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Version 1 Revision 0 O & M of GSM (Alcatel)


The Global System for Mobile communications is a i!ital cellular communications system"
#t $as evelo%e in orer to create a common &uro%ean mobile tele%hone stanar but it has
been ra%ily acce%te $orl$ie" GSM $as esi!ne to be com%atible $ith #S'( services"
1.1 History of the Cellular Mobile Raio a! GSM
The iea of cell)base mobile raio systems a%%eare at *ell +aboratories (in ,SA) in the
early 1-.0s" /o$ever0 mobile cellular systems $ere not introuce for commercial use until
the 1-10s" 'urin! the early 1-10s0 analo! cellular tele%hone systems e2%erience a very
ra%i !ro$th in &uro%e0 %articularly in Scaninavia an the ,nite 3in!om" Toay cellular
systems still re%resent one of the fastest !ro$in! telecommunications systems"
*ut in the be!innin!s of cellular systems0 each country evelo%e its o$n system0 $hich $as
an unesirable situation for the follo$in! reasons4
The e5ui%ment $as limite to o%erate only $ithin the bounaries of each country"
The mar6et for each mobile e5ui%ment $as limite"
#n orer to overcome these %roblems0 the 7onference of &uro%ean 8osts an
Telecommunications (7&8T) forme0 in 1-190 the Grou% S%ecial Mobile (GSM) in orer to
evelo% a %an)&uro%ean mobile cellular raio system (the GSM acronym became later the
acronym for Global System for Mobile communications)" The stanari:e system ha to
meet certain criteria4
S%ectrum efficiency
#nternational roamin!
+o$ mobile an base stations costs
Goo sub;ective voice 5uality
7om%atibility $ith other systems such as #S'( (#nte!rate Services 'i!ital (et$or6)
Ability to su%%ort ne$ services
,nli6e the e2istin! cellular systems0 $hich $ere evelo%e usin! an analo! technolo!y0 the
GSM system $as evelo%e usin! a i!ital technolo!y"
#n 1-1- the res%onsibility for the GSM s%ecifications %asse from the 7&8T to the &uro%ean
Telecommunications Stanars #nstitute (&TS#)" The aim of the GSM s%ecifications is to
escribe the functionality an the interface for each com%onent of the system0 an to %rovie
!uiance on the esi!n of the system" These s%ecifications $ill then stanari:e the system in
orer to !uarantee the %ro%er inter)$or6in! bet$een the ifferent elements of the GSM
system" #n 1--00 the %hase # of the GSM s%ecifications $as %ublishe but the commercial use
of GSM i not start until mi)1--1" The most im%ortant events in the evelo%ment of the
GSM system are %resente in the table 1"
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=ear &vents
7&8T establishes a GSM !rou% in orer to evelo% the stanars for a %an)
&uro%ean cellular mobile system
1-1> Ao%tion of a list of recommenations to be !enerate by the !rou%
@iel tests $ere %erforme in orer to test the ifferent raio techni5ues
%ro%ose for the air interface
T'MA is chosen as access metho (in fact0 it $ill be use $ith @'MA) #nitial
Memoranum of ,nerstanin! (Mo,) si!ne by telecommunication
o%erators (re%resentin! 19 countries)
1-11 Valiation of the GSM system
1-1- The res%onsibility of the GSM s%ecifications is %asse to the &TS#
1--0 A%%earance of the %hase 1 of the GSM s%ecifications
1--1 7ommercial launch of the GSM service
&nlar!ement of the countries that si!ne the GSM) Mo,A 7overa!e of lar!er
1--C 7overa!e of main roas GSM services start outsie &uro%e
1--> 8hase 9 of the GSM s%ecifications 7overa!e of rural areas
Table 1: Events in the development of GSM
@rom the evolution of GSM0 it is clear that GSM is not anymore only a &uro%ean stanar"
GSM net$or6s are o%erational or %lanne in over 10 countries aroun the $orl" The ra%i
an increasin! acce%tance of the GSM system is illustrate $ith the follo$in! fi!ures4
1"C million GSM subscribers $orl$ie in the be!innin! of 1--D"
Over > million GSM subscribers $orl$ie in the be!innin! of 1-->"
Over 10 million GSM subscribers only in &uro%e by 'ecember 1-->"
Since the a%%earance of GSM0 other i!ital mobile systems have been evelo%e" The table 9
charts the ifferent mobile cellular systems evelo%e since the commercial launch of cellular
=ear Mobile 7ellular System
1-11 (oric Mobile Tele%hony ((MT)0 D>0A
1-1C American Mobile 8hone System (AM8S)
1-1> Total Access 7ommunication System (TA7S) Raiocom 9000 7)(et:
1-1? (oric Mobile Tele%hony ((MT)0 -00A
Global System for Mobile communicationsA (orth American 'i!ital 7ellular
1--9 'i!ital 7ellular System ('7S) 1100
1--D 8ersonal 'i!ital 7ellular (8'7) or <a%anese 'i!ital 7ellular (<'7)
1--> 8ersonal 7ommunications Systems (87S) 1-00) 7anaaA
1--? 87S),nite States of AmericaA
Table 2: Mobile cellular systems
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1." Cellular Syste#s
1.".1 The Cellular Stru$ture
#n a cellular system0 the coverin! area of an o%erator is ivie into cells" A cell corres%ons
to the coverin! area of one transmitter or a small collection of transmitters" The si:e of a cell
is etermine by the transmitterEs %o$er"
The conce%t of cellular systems is the use of lo$ %o$er transmitters in orer to enable the
efficient reuse of the fre5uencies" #n fact0 if the transmitters use are very %o$erful0 the
fre5uencies can not be reuse for hunre of 6ilometers as they are limite to the coverin!
area of the transmitter"
The fre5uency ban allocate to a cellular mobile raio system is istribute over a !rou% of
cells an this istribution is re%eate in all the coverin! area of an o%erator" The $hole
number of raio channels available can then be use in each !rou% of cells that form the
coverin! area of an o%erator" @re5uencies use in a cell $ill be reuse several cells a$ay" The
istance bet$een the cells usin! the same fre5uency must be sufficient to avoi interference"
The fre5uency reuse $ill increase consierably the ca%acity in number of users"
#n orer to $or6 %ro%erly0 a cellular system must verify the follo$in! t$o main conitions4
The %o$er level of a transmitter $ithin a sin!le cell must be limite in orer to reuce
the interference $ith the transmitters of nei!hborin! cells" The interference $ill not
%rouce any ama!e to the system if a istance of about 9"> to C times the iameter of
a cell is reserve bet$een transmitters" The receiver filters must also be very
(ei!hborin! cells can not share the same channels" #n orer to reuce the interference0
the fre5uencies must be reuse only $ithin a certain %attern"
#n orer to e2chan!e the information neee to maintain the communication lin6s $ithin the
cellular net$or60 several raio channels are reserve for the si!nalin! information"
1."." Cluster
The cells are !rou%e into clusters" The number of cells in a cluster must be etermine so
that the cluster can be re%eate continuously $ithin the coverin! area of an o%erator" The
ty%ical clusters contain D0 .0 19 or 91 cells" The number of cells in each cluster is very
im%ortant" The smaller the number of cells %er cluster is0 the bi!!er the number of channels
%er cell $ill be" The ca%acity of each cell $ill be therefore increase" /o$ever a balance
must be foun in orer to avoi the interference that coul occur bet$een nei!hborin!
clusters" This interference is %rouce by the small si:e of the clusters (the si:e of the cluster
is efine by the number of cells %er cluster)" The total number of channels %er cell e%ens
on the number of available channels an the ty%e of cluster use"
1.".% Ty&es Of Cells
The ensity of %o%ulation in a country is so varie that ifferent ty%es of cells are use4
1.".%.1 Ma$ro $ells
The macro cells are lar!e cells for remote an s%arsely %o%ulate areas
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1.".%." Mi$ro $ells
These cells are use for ensely %o%ulate areas" *y s%littin! the e2istin! areas into smaller
cells0 the number of channels available is increase as $ell as the ca%acity of the cells" The
%o$er level of the transmitters use in these cells is then ecrease0 reucin! the %ossibility
of interference bet$een nei!hborin! cells"
1.".%.% Sele$ti'e $ells
#t is not al$ays useful to efine a cell $ith a full covera!e of C?0 e!rees" #n some cases0
cells $ith a %articular sha%e an covera!e are neee" These cells are calle selective cells"
Ty%ical e2am%les of selective cells are the cells that may be locate at the entrances of
tunnels $here covera!e of C?0 e!rees is not neee" #n this case0 a selective cell $ith
covera!e of 190 e!rees is use"
1.".%.( U#brella $ells
A free$ay crossin! very small cells %rouces an im%ortant number of hanovers amon! the
ifferent small nei!hborin! cells" #n orer to solve this %roblem0 the conce%t of umbrella cells
is introuce" An umbrella cell covers several micro cells" The %o$er level insie an umbrella
cell is increase com%arin! to the %o$er levels use in the micro cells that form the umbrella
cell" Fhen the s%ee of the mobile is too hi!h0 the mobile is hane off to the umbrella cell"
The mobile $ill then stay lon!er in the same cell (in this case the umbrella cell)" This $ill
reuce the number of hanovers an the $or6 of the net$or6"
A too im%ortant number of hanover emans an the %ro%a!ation characteristics of a mobile
can hel% to etect its hi!h s%ee"
1.% The Tra!sitio! )ro# A!alo* To Di*ital Te$h!olo*y
#n the 1-10s most mobile cellular systems $ere base on analo! systems" The GSM system
can be consiere as the first i!ital cellular system" The ifferent reasons that e2%lain this
transition from analo! to i!ital technolo!y are %resente in this section"
1.%.1 The Ca&a$ity of the Syste#
As it is e2%laine in section 10 cellular systems have e2%erience a very im%ortant !ro$th"
Analo! systems $ere not able to co%e $ith this increasin! eman" #n orer to overcome this
%roblem0 ne$ fre5uency bans an ne$ technolo!ies $ere %ro%ose" *ut the %ossibility of
usin! ne$ fre5uency bans $as re;ecte by a bi! number of countries because of the
restricte s%ectrum (even if later on0 other fre5uency bans have been allocate for the
evelo%ment of mobile cellular raio)" The ne$ analo! technolo!ies %ro%ose $ere able to
overcome the %roblem to a certain e!ree but the costs $ere too im%ortant"
The i!ital raio $as0 therefore0 the best o%tion (but not the %erfect one) to hanle the
ca%acity nees in a cost)efficiency $ay"
1.%." Co#&atibility +ith other Syste#s su$h as ISDN
The ecision of ao%tin! a i!ital technolo!y for GSM $as mae in the course of evelo%in!
the stanar" 'urin! the evelo%ment of GSM0 the telecommunications inustry converte to
i!ital methos" The #S'( net$or6 is an e2am%le of this evolution" #n orer to ma6e GSM
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com%atible $ith the services offere by #S'(0 it $as ecie that the i!ital technolo!y $as
the best o%tion"
Aitionally0 a i!ital system allo$s0 easily than an analo! one0 the im%lementation of future
im%rovements an the chan!e of its o$n characteristics"
1.%.% As&e$ts of ,uality
The 5uality of the service can be consierably im%rove usin! a i!ital technolo!y rather
than an analo! one" #n fact0 analo! systems %ass the %hysical isturbances in raio
transmission (such as faes0 multi)%ath rece%tion0 s%urious si!nals or interferences) to the
receiver" These isturbances ecrease the 5uality of the communication because they %rouce
effects such as faeouts0 cross)tal6s0 hisses0 etc" On the other han0 i!ital systems avoi
these effects transformin! the si!nal into bits" These transformations combine $ith other
techni5ues0 such as i!ital coin!0 im%rove the 5uality of the transmission" The im%rovement
of i!ital systems com%arin! to analo! systems is more noticeable uner ifficult rece%tion
conitions than uner !oo rece%tion conitions"
1.( The GSM Net+or-
1.(.1 Ar$hite$ture of the GSM Net+or-
The GSM technical s%ecifications efine the ifferent entities that form the GSM net$or6 by
efinin! their functions an interface re5uirements"
The GSM net$or6 can be ivie into four main %arts4
The architecture of the GSM net$or6 is %resente in fi!ure 1"
)i* . 1 Architecture of the GSM net$or6
1.(.1.1 Mobile Statio!
A Mobile Station consists of t$o main elements4
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*S7 /+R
*TS A,7
V+Rs V+R
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1"D"1"1"1 The Terminal
There are ifferent ty%es of terminals istin!uishe %rinci%ally by their %o$er an
The Gfi2eE terminals are the ones installe in cars" Their ma2imum allo$e out%ut
%o$er is 90 F"
The GSM %ortable terminals can also be installe in vehicles" Their ma2imum
allo$e out%ut %o$er is 1F"
The hanhel terminals have e2%erience the bi!!est success than6s to the $ei!ht
an volume0 $hich are continuously ecreasin!" These terminals can emit u% to 9
F" The evolution of technolo!ies allo$s ecreasin! the ma2imum allo$e %o$er
to 0"1 F"
1"D"1"1"9 The S#M
The S#M is a smart car that ientifies the terminal" *y insertin! the S#M car into the
terminal0 the user can have access to all the subscribe services" Fithout the S#M car0 the
terminal is not o%erational"
The S#M car is %rotecte by a four)i!it 8ersonal #entification (umber (8#()" #n orer to
ientify the subscriber to the system0 the S#M car contains some %arameters of the user such
as its #nternational Mobile Subscriber #entity (#MS#)"
Another avanta!e of the S#M car is the mobility of the users" #n fact0 the only element that
%ersonali:es a terminal is the S#M car" Therefore0 the user can have access to its subscribe
services in any terminal usin! its S#M car"
1.(.1." The /ase Statio! Subsyste#
The *SS connects the Mobile Station an the (SS" #t is in char!e of the transmission an
rece%tion" The *SS can be ivie into t$o %arts4
1"D"1"9"1 The *ase Transceiver Station
The *TS corres%ons to the transceivers an antennas use in each cell of the net$or6" A
*TS is usually %lace in the center of a cell" #ts transmittin! %o$er efines the si:e of a cell"
&ach *TS has bet$een one an si2teen transceivers e%enin! on the ensity of users in the
1"D"1"9"9 The *ase Station 7ontroller
The *S7 controls a !rou% of *TS an mana!es their raio resources" A *S7 is %rinci%ally in
char!e of hanovers0 fre5uency ho%%in!0 e2chan!e functions an control of the raio
fre5uency %o$er levels of the *TSs"
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1.(.1.% The Net+or- a! S+it$hi!* Subsyste#
#ts main role is to mana!e the communications bet$een the mobile users an other users0
such as mobile users0 #S'( users0 fi2e tele%hony users0 etc" #t also inclues ata bases
neee in orer to store information about the subscribers an to mana!e their mobility" The
ifferent com%onents of the (SS are escribe belo$"
1"D"1"C"1 The Mobile services S$itchin! 7enter (MS7)
#t is the central com%onent of the (SS" The MS7 %erforms the s$itchin! functions of the
net$or6" #t also %rovies connection to other net$or6s"
1"D"1"C"9 The Gate$ay Mobile services S$itchin! 7enter (GMS7)
A !ate$ay is a noe interconnectin! t$o net$or6s" The GMS7 is the interface bet$een the
mobile cellular net$or6 an the 8ST(" #t is in char!e of routin! calls from the fi2e net$or6
to$ars a GSM user" The GMS7 is often im%lemente in the same machines as the MS7"
1"D"1"C"C /ome +ocation Re!ister (/+R)
The /+R is consiere as a very im%ortant atabase that stores information of the subscribers
belon!in! to the coverin! area of a MS7" #t also stores the current location of these
subscribers an the services to $hich they have access" The location of the subscriber
corres%ons to the SS. aress of the Visitor +ocation Re!ister (V+R) associate to the
1"D"1"C"D Visitor +ocation Re!ister (V+R)
The V+R contains information from a subscriberEs /+R necessary in orer to %rovie the
subscribe services to visitin! users" Fhen a subscriber enters the coverin! area of a ne$
MS70 the V+R associate to this MS7 $ill re5uest information about the ne$ subscriber to
its corres%onin! /+R" The V+R $ill then have enou!h information in orer to assure the
subscribe services $ithout neein! to as6 the /+R each time a communication is
The V+R is al$ays im%lemente to!ether $ith a MS7H so the area uner control of the MS7
is also the area uner control of the V+R"
1"D"1"C"> The Authentication 7enter (Au7)
The Au7 re!ister is use for security %ur%oses" #t %rovies the %arameters neee for
authentication an encry%tion functions" These %arameters hel% to verify the userEs ientity"
1"D"1"C"? The &5ui%ment #entity Re!ister (&#R)
The &#R is also use for security %ur%oses" #t is a re!ister containin! information about the
mobile e5ui%ments" More %articularly0 it contains a list of all vali terminals" A terminal is
ientifie by its #nternational Mobile &5ui%ment #entity (#M&#)" The &#R allo$s then to
forbi calls from stolen or unauthori:e terminals (e"!"0 a terminal $hich oes not res%ect the
s%ecifications concernin! the out%ut R@ %o$er)"
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1"D"1"C". The GSM #nter)$or6in! ,nit (G#F,)
The G#F, corres%ons to an interface to various net$or6s for ata communications" 'urin!
these communications0 the transmission of s%eech an ata can be alternate"
1.(.1.( The O&eratio! a! Su&&ort Subsyste# 0OSS1
The OSS is connecte to the ifferent com%onents of the (SS an to the *S70 in orer to
control an monitor the GSM system" #t is also in char!e of controllin! the traffic loa of the
/o$ever0 the increasin! number of base stations0 ue to the evelo%ment of cellular raio
net$or6s0 has %rovo6e that some of the maintenance tas6s are transferre to the *TS" This
transfer ecreases consierably the costs of the maintenance of the system"
1.(." The *eo*ra&hi$al areas of the GSM !et+or-
The fi!ure 9 %resents the ifferent areas that form a GSM net$or6"

)i* . " GSM net$or6 areas
As it has alreay been e2%laine a cell0 ientifie by its 7ell Global #entity number (7G#)0
corres%ons to the raio covera!e of a base transceiver station" A +ocation Area (+A)0
ientifie by its +ocation Area #entity (+A#) number0 is a !rou% of cells serve by a sin!le
MS7BV+R" A !rou% of location areas uner the control of the same MS7BV+R efines the
MS7BV+R area" A 8ublic +an Mobile (et$or6 (8+M() is the area serve by one net$or6
1.(.% The GSM fu!$tio!s
#n this %ara!ra%h0 the escri%tion of the GSM net$or6 is focuse on the ifferent functions to
fulfill by the net$or6 an not on its %hysical com%onents" #n GSM0 five main functions can
be efine4
1.(.%.1 Tra!s#issio!
The transmission function inclues t$o sub)functions4
The first one is relate to the means neee for the transmission of user information"
The secon one is relate to the means neee for the transmission of si!nalin!
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(ot all the com%onents of the GSM net$or6 are stron!ly relate $ith the transmission
functions" The MS0 the *TS an the *S70 amon! others0 are ee%ly concerne $ith
transmission" *ut other com%onents0 such as the re!isters /+R0 V+R or &#R0 are only
concerne $ith the transmission for their si!nalin! nees $ith other com%onents of the GSM
net$or6" Some of the most im%ortant as%ects of the transmission are escribe in section >"
1.(.%." Raio Resour$es #a!a*e#e!t 0RR1
The role of the RR function is to establish0 maintain an release communication lin6s
bet$een mobile stations an the MS7" The elements that are mainly concerne $ith the RR
function are the mobile station an the base station" /o$ever0 as the RR function is also in
char!e of maintainin! a connection even if the user moves from one cell to another0 the MS70
in char!e of hanovers0 is also concerne $ith the RR functions"
The RR is also res%onsible for the mana!ement of the fre5uency s%ectrum an the reaction of
the net$or6 to chan!in! raio environment conitions" Some of the main RR %roceures that
assure its res%onsibilities are4
7hannel assi!nment0 chan!e an release"
@re5uency ho%%in!"
8o$er)level control"
'iscontinuous transmission an rece%tion"
Timin! avance"
Some of these %roceures are escribe in section >" #n this %ara!ra%h only the hanover0
$hich re%resents one of the most im%ortant res%onsibilities of the RR0 is escribe"
1"D"C"9"1 /anover
The user movements can %rouce the nee to chan!e the channel or cell0 es%ecially $hen the
5uality of the communication is ecreasin!" This %roceure of chan!in! the resources is
calle hanover" @our ifferent ty%es of hanovers can be istin!uishe4
/anover of channels in the same cell"
/anover of cells controlle by the same *S7"
/anover of cells belon!in! to the same MS7 but controlle by ifferent *S7s"
/anover of cells controlle by ifferent MS7s"
/anovers are mainly controlle by the MS7" /o$ever in orer to avoi unnecessary
si!nalin! information0 the first t$o ty%es of hanovers are mana!e by the concerne *S7
(in this case0 the MS7 is only notifie of the hanover)"
The mobile station is the active %artici%ant in this %roceure" #n orer to %erform the
hanover0 the mobile station controls continuously its o$n si!nal stren!th an the si!nal
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stren!th of the nei!hborin! cells" The list of cells that must be monitore by the mobile
station is !iven by the base station" The %o$er measurements allo$ eciin! $hich the best
cell is in orer to maintain the 5uality of the communication lin6" T$o basic al!orithms are
use for the hanover4
The Gminimum acce%table %erformanceE al!orithm" Fhen the 5uality of the
transmission ecreases (i"e" the si!nal is eteriorate)0 the %o$er level of the mobile is
increase" This is one until the increase of the %o$er level has no effect on the
5uality of the si!nal" Fhen this ha%%ens0 a hanover is %erforme"
The G%o$er bu!etE al!orithm" This al!orithm %erforms a hanover0 instea of
continuously increasin! the %o$er level0 in orer to obtain a !oo communication
1.(.%.% Mobility Ma!a*e#e!t
The MM function is in char!e of all the as%ects relate $ith the mobility of the user0 s%ecially
the location mana!ement an the authentication an security"
1"D"C"C"1 +ocation mana!ement
Fhen a mobile station is %o$ere on0 it %erforms a location u%ate %roceure by inicatin!
its #MS# to the net$or6" The first location u%ate %roceure is calle the #MS# attach
The mobile station also %erforms location u%atin!0 in orer to inicate its current location0
$hen it moves to a ne$ +ocation Area or a ifferent 8+M(" This location u%atin! messa!e
is sent to the ne$ MS7BV+R0 $hich !ives the location information to the subscriberEs /+R"
#f the mobile station is authori:e in the ne$ MS7BV+R0 the subscriberEs /+R cancels the
re!istration of the mobile station $ith the ol MS7BV+R"
A location u%atin! is also %erforme %erioically" #f after the u%atin! time %erio0 the
mobile station has not re!istere0 it is then ere!istere"
Fhen a mobile station is %o$ere off0 it %erforms an #MS# etach %roceure in orer to tell
the net$or6 that it is no lon!er connecte"
1"D"C"C"9 Authentication an security
The authentication %roceure involves the S#M car an the Authentication 7enter" A secret
6ey0 store in the S#M car an the Au70 an a ci%herin! al!orithm calle AC are use in
orer to verify the authenticity of the user" The mobile station an the Au7 com%ute a SR&S
usin! the secret 6ey0 the al!orithm AC an a ranom number !enerate by the Au7" #f the t$o
com%ute SR&S are the same0 the subscriber is authenticate" The ifferent services to $hich
the subscriber has access are also chec6e"
Another security %roceure is to chec6 the e5ui%ment ientity" #f the #M&# number of the
mobile is authori:e in the &#R0 the mobile station is allo$e to connect the net$or6"
#n orer to assure user confientiality0 the user is re!istere $ith a Tem%orary Mobile
Subscriber #entity (TMS#) after its first location u%ate %roceure"
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&nci%herin! is another o%tion to !uarantee a very stron! security but this %roceure is !oin!
to be escribe in section >"
1.(.%.( Co##u!i$atio! Ma!a*e#e!t 0CM1
The 7M function is res%onsible for4
o 7all control"
o Su%%lementary Services mana!ement"
o Short Messa!e Services mana!ement"
1"D"C"D"1 7all 7ontrol (77)
The 77 is res%onsible for call establishin!0 maintainin! an releasin! as $ell as for selectin!
the ty%e of service" One of the most im%ortant functions of the 77 is the call routin!" #n orer
to reach a mobile subscriber0 a user ials the Mobile Subscriber #S'( (MS#S'() number0
$hich inclues4
a country coe
a national estination coe ientifyin! the subscriberEs o%erator
a coe corres%onin! to the subscriberEs /+R
The call is then %asse to the GMS7 (if the call is ori!inate from a fi2e net$or6) $hich
6no$s the /+R corres%onin! to a certain M#S'( number" The GMS7 as6s the /+R for
information hel%in! to the call routin!" The /+R re5uests this information from the
subscriberEs current V+R" This V+R allocates tem%orarily a Mobile Station Roamin! (umber
(MSR() for the call" The MSR( number is the information returne by the /+R to the
GMS7" Than6s to the MSR( number0 the call is route to subscriberEs current MS7BV+R" #n
the subscriberEs current +A0 the mobile is %a!e"
1"D"C"D"9 Su%%lementary Services mana!ement
The mobile station an the /+R are the only com%onents of the GSM net$or6 involve $ith
this function" The ifferent Su%%lementary Services (SS) to $hich the users have access are
%resente in section ?"C"
1"D"C"D"C Short Messa!e Services mana!ement
#n orer to su%%ort these services0 a GSM net$or6 is in contact $ith a Short Messa!e Service
7enter throu!h the t$o follo$in! interfaces4
The SMS)GMS7 for Mobile Terminatin! Short Messa!es (SMS)MTB88)" #t has the
same role as the GMS7"
The SMS)#FMS7 for Mobile Ori!inatin! Short Messa!es (SMS)MOB88)"
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1.(.%.2 O&eratio!3 A#i!istratio! a! Mai!te!a!$e 0OAM1
The OAM function allo$s the o%erator to monitor an control the system as $ell as to
moify the confi!uration of the elements of the system" (ot only the OSS is %art of the
OAM0 also the *SS an (SS %artici%ate in its functions as it is sho$n in the follo$in!
The com%onents of the *SS an (SS %rovie the o%erator $ith all the information it
nees" This information is then %asse to the OSS $hich is in char!e of analy:in! it
an control the net$or6"
The self test tas6s0 usually incor%orate in the com%onents of the *SS an (SS0 also
contribute to the OAM functions"
The *S70 in char!e of controllin! several *TSs0 is another e2am%le of an OAM
function %erforme outsie the OSS"
1.2 The GSM Raio I!terfa$e
The raio interface is the interface bet$een the mobile stations an the fi2e infrastructure" #t
is one of the most im%ortant interfaces of the GSM system"
One of the main ob;ectives of GSM is roamin!" Therefore0 in orer to obtain a com%lete
com%atibility bet$een mobile stations an net$or6s of ifferent manufacturers an o%erators0
the raio interface must be com%letely efine"
The s%ectrum efficiency e%ens on the raio interface an the transmission0 more
%articularly in as%ects such as the ca%acity of the system an the techni5ues use in orer to
ecrease the interference an to im%rove the fre5uency reuse scheme" The s%ecification of the
raio interface has then an im%ortant influence on the s%ectrum efficiency"
1.2.1 )re4ue!$y Allo$atio!
T$o fre5uency bans0 of 9> M/: each one0 have been allocate for the GSM system4
The ban 1-0)-1> M/: has been allocate for the u%lin6 irection (transmittin! from
the mobile station to the base station)"
The ban -C>)-?0 M/: has been allocate for the o$nlin6 irection (transmittin!
from the base station to the mobile station)"
*ut not all the countries can use the $hole GSM fre5uency bans" This is ue %rinci%ally to
military reasons an to the e2istence of %revious analo! systems usin! %art of the t$o 9>
M/: fre5uency bans"
The fi!ure D %resents the ifferent o%erations that have to be %erforme in orer to %ass from
the s%eech source to raio $aves an vice versa"
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1.2.".1 S&ee$h $oi!*
The transmission of s%eech is0 at the moment0 the most im%ortant service of a mobile cellular
system" The GSM s%eech coec0 $hich $ill transform the analo! si!nal (voice) into a i!ital
re%resentation0 has to meet the follo$in! criteria4
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)i* . % @rom s%eech source to raio $aves

#f the source of information is ata an not s%eech0 the s%eech coin! $ill not be %erforme
A !oo s%eech 5uality0 at least as !oo as the one obtaine $ith %revious cellular
To reuce the reunancy in the souns of the voice" This reuction is essential ue to
the limite ca%acity of transmission of a raio channel"
The s%eech coec must not be very com%le2 because com%le2ity is e5uivalent to hi!h
The final choice for the GSM s%eech coec is a coec name R8&)+T8 (Re!ular 8ulse
&2citation +on!)Term 8reiction)" This coec uses the information from %revious sam%les
(this information oes not chan!e very 5uic6ly) in orer to %reict the current sam%le" The
s%eech si!nal is ivie into bloc6s of 90 ms" These bloc6s are then %asse to the s%eech
coec0 $hich has a rate of 1C 6b%s0 in orer to obtain bloc6s of 9?0 bits"
1.2."." Cha!!el $oi!*
7hannel coin! as reunancy bits to the ori!inal information in orer to etect an
correct0 if %ossible0 errors occurre urin! the transmission"
1">"9"9"1 7hannel coin! for the GSM ata T7/ channels
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The channel coin! is %erforme usin! t$o coes4 a bloc6 coe an a convolution coe"
The bloc6 coe corres%ons to the bloc6 coe efine in the GSM Recommenations 0>"0C"
The bloc6 coe receives an in%ut bloc6 of 9D0 bits an as four :ero tail bits at the en of
the in%ut bloc6" The out%ut of the bloc6 coe is conse5uently a bloc6 of 9DD bits"
A convolution coe as reunancy bits in orer to %rotect the information" A convolution
encoer contains memory" This %ro%erty ifferentiates a convolution coe from a bloc6 coe"
A convolution coe can be efine by three variables4 n0 6 an 3" The value n corres%ons to
the number of bits at the out%ut of the encoer0 6 to the number of bits at the in%ut of the
bloc6 an 3 to the memory of the encoer" The ratio0 R0 of the coe is efine as follo$s4 R
I 6Bn" +etEs consier a convolution coe $ith the follo$in! values4 6 is e5ual to 10 n to 9 an
3 to >" This convolution coe uses then a rate of R I 1B9 an a elay of 3 I >0 $hich means
that it $ill a a reunant bit for each in%ut bit" The convolution coe uses > consecutive
bits in orer to com%ute the reunancy bit" As the convolution coe is a 1B9 rate convolution
coe0 a bloc6 of D11 bits is !enerate" These D11 bits are %uncture in orer to %rouce a
bloc6 of D>? bits" Thirty t$o bits0 obtaine as follo$s0 are not transmitte4
7 (11 J 1> ;) for ; I 00 10 C1
The bloc6 of D>? bits %rouce by the convolution coe is then %asse to the interleaver"
1">"9"9"9 7hannel coin! for the GSM s%eech channels
*efore a%%lyin! the channel coin!0 the 9?0 bits of a GSM s%eech frame are ivie in three
ifferent classes accorin! to their function an im%ortance" The most im%ortant class is the
class #a containin! >0 bits" (e2t in im%ortance is the class #b0 $hich contains 1C9 bits" The
least im%ortant is the class ##0 $hich contains the remainin! .1 bits" The ifferent classes are
coe ifferently" @irst of all0 the class #a bits are bloc6)coe" Three %arity bits0 use for
error etection0 are ae to the >0 class #a bits" The resultant >C bits are ae to the class #b
bits" @our :ero bits are ae to this bloc6 of 11> bits (>0JCJ1C9)" A convolution coe0 $ith r
I 1B9 an 3 I >0 is then a%%lie0 obtainin! an out%ut bloc6 of C.1 bits" The class ## bits are
ae0 $ithout any %rotection0 to the out%ut bloc6 of the convolution coer" An out%ut bloc6
of D>? bits is finally obtaine"
1">"9"9"C 7hannel coin! for the GSM control channels
#n GSM the si!nalin! information is ;ust containe in 11D bits" @orty %arity bits0 obtaine
usin! a fire coe0 an four :ero bits are ae to the 11D bits before a%%lyin! the convolution
coe (r I 1B9 an 3 I >)" The out%ut of the convolution coe is then a bloc6 of D>? bits0
$hich oes not nee to be %uncture"
1.2.".% I!terlea'i!*
An interleavin! rearran!es a !rou% of bits in a %articular $ay" #t is use in combination $ith
@&7 coes in orer to im%rove the %erformance of the error correction mechanisms" The
interleavin! ecreases the %ossibility of losin! $hole bursts urin! the transmission0 by
is%ersin! the errors" *ein! the errors less concentrate0 it is then easier to correct them"
1">"9"C"1 #nterleavin! for the GSM control channels
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A burst in GSM transmits t$o bloc6s of >. ata bits each" Therefore the D>? bits
corres%onin! to the out%ut of the channel coer fit into four bursts (DK11D I D>?)" The D>?
bits are ivie into ei!ht bloc6s of >. bits" The first bloc6 of >. bits contains the bit numbers
(00 10 1?0DD1)0 the secon one the bit numbers (10 -0 1.0D>>)" The first four bloc6s of >. bits
are %lace in the even)numbere bits of four bursts" The other four bloc6s of >. bits are
%lace in the o)numbere bits of the same four bursts" Therefore the interleavin! e%th of
the GSM interleavin! for control channels is four an a ne$ ata bloc6 starts every four
bursts" The interleaver for control channels is calle a bloc6 rectan!ular interleaver"
1">"9"C"9 #nterleavin! for the GSM s%eech channels
The bloc6 of D>? bits0 obtaine after the channel coin!0 is then ivie in ei!ht bloc6s of >.
bits in the same $ay as it is e2%laine in the %revious %ara!ra%h" *ut these ei!ht bloc6s of >.
bits are istribute ifferently" The first four bloc6s of >. bits are %lace in the even)
numbere bits of four consecutive bursts" The other four bloc6s of >. bits are %lace in the
o)numbere bits of the ne2t four bursts" The interleavin! e%th of the GSM interleavin! for
s%eech channels is then ei!ht" A ne$ ata bloc6 also starts every four bursts" The interleaver
for s%eech channels is calle a bloc6 ia!onal interleaver"
1">"9"C"C #nterleavin! for the GSM ata T7/ channels
A %articular interleavin! scheme0 $ith an interleavin! e%th e5ual to 990 is a%%lie to the
bloc6 of D>? bits obtaine after the channel coin!" The bloc6 is ivie into 1? bloc6s of 9D
bits each0 9 bloc6s of 11 bits each0 9 bloc6s of 19 bits each an 9 bloc6s of ? bits each" #t is
s%rea over 99 bursts in the follo$in! $ay4
the first an the t$enty)secon bursts carry one bloc6 of ? bits each
the secon an the t$enty)first bursts carry one bloc6 of 19 bits each
the thir an the t$entieth bursts carry one bloc6 of 11 bits each
from the fourth to the nineteenth burst0 a bloc6 of 9D bits is %lace in each burst
A burst $ill then carry information from five or si2 consecutive ata bloc6s" The ata bloc6s
are sai to be interleave ia!onally" A ne$ ata bloc6 starts every four bursts"
1.2.".( /urst asse#bli!*
The burst assemblin! %roceure is in char!e of !rou%in! the bits into bursts" Section >"9"C
%resents the ifferent bursts structures an escribes in etail the structure of the normal
1.2.".2 Ci&heri!*
7i%herin! is use to %rotect si!nalin! an user ata" @irst of all0 a ci%herin! 6ey is com%ute
usin! the al!orithm A1 store on the S#M car0 the subscriber 6ey an a ranom number
elivere by the net$or6 (this ranom number is the same as the one use for the
authentication %roceure)" Seconly0 a 11D bit se5uence is %rouce usin! the ci%herin! 6ey0
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an al!orithm calle A> an the burst numbers" This bit se5uence is then LORe $ith the t$o
>. bit bloc6s of ata inclue in a normal burst"
#n orer to eci%her correctly0 the receiver has to use the same al!orithm A> for the
eci%herin! %roceure"
1.2.".7 Moulatio!
The moulation chosen for the GSM system is the Gaussian Moulation Shift 3eyin!
The aim of this section is not to escribe %recisely the GMS3 moulation as it is too lon! an
it im%lies the %resentation of too many mathematical conce%ts" Therefore0 only brief as%ects
of the GMS3 moulation are %resente in this section"
The GMS3 moulation has been chosen as a com%romise bet$een s%ectrum efficiency0
com%le2ity an lo$ s%urious raiations (that reuce the %ossibilities of a;acent channel
interference)" The GMS3 moulation has a rate of 9.0 >B? 6baus an a *T %rouct e5ual to
0"C" @i!ure > %resents the %rinci%le of a GMS3 moulator"

)i* . ( GMS3 moulator
This is another as%ect of GSM that coul have been inclue as one of the re5uirements of
the GSM s%eech coec" The function of the 'TL is to sus%en the raio transmission urin!
the silence %erios" This can become 5uite interestin! if $e ta6e into consieration the fact
that a %erson s%ea6s less than D0 or >0 %ercent urin! a conversation" The 'TL hel%s then to
reuce interference bet$een ifferent cells an to increase the ca%acity of the system" #t also
e2tens the life of a mobileEs battery" The 'TL function is %erforme than6s to t$o main
The Voice Activity 'etection (VA')0 $hich has to etermine $hether the soun
re%resents s%eech or noise0 even if the bac6!roun noise is very im%ortant" #f the
voice si!nal is consiere as noise0 the transmitter is turne off %roucin! then0 an
un%leasant effect calle cli%%in!"
The comfort noise" An inconvenient of the 'TL function is that $hen the si!nal is
consiere as noise0 the transmitter is turne off an therefore0 a total silence is hear
at the receiver" This can be very annoyin! to the user at the rece%tion because it seems
that the connection is ea" #n orer to overcome this %roblem0 the receiver creates a
minimum of bac6!roun noise calle comfort noise" The comfort noise eliminates the
im%ression that the connection is ea"
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The timin! of the bursts transmissions is very im%ortant" Mobiles are at ifferent istances
from the base stations" Their elay e%ens0 conse5uently0 on their istance" The aim of the
timin! avance is that the si!nals comin! from the ifferent mobile stations arrive to the base
station at the ri!ht time" The base station measures the timin! elay of the mobile stations" #f
the bursts corres%onin! to a mobile station arrive too late an overla% $ith other bursts0 the
base station tells0 this mobile0 to avance the transmission of its bursts"
1.2.2 9o+er Co!trol
At the same time the base stations %erform the timin! measurements0 they also %erform
measurements on the %o$er level of the ifferent mobile stations" These %o$er levels are
a;uste so that the %o$er is nearly the same for each burst"
A base station also controls its %o$er level" The mobile station measures the stren!th an the
5uality of the si!nal bet$een itself an the base station" #f the mobile station oes not receive
correctly the si!nal0 the base station chan!es its %o$er level"
1.2.7 Dis$o!ti!uous Re$e&tio!
#t is a metho use to conserve the mobile stationEs %o$er" The %a!in! channel is ivie into
sub channels corres%onin! to sin!le mobile stations" &ach mobile station $ill then only
ElistenE to its sub channel an $ill stay in the slee% moe urin! the other sub channels of the
%a!in! channel"
1.2.: Multi&ath a! E4ualisatio!
At the GSM fre5uency bans0 raio $aves reflect from builin!s0 cars0 hills0 etc" So not only
the Eri!htE si!nal (the out%ut si!nal of the emitter) is receive by an antenna0 but also many
reflecte si!nals0 $hich corru%t the information0 $ith ifferent %hases"
An e5uali:er is in char!e of e2tractin! the Eri!htE si!nal from the receive si!nal" #t estimates
the channel im%ulse res%onse of the GSM system an then constructs an inverse filter" The
receiver 6no$s $hich trainin! se5uence it must $ait for" The e5uali:er $ill then0 com%arin!
the receive trainin! se5uence $ith the trainin! se5uence it $as e2%ectin!0 com%ute the
coefficients of the channel im%ulse res%onse" #n orer to e2tract the Eri!htE si!nal0 the receive
si!nal is %asse throu!h the inverse filter"
The GSM system entities re%resent !rou%in!s of s%ecific $ireless functionality"
The follo$in! fi!ure sho$s the GSM reference Moel"
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*S7 /+R
*TS A,7
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)i* . 2
A 8ublic +an Mobile (et$or6 (8+M()0 as re%resente by the GSM reference moel on the
o%%osite %a!e0 inclues the follo$in! system entities4 Mobile=ser'i$es S+it$hi!* Ce!ter 0MSC1
Mobile)services S$itchin! 7enter (MS7) %erforms the s$itchin! functions for all mobile
stations locate in the !eo!ra%hic area covere by its assi!ne *SSs" @unctions %erforme
inclue interfacin! $ith the 8ublic S$itche Tele%hone (et$or6 (8ST() as $ell as $ith the
other MS7s an other system entities0 such as the /+R0 in the 8+M("
@unctions of the MS7 inclue4
7all hanlin! that co%es $ith mobile nature of subscribers (e"!"0 %a!in!)
Mana!ement of re5uire lo!ical raio)lin6 channel urin! calls
Mana!ement of MS7)*SS si!nallin! %rotocol
/anlin! location re!istration an ensurin! inter$or6in! bet$een Mobile Station an
7ontrol of inter)*SS an inter)MS7 hanovers
Actin! as a !ate$ay MS7 to interro!ate the /+R
&2chan!e of si!nallin! information $ith other system entities
Stanar functions of a local e2chan!e s$itch in the fi2e net$or6 (e2am%le4 char!in!)
1"?"1"1"1 /ome +ocation Re!ister (/+R)
The /ome +ocation Re!ister (/+R) contains the ientities of mobile subscribers (calle
#nternational Mobile Subscriber #entities or #MS#s)0 their service %arameters0 an their
location information"
#n summary0 the /+R contains4
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#entity of mobile subscriber
#S'( irectory number of mobile station
Subscri%tion information on teleservices an bearer services
Service restrictions (if any)
Su%%lementary services
+ocation information for call routin!
1"?"1"1"9 Visitor +ocation Re!ister (V+R)
The Visitor +ocation Re!ister (V+R) contains the subscriber %arameters an location
information for all mobile subscribers currently locate in the !eo!ra%hical area (i"e"0 cells)
controlle by that V+R"
#n summary0 the V+R contains4
#entity of mobile subscriber
Any tem%orary mobile subscriber ientity
#S'( irectory number of mobile
A irectory number to route calls to a roamin! station
+ocation area $here the mobile station is re!istere
7o%y of (%art of) the subscriber ata from the /+R
1"?"1"1"C &5ui%ment #entity Re!ister (&#R)
The &5ui%ment #entity Re!ister (&#R) is accesse urin! the e5ui%ment valiation
%roceure $hen a mobile station accesses the system" #t contains the ientity of mobile
station e5ui%ment (calle #nternational Mobile Station &5ui%ment #entity or #M&#) $hich
may be vali0 sus%ect0 or 6no$n to be frauulent"
This contains4
Fhite or Vali list ) +ist of vali MS e5ui%ment ientities
Grey or Monitore list ) +ist of sus%ecte mobiles uner observation
*lac6 or %rohibite list ) +ist of mobiles for $hich service is barre"
1"?"1"1"D Authentication 7enter (A,7)
The Authentication 7enter (A,7)4
7ontains subscriber authentication ata calle Authentication 3eys (3i)
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Generates security relate %arameters neee to authori:e service usin! 3i
Generates uni5ue ata %attern calle a 7i%her 3ey (3c) neee for encry%tin! user
s%eech an ata
1.7.1." /ase Statio! Syste# 0/SS1
*SS com%rises of *TS (*ase Transceiver Station) an *S7 (*ase Station 7ontroller)"
7haracteristics of the *ase Station System (*SS) are4
The *SS is res%onsible for communicatin! $ith mobile stations in cell areas
One *S7 controls one or more *TSs an can %erform inter)*TS an intra) *TS
The *TS serves one or more cells in the cellular net$or6 an contains one or more TRLs
(Transceivers or raio units)"
The TRL serves full u%le2 communications to the MS"
#n the GSM net$or6 im%lementation of +ucentBAlcatel Technolo!ies the *S7 inclues the
TRA, (TranscoerBRate Aa%ter ,nit)" The TRA, aa%ts the transmission bit rate of the A)
interface (?D6bitBs) to the Abis)interface (1? 6bitBs)"
(ote that in the GSM net$or6 im%lementation of +ucent Technolo!ies0 the interface bet$een
the *S7 an the TRA, is 6no$n as the M)interface ($hich is a %ro%rietary interface)"
)i* . 7
*SS 7onfi!uration
The GSM s%ecification an s%ecific ty%es of *SS confi!urations
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Abis /IT
o! Abis
1 #nt! ) #nt )
9 #nt! ) &2t )
C 'ist ?D 3 ) )
D 'ist 1? 3 #nt Mult
> 'ist 1? 3 #nt RA
? 'ist 1? 3 &2t Mult
. 'ist 1? 3 &2t RA
)i* . :
*SS ty%es are ifferentiate by the follo$in! characteristics4
The *SS can be an inte!rate (#nt!) *SS or a istribute ('ist) *SS"
An inte!rate *SS is a *SS0 $hich has the *S70 an *TS functionality locate in the same
%hysical unit" #n a istribute *SS0 the *TS an *S7 are %hysically se%arate"
The *SS can have internally (#nt) or e2ternally (&2t) locate s%eech transcoin!"
S%eech transcoin! to ?D 6bitBs ta6es %lace either in the *S7 for *SS ty%es 10 D an >0 or
e2ternal to the *SS (i"e" the transcoer is co)locate $ith the MS7) for *SS ty%es 90 ? an ."
@or *SS ty%e C transcoin! ta6es %lace in the *TSs"
The Abis interface uses multi%le2in! (Mult) or rate aa%tation (RA) on its lin6s"
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The first o%tion means that four 1? 6bitBs lin6s are multi%le2e into one ?D 6bitBs channel"
The latter o%tion means that no multi%le2in! of the 1? 6bitBs channels ta6es %lace"
1.7.1.% Mobile Statio! 0MS1
The Mobile Station (MS) re%resents the terminal e5ui%ment use by the $ireless subscriber
su%%orte by the GSM Fireless system
The MS consists of t$o entities4
Subscriber #entity Moule (S#M)
Mobile e5ui%ment
The S#M may be a removable moule" A subscriber $ith an a%%ro%riate S#M can access the
system usin! various mobile e5ui%ments" The e5ui%ment ientity is not lin6e to a %articular
subscriber" Valiity chec6s mae on the MS e5ui%ment are %erforme ine%enently of the
authentication chec6s mae on the MS subscriber information"
1"?"1"C"1 @unctions of a S#M
The functions of the Subscriber #entity Moule (S#M) are4
Authentication of the valiity of the MS $hen accessin! the net$or6
,ser authentication
Stora!e of subscriber)relate information0 $hich can be4 ata fi2e urin!
aministrative %hase (e"!"0 subscriber ientification)0 an tem%orary net$or6 ata
(e"!"0 cell location ientity)"
1"?"1"C"9 'ual S#M to one MS#S'(
'ual S#M to one MS#S'( allo$s subscribers to have 9 S#Ms (i"e" to MSs) for one MS#S'("
This means that t$o hansets are associate $ith the same MS#S'(" This means that t$o
hansets are associate $ith the same MS#S'(0 an have thee same subscriber ata" *oth
hansets can simultaneously ori!inate calls0 ho$ever only one of the t$o S#Ms can be active
at one time for call terminations"
The users of the t$o S#Ms are %rovie $ith the same services from the net$or6 o%erator"
These services are char!e on the same bill althou!h the billin! recors at the /+R $ill
recor the actual S#M involve"
#t shoul be note that $hen one S#M user is chan!in! has V+R both S#M subscriber recors
$ill be u%ate in the /+R"
1"?"1"C"C @unctions of a Mobile Station
The Mobile Station (MS) %erforms the follo$in! function4
*R*RA#TT0 <abal%ur" #ssue in <une)900. 9C
Version 1 Revision 0 O & M of GSM (Alcatel)
Raio transmission termination
Raio channel mana!ement
S%eech encoin!Becoin!
Raio lin6 error %rotection
@lo$ control of ata
Rate aa%tation of user ata to the raio lin6
Mobility mana!ement
8erformance measurements of raio lin6
1.7.1.( O&eratio! a! Mai!te!a!$e Ce!ter 0OMC1
The O%erations an Maintenance 7enter (OM7) is the centrali:e maintenance an
ia!nostic heart of the *ase Station System (*SS)" #t allo$s the net$or6 %rovier to o%erate0
aminister0 an monitor the functionin! of the *SS" Other Net+or- Ele#e!ts
Other o%tional net$or6 elements that the MS7 can interface inclue4
*illin! 7enter4
&ach MS7 $rites call accountin! recors to local is6 memory" The *illin! 7enter
%erioically %olls the is6 recors of each MS7 to collect the billin! ata for the 8+M("
Service 7enter4
The Service 7enter interfaces $ith the MS7s to %rovie s%ecial services0 such as the Short
Messa!e Service (SMS)0 to mobile subscribers in the 8+M("
The *illin! 7enter an Service 7enter are not a basic %art of the GSM system"
Stanar o%en interfaces bet$een entities are use in GSM" These are labele4 A0 A
0 *0 70
'0 &0 @0 G0 an ,
(or air interface)"
*R*RA#TT0 <abal%ur" #ssue in <une)900. 9D
Version 1 Revision 0 O & M of GSM (Alcatel)
E@a#&le of a GSM net$or6 is sho$n"
)i* . A
1.A Co!$lusio!
The aim of this %a%er $as to !ive an overvie$ of the GSM system an not to %rovie a
com%lete an e2haustive !uie"
As it is sho$n in this cha%ter0 GSM is a very com%le2 stanar" #t can be consiere as the
first serious attem%t to fulfill the re5uirements for a universal %ersonal communication
system" GSM is then use as a basis for the evelo%ment of the ,niversal Mobile
Telecommunication System (,MTS)"
*R*RA#TT0 <abal%ur" #ssue in <une)900. 9>