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Bio 11

Tissues component of cells with the same functions and same structural adaptation.
4 Groups of tissues
1. Epithelial form the outer coverings and inner linings of the body surfaces.
- tightly packed cells with very little intercellular material
- cells are riveted together by tight junction
-the free surface if the epithelium is exposed to air or fluid
2 groups of epithelial cells
1) Covering and Lining epithelial membranes (found in the outer and inner body
2) Glandular epithelium - absorb or secrete solutions
a) Exocrine
b) Endocrine
c) Mixed
2 types:
1. Simple
2. Stratified

(picture not mine)
Types of cells
Squamous comprised of
thin, flatcells that adhere
to one another tightly to
form sheets. Function:
passive transport of gases
& nutrients.

Columnar epithelium is
comprised of column-shaped
cells that often line absorptive
surfaces (like the stomach and
intestines) and regions of the
respiratory tract (trachea and
bronchioles) Function:
absorption and secretion

Cuboidal epithelium is
comprised of cube-shaped cells
that often surround ducts.
Function: secretion and

Special names of epithelial tissue:
Mesothelium squamous cells lining serous cavities
Endothelium- lining of blood

2. Muscular tissue- specialized for movement
- Muscle cells = muscle fibers because they are drawn out into long,
spindle- shaped thread-like structures.
- Classified by cellular appearance, location, and by whether they have
voluntary or involuntary contractions.
contractile tissues
of visceral organs
except the heart.
- Found in walls of blood vessel, uterus, alveoli, ducts etc.
- Involuntary muscles
- cells have a spindle shape and contain a single nucleus

oval nuclei yung dark spots, sa loob ng sarcoplasm (muscle cells cytoplasm) are myofibrils.
(myofibrils of smooth muscle cells do not usually stand out)
Striated muscles characterized by alternating dark bands (anisotropic or A-disc) and light
bands (isotropic or I-disc).
- The arrangement of myosin and actin filaments give rise to the dark
and light bands
- Sarcolemma: cell membrane of muscle tissue
- Syncytium: presence of multinucleated condition in cells
- How is syncytium brought about in muscle cells? A syncytium is sort
of like a megacell. In a muscle, the individual muscle cells lose the
membranes that join them to neighboring cells. the result is one long
"cell" with many nuclei.
1) Skeletal
muscles - fibers are
cylindrical, multinucleated,
and striated. Contraction is
voluntary. Found in the
muscles along the skeleton of
the body. Function: locomotion

2) Cardiac Muscles
- fibers are found specifically in
the heart. The tissue is highly
branched containing small cells
with a single nucleus. The tissue
has a striated appearance, and
has visible intercalated disks at
the junction between cells
Contraction is involuntary.
Function: movement of blood
throughout body
- intercalated disks are tightly joined cell membranes of the adjacent
cells comprising the muscle fiber.