pre-teaching activities the teacher
should do some activities such as:
greet the whole class, check the
students attendance list, give
motivation, then ask some questions
to the students in order to make a
good relationship among them or to
create a good atmosphere in the
class, and the last brainstorming.
In Whilst-teaching activities the
teacher use the combined procedures
of herringbone and buzz group
technique. They are the teacher
explain the task to be discussed
before the class break into groups.
Then, the teacher organise the pupils
into mixed ability groups or same
ability groups as need be. Next, The
teacher construct a herringbone
outline with the 5W+H (Who?
When? Where? Why? What? How?)
and the main idea. After that, the
teacher ask students to read and write
important information about the story
in their notebook. Then, the teacher
rotate the group leadership roles
regularly.
Furthermore, the teacher supervise
the discussion in the groups so as to
encourage and help pupils in
difficulty. Next, the teacher manage
feedback concisely when discussion.
Then, the teacher remind the time to
the students. After that the students
write answers on the herringbone
outline. Then the teacher ask students
to discuss answer in their group.
Finally, the herringbone outline is
used for the revision of the story. In
post-teaching activities the teacher
evaluates and concludes the lesson
and closes the meeting.
CONCLUSION
The technique in teaching should
match with condition of students,
teacher and activities in classroom.
Actually, many techniques that can
be implemented in teaching reading.
The teacher not only can use one
technique, but also can combine two
techniques, such as: combining
Herringbone technique and Buzz
Group technique in teaching reading.
These techniques can help teacher to
make students are more comprehend
and focus in reading.

REFERENCES
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Readers. New York: Guilford
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