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MD. TAREQUR RAHMAN MA, BA, Dept. of English, Jahangirnagar University Lecturer & Writer, Dept. of English, Dhaka Commerce College

Energy Crisis in Bangladesh

Introduction:

Energy is the basis of modern civilisation. We need energy to warm our homes, to cook our meals, to travel and communicate, to power our factories and even to check the emails or messages of our beloved ones. But the problem with energy is that it is in crisis. By energy crisis, we basically mean fuel crisis of natural gas, mineral oil, coal, petroleum etc. In recent days, energy crisis turns out to be the most appalling threat all over the world due to rapid industrialisation and population growth. Supply of energy is, therefore, far less than the actual demand. So the issue of ensuring fuel security becomes the main agenda in many of the countries of the world. As a solution, alternative renewable energy sources have been discovered solar energy, hydro energy, wind energy, nuclear energy, bio energy etc. Ecologist William Rees believes that:-

To avoid a serious energy crisis in coming decades, citizens in the industrial countries should actually be urging their governments to come to international agreement on a persistent, orderly, predictable, and steepening series of oil and natural gas price hikes over the next two decades.

Energy Scenario demand and crisis:

MD. TAREQUR RAHMAN MA, BA, Dept. of English, Jahangirnagar University Lecturer & Writer, Dept. of English,

The figure above shows oil (petroleum), natural gas, coal together supply almost 83% of the world's total energy supply. The rest is supplied by renewable energy nuclear, wind, biomass, hydro and others. If oil production remains constant until it's gone, there is enough to last 42

MD. TAREQUR RAHMAN MA, BA, Dept. of English, Jahangirnagar University Lecturer & Writer, Dept. of English, Dhaka Commerce College

years. Similarly, there is enough natural gas to last 61 years and there is enough coal to last 133 years. Nearly everyone realizes oil, coal and gas will become scarce and expensive soon and hence we must heed to alternative renewable energy.

  • Natural gas:

Natural gas consisting principally of hydrocarbons, is regarded an essential source of fuel in modern world. The volume of total liftable, potential and authenticated reserve of natural gas in the world is about 6,289 trillion cubic feet (Source: Energy Information Administration). The main source of fuel in our country is natural gas. It fills up almost 75% crisis of economic fuel of the country, of which 46% is spent to produce electricity, 21% in manure industries, 11% in household works, 10% in industries and the rest in other sectors (Source: Bangladesh Economic Review 2012 ). The rate of system lost in gas is 20%. Till now, there are 23 gas fields are discovered in our country. Now 80 different wells of 18 gas fields are used to lift gas. In these, the volume of total liftable, potential and proved reserve is about 26,727.50 trillion cubic feet. And till now, the volume of total lifted gas is about 10,131.82 trillion cubic feet. A recent survey of Petro-Bangla says, the total demand of gas of Bangladesh will be about 62,000 trillion cubic feet from 2001 to 2050. Thinking about this huge amount of demand, we must keep talking about alternative energy.

  • Mineral Coal:

Mineral coal is also rich in hydrocarbons. Bituminous and Anthracite are the most well-refined coal types. The volume of total liftable, potential and authenticated reserved coal in the world is about 847 billion tons (Source: Energy Information Administration). According to Bangladesh Economic Review 2012, till now there are 5 coal fields are discovered. Here the volume of total liftable, potential and proved reserve is about 37 trillion cubic feet. Of these 5 fields, only Boropukuria coal field of Dinazpur is used to lift coal. As the rest coal fields are not used, Bangladesh is deprived of huge amount fuel energy.

  • Mineral oil:

Mineral oil is the main source of fuel energy in the world. Like gas and coal, it is also composed of hydrocarbons. After refining it, we can produce petrol, diesel, octane, kerosene etc. The volume of total liftable, potential and proved reserve of mineral oil in the world is about 2.8 trillion barrels (Source: Energy Information Administration). Till now, 3 oil fields are discovered in our country. But at present, the demand of oil in our country is about 45,000 barrel a day. A recent survey of Petro-Bangla says that the volume of total liftable, potential and proved reserve of oil in Bangladesh is about 8.94 lakhs metric tons. But there is no lifting of it till now.

Impact electricity crisis:

Electricity is the heart of modern civilisation. It is largely used in agriculture, mills and industries, institutes, houses etc. Natural gas, mineral oil, coal are used to produce electricity. According to Bangladesh Economic Review 2012, of net production of electricity, 76% is from gas, 18% from oil,

MD. TAREQUR RAHMAN MA, BA, Dept. of English, Jahangirnagar University Lecturer & Writer, Dept. of English, Dhaka Commerce College

3% from coal and 3% from water. Now almost 48.5% of the total population of our country is taken in electricity facility. But the production is far less than the demand. Due to this shortage in the electricity grid, load shedding becomes a regular matter. According to PDB, the daily demand of electricity in our country is 6,200 megawatt whereas the daily production is only 5,200 megawatt. Due to extreme crisis in lifting, producing and refining of natural gas, mineral oil and coal and extreme dependency on import oils along with huge deficit budget, we are at a horrible fuel and electricity crisis.

Remedies alternative renewable energy:

  • Hydro energy:

Hydro energy is very accommodating to environment that supplies most of the electrical power in mountainous countries. It is however limited worldwide by the number of suitable mountains and cannot ever supply more than about 3% of the world’s energy needs. Even the building expenditure is expensive. The only hydroelectricity centre of Bangladesh is situated in Kaptai in Rangamati with a production power of 230 megawatt.

  • Wind energy:

Of the remaining renewable energy sources, wind is the most promising. At the end of the year 2011, there were 1,99,000 wind turbines in the world. (Source: Energy Information Administration) But the limitation of this energy is that it is available only over a limited range of wind velocities. Producing electricity in this process has been increasing 30% a year. There are very few numbers of windmills in Bangladesh which must be increased for national interest.

  • Biomass energy:

Biogas is a colourless inflammable gas which emitted when manure, feces, leaves etc. are mixed with water in the absence of oxygen (O 2 ). The main elements of biogas are methane (CH 4 ), carbon- di-oxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O). In a biogas plant about 60-70% fuel gas and the rest can be used as high quality bio-manure. In our country, biogas is used to supply electricity in electric bulbs, fridges, fans, TV etc. Biogas plant is a very cheap technology.

MD. TAREQUR RAHMAN MA, BA, Dept. of English, Jahangirnagar University Lecturer & Writer, Dept. of English, Dhaka Commerce College

MD. TAREQUR RAHMAN MA, BA, Dept. of English, Jahangirnagar University Lecturer & Writer, Dept. of English,
  • Solar energy:

The solar energy is the unlimited source of energy which transforms thermo-energy into electricity energy. The sun pours energy on to the earth at the average rate of about 200 watts per square metre. Silicon, a partially electropositive material is used to prepare solar cells in which solar energy can be preserved. This process is reasonably economic and is widely used. Till now the producing power of solar electricity is about 65 megawatt in our country. About 60 lakhs people are using solar energy.

  • Nuclear energy:

Nuclear energy can also be a good source of alternative energy. It can be produced from nuclear power generator by using uranium. By controlling the chain reaction of continual fissions of uranium atom, a nuclear reactor produces plenty of thermal energy which helps whirl turbine and this whirling of turbine produces electricity which is transferred far by supply lines. According to the report of IAEA, there are 439 nuclear power plants in the world, operating in 31 countries. As this is very expensive and risky, Bangladesh has not yet seen the light of hope in this sector.

Conclusion:

I would like to end as I began: energy is the root of modern civilisation. To think about the present and future crisis of energy, not only should we preserve and safeguard our natural energy sources oil, coal, gas but also we develop the alternative renewable energy sources nuclear, hydro, solar, biomass, wind etc. In addition to the above mentioned sources, there are some other alternative renewable energy sources such as fossil fuel, hybrid power plant, geothermal energy, oceanic thermo-energy, biodiesel, tidal energy etc. But being not accommodating to the environment of Bangladesh, they are not used here. We must keep in mind what is said in the 18(A) passage entitled “Environment and Bio-diversity Preservation and Development” of the Peoples Republic Constitution of Bangladesh:

MD. TAREQUR RAHMAN MA, BA, Dept. of English, Jahangirnagar University Lecturer & Writer, Dept. of English, Dhaka Commerce College

“the state will contribute to environment preservation and development for present and future citizens and take steps to preserve and safeguard natural resources, bio-diversity, water, forest

and animals.”

Content

  • 1. Introduction

  • 2. Energy Scenario demand and crisis

 
  • Natural gas

  • Mineral coal

  • Mineral oil

  • 3. Impact electricity crisis

  • 4. Remedies alternative renewable energy

Hydro energy

Wind energy

Biomass energy

Solar energy

Nuclear energy

  • 5. conclusion

Word count: 1,440