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E.D.

Feehan Chemistry 20 Course Outline


Text: Davis, R. E., Metclafe, H. C., Williams, J. E., & Castka, J. F. (2002). Modern chemistry.
Toronto, Ontario: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Instructor: Mr. J. Nicholson, room 206 jnicholson@scs.sk.ca
Available: 8:05-8:30am
12:15-1:00pm - except department meetings
3:10-4:30pm - depending on coaching
Course Overview Chapter in Text
Unit 1: Introduction (sig figs, conversions, matter and change) Chapters 1 + 2
Unit 2: Naming and Organic Chemistry Chapters 7 + 20
Unit 3: The Mole Chapters 3, 7 + 13
Unit 4: Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapters 8 + 17
Unit 5: Stoichiometry Chapter 9
Unit 6: The Atom (history, quantum theory and electron configuration) Chapters 3, 4, + 5
Unit 7: Chemical Bonding (VSEPR theory, intermolecular forces) Chapter 6
Evaluation
Laboratory 15 %
Unit Exams and Quizzes 45 %
Project 10 %
Final Exam 30 %
Total 100 %
Chemistry 20 is an introductory course into chemistry. This course is intensive and often extra
assistance is required. The text is your most valuable resource. It also lists numerous web sites
with supplementary information and explanations. I am also available for tutorials, however
booking this time is essential. Although no mark is assigned for most assignments, failure to
complete them will likely lead to a low mark. Therefore daily revision of topics is strongly
recommended. Many students enter this course who have excelled in science classes with little
effort and expect to continue this in chemistry 20. They are usually disappointed with their
resulting mark. Your success depends ultimately on your effort.
1
Unit 1: Introduction Chapters 1 + 2
Outline
-SI units, derived units -sig figs and scientific notation
-metric conversion and conversion factors -functions and graphing
-lab setup -components of matter
-senses and technology -phases
-accuracy vs. precision -chemical vs. physical change
-% error -elements and the periodic table, metals, nonmetals
Metric Units: Le Systme International d'Units (SI)
SI Units Symbol Unit Unit Abbreviation p.34
Length l metre m
Mass m kilogram kg
Time t second s
Temperature T degrees Celsius C
Amount of substance n mole mol
Electric current I ampere A
Luminous intensity I
v
candela cd
(Derived units)
Area A square meter m
2
(l x w)
Volume V cubic metre m
3
(l x w x h)
Density D grams per cubic cm g/cm
3
(mass vol)
Molar mass M or mm grams per mole g/mol (mass mol)
Concentration c moles per litre mol/L or M (mol vol)
Energy E joule J (force x distance)
SI Prefixes
Name Symbol Meaning p.35
tera T 10
12
1 000 000 000 000
giga G 10
9
1 000 000 000
mega M 10
6
1 000 000
kilo k 10
3
1 000
hecto h 10
2
100
deca da 10
1
10
base 10
0
1
deci d 10
1
0.1
centi c 10
2
0.01
milli m 10
3
0.001
micro 10
6
0.000 000 1
nano n 10
9
0.000 000 000 1
pico p 10
12
0.000 000 000 000 1
base
T || G || M || k h da | d c m || || n || p
2
Metric Conversion and Conversion Factors p.40
To change the prefix from what you have to what you want, multiply it by a conversion factor to
cancel what you have, and give you what you want.
How many km in 30 000 m?
30 000 m = ______ km conversion factors: 1 km 1000 m
1000 m 1 km
30 000 m x 1 km = 30 000 m km = 30 km
1000 m 1000 m
How many mg in 6.25 kg?
6.25 kg = ______ mg 6.25 kg x 1 000 000 mg = 6 250 000 mg
1 kg
How many seconds in 3.28 years?
3.28 y x 365 d = 1197.2 d x 24 h = 28732.8 h x 60 min =
1 y 1 d 1 h
1 723 968 min x 60 s = 103 438 080 s
1 min
Laboratory Report Format
Investigations in this class are intended to be exploratory and deductive (forming a conclusion
from a set of data). In general, students will have to design their own experiments, and will not
be given a set of instructions. It is important to understand your experiment and all its parameters
before commencing the lab.
Do not use a title page; put information on first page.
Identifying Information: name, date, class, period, partners
Title: Given
Purpose: Given
Materials: Sometimes given
Procedure: Write a paragraph of instructions for others to follow if they were to repeat
your lab. Be thorough: include all directions and amounts.
Data and Observations: Include all data recorded. Use a chart if possible.
Calculations: Show all calculations.
Conclusion: Provide a statement that answers the purpose.
Reflection Questions: Answer all questions.
Bonus Questions: If applicable
Graphs: Graphs may be hand drawn or computer generated. (standard formatting)
Senses and Technology
Your senses are easily fooled. We must therefore use technology to make our senses more
reliable and to provide us with immediate, efficient, and prescriptive information. (comes from
something)
3
Accuracy Vs. Precision p.44
Every measured value inherently has a level of precision and accuracy.
Precision describes how close a set of measurements come to each other. (taken same way)
3.247 cm is more precise than 3.2 cm
Accuracy describes how close a measured value comes to its actual or accepted value.
if the actual value is 32.3 mL, then 32.0 mL is more accurate than 31.9 mL
Percent Error p.45
Describes how close a value comes to an accepted value, as a percent of the accepted value
% error = accepted experimental x 100
accepted
If the answer is positive, the experimental value is greater than the accepted value. If the answer
is negative, the experimental value is less than the accepted value.
Significant Figures (s.f. are numbers that count for precision purposes) p.46
1. All non-zero numbers are significant. 615 has 3 sf
2. Zeros between real numbers are significant. 12 004 has 5 sf
3. For numbers greater than 1, (without a decimal) zeros at the end are not significant.
1 200 has 2 sf 60 000 has 1 sf
4. For numbers less than 1, zeros at the beginning are not significant. 0.0032 has 2 sf
5. For decimal numbers, zeros after non-zero numbers are significant. 0.0400 has 3 sf
6. For decimal numbers greater than 1, all zeros are significant.
12.00 has 4 sf 50.0000 has 6 sf 9 000 000.0 has 8 sf
7. Exact numbers from conversion factors or from counting objects have an infinite number of
significant figures.
For addition and subtraction: add or subtract, then round off to the least number of
DECIMAL PLACES.
For multiplication and division: multiply or divide, then round off to the least number of
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES.
Scientific Notation p.50
Move the decimal to the place after the first non-zero number. The number of places it is moved
becomes the exponent of 10, which is multiplied.
65 000 6.5 x 10
4
0.000 0400 4.00 x 10
5

Numbers >1 have (+) exponents Numbers <1 have () exponents
Note: number of sig figs is the same in both notations
4
Functions p.55~
When one quantity depends on a second quantity, we say that the first is a function of the second.
The area of a circle depends on its radius:
A = r
2
We say that A is a function of r.
When an object is dropped, the distance it falls (metres) depends on how long it falls or time
(seconds).
d = 4.905t
2
d is a function of t.
what you do to x to get y

In general, a quantity y is a function of x or y = f(x)

We say y is the value that f assigns to x dependent independent
variable variable
From above,
A = f(r) = r
2
d = f(t) = 4.905t
2
Recall: y = mx + b or y = m(x)
Graphing
1. Always use a pencil.
2. Decide witch variable is independent (the one that you are measuring with) and which is
dependent. (the one that is measured)
3. The independent variable goes on the x axis (horizontal) and the dependent goes on the y axis.
4. Choose a scale for each axis. Use multiples of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, or 10 to make it easier to
work with. Find the highest value in the data set, and figure out the best way to fit onto your axis.
Don't forget to leave room for extrapolation, if required.
5. Label the axes with a name and units. ex) distance (m)
6. Plot the data, use small points. Decide if the relationship is linear (straight line) or not. If it is
linear, use a ruler to draw a line of best fit. If the graph is non linear, draw a smooth curve.
Usually you do not connect the dots.
7. Give the graph a meaningful title, incorporating the axis names and units.
8. Put your name and the date in the upper right hand corner.
Components of Matter p.10
In order to understand matter, we must examine its components.
Some definitions:
5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Time (s)
0
5
10
15
20
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

(
m
)
The Distance of a Runner (m) vs Time (s) name, date
Atom: a small "particle" that contains protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Molecule: particles that consist of 2 or more atoms covalently bonded together.
Element: a pure substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances. They are made of
identical atoms. ex) gold, carbon, hydrogen
Compound: a pure substance made from the atoms of 2 or more elements that are chemically
bonded. ex) water - H
2
O ; sucrose - C
12
H
22
O
11

HCl molecule







Cl atom




+

H atom




Element Element Compound
(hydrogen) (chlorine) (hydrogen chloride)
(note: both hydrogen and chlorine are actually diatomic, which will be explained later)
Chemical and Physical Changes p.11
Physical change is matter changing in appearance without forming a new substance. It is
basically reversible. (rearrangement of particles)
ex) phase change, dissolving, breaking a branch.
recall: p.382
Gas Gas
condensation vapourization ||
Liquid sublimation deposition
freezing melting ||
Solid Solid
Chemical change is a change in which a new substance is formed, having different properties. It
is not easily reversible. (new substance)
5 signs of a chemical reaction:
1) change in colour
2) gives off light
3) forms a gas (bubbles)
4) forms a precipitate
5) change in temperature
Elements and the Periodic Table p.20
Elements are pure substances that cannot decompose chemically. Each element has characteristic
properties and can be grouped with similar elements on the periodic table. Vertical columns on
the table are called groups or families and share similar chemical properties. They are numbered
1 to 18, left to right. Horizontal rows on the table are called periods. Properties of elements
change somewhat regularly across a period. They are numbered 1 to 7 from top to bottom.
6
Metals and Nonmetals p.22
Elements on the periodic table can classified as either metal or nonmetal. Elements to the right of
the zigzag line are nonmetals and metals are to the left. (except hydrogen)
General Properties of Metals General Properties of Nonmetals
-conduct heat and electricity -poor conductors of heat and electricity
-solid at room temperature (higher m.p.) -gas at room temperature (lower m.p.)
-grey and shiny in appearance -dull and varied in appearance
-malleable (can be hammered into a sheet) -brittle, not malleable or ductile
-ductile (can be drawn into a wire)
Metalloids p.23
Some elements that border the line separating the metals and nonmetals are called metalloids.
These include B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, and Te and have properties in between that of metals and
nonmetals. They are also semiconductors of electricity.
7
Unit 2: Naming and Organic Chemistry Chapters 7, 20 + 21
Outline
-ionic charges -acids -alkynes
-polyatomic ions -alkanes -benzene and phenol
-oxidation numbers -cycloalkanes -other functional groups
-formulas from names -isomers
-names from formulas -alkenes
Ionic Charges p.204
Compounds will tend to form by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons so that the valence shell of
each atom is satisfied. This is known as the octet rule, and even though there are many
exceptions, it is a useful concept.
Sodium has 1 valence electron, and will lose that electron in a reaction to become Na
+
. Notice
that Na
+
has a full valence shell.
Chlorine has 7 valence electrons and will gain 1 electron to complete its octet Cl

n/a 1 2 3 4 3+ 2+ 1+
Group
Charge
Ne F O N C B Be Li Family
Ions are named after their element, however anions have their suffix changed to "ide".
Ca
2+
calcium O
2
oxide
Ag
+
silver Cl

chloride
Many transition metals and metals to their right make more than one stable ion. In order to figure
out which one is being used, you need to see a formula, or be given the type in the name. For
example, copper makes 2 stable ions: Cu
+
and Cu
2+
,
These ions are named copper(I) and copper(II) respectively.
Polyatomic Ions Ions can also be made of more than one atom: p.210
NH
4
+
ammonium SO
4
2
sulfate
ClO
3

chlorate CO
3
2
carbonate
NO
3

nitrate PO
4
3
phosphate
OH

hydroxide HCl hydrochloric acid


CH
3
COO

acetate (also C
2
H
3
O
2

) H
2
SO
4
sulfuric acid
HCO
3

hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) NH


3
ammonia
Oxidation Numbers p.216
The distribution of electrons in a molecule can be described by oxidation numbers, which are
usually similar to the charge an atom will make. Oxidation numbers differ from charges in that
they are not physically real, but only a mathematical explanation of the bonding.
Some examples: oxidation states Li
+1
, Ba
+2
, S
2
, Cu
+1
, Br


charges Li

, Ba
2+
, S
2
, Cu
+
, Br


8
Assigning Oxidation numbers
1. Atoms in pure elements have an OD# of 0. ex) Na, O
2
, P
4
, S
8
all have OD# of 0
2. Elements are assigned the OD# equal to the charge they would have as an ion. The most and
least electronegative elements get their group charges. ex) NaOH Na is +1, O is 2 (H is +1)
3. Fluorine is always 1.
4. Oxygen is almost always 2. Exceptions H
2
O
2
(O = 1), OF
2
(O = +2)
5. Hydrogen is +1 when bonded to a more electronegative element.
6. OD#s add up to 0 in a neutral compound. In a polyatomic ion, they add up to equal the charge.
7. These rules can also be applied to ionic compounds. ex) NaCl Na is +1, Cl is 1.
Use these rules to assign OD#s to each element in a compound:
NaF
+1
NaF
1

H
2
SO
4
+1
H
2
S
?
O
4
2
2(1) +___+ 4(2) = 0 S is +6
PO
4
3 ?
PO
4
2
____ + 4(2) = 3 P is +5
Formulas From Names p.206
Ionic compounds (Metal + Nonmetal; Polyatomic Ions)
Write the ions from the names. Then, using subscripts to balance charges, derive a formula.
Recall: all compounds must have a net ionic charge of zero. The charges can be found by the
group on the periodic table, from roman numerals, or from memory (ions).
barium fluoride LCM = 2 1(Ba
2+
) = +2
Ba
2+
F

BaF
2
2(F
1
) = 2
boron hydroxide 0
B
3+
OH

B(OH)
3
(polyatomic ions need brackets if use more than 1)
uranium (VI) oxide
U
6+
O
2
UO
3
Molecular compounds (Nonmetal + Nonmetal) p.211
If the compound name has a prefix(es), it is molecular. Simply turn the prefixes into subscripts
for that element. If there is no prefix, it is single. DO NOT SWITCH SUBSCRIPTS.
1-mono 5-penta 9-nona
2-di 6-hexa 10-deca Prefixes for binary molecular compounds
3-tri 7-hepta
4-tetra 8-octa
dinitrogen trioxide N
2
O
3
iodine pentafluoride IF
5
tetraphosphorous decoxide P
4
O
10
Give the formula for the following compounds:
1. sodium chloride 11. sodium chlorate 21. sulfur trioxide
2. calcium fluoride 12. calcium nitrate 22. dinitrogen tetroxide
3. magnesium sulfide 13. aluminum sulfate 23. carbon tetraiodide
4. aluminum oxide 14. silver phosphate 24. diphosphorous pentachloride
5. zinc oxide 15. ammonium chloride 25. carbon dioxide
6. chromium(II) oxide 16. iron(II) hydroxide 26. beryllium nitrate
7. copper(II) bromide 17. nickel(III) acetate 27. phosphorous(V) fluoride
8. manganese(VII) oxide 18. titanium(IV) carbonate 28. cobalt(III) sulfate
9. tin(IV) iodide 19. sodium bicarbonate 29. dihydrogen monoxide
10. iron(III) oxide 20. uranium(III) oxide 30. potassium hydroxide
9
Naming Compounds p.206
Ionic Compounds (Metal + Nonmetal ; Polyatomic Ions)
Name using the names of the ions.
MgCl
2
magnesium chloride Al
2
O
3
aluminum oxide
If there are polyatomic ions, name them in full.
Na
2
CO
3
sodium carbonate (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
ammonium sulfate
If there are metals that have more than one oxidation state, use roman numerals to represent
which charge was used. To find this, work back from the known anion. We always know the
anion charge because the more electronegative element (on the right) gets its group charge.
Fe
2
O
3
iron( ) oxide
oxide is O
2
and there are 3 anions total 6 (3 x 2)
the cations must total 6+
take 6+ and divide by the number of Fe: 62 = 3+
each Fe is Fe
3+
iron (III) oxide
SnCl
4
Sn
4+
Cl

tin(IV) chloride
Cu(C
2
H
3
O
2
)
2
Cu
2+
C
2
H
3
O
2

copper(II) acetate
MnO
2
Mn
4+
O
2
manganese(IV) oxide
Molecular Compounds (nonmetals + nonmetals) p.211
There are 2 ways to name molecular compounds: prefix and stock
1) the prefix method give prefixes to show number of each atom in the molecule.
P
2
O
5
diphosphorous pentoxide
As
2
S
3
diarsenic trisulfide
Do not include mono on the first ion, but always on the second.
CO
2
carbon dioxide N
2
O dinitrogen monoxide
2) stock system Give less electronegative element a roman numeral to show oxidation state, as
done with metals.
P
2
O
5
phosphorous(V) oxide CO
2
carbon(IV) oxide
As
2
S
3
arsenic(III) sulfide N
2
O nitrogen(I) oxide
Name the following formulas:
1. LiCl 11. Ba(OH)
2
21. SO
2
2. K
2
S 12. Na
2
SO
4
22. CS
2
3. Sr
3
N
2
13. Cs
3
PO
4
23. N
2
O
4
4. Ga
2
O
3
14. Sc(NO
3
)
3
24. Cl
2
O
5. ZrF
4
15. Rb
2
S 25. P
4
O
10
6. NiBr
2
16. Mn(CH
3
COO)
2
26. Co(C
2
H
3
O
2
)
2
7. FeO 17. Cu(ClO
3
)
2
27. NH
4
HCO
3
8. Co
2
S
3
18. Ti
2
(SO
4
)
3
28. Zr
3
P
4
9. Mn
3
N
2
19. NH
4
F 29. H
2
SO
4
10. CrO
3
20. Fe
2
(CO
3
)
3
30. BF
3
10
Acids p.214
Binary acids contain hydrogen and one of the more electronegative elements. Oxyacids contain
hydrogen, oxygen and a third element, usually a nonmetal. Some common acids:
Binary acids Oxyacids
HF hydrofluoric acid CH
3
COOH acetic acid
HCl hydrochloric acid H
2
CO
3
carbonic acid
HBr hydrobromic acid HNO
3
nitric acid
HI hydriodic acid H
3
PO
4
phosphoric acid
H
2
S hydrosulfuric acid H
2
SO
4
sulfuric acid
The prefixes and suffixes refer to the number of oxygen atoms on the central atom:
hypochlorous acid HClO hypo____ous means "2 less oxygen"
chlorous acid HClO
2
____ous means "1 less oxygen"
chloric acid HClO
3
____ic is the most common form or first discovered
perchloric acid HClO
4
per____ic means "1 more oxygen"
Organic Chemistry
Organic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon. (except carbonates and oxides)
Organic compounds are named according to a different IUPAC system. (International Union of
Pure and Applied Chemistry)
Saturated Hydrocarbons - Alkanes p.634
Hydrocarbons are compounds with only hydrogen and carbon. Being saturated means that each
carbon, which can make 4 bonds, has as much hydrogen on it as possible. Hydrocarbons with
only single bonds (saturated) are called alkanes, and use the following prefixes to tell the # of C.
meth_ = 1 hex_ = 6
eth_ = 2 hept_ = 7
prop_ = 3 oct_ = 8
but_ = 4 non_ = 9
pent_ = 5 dec_ = 10
H
methane CH
4
H-C-H H H
ethane C
2
H
6
H H-C-C-H
propane C
3
H
8
H H
butane C
4
H
10

pentane C
5
H
12

hexane C
6
H
14

heptane C
7
H
16

octane C
8
H
18

nonane C
9
H
20

decane C
10
H
22

alkanes C
n
H
2n+2
11
Adding groups p.636
Alkyl groups are groups of atoms formed when 1 hydrogen is removed from an alkane. Prefixes
are as before and suffixes are "_yl". ex) methyl, butyl, propyl, etc. ex) methypropane
Alkyl halides are hydrocarbons where one or more hydrogen atom replaced by a halogen. They
receive the appropriate prefix: fluoro_, chloro_, bromo_ etc. ex) chloroethane
Naming Alkanes p.639
1. Name the longest continuous hydrocarbon chain (backbone). Give it a prefix to tell how many
carbons, add the suffix "ane"
2. Add the names of the alkyl groups in front of the backbone name. If there is more than 1
group, arrange them alphabetically. ex) ethyl methylhexane
If there are 2 or more of the same group, use prefixes di (2), tri (3), and tetra (4).
ex) diethyloctane Do this after they are in alphabetical order.
3. Number the backbone to give the lowest numbers, and assign position numbers to groups.
ex) 3-ethyl, 2,4,5-trimethyloctane
4. Name halogens the same way as alkyl groups, but place them in front of them. (their higher
priority has no bearing on counting) ex) 4-bromo-2-methylhexane
Cycloalkanes p.635
Cycloalkanes are alkanes where the first and last carbons form a bond, creating a ring. Their
empirical formula is C
n
H
2n
, because 2 hydrogen were lost to form the bond. Their name is
preceded by the prefix cyclo_. ex) cyclobutane cyclopropane
Isomers p.631
Isomers are different structures of the same formula.
There are 3 isomers of pentane: n-pentane, 2-methylbutane, and 2,2-dimethylpropane
There are 5 isomers of hexane:
Alkenes p.647
Unsaturated hydrocarbons have double or triple bonds, and therefore do not have as many
hydrogen atoms as possible. Alkenes have at least one double bond, and their empirical formula
is C
n
H
2n
. All the former naming rules still apply, with some additional considerations.
ethene C
2
H
4

propene C
3
H
6

1-butene C
4
H
8
trans-2-butene \\
1-pentene C
5
H
10

1-hexene C
6
H
12
cis-2-butene
Naming Alkenes p.649
1. Name the longest backbone that contains a double bond. Use the suffix _ene, and if there is
more than 1 double bond, use _adiene, _atriene, and _atetraene. ex) hexadiene
2. Number the backbone so that the double bonds have the lowest number.
3. Indicate where the double bonds are with a position number in front of the backbone name.
4. If the double bond can be identified as cis or trans configuration, label cis or trans in front of
its bond position number. ex) cis-2-trans-4-octadiene
12
Alkynes p.651
Alkynes have at least one triple bond, which is linear. As such, there is no cis or trans
configurations possible. The empirical formula for alkynes is C
n
H
2n2
. The naming rules for
alkenes apply to alkynes, except the suffix is _yne. ex) butyne, 1,4-hexadiyne
ethyne C
2
H
2

propyne C
3
H
4

1-butyne C
4
H
6

1-pentyne C
5
H
8

1-hexyne C
6
H
10

Benzene and Phenol p.652
Benzene is an important chemical because it is stable and is the foundation for many complex
structures. Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon, which means that it has 6 carbon atoms and
delocalized electrons. Its formula (1,3,5-hexatriene) would suggest 3 double bonds, but in fact all
the bonds are the same length. This suggests that the double bonds are shared over the whole
molecule as resonance hybrid bonds. Phenol is benzene with an alcohol group on carbon 1.
Three configurations are common when attaching 2 groups onto benzene: ex) with chlorine
1,2-dichlorobenzene 1,3-dichlorobenzene 1,4-dichlorobenzene
ortho-diclorobenzene meta-dichlorobenzene para-dichlorobenzene
Some Other Functional Groups p.663-679*
Formula Name Example Structure
R-OH alcohol 2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol)
R-O-R' ether diethyl ether (anesthetic ether)

R-C-H aldehyde formaldehyde (methanal)

R-C-R' ketone propanone (acetone)

R-C-OH carboxylic acid acetic acid (vinegar)

R-O-C-R' ester ethyl acetate
R-NH
2
amine methylamine
note R means a hydrocarbon group and R' means a group also, but it may be a different one.
also here means C=O, a carbonyl group
13
Unit 3: The Mole chapters 3, 7 + 13
Outline
-relative mass -molar mass -molecular formulas
-isotopes and avg atomic mass -m = n mm -concentration
-counting by mass -mult-step problems -n = c V
-the mole - % composition
-#p = n 6.022 x 10
23
-empirical formulas
Relative Mass p.78
When calculating the mass of one object in terms of an other, take the mass of the object and
divide it by the mass of the other. For example, find the mass of a book relative to a pencil:
book = 1204 g book = 1204 g = 150.877... = 151 the book has a mass of 151
pencil = 7.98 g 7.98 g "pencil mass units"
Atoms can be described in this way, and were originally massed according to hydrogen, being the
smallest. Later, this was revised so that 1 atomic mass unit (amu) was defined as 1/12 of
carbon-12, an isotope of carbon.
Isotopes and Average Atomic Masses p.79
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons, and therefore
have different masses. For example, hydrogen
(Protium) (Deuterium) (Tritium)
Hydrogen-1 Hydrogen-2 Hydrogen-3
protons 1 1 1
neutrons 0 1 2
mass # 1 2 3
abundance 99.985% 0.015% trace
atomic mass 1.007825 amu 2.014102 amu 3.016049 amu
To find the average atomic mass for hydrogen, take the atomic mass of each isotope and multiply
it by its abundance (as a decimal) and add them together.
1.007825 x 0.99985 = 1.00767382625
2.014102 x 0.00015 = + 0.0003021153
1.00797594155 amu
(In 1961, the average atomic mass of hydrogen was found to be 1.00797, but in 1981, this figure
was revised to be 1.00794 amu.)
The periodic table displays the average atomic masses for the elements in amu.
Counting by Mass p.80
An efficient way of counting large numbers of objects is to count by mass. For example, if you
were to count the number of paper dots in a bag of confetti, it would take a long time. Instead,
you could find the mass of 1 dot, find the total mass of the dots and divide them. This would tell
you how many dots there are in the bag.
14
The Mole p.81
The mole is a unit for counting particles such as atoms and molecules. This is similar to counting
eggs by the dozen, but much larger. A mole is defined as the number of atoms in 12 g of
carbon-12, and is 6.022 x 10
23
. This number is called Avogadro's number in honour of Amedeo
Avogadro, who's ideas were crucial in understanding this relationship. We can use this equation:
n = #p where n = number of moles in mol
6.022 x 10
23
#p = number of particles
ex) How many atoms of gold are there in 3.25 mol of Au?
n = 3.25 mol #p = n 6.022 x 10
23
= 3.25 6.022 x 10
23
= 1.95715 x 10
24
#p = ? = 1.96 x 10
24
atoms
ex 2) How many atoms of oxygen are there in 6.29 mol of H
2
SO
4
?
n = 6.29 mol #p = 6.29 mol 6.022 x 10
23
= 3.79 x 10
24
molecules of H
2
SO
4
#p = ? each molecule has 4 oxygen, so
4(3.79 x 10
24
) = 1.52 x 10
25
atoms of oxygen
ex 3) How many moles of Na atoms are there in 5.21 x 10
22
atoms of Na?
n = ? n = #p = 5.21 x 10
22
= 0.0865 mol
#p = 5.21 x 10
22
6.022 x 10
23
6.022 x 10
23
Molar Mass p.81
Because of the definition of the mole, the atomic masses on the periodic table can also be viewed
as the mass in grams of 1 mole of that element, or molar mass. From this, we get this equation:
n = m where n = number of moles in mol
mm m = mass in g
mm = molar mass in g/mol
*When taking molar masses of elements from the periodic table, round to 2 decimal places.*
*The actual symbol for molar mass is M, but I prefer mm to reduce confusion*
ex) How many moles of atoms are there in 156 g of silver?
m = 156 g n = m = 156 g = 1.45 mol
n = ? mm 107.87 g/mol
mm = 107.87 g/mol
ex 2) What is the mass of 0.54 mol of aluminum?
m = ? m = n mm = 0.54 mol 26.98 g/mol = 15 g
n = 0.54 mol
mm = 26.98 g/mol
Calculating Molar Mass of Compounds p.222
When calculating the molar mass of compounds, find the total mass of each element and add
them together.
*In this class, round all molar masses to 2 decimal places.*
15
ex) Find the molar mass of NaCl.
Na + Cl = 22.99 g/mol + 35.45 g/mol = 58.44 g/mol
ex 2) Find the molar mass of NH
3
.
N + 3(H) = 14.01 g/mol + 3(1.01g/mol) = 14.01 + 3.03 = 17.04 g/mol
ex 3) Find the molar mass of H
2
SO
4
.
2(H) + S + 4(O) 2(1.01) 2.02
32.07 32.07
4(16.00) + 64.00
98.09 g/mol
ex 4) Find the molar mass of oxygen.
Recall that H
2
, N
2
, O
2
, F
2
, Cl
2
, Br
2
, and I
2
are all diatomic, along with P
4
and S
8
.
2(O) = 2(16.00) = 32.00 g/mol
Multi-step Problems
When using 2 equations to solve a problem, or using calculated numbers, round to an extra sig
fig through the problem. Round the final answer to the correct number of sig figs.
ex) What is the mass of 4.59 x 10
24
molecules of carbon dioxide?
m = ? n = #p = 4.59 x 10
24

n = ? 6.022 x 10
23
6.022 x 10
23
mm = CO
2
= 44.01 g/mol
#p = 4.59 x 10
24
= 7.622 mol (take an extra sig fig)
m = n mm = 7.622 mol 44.01 g/mol = 335.444...g
m = 335 g (the answer has 3 sig figs, as limited by the question)
Percent Composition p.226
The percent composition tells you what percentage of the compound's total mass comes from
each element. To find this, divide the mass of each component, by the total mass, or divide their
accumulated molar masses by the overall molar mass. Don't forget to multiply by 100.
ex) Find the percent composition of a 42 g sample that contains 32.8 g iron and 9.2 g of oxygen.
% Fe = 32.8 g = 78 % % O = 9.2g = 22 % (by mass)
42g 42 g
ex 2) Find the percent composition of methane.
CH
4
C H
First find the molar mass: 12.01 12.01 12.01 4.04
4(1.01) + 4.04 16.05 16.05
16.05 g/mol = 74.83 % = 25.17 %
Divide each element's contribution by the molar mass, multiply by 100:
16
Empirical Formulas p.229
An empirical formula is the lowest whole number ratio of bonding atoms in a compound. For
example, C
2
H
4
, C
5
H
10
, and C
100
H
200
all have the same empirical formula: CH
2
To find an empirical formula, you must find the lowest whole number ratio of moles present.
ex) A compound is analyzed and is found to contain 47.9 g of carbon and 127.7 g of oxygen.
Find its empirical formula. C
x
O
y
1. find the moles of each: n = 47.9 g 127.7g
12.01 g/mol 16.00 g/mol
n = 3.988 mol : 7.9813 mol round to 1 extra sig fig
2. divide each by the smaller: 3.988 7.9813
3.988 3.988
3. this is the ratio of moles 1 : 2.0 *round to 1 decimal place*
so the empirical formula is CO
2
*If the ratio is a whole number when rounded to 1 decimal place, use this ratio for your formula.
If it rounds to 2.5 for example, find the lowest whole number multiple, and use that for your
formula. ex) 1 : 2.5 2 : 5, and the formula would be C
2
O
5
.
ex 2) Find the empirical formula of an iron-oxygen compound that is 70.0 % Fe and 30.0 % O by
mass. Fe O
1. assume you have 100 g n = 70.0 g 30.0 g
then treat your % as a mass 55.84 g/mol 16.00 g/mol
n = 1.254 mol 1.875 mol
1.254 1.875
1.254 1.254
1 : 1.5 next whole ratio is 2 : 3
Fe
2
O
3
ex 3) Find the empirical formula of a compound that contains 6.61 g of hydrogen, 105 g of sulfur
and 209 g of oxygen. H S O
n = 6.61 g 105 g 209 g
1.01 g/mol 32.07 g/mol 16.00 g/mol
n = 6.545 mol 3.274 mol 13.06 mol
6.545 3.274 13.06
3.274 3.274 3.274
2.0 : 1 : 4.0
H
2
SO
4
17
Molecular Formulas p.232
Once you have an empirical formula, you can determine the molecular formula, or the actual
formula for that compound. It will be a multiple of the empirical formula, so you can compare
the molar masses to find the multiple. (the multiple will be a whole number like 1, 2, 3, etc.)
ex) Find the molecular formula of a compound if its molar mass is 42.09 g/mol and its empirical
formula is CH
2
. (CH
2
)
x
= molecular formula
use molar masses (14.03 g/mol)
x
= 42.09 g/mol so 42.09 = 3 the molecular
to find how many 14.03 formula is 3
times larger (CH
2
)
3
= C
3
H
6
times the empirical formula
ex 2) Find the molecular formula for a hydrocarbon if a 20.15 g sample contains 16.66 g of
carbon, and its molar mass is 58.14 g/mol.
first find the empirical C H 20.15 g 16.66 g = 3.49 g
formula and its mm n = 16.66 g 3.49 g
12.01 g /mol 1.01 g/mol
= 1.3872 mol 3.4554 mol
1.3872 1.3872
1 : 2.5 2 : 5
empirical formula: C
2
H
5
mm = 29.07 g/mol
(29.07 g/mol)
x
= 58.14 g/mol x = 2 (C
2
H
5
)
2
= C
4
H
10

Concentration p.412
Concentration describes how many moles of solute there are dissolved per litre of solution.
c = n where: c = concentration in mol/L or M
V n = number of moles in mol
V = volume in L
ex) Find the concentration of a solution made by dissolving 0.291 mol of H
2
SO
4
in enough water
to make 451 mL of solution.
n = 0.291 mol c = n = 0.291 mol = 0.645 mol/L
c = ? V 0.451 L or
V = 451 mL = 0.451 L = 0.645 M
ex 2) What mass of sodium chloride would you add to water in order to make 500.0 mL of a
1.00 M solution?
m = ? n = c V = 1.00 mol/L 0.5000 L = 0.5000 mol
n = ?
mm = 22.99 + 35.45 = 58.44 g/mol m = n mm
c = 1.00 mol/L = 0.5000 mol 58.44 g/mol
V = 500.0 mL = 0.5000 L = 29.2 g
18
Unit 4: Chemical Reactions Chapter 8 + 17
Outline
-writing equations -types of reactions
-equation symbols -activity series
-diatomic elements -thermochemistry
-law of conservation of mass -endo/exothermic reactions
-balancing equations
Writing Equations p.242
A chemical reaction is a change in which substances are converted into different substances.
magnesium and oxygen react to form magnesium oxide (word equation)
Chemical reactions are also represented by formula equations, which display the reactants and
products as symbols or formulas. They are separated by an arrow, which indicates a chemical
reaction has taken place, as well as its direction.
"reacts with" "to produce"
Mg(s) + O
2
(g) MgO(s) (formula equation)
reactants products
The (s) and (g) refer to the state of the substance. For additional symbols, see p.246
(s) solid (g) gaseous
() liquid (aq) aqueous (dissolved in water)
Chemists often leave out the phases, as they don't affect the calculations. Also, recall that oxygen
is a diatomic element, which exists in pairs in nature. The following form polyatomic molecules,
which you need to remember:
H
2
N
2
O
2
F
2
Cl
2
Br
2
I
2
P
4
S
8
ex) Write the equation: solid aluminum carbide reacts with water to produce methane gas and
solid aluminum hydroxide.
Al
4
C
3
(s) + H
2
O(l) CH
4
(g) + Al(OH)
3
(s)
The Law of Conservation of Mass p.243
In normal chemical reactions, matter is neither created, nor destroyed and the total mass of the
reactants must equal the total mass of the products. In other words, the number of atoms that go
into a reaction has to equal the number that come out. As a result of this law, we must balance all
chemical equations using coefficients (large numbers in front of the symbol). You may not
change the formulas of the substances, just the ratio in which they react.
2Mg + O
2
2MgO balanced (no "1" is used)
Coefficients multiply through the entire compound.
2NaCl = 2 Na, 2 Cl
3MgCl
2
3 Mg, 6 Cl
2H
2
SO
4
4 H, 2 S, 8 O
3Ca(NO
3
)
2
3 Ca, 6 N, 18 O
5Mg(CH
3
COO)
2
5 Mg, 20 C, 30 H, 20 O
19
Balancing Equations p.250
When balancing, look for polyatomic ions or elements that appear just once on each side
- balance those first.
You may need to change coefficients several times, so use a pencil.
If you run into an element that is difficult to balance, leave it and come back to it. Fractions
may be useful in some cases.
Do not include "1" as a coefficient.
Reduce coefficients to the lowest whole number ratio.
Double check by recounting.
ex) balance these 3 equations:
1) Zn + HCl ZnCl
2
+ H
2
3) C
3
H
6
+ O
2
CO
2
+ H
2
O
Zn + 2HCl ZnCl
2
+ H
2
C
3
H
6
+ O
2
3CO
2
+ H
2
O
C
3
H
6
+ O
2
3CO
2
+ 3H
2
O
2) Al
4
C
3
+ H
2
O CH
4
+ Al(OH)
3
C
3
H
6
+ 9/2O
2
3CO
2
+ 3H
2
O
Al
4
C
3
+ H
2
O CH
4
+ 4Al(OH)
3
2C
3
H
6
+ 9O
2
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O
Al
4
C
3
+ H
2
O 3CH
4
+ 4Al(OH)
3

Al
4
C
3
+ 12H
2
O 3CH
4
+ 4Al(OH)
3

Types of Chemical Reactions p.256 Activity Series
We will study 5 types of reactions: synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, Li
double replacement, and combustion. Rb
K
1) Synthesis Reaction: where 2 or more simple substances combine to form a more Ba
complex substance. A + B AB Sr
2Na + Cl
2
2NaCl sodium + chlorine sodium chloride Ca
Na
2) Decomposition Reaction: where a complex substance breaks down into 2 or more Mg
simpler substances. AB A + B Al
2NaCl 2Na + Cl
2
sodium chloride sodium + chlorine Mn
Zn
3) Single Replacement Reaction: (Single Displacement) where an uncombined element Cr
replaces an element that is part of a compound. A + BX AX + B Fe
Mg + 2HCl MgCl
2
+ H
2
Cd
magnesium + hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride + hydrogen Co
Ni
2Na + 2H
2
O 2NaOH + H
2
Sn
sodium + water sodium hydroxide + hydrogen Pb
Note: single replacement reactions will only occur if the element doing the replacing H
2
is more active (reactive) than the element being replaced. (activity series p.266) Sb
Mg + 2HCl MgCl
2
+ H
2
Mg + NaCl NR Bi
Cu
4) Double Replacement Reaction: (Double Displacement) where different atoms in Hg
2 different compounds replace each other, or when 2 compounds react to form 2 new Ag
compounds. Double replacement reactions will always occur to some extent. Pt
AX + BY AY + BX Au
20
FeS + 2HCl H
2
S + FeCl
2
iron(II) sulfide + hydrochloric acid hydrogen sulfide + iron(II) chloride
(or dihydrogen monosulfide)
MgCO
3
+ 2HCl MgCl
2
+ H
2
CO
3

magnesium carbonate + hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride + carbonic acid
(or hydrogen carbonate)
5) Combustion Reaction: where a substance combines with oxygen and released energy in the
form of heat and light. C
X
H
y
+ O
2
CO
2
+ H
2
O (for hydrocarbons)
C
3
H
8
+ 5O
2
3CO
2
+ 4H
2
O propane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water
Thermochemistry p.514-p.541
All chemical reactions involve changes in energy. Some chemical reactions will release heat and
get hot (exothermic), while others will absorb heat and get cold (endothermic). All chemical
reactions require energy to begin (activation energy); some need quite a bit, such as dynamite,
while for others, there is enough thermal energy at room temperature to react. In an exothermic
reaction, the amount of heat released is greater than the activation energy. In this case, chemical
potential energy is converted into heat. Therefore, the products have less energy (chemical
potential energy) than the reactants.
In an endothermic reaction, the amount of heat released is less than the heat input. The extra heat
is converted into chemical potential energy. As a result, the products have more energy than the
reactants. (fig.17-10, p.534) A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a reaction without being
consumed. It is not a reactant,
Pt
and is written above the arrow. NH
3
(g) + O
2
(g) NO(g) + H
2
O()
A catalyst increases reaction rates by lowering the amount of energy needed to break bonds
(activation energy). (fig17-15, p.541)
21
Unit 5: Stoichiometry Chapter 9
Outline
-stoichiometry problems: -limiting reactants
-moles to moles -amount in excess
-mass to moles - percent yield
-mass to mass - actual x 100
-solution problems theoretical
Stoichiometry comes from the Greek words "stoicheion" (element) and "metron," (measure) and
is a way of using the mole ratio to calculate many unknowns from given information. For
example, if you are given 43 g of reactant, how many grams of product will you get? To solve
these problems, we use the ratio in which they react, but we must first convert to moles.
Moles to Moles p.280
Use the mole ratio to predict unknowns.
ex) When sodium reacts completely with 5.00 mol of chlorine, how many moles of sodium
chloride will you get?
1. write a balanced equation 2Na + Cl
2
2NaCl
2. set up a mole ratio, n=5.00 mol n = ?
cross multiply
1 = 2 1x = 2(5.00) x = 10.0 mol
5.00 mol x
You will get 10.0 mol of NaCl.
ex 2) The complete combustion of 4.29 mol of octane would yield how many moles of carbon
dioxide?
2C
8
H
18
+ 25O
2
16CO
2
+ 18H
2
O 2 = 16
n=4.29 mol n=? 4.29 mol x
2x = 68.64 x = 34.3 mol of CO
2
Mass to Moles p.284
If you are given the mass of a reactant (or product), first find out how many moles that is, then
solve as before.
ex) Excess of calcium reacts with 127 g of oxygen to form how many moles of calcium oxide?
place info on the equation:
m=127 g 1 = 2
2Ca + O
2
2CaO 3.969 x
n = m = 127 g n=3.969 mol n=?
mm 32.00 g/mol mm=32.00 g/mol x = 7.94 mol
= 3.969 mol
Mass to Mass p.286
Once you know the moles of one reactant or product, you can determine the mass of any other.
ex) How many grams of oxygen and sulfur are produced when 298 g of sulfur trioxide
decomposes?
22
m=298 g m=? m=?
8SO
3
12O
2
+ S
8
n=3.722 mol n=5.583 mol n=0.4653 mol
mm=80.07 g/mol mm=32.00 g/mol mm=256.56 g/mol
n = 298 g 8 = 12 8 = 1
80.07 g/mol 3.722 x 3.722 x
= 3.722 mol x = 5.583 mol x = 0.4653 mol
m = 5.583 mol 32.00 g/mol m = 0.4653 mol 256.56 g/mol
= 179 g = 119 g
Solutions
We can perform stoichiometric calculations involving solutions; finding the # of moles is key.
ex) What volume of 2.00 M AgNO
3
is required to produce 4.00 L of 5.00 M Cu(NO
3
)
2
when
reacted with copper?
Cu + 2AgNO
3
Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 2Ag
n=40.00 mol n=20.00 mol
1 = 2 c=2.00 M c=5.00 M
20.00 x V=? V=4.00 L
x = 40.00 mol
V = 40.00 mol n = 5.00 M 4.00 L
V = 20.0 L 2.00 M = 20.00 mol
Limiting Reactants p.288
Up until now, we have examined ideal stoichiometric equations. In reality, one reactant is usually
used up before the other, and will limit how much of the products you get. This reactant is called
the limiting reactant, and the reactants that are left over are said to be in excess. It is important to
use the limiting reactant when calculating yields.
To determine which reactant is limiting, you must be given the amounts of all of them. Take one
reactant and predict how much of the other one(s) you would expect. If you have more of the
other reactant than you expect, it is in excess; if you have less than you expect, it is limiting.
ex) If 4.00 mol of Na react with 2.50 mol of Cl
2
, find the limiting reactant.
2Na + Cl
2
2NaCl 2 = 1
n=4.00 mol n=2.50 mol 4.00 x
expect: 2.00 mol
LIMITING EXCESS
We can also determine the amount in excess: 2.50 2.00 = 0.50 mol excess
We can also determine the amount in excess in g: 0.50 mol 70.90 g/mol = 35 g in excess
ex 2) Which reactant is limiting if 41.5 g of antimony react with 134 g of iodine? How many
grams of antimony(III) iodide would you expect?
23
m=41.5 g m=134 g m=?
n = m 2Sb + 3I
2
2SbI
3
mm n=0.3408 mol n=0.5280 mol n=0.3408 mol
mm=121.76 g/mol mm=253.80 g/mol mm=502.46 g/mol
= 41.5 g expect: 0.5112 mol m = n mm
121.76 g/mol LIMITING 2 = 3 EXC 2 = 2 = 0.3408 502.46
= 0.3408 mol 0.3408 x 0.3408 x = 171 g
x = 0.5112 x = 0.3408
ex 3) When 58 g of zinc reacts with 640 mL of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid, what mass of zinc
chloride is formed. Find how many grams of the excess reactant is left over.
m=58 g m=
Zn + 2HCl ZnCl
2
+ H
2
2 = 1
n=0.887 mol n=0.640 mol n=0.32 mol 0.640 x
mm=65.39 g/mol c=1.0 M mm=136.29 g/mol x = 0.32 mol
expect: 0.32 mol V=640 mL =0.640 L
2 = 1 LIM m = 44 g
0.640 x
x = 0.32
EXCESS by 0.567 mol or (0.567 mol 65.39 g/mol) = 37 g
Percent Yield p.293
So far we have been dealing with the theoretical yield, or the most product possibly produced.
Usually, the actual yield is less than this ideal due to side reactions and product lost in transfer or
in purification. We can calculate the efficiency of a reaction using this equation:
% yield = actual yield x 100
theoretical yield
*You must be given the actual yield in the question, you find the theoretical through
stoichiometry.
*When given an actual yield, do not put that into the stoichiometric equation.
ex) When 59.7 g of propene is burned with 45.2 g of oxygen, 39.4 g of carbon dioxide is actually
produced. Calculate the percent yield of CO
2
. (first find the theoretical yield)
m=59.7 g m=45.2 g m=?
2C
3
H
6
+ 9O
2
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O
n=1.418 mol n=1.413 mol n=0.942 mol
mm=42.09 g/mol mm=32.00 g/mol mm=44.01 g/mol
EXCESS expect: 6.381 mol
n = 59.7 g 2 = 9 9 = 6 m = 0.942 44.01
42.09 g/mol 1.418 x 1.413 x = 41.5 g
= 1.418 mol x = 6.381 x = 0.942 *For theoretical mass
LIMITING round to correct sf.
% yield = actual x 100 = 39.4 g x 100 = 94.9 %
theoretical 41.5 g
24
Unit 6: The Atom Chapters 3, 4 + 5
Outline
-Democritus' model -E = hv -Aufbau principle, Hund's rule and
-laws of composition -Spectra Pauli exclusion principle
-Dalton's model -Bohr's model -noble gas notation
-J. J. Thompson's model -the quantum model -periodic table and e- configuration
-Rutherford's model -quantum numbers -valence electrons
-light as waves + particles -orbital notation -periodic trends: atomic radii, IE, and
- c = -electron configuration electronegativity
Democritus p.65
Democritus, a Greek philosopher, is credited for first formalizing a particle theory of matter
around 400 BC. He believed all matter to made of small, indivisible particles he called atoms.
(fr. Gk atomos, indivisible) His theory had 6 points:
atoms are particles in the void
atoms are always in motion
atoms are indivisible
atoms come in different sizes, shapes, and are arranged in different ways
atoms make life predictable
the human soul is made of soul atoms
The idea of atoms was dismissed a generation later, by the more influential thinkers Plato and
Aristotle. For almost 2000 years the concept of the atom was forgotten.
Laws of Composition p.66
With the arrival of better technology, certain laws were established that helped understand matter
Law of Conservation of Mass - states that matter can not be created nor destroyed in a chemical
reaction.
Law of Definite Proportions - states that a chemical compound contains the same elements in the
same proportions regardless of the size or source of the sample. For ex) water is always
2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen: H
2
O (H
2
O
2
is a different compound)
Law of Multiple Proportions - states that compounds are made from small, whole number ratios
of elements. For ex) CO and CO
2
(carbon dioxide is never C
1/3
H
2/5
)
Dalton p.66
John Dalton, a teacher from England, re-established an atomic theory in 1808, based on his
experiments. He explained the law of conservation of mass using the laws of definite and
multiple proportions. Dalton's atomic theory:
1. All matter is composed of small particles called atoms.
2. Atoms of the same element are identical, atoms from different elements differ in size, mass
and other properties.
3. Atoms can not be divided, created, or destroyed.
4. Atoms of different elements combine in small whole-number ratios to form compounds.
5. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged.
J. J. Thompson p.70
By 1897, scientists such as William Crookes had been experimenting with cathode ray tubes.
These were glass tubes with a gas at low pressure that glowed when subjected to high voltages.
25
The experiments by many scientists, including Thompson, found that
the glow was made of particles streaming from the negative terminal to the positive
the particles could push objects
the particles were deflected by a magnetic field
the particles were deflected away from a negatively charged object
Thompson was able to calculate a charge to mass ratio for these particles and found them to be
the same for all materials. In 1903, he proposed his "plum pudding" model of the atom: atoms
were made from positive material, laced with small negative particles. The negative particles
were later named electrons. (electric + _on, fundamental particle)
Milikan
Robert Milikan used more accurate equipment in his oil drop experiment. He found the mass of
an electron to be 1837 times smaller than the smallest atom. (hydrogen) Here are the masses:
proton (p
+
) 1.673 x 10
-24
g
neutron (n
o
) 1.675 x 10
-24
g these more accurate numbers were calculated later
electron (e

) 9.109 x 10
-28
g
Rutherford p.72
Ernest Rutherford was a New Zealander who did some of his work in Canada. In 1911, He and
some colleagues bombarded thin gold foil with alpha particles. The foil was about 400 atoms
thick, and alpha particles are fast, positively charged particles with a mass of 4 times that of
hydrogen. If the atom was uniformly dense, as was believed, the particles should have passed
through will only small deflections.
This was the case, however, 1 in every 8 000 particles was redirected toward the source.
Rutherford eventually concluded that the centre of an atom must be dense and positive, while
most of the atom was empty space. He named the centre the nucleus, and didn't know where the
electrons were, but hypothesized that they orbited the nucleus like planets orbit the sun. Protons
in the nucleus should repel each other, but are held together by short-range attractive forces
called nuclear forces.
The neutron was later discovered by Irne and Frederic Joliot-Curie in 1932 and was named by
James Chadwick.
Light as Waves and Particles p.91
Before 1900, light was believed to behave as a wave. Waves have characteristics such as
wavelength (), amplitude (), and frequency (). For all electromagnetic radiation, wavelength
and frequency are inversely proportional in the equation
where: c = the speed of light 3.00 x 10
8
m/s
c = = wavelength in m
= frequency in Hz or cycles per second
Later, Einstein proposed that light also behaved as a particle, and the energy of a photon can be
calculated using Plank's idea of the quantum or amount of energy.
where: E = the energy of a photon in J
E = h h = Planck's constant = 6.6262 x 10
34
Js
= frequency in Hz
In other words, photons at a given frequency will possess a known amount of energy.
26
Bohr p.94
When hydrogen gas in a tube is energized using electricity, its electrons are excited to a higher
energy state. When they fall back to their ground state, they give off a photon with energy equal
to that gained. Its colour can be observed and calculated using E = h. When adding more
electricity, we should see a continuous colour change, but in fact we only see 4 distinct colours.
In 1913, Niels Bohr proposed that electrons can occupy only certain energy levels. The electron
orbital lowest in energy (ground state) is closest to the nucleus, and higher energy levels are
successively further away. This model of the atom explained the hydrogen spectrum, but failed to
account for many electron atoms. (see energy series fig. 4-8, 4-9, p.96)
The Quantum Model p. 98
In order to understand the quantum nature of the atom, scientists had to change their model of the
electron. In 1924, Louis de Broglie proposed that electrons could behave as both particles and
waves. In order to detect where electrons are in the atom, if we use light or photons, they will
knock an electron off course. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle states that the more certain you
are of an electron's position, the less certain you are of its speed, and vice versa. So instead of
talking about where electrons are, we use electron probability clouds, or areas where you are
likely to find an electron.
This dual nature of the electron led Erwin Schrdinger to develop the Schrdinger wave
equation. This is the foundation for quantum theory.
where: = Schrdinger wave function
d
2
+ 8
2
m (E V) = 0 x = position
d x
2
h
2
h = Planck's constant
E = total energy
V = potential energy
Quantum Numbers p.101
From this equation, we receive 4 quantum numbers to describe electrons and orbitals:
1. Principle quantum number ( n ): describes the energy level of the electron. It also determines
how many orbitals you have. There are n
2
solutions to the Schrdinger equation, or n
2
orbitals.
ex) n = 1, n = 2, n = 3...
2. Angular momentum quantum number ( l ): describes the type of orbital
when l = 0 s orbital see shapes, p.102
l = 1 p orbital
l = 2 d orbital
l = 3 f orbital
l = 4 g orbital
3. Magnetic quantum number ( m
l
): describes the orientation or shape of the orbital. (x, y, z)
It ranges from l to +l. ex) if l = 2, m
l
= 2, 1, 0, +1, +2 5 orientations
4. Magnetic spin quantum number ( m
s
): describes the spin of the electron. If there are there are
two electrons in the same orbital, they must spin in opposite directions: + or . There can
only be 2 electrons per orbital. Spin is also shown with arrows: or .
27
Electron Configuration: Orbital Notation p.106
According to the Aufbau principle, an electron will occupy the lowest-energy that will accept it.
ex) hydrogen has 1 electron -energy level 1 (the lowest)
1s -s orbital (first to fill)
ex 2) nitrogen has 7 electrons
1s 2s 2p
x
2p
y
2p
z
-1s fills, then 2s, then the 2p (there are 3 of them)
-2 electrons in the same orbital have opposite spin ( vs. )
-according to Hund's rule, orbitals of equal energy levels are each occupied by one electron
before 2 electrons are placed in the same orbital.
ex 3) nickel has 28 electrons

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
Electron configuration notation is a shorthand way of writing this:
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
8
or more correctly 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
8
4s
2
note: order according to energy level
The filling order for orbitals is
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
5s
2
4d
10
5p
6
6s
2
4f
14
...
-note each energy level has 1 s orbital, 3 p orbitals, 5 d orbitals, and 7 f orbitals
-s fill first, then p, then d, then f
-all you have to remember is the filling order of the energy levels:
1 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 5 4 5 6 4
then fill in orbital types:
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f
Pauli Exclusion Principle
The Pauli exclusion principle states that no 2 electrons (in the same atom) have the same 4
quantum numbers:
ex) neon (10 e-)
1s 2s 2p
x
2p
y
2p
z
draw a line from the
electron to the set n = 2 n = 2 n = 2 n = 2
of quantum numbers l = 0 l = 1 l = 1 l = 1
m
l
= 0 m
l
= +1 m
l
= 1 m
l
= 1
m
s
= + m
s
= + m
s
= m
s
= +
Noble Gas Notation p.111
Note that for nickel, the closest noble gas that has fewer electrons is Ar = 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
so another way of writing nickel is [Ar]3d
8
4s
2
ex 2) iodine (53 e-) is [Kr] 4d
10
5s
2
5p
5
28
The Periodic Table p.123
Dmitri Mendeleev is regarded as the father of the periodic table. He noticed that when elements
were arranged according to increasing atomic mass, similar chemical properties recur at regular
intervals. For example, Li, Na, and K have similar properties. His work led to the periodic law:
when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, elements with similar
chemical and physical properties appear at regular intervals.
Review periodic table
Group 1: Alkali metals - react with water to form base, low m.p., very reactive
2: Alkaline earth metals - also form base in water, slightly higher m.p., reactive
3-12: Transition metals - a transition from reactive metals to nonmetals
13: Boron family - metals and metalloid, not very reactive
14: Carbon family - not very reactive
15: Nitrogen family - not very reactive mix of metals, metalloids, and nonmetals
16: Oxygen family - more reactive
17: Fluorine family - very reactive, form halogenated compounds
18: Noble gases - full valence shells, will not react under normal circumstances
Lanthanides and Actinides: transition metals, elements 84+ are radioactive, elements 93+
are synthetic
Periodic Table and Electron Configuration p.128
Understanding electron configuration brings new perspective to the periodic table. For example,
there are 2 columns for the s-block elements because s orbitals can hold 2 electrons; there are 10
transition elements because d orbitals hold 10 electrons. Therefore:
Groups 1 + 2 are the s-block elements
Groups 3-12 are the d-block elements see fig. 5-5, p.129
Groups 13-18 are the p-block elements
Lanthanides and Actinides are the f-block elements
Valence Electrons
Valence electrons are the outermost s and p electrons. Although you elements will never have
more than 8 valence electrons, (s
2
+ p
6
) energy levels hold the following electrons:
energy level electrons configuration
1 2 1s
2

2 8 2s
2
2p
6

3 18 3s
2
3p
6
3d
10

4 32 4s
2
4p
6
4d
10
4f
14
5 32 5s
2
5p
6
5d
10
5f
14
6 18 6s
2
6p
6
6d
10
7 8 7s
2
7p
6
(valence)
Periodic Trends: Atomic Radii p.140
The size of an atom (atomic radius) is determined by the charge of the nucleus and the number of
energy levels. As we move down a group, we notice atoms increase in size. This makes sense,
because electrons are filling higher energy levels, which are further from the nucleus. Inner
electrons also shield the outer electrons somewhat from the nucleus. However, as we move left to
right across a period, atoms decrease in size. Although the number of electrons is increasing, they
are on the same energy level, and are pulled closer to a more positive nucleus.
29
Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy p.143
Ionization energy (IE) is the amount of energy required to remove an electron, to form an ion. As
we move down a group, we notice that IE decreases. This is because the electrons are farther
from the nucleus and shielded from the positive nucleus by the middle electrons. As we move
across a period, IE generally increases because there is a greater positive charge attracting each
electron on the same energy level. (which is also closer to the nucleus)
Periodic Trends: Electronegativity p.151
Electronegativity is the measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons. It is measured on a
scale of 0 - 4.0 with fluorine, the most electronegative element, arbitrarily assigned 4.0. As we
move down a group, electronegativity slightly decreases due to increased size and shielding. As
we move across a period left to right, electronegativity generally increases due to stronger
nuclear charge and smaller size.
30
Unit 7: Chemical Bonding Chapter 6
Outline
-nonpolar-covalent bonds -Lewis structures -hybridization
-polar covalent bonds -resonance structures -intermolecular forces
-ionic bonds -ionic bonds -dipole-dipole forces
-covalent bonds -metallic bonds -hydrogen bonding
-octet rule -VSEPR theory geometry -London dispersion forces
A chemical bond is the mutual attraction between the nucleus of an atom and the valence
electrons of another atom. Bonds occur because the particles have a lower potential energy
bonded to each other than they do separately.
Types of Bonds p.161
Chemical bonds can be classified into 1 of 3 categories: nonpolar-covalent, polar-covalent, and
ionic. In general, metals tend to lose electrons, and have lower electronegativities than
nonmetals, which tend to gain electrons. We can identify the bond type based on the difference of
electronegativity.
Nonpolar-covalent Bonds
Covalent means sharing valence electrons, and this occurs when two atoms have similar
electronegativity values. A non-polar bond is a one where the electrons are shared equally, and
no partial charges occur. These bonds occur between atoms when their electronegativity
difference is between 0 and 0.3. (for electronegativity values see p.151)
ex) H
2
H H
(e-neg) 2.1 2.1 e- are shared exactly equally
difference = 0.0
Polar-covalent Bonds
Polar-covalent means that there are charged ends to the molecules, and although they are sharing
valence electrons, they are not shared equally. These bonds occur between atoms when their
electronegativity difference is between 0.3 and 1.7.
ex) HCl e- are shared, but not equally; partial charges occur
+
H Cl

because of uneven electron distribution: e- are more


2.1 3.0 strongly attracted to the Cl
difference = 0.9
Ionic Bonds
Ionic bonds are so polar that electrons are actually transferred from one atom to another, creating
ions. These oppositely charged particles strongly attract each other. These bonds occur between
atoms when their electronegativity difference is 1.8 or greater.
ex) NaCl Note that NaCl is not a molecule!
Na
+
Cl

0.9 3.0 (e-neg diff)


difference = 2.1 0 0.3 1.7 4.0
|______|_____________|____________|
a helpful chart: NPC PC I
31
Covalent Bonds p.165
To form a bond, atoms must release energy; to break it, the same amount must be added. Bond
energy is the energy required to break a bond to form neutral atoms, and is measured in kJ/mol.
The higher the bond energy, the stronger the bond. Bonding can be represented through orbital
notation:
ex) fluorine can make 1 bond with itself: F
2
F
1s 2s 2p covalent bond (overlapping orbitals)
F
1s 2s 2p
ex 2) Nitrogen can make 3 bonds with hydrogen: NH
3
3 Hs
1s 1s 1s
3 covalent bonds
N
1s 2s 2p
Octet Rule p.168
The octet rule states that chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom (by gaining, losing,
or sharing electrons) has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level. Although there
are many exceptions to the octet rule, (for example H
2
, BF
3
, or expanded d-orbitals) it is a useful
way to view covalent bonding.
Electron Dot Notation and Lewis Structures p.170
Electron dot notation shows only valence electrons around an elemental symbol. Begin with the
element's symbol, and place dots around it to show the number of valence electrons. Begin at the
top and add one dot clockwise until you run out of dots. Each of the 4 sides can only have 2 dots,
at least initially. For example

Be

O :


Lewis
diagram
Ne F O N C B Be Li Family
Lewis structures show molecules and their valence electrons. ex) H
2
O
Drawing Lewis Structures H : O : H
Count the total number of valence electrons.

Draw a skeleton structure using shared pairs of electrons to show bonding.
Use carbon for the central atom, otherwise use the least electronegative element.
Add unshared pairs of electrons so that each atom (that will accept them) is surrounded by 8 e-.
Multiple pairs of electrons may be shared between 2 atoms, forming double and triple bonds,
to satisfy the octet rule.
If there is more than 1 possible location for a double bond, use resonance structures to show all
possibilities; separate resonance structures with double arrows.
32
For examples see p.171 175
Ionic Bonds p.176
Ionic bonds form between cations and anions as a crystal lattice. This means that each cation is
surrounded by anions and vice versa. This is why ionic crystals are brittle, because if the lattice is
shifted, strong repulsive forces cause it to shatter.
Metallic Bonds p.181
Metallic bonds form between metal atoms, and are different from covalent or ionic bonds.
Metallic bonds do not follow the octet rule, and vacant s and p orbitals overlap. This enables
electrons to move freely throughout the entire structure. This is why metals are good conductors
of heat and electricity. The bond structure is the same in all directions, which means that you can
bend and reshape the material without stressing the structure. (recall that metals are malleable
and ductile) Metals can absorb a wide range of light frequencies, which excites their electrons.
These electrons returning to their ground state gives off light, which accounts for the shiny
appearance of metals.
VSEPR Theory and Molecular Geometry p.183
VSEPR stands for valence shell electron pair repulsion, and this theory states that the repulsion
between valence electrons in molecules causes their atoms to be oriented as far apart as possible.
See p.186
ex) In BeF
2
, the 2 fluorines must be placed as far apart as possible, which creates a 180 bond.
Bond Shape Drawing Bond Angle() Empirical Formula Example
Linear 180 AB
2
BeF
2
Bent or angular ~117 AB
2
E SnCl
2
Trigonal-planar 120 AB
3
BF
3
Tetrahedral 109.5 AB
4
CH
4
Trigonal-pyramidal ~107 AB
3
E NH
3
Bent or angular ~105 AB
2
E
2
H
2
O
Trigonal-bipyramidal 90 + 120 AB
5
PCl
5
Octahedral 90 AB
6
SF
6
Note: A is the central atom, B are bonded atoms, and E are electron pairs.
Hybridization p.187
Hybrid orbitals are orbitals of equal energy produced by combining 2 or more orbitals on the
same atom.
Orbitals to combine Hybrid orbitals Shape Bond angle ()
s + p sp Linear 180
s + p + p sp
2
Trigonal-planar 120
s + p + p + p sp
3
Tetrahdral 109.5
33
Hybridization explains why carbon can make 4 bonds:
C Carbon should make 2 bonds...
1s 2s 2p
but the s orbital and the 3 p orbitals combine
C to make 4 sp
3
orbitals, which are 1 part s orbital,
1s 2sp
3
2sp
3
2sp
3
2sp
3
and 3 parts p orbital.
Intermolecular Forces p.189
Intermolecular forces are forces of attraction between molecules. The forces that act within atoms
to hold them together are called intramolecular forces. Forces between molecules are generally
weaker than intramolecular or ionic attractive forces. We can tell how strong intermolecular
forces are by the melting point of the substance:
Bond types
Metallic Increasing strength ; Increasing melting points
Ionic
Polar-covalent Intermolecular forces
Nonpolar-covalent
There are 2 types of intermolecular forces
1. Dipole - Dipole Forces p.190
A polar molecule has an end that is negative and one that is positive. This occurs when molecules
have lone pairs of electrons or the electronegativities do not balance in 3 dimensions.
(symmetrical molecules are nonpolar)
HCl
positive end + | negative end (more electrons)
ex) H
2
O and NH
3
are polar, while CCl
4
and CO
2
are nonpolar molecules See p.191
Dipole-dipole forces are the strongest intermolecular forces and occur between 2 polar
molecules. A dipole can also induce a dipole in a nonpolar molecule by temporarily attracting
some of its electrons. This attraction is weaker than a dipole-dipole force.
1b. Hydrogen Bonding p.192
A particularly strong category of dipole-dipole bonding is hydrogen bonding. This only occurs
where there are H-F, H-O and H-N bonds. The high difference in electronegativity between H
and F, O, and N make very polar molecules, and the positive H is attracted strongly to the
negative end of another molecule.
+
HF

- - -
+
HF

| |
This is why H
2
O (has hydrogen bonding) boils at 100C, while a similar compound H
2
S,
(no hydrogen bonding) boils at 60C.
34
2. London Dispersion Forces p.93
London dispersion forces are weak attractive forces caused by instantaneous dipoles when
electrons happen to end up on the same side of a molecule. They occur in all atoms and
molecules, even noble gases. (also in molecules with dipole-dipole forces) London forces
increase with mass because there are more electrons, as illustrated by boiling points of:
H
2
253C
O
2
183C
Cl
2
34C
Br
2
+ 59C
End of Course Notes
Lab: Copper(II) Chloride and Aluminum Foil
Purpose: To investigate and understand the reaction between copper(II) chloride and aluminum.
Materials: 150 mL beaker, Al foil, thermometer, balance, other equipment if desired
Procedure:
Data/Observations:
Calculations:
Conclusion: answer reflection questions
Reflection Questions:
1. What did you do (or what could you have done) to ensure that your senses were not
fooled?
2. What was the substance formed during the reaction?
3. Where did the aluminum go? How can you be sure?
Bonus Questions:
1. Of what were the bubbles made?
2. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
Lab: Mass and Volume of Substances
Purpose: To determine the relationship between mass and volume for
methanol - CH
3
OH, water - H
2
O, ethylene glycol - C
2
H
6
O
2
.
Materials: balance, 3 substances, 50 mL beaker, micropipet, 10 mL graduated cylinder
Procedure:
Data/Observations: empty cylinder dry ________
volume methanol water ethylene glycol
1.00 mL ______ ______ ______
2.00 mL ______ ______ ______
etc.
Calculations: net mass, slope
Conclusion: State the constant relationship (a number) between mass and volume for each
substance. Hint: you need the graph.
Reflection Questions:
1. What is the mass of 1.000 x 10
3
L of each substance?
2. Write the relationship between mass and volume as a function for all 3 substances.
3. Give the % error for each of your 3 constants. Provide an explanation for any error
over 5 % with sources of error.
Graph: mass vs. volume for the 3 substances
35
Lab: The Thickness of Aluminum Foil
Purpose: To determine the thickness of aluminum foil in mm.
Materials: sheets of aluminum foil, ruler, balance
Procedure:
Data/Observations:
Calculations: given: D
Al
= 2.70 g/mL
Conclusion: The thickness of aluminum foil is ____ mm.
Reflection Question:
1. If your sheet were made of tin, what would be its mass?
Lab: The Height of an Oleic Acid Molecule
Purpose: To determine the height of an oleic acid molecule in mm.
Materials: 0.1 % oleic acid in methanol, cafeteria tray, overhead sheet, marker, lycopodium
powder, micropipet, graph paper, ruler
Procedure:
Data/Observations:
Calculations: -area of the "hole"
-volume of 1 drop
-volume of oleic acid
-height of oleic acid
Conclusion: The height of an oleic acid molecule is _____ mm.
Bonus Question:
1. What is the mass of an oleic acid molecule if we assume that the molecule's length and
width are both 1/10th of its height, and its density is 1.00 g/mL?
Lab: Identification of Unknowns
Purpose: To identify two unknown organic samples.
Materials: 2 samples, thermometer, 250 mL beaker, table of unknowns
Procedure: (use cooling curves to identify)
Data/Observations: -chart of temperatures and time
-graph of temperature vs. time (cooling curves)
Conclusion: State the identity of the two unknowns
Reflection Question:
1. Draw the structure of 10 substances from the table of unknowns
Lab: Finding the Formula
Purpose: To determine the formula of the hydrated crystal of copper(II) sulfate.
Materials: balance, test tube, copper(II) sulfate, Bunsen burner, test tube holder.
Procedure:
Data/Observations:
Calculations:
Conclusion:
Reflection Question:
1. How many atoms of hydrogen are there in 253 g of copper(II) sulfate?
36
Lab: Endothermic / Exothermic Lab
Purpose: To determine the change in temperature per mole for each reaction.
Materials: Ba(OH) 8H
2
O, NaOH, (NH
4
)SCN, thermometer, 50 mL graduated cylinder,
2 -150 mL beakers, balance
Procedure: reaction 1: 1.00 g of NaOH in 50.0 mL of water
reaction 2: 2.00 g of Ba(OH) 8H
2
O with 1.00 g of (NH
4
)SCN
Data/Observations:
Calculations:
Conclusion: State the temperature change per mole for each reaction
Reflection Questions:
1. Write balanced equations for these 2 reactions.
Bonus Question:
1. To 2 sig figs, determine the amount of heat released per mole for each reaction. For the
specific heat capacity of the 2 solids, you use a reasonable estimation if you reason it out.
Lab: Percent Yield
Purpose: To calculate the percent yield of a product
Materials: 100 mL beaker, 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask, funnel, filter paper, stirring rod, watch
glass, 1M CuSO
4
, iron fillings, methanol
Procedure: React 1.00 g of iron with 30 mL of CuSO
4
and calculate the % yield, assuming one of
the products is iron(II) sulfate.
Data/Observations:
Calculations: show all work
Conclusion: State the % yield copper for your reaction.
Reflection Questions:
1. Write the balanced equation for the reaction.
2. How pure was your sample of copper? What did you do (or could you have done) to
find out?
Bonus Question:
1. Calculate the % yield if the products were copper and Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
.
37