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# CSE2001, Fall 2006 1

## Closure Properties of Regular Languages

Denition: A set S is said to be closed under some operation Op, if, whenever Op is
applied to the members of S, the result is also a member of S.
Theorem: The class of regular languages is closed under complement. That is, if L
is a regular language, the so is L.
Proof Let L be a regular language over some alphabet . Since L is regular, there
exists a DFA M = (Q, , , q
0
, F) which recognizes L. To prove that L is regular, we
will construct a DFA M

that recognizes L.
The idea: Take M

## to be exactly that same as M, except the set of accepting states

for M

is Q F.
To prove correctness show that w L if and only if M

## accepts w. For this we observe

that since the set of states, the initial state and the transition function of M and
M

## are exactly the same, (r

0
, r
1
, . . . , r
n
) is a computation of M on w if and only if
(r
0
, r
1
, . . . , r
n
) is a computation of M

on w.
Now, take w L . . .
Exercise: Complete the details of the above argument.
Theorem: The class of regular languages is closed under union and intersection. That
is, if L
1
and L
2
are regular languages, the so are L
1
L
2
and L
1
L
2
.
Proof Lets start with the union. For simplicity, let us assume that L
1
and L
2
are languages over the same alphabet . Since L
1
is regular, there exists a DFA
M
1
= (Q
1
, ,
1
, q
1
, F
1
) which recognizes L
1
. Similarly, there exists a DFA M
2
=
(Q
2
, ,
2
, q
2
, F
2
) which recognizes L
2
.
To prove that L
1
L
2
is regular, we will construct a DFA M

which recognizes L
1
L
2
=
{w|w L
1
or w L
2
}.
The idea: M

= (Q, , , q
0
, F) simulates a parallel execution of M
1
and M
2
. M

is
dened as follows:
Q = Q
1
Q
2
;
is the same;
((q
1
, q
2
), a) = ((q
1
, a), (q
2
, a));
q
0
= (q
1
, q
2
);
F = {(r
1
, r
2
) | r
1
F
1
or r
2
F
2
}
CSE2001, Fall 2006 2
To prove correctness we need to show that w L
1
L
2
if and only if M

accepts w.
This, in turn, follows from the fact that (r
0
, r
1
, . . . , r
n
) is a computation of M
1
on w, and
(t
0
, t
1
, . . . , t
n
) is a computation of M
2
on w, if and only if ((r
0
, t
0
), (r
1
, t
1
), . . . , (r
n
, t
n
))
is a computation of M

on w.
Exercise: Complete the details of the above argument (Hint: use induction).
Exercise: What would the DFA that accepts L
1
L
2
look like ?
Corollary: Every nite language is regular.
Theorem: The class of regular languages is closed under concatenation and Kleenes
star operation. That is, if L
1
and L
2
are regular languages, the so are L
1
L
2
and L

1
.
The proof based on the idea of concetenation of two DFAs will not y (Why ?). The
proof of this fact will require some new concepts.
CSE2001, Fall 2006 3
Non-deterministic Finite Automata
A non-deterministic nite automaton (NFA) is a generalization of DFA with the fol-
lowing two changes:
In DFA for each pair (q, a) with q Q, q , the transition function gave
exactly one next state. In NFA, for each pair (q, a) the transition function may
give 0, 1, or more than one next states.
0 next states (q, a) is not dened.
In this case, if the NFA is in state q and receives input symbol a, it will reject
the rest of the input, regardless of what it is (it dies). This is similar to
going into a trap state.
q
0
q
1
0
0, 1
In this NFA, the transition (q
0
, 1) is not dened. Thus, every string that
starts with 1 will kill the NFA immediately, and so will be rejected.
1 next state (q, a) = r.
In this case, the NFA in state q on input symbol a will behave just like a DFA
it will transition to state r.
Multiple next states (q, a) = {r
1
, r
2
, ..., r
n
}.
In this case, the NFA in state q on input symbol a splits itself into n copies.
Copy i goes into the state q
i
. All the copies are now run in parallel to each
other.
q
0
q
1
q
2
q
3
0
0
0
q
0
q
1
q
2
0, 1
1 1
CSE2001, Fall 2006 4
In DFA a transition from state state occures only when a new input symbol is con-
sumed. In NFA, some transitions (called -transitions) occur without consuming
any input symbols.