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Durham E-Theses

Nicholas Cabasilas Chamaetos and his teaching


concerning the Theotokos
Vakrakos, Athanasios

How to cite:

Vakrakos, Athanasios (1989)

Nicholas Cabasilas Chamaetos and his teaching concerning the Theotokos,

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NICHOLAS CABASILAS CHAMAETOS


AND HIS TEACHING CONCERNING THE THEOTOKOS

By

The V e r y Rev. F r Athanasios Vakrakos

A B S T R A C T

T h e r e are four main p a r t s to this dissertation, one introductory and


three d i r e c t l y related to the subject matter. The introductory
represents

survey

Cabasilas' biography
scholars.

I t also

graphical

on

the

latest

points

of

research

chapter

concerning

on the basis of the work of contemporary

supplies

reference.

The

a list of

Cabasilas' works with full

following

three

parts

represent

Greek
bibliodetailed

a n a l y s i s of Cabasilas' three Orations on the Theotokos which deal with


her

B i r t h , Annunciation and Falling Asleep on the

text

edited

by

Jugie

(1955)

and

(1968). E a c h Chapter concludes

reedited

basis of the

with corrections

by

Greek
Nellas

with a summary of doctrine and the f i -

nal Conclusion sums up the main t h r u s t of Cabasilas' teaching. Finally a


relevant

Bibliography directly related

end of the

The

to Cabasilas is provided at

dissertation.

c e n t r a l doctrinal message of Cabasilas is the unifjue status of

the V i r g i n Theotokos as a human being.


sinlessness
based
and

freedom

the

virtue

I t is on

Theotokos

Central to this is her unique

and holiness, which are presented

on the

on

being.

the

is

implanted
which

this account,

distinguished

in the

can

be

as her own

human nature by the Creator


freely

acquired

rather than on

from

all

achievement

other

divine

human

by

the

human

favour, that
beings,

even

the
the

greatest and holiest of them, standing apart from and over and above
them. Yet, because she is basically human, she represents in her
achievement

the

achievement

Cabasilas the presupposition

of all humanity.

This achievement

single
is for

to the Incarnation of God's Son. There is

here a distinct and profound correlation of the Theotokos

(human) and

the Saviour (Divine-human) which has important implications for u n d e r standing Salvation and the role of the human and the Divine factors in
it. Cabasilas' teaching on the Theotokos opens up the fundamental p e r s p e c t i v e s of Byzantine C h r i s t i a n humanism.

NICHOLAS
AlSriD H I S

C A B A S I L A S
CHAIVIAETOS
T E A C H I K f G COISTCERISTIISIO
THE
THEOTOKOS

By
THE VERY REVEREND PR. ATHANASIOS VAKRAKOS
Archimandrite of the Ecumenical Throne of Constantinople

The copyright of this thesis rests with the author.


No quotation from it should be published without
his prior written consent and information derived
from it should be acknowledged.

1989
MA Dissertation
Submitted to the F a c u l t y of A r t s (Department of Theology)
U n i v e r s i t y of Durham

2 5 OCT 1989

No material contained i n this thesis has been p r e v i o u s l y submitted for a


degree i n this or i n any other U n i v e r s i t y . The copyright of this thesis
r e s t s with the author. No quotation should be published without his prior
consent a n d a n y information d e r i v e d from it should be acknowledged.

4^

S t Nicholas Cabasilas
Photo of a r e c e n t I c o n on the occasion of his canonization
b y the Ecumenical P a t r i a r c h a t e of Constantinople
19 J u l y 1985

DEDICATED

MY LATE FATHER

MY

TO

EPAMEINONDAS

BENEFACTOR

AND TO

MY MOTHER

MY

KATINA

SUPPORTER

T A B L E OF CONTENTS

I . INTRODUCTION

I . l . On Cabasilas' times and life

1.2. On Cabasilas as an author and on his works

1.3. On the T h r e e Orations on the Theotokos

I I . THE ORATION ON THE BIRTH OF THE THEOTOKOS

I I . 1. The Oration and its Contents: an Overview

I I . 2 . The V i r g i n ' s unique humanity and the role of her


parents

II.3

The V i r g i n ' s s i n l e s s n e s s and its anthropological premise

11.4. The reasons for the Virgin's achievement

11.5. Arguments demonstrating the Virgin's sinlessness

11.6. The holy V i r g i n and the holy Temple

11.7. The V i r g i n as r e p r e s e n t i n g humanity in her achievement


and

God's response to her

11.8. The meaning and implications of the Virgin's achievement


for humanity

I I I . THE ORATION ON THE ANNUNCIATION OF THE THEOTOKOS

111.1. The Oration and its Contents: an overview

111.2. The V i r g i n ' s joy and achievement

111.3. The V i r g i n ' s faith, free consent and active role in the
Incarnation of God's Logos

111.4. The V i r g i n ' s preparation for the Incarnation as the


means of humanity's preparation for God

111.5. The Divine-human j u s t i c e of the Incarnation

111.6. The r e s u l t s of the Divine-human concurrence at the


Incarnation

111.7. Comparison of this Oration to the previous one.

IV. THE ORATION ON THE F A L L I N G - A S L E E P OF THE THEOTOKOS

IV. 1. The Oration and its Contents: an overview

IV.2. The greatness and praiseworthiness of the Virgin

IV.3. The Virgin: F r u i t of Creation, New Heaven, New E a r t h

IV.4. The Problem of humanity and the Virgin's contribution

IV.5. The Roles of the Virgin and her Son in Salvation

IV.6. The s u r p a s s i n g holiness of the Virgin

IV.7. The V i r g i n ' s participation in C h r i s t ' s death and


resurrection

V. CONCLUSIONS

FOOTNOTES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

6
PROLOGUE

I would like f i r s t of all to thank my supervisor The Very


Rev. Dr. George Dragas for suggesting
dissertation, a n d f o r guiding
relevant

texts

as

well a s

bibliography a n d the

me through the

the

method

to me the topic of this


study of

construction of

an

of reading secondary

the

adequate
sources.

His technical advice has been invaluable.

The holy person of the Virgin Mary has always been in


the

centre

priesthood
familiar

of
of

my
the

with

interest,

especially

since

entered

Greek Orthodox C h u r c h and became

Mariological

liturgical

texts

and

the
more

services.

However, Cabasilas" exposition has become an eye opener for


me,

for

it

helped

me

to

understand

something

of

theological depth, and presuppositions, which lie behind

the
the

C h u r c h ' s practice. At the same time Cabasilas as a Byzantine


E a s t e r n theologian has become for me a most interesting topic
for r e s e a r c h to the extent that I now hope to p u r s u e a more
comprehensive
aspects

to his

s t u d y of his entire theology. There are many


thought

which are already suggested in his

teaching about the Holy Theotokos, which I would v e r y much


like to investigate.
obvious

Among these I would single out the most

one: h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of man, s i n and

redemption

and the precise role that he would a s s i g n to man, Christ and,


generally, the Holy T r i n i t y in salvation.

Durham U n i v e r s i t y facilities, at both L i b r a r y and College

levels, have been v e r y helpful and I feel g r a t e f u l for having


experienced life in this august academic setting.

If

there i s a claim of originality about this dissertation,

this is that it r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t f u l l exposition of Cabasilas'


Mariologicil

teaching,

based

on

texts

which

exist

only

in

Greek and L a t i n . T h i s is not to say that there is not any


scope f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n this sirea. Nevertheless, I do
hope

that

contribution to
thought.

have

made

some

a c e n t r a l topic

important,

in the

though

History of

small,

Christian

I . INTRODUCTION

I . l . On Cabasilas' times and life

Nicholas
century,

Cabasilas Chamaetos lived during the

which

was

crucial

time

in

the

fourteenth

history

of

the

E a s t e r n Roman Empire c e n t r e d i n Byzantium, Constaintinople.


This

was

an

unsettled

time,

not

only

because

of

the

haemorrhage w h i c h the E a s t had s u f f e r e d on account of


e v i l activities
and

of

devastated

because
which

of
the

the

Western C r u s a d e r s ,

who had

occupied

the Royal City for over a c e n t u r y , but

the

political, economic

repeated

wars

and

against

psychological
the

rising

the

also

chaos,

tide

of

by

the

Mohamedanism had caused.

This

chaotic

situation

can be

best

represented

turbulant history, which Cabasilas' native city of Thessalonica


experienced at that time. The poor population of the city, who
had

been

treated

unjiustly by

the

circumstances, known

as

the Zealots, attempted a series of social political revolts which


caused tremendous social u n r e s t and human tragedy.

S e v e r a l people tried to provide practical solutions


problematic

situation,

but

none

of

them

produced

to
such

the
a

profound theological chaHenge a s Nicholas Cabasilas Chamaetos


did.

He defended

the

poor, though

he belonged

to the

of the nobility, s p e a k i n g about j u s t i c e i n the most


and

u n c o n t r i v e d way. But his greatest

promotion

of

"theological

human s p i r i t from anxiety

class

objective

contribution was

his

humanism", which liberated

the

a n d strengthened

i t s resolve

for

achieving s p i r i t u a l perfection. (1)

The

Life

and

work

investigated

by

study

undertaken

was

ffistory

at

Angelopoulos

the

by

late
of

TO Spyov

Since

publication

Angelopoulos

three

Cabasilas have

Professor

of

contributed

MEXETOV,

this

some

which

ought

to

be

articles,

which

deal

the

here.

Anna

Chamaetos,

biographical

particularly

important

deserves

closer

reliable
and

Palaiologina"(3)

introduction

problems".

and,

look,
on

and

as

the

especially
the

this

include

topics:

"The

"Concerning the

"Nicholas
The

latest

last
on

because

broad details

on

They

following

1970.

Professor

studies

genealogical t r e e of the Cabasilas family" ( 2 ) ,


designation

BXardSov, 5 ) ,

Thessalonica

further

with

Athanasios

dissertation

mentioned

Church

NiKdXaoc; KoPdaiXaq

aCiTou ('AvdiXeKTa

narepiKav

been

thorough

of

Thesalonica

i n h i s doctoral dissertation,

"I5pupa

subject,

the

University

rtoiTpiapy I K 6 V

the

Nicholas

s e v e r a l modern s c h o l a r s . The most

fj Cui^ Kai

XapaET6<;,

of

of

essay

the

it

Cabasilas
is

subject,

provides

Cabasilas' Life

times.

Angelopoulos

deals

with

seven

problems

relating

to

10
Cabasilas' biography. T h e f i r s t one i s what he calls "identity
of name a n d person". Here he c l a r i f i e s , on the basis of his
esirlier dissertation and h i s later studies, the point that
Nicholas
Cabasilas Chamaetos
is
different
from
Neilos
Cabasilas, A r c h b i s h o p of Thessalonica (1361-1363),
whose
baptismal name was also Nicholas and who was an uncle of the
former a s h i s mother's brother. Apparently "Cabasilas" is the
surname of h i s mother's family, which our Nicholas p r e s e r v e d ,
because of the social distinction which that family enjoyed i n
Byzantium. On the other hand the name "Chamaetos" i s his
father's
surname,
as
we
clearly
gather
from
the
correspondance which father and son exchanged.(5)

The

second

genealogical

problem relates

context

to the

wider and narrower

of Nicholas Cabasilas. Here

Angelopoulos

p r o v i d e s detailed l i s t s of a l l the immediate and more distant


relatives

of

background,

Nicholas
that

of

from
the

both

sides

Cabasilases

of

and

his
that

family
of

the

Chamaetoi.(6)

The theme of the third problem is the precise dating of


the b i r t h a n d the death of Cabasilas and here

Angelopoulos

supplies arguments which seem to resolve earlier doubts i n a


conclusive way. 1322/1323 is now the
the

six

years

of

the

period

definitive chronological context


have occured. (7)

date of his birth and

1391/2-1397/8

provide

the

d u r i n g which his death must

11
The f o u r t h problem is connected with the time and the
kind of studies which Nicholas p u r s u e d in Constantinople.
Angelopoulos a r g u e s that he must have come to the Royal City
from T h e s ^ s a l o n i c a i n 1337 and must have spent there about
f i v e y e a r s . On the basis of his correspondance with his
p a r e n t s a n d h i s f r i e n d s ' we gather that he must have studied
the c l a s s i c s , philosophy, theology, rhetorics, law and natural
sciences, i n c l u d i n g astronomy. Given the fact that these
s u b j e c t s were taught i n different schools, we must assume
that he attended s e v e r a l of these schools simultaneously.
Angelopoulos specifies the Schools of Philosophy and Law
w h i c h were reconstituted
a f t e r the
restoration of
the
Palaiologian d y n a s t y to the throne of Constantinople, following
the defeat of the C r u s a d e r s , and the Patriarchal School of
Theology which was u n d e r the directorship of the "Ecumenical
Teacher". But a p a r t from this formal education Nicholas must
have gained considerably, a s f a r a s h i s education was
concerned, from the theological dispute between Barlaamites
and Palamites a n d from the political tensions between the
Grand Duke Alexios Apokaukos and the Great Domesticus John
Kantakouzenos o v e r the guardianship of the imperial throne
following the death of Andronikos I I I . ( ^ )

The f i f t h problem concerning the

biography of Cabasilas

has to do with his pubHc activities. According to Angelopoulos


there a r e four basic phases in Cabasilas' public activities.

The f i r s t one is that of the domination of the Zealots i n

12
the
affairs
of
Thessalonica
against
the
nobility
and
Eantakouzenos d u r i n g 1342-1347, which nearly cost him his
life, but which provided him with the opportunity to write
some of his most interesting social-legal works and, thus, to
enhance his reputation amongst the o r d i n a r y population. (1^)

The

second

phase

is

connected

Eantakouzenos which began

with

in February

the

domination

1347. At this

of

stage

Nicholas came to Constantinople at the invitation of his f r i e n d


Kydones

and

became

Counsellor

to

the

Emperor and,

con-

sequently, one of the most important and infuential people i n


the

life

of

the

accompanied

the

Gregory

Palamas

refused

entry

spiritual

Byzantine
newly
to

into the

endeavours

r e t u r n i n g eventually
when

his

political

in

State

elected

at

the

time.

Archbishop

of

and,

the

throne
city,

that

he

when

spent

with

In

1347

he

Thessalonica
latter

him a year

Holy Mountmn of Athos,

was
of

before

to the Royal City in 1348. A year later,


Zealots

of

Thessalonica and the Kantakouzenos' p a r t y made possible

the

enthronement

reconciliation

the

of G r e g o r y Palamas to his Thessalonian A r c h i -

episcopal

throne,

1351

supported

he

between

Cabasilas accompanied
the

Palamites

at

him to

the

the

famous

city.

In

synod

of

Vlachernae and s t r a i n e d M s f r i e n d s h i p with Kydones over the


Palamite dispute and over the issue of East-West ecclesiastical
relations. T h e eventual f a l l of Kantakouzenos, who

exchanged

the crown for the monastic habit, and the r i s e of John V to


the Imperial throne of Constantinople i n 1354 marked the end
of

Cabasilas' involvement

in the

social -

political a f f a i r s of

13
the Byzantine State.

The t h i r d phase
Thessalonica a s

is connected

r e s u l t of

with Cabasiias's r e t u r n to

his f a t h e r ' s

death

in

1362. He

came to Thessalonica with his mother, who became a nun at


the Monastery of St Theodora in that city, following the death
of

her

husband

Cabasilas.
also

This

stage

and

of

stage of
of

her

brother

engagement i n

further

literary

Archbishop

Neilos

private a f f a i r s was

productions,

including

p e r h a p s h i s "Discourse on the unlawful deeds of the political


leaders

concerning

s a c r e d a f f a i r s " (1364),

which deals

with

the social political upheaval of Thessalonica. The fourth phase


in

Cabasilas'

Constantinople

biography
in

is

1364.

related

Angelopoulos

to

his

treats

return
this

as

biographical problem - the sixth in his list - calling it


question

concerning

the

social

status"

to
a

"the

(i5i6TiiK)

of

Nicholas. (12)

Angelopoulos
status

a r g u e s that to decide on Nicholas Cabasilas'

d u r i n g the last and longest period of his life, which

was spent

i n Constantinople and was extended from 1364

to

1391/6, one should r e l y on a close examination of his L e t t e r s


and of the r e p o r t s suppHed by three t r u s t w o r t h y

witnesses

who were h i s contemporaries: John Kantakouzenos (who, as we


mentioned,

became

the

monk

loasaph

in

1353),

^^anuel

Palaiologos and Joseph Vryennios.

On the

basis of the

report of John Kantakouzenos, alias

14
l o a s a p h t h e Monk, g i v e n i n h i s h i s t o r i c a l memoranda s h o r t l y
b e f o r e 1370,(13)
w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t , w h e n i n 1353 N i c h o l a s
C a b a s i l a s w a s s h o r t - l i s t e d with two Metropolitans, Philotheus
of H e r a k l e i a a n d M a c a r i u s of P h i l a d e l p h i a , f o r election to t h e
P a t r i a r c h a l t h r o n e o f C o n s t a n l t i n o p l e , "he w a s s t O l a l a y m a n "
(6vTa
TIL
5ILI6TTIV),
Angelopoulos
argues
that
b y 1370
Cabasilas w a s no longer a layman a n d , therefore, Salaville's
opposite conclusion must be regarded a s wrong. This i s
f u r t h e r c o r r o b o r a t e d b y t h e comment i n t h e same w o r k t h a t
C a b a s i l a s ' life w a s "wise a n d d e p r i v e d of t h e e v i l s of
marriage"

(atotpfwav

pi'oc

KQC

TOV

TOU

Y<SMOU

KQKOV

<innXXaYM^voQ).(14)

Angelopoulos'
several

other

a r g u m e n t becomes
evidences

drawn

almost c o n c l u s i v e
from

L e t t e r s of P r i n c e Manuel Palaiologos
written

between

Prince's
the

in

four

a n d as a n ascetic

Monasteries

of

surviving

to Cabasilas, which

1387 a n d 1391 a n d w h i c h p r e s e n t

spiritual father

world

the

through

him a s the

who lived

Constantinople

were

(those

outside
of t h e

M a n g a n o i , t h e X a n t h o p o u l o i a n d t h o s e o f t h e S t o u d i o u ) ^ ! ^ ) and
especially from J o s e p h V r y e n n i o s ' descriptions of Cabasilas a s
a

prototype

had

of a spiritual father

arrived at the highest

Finally, Angelopoulos

v i r t u e a n d p e r f e c t life".

r e f e r s to C a b a s i l a s '

Three

Hierarchs

in

clergy

a n d laity

a n d includes

Angelopoulos

concludes

Thus

to h i m a n d to o t h e r s "who

which

he

Encomium

distinguishes
himself
that

the

with

twice

to the
between

t h e f o r m e r . (1^)

status

of

Cabasilas

15
d u r i n g t h e l a s t p h a s e of h i s l i f e w a s t h a t of a monk o r , more
p r o b a b l y , t h a t of a h i e r o m o n k ( p r i e s t - m o n k ) .

The
wMch
and

seventh

Amgelopoulos

general

He

and

finds

amongst

to

rare

biographical problem

discusses,

recognition

him
the

last

be

of

an

ones

is

his

by

the

of

Patriarchs

he

the

fourteenth

and

the

both

during

his

early

rest

years

as

quality

his

work.

personality

c e n t u r y . He w a s

b y the Emperors but


of

i n t e U e c t u a l m e n of t h a t time, w h o w a n t e d
him,

a n d of

towering

not o n l y

Cabasilas,

caMs "the

personality

indisputably

man who w a s h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d
also

what

of

the

literary

and

to be i n t o u c h

with

distinguished

layman

a n d e s p e c i a l l y l a t e r d u r i n g h i s c a r e e r a s a h o l y man of v i r t u e
and

s p i r i t u a l m a t u r i t y , a man w h o

ideals

of

Christian

asceticism,

w o r t h y a n d i m m o r t a l f r u i t of
Divine

Liturgy

and

on

but

his

The

not

only

also

produced

spirit: the

Life

in

advanced

in

the

the
most

treatises on

Christ,

which

The

George

S c h o l a r i o s c a l l s "the b e a u t y of t h e C h u r c h of Christ".(1'^)

Cabasilas was

definitely

a man of

the

spirit, inasmuch

as

h e c h o s e to s u p p o r t t h e m o n k s a n d t h e i r h e s y c h a s t i c s p i r i t u a l
outlook,

not

only

by

siding

Eantakouzenos, who defended


by

becoming

h i m s e l f one

with
the

the

p o l i t i c a l p a r t y of

h e s y c h a s t position,

of t h e m a n d r e a c h i n g t h e

their s p i r i t u a l j o u r n e y . I t is important, however,


he

kept

the

way

of

p r a y e r of

the

hesychast

but

among

the

also

hights

to n o t e

i n the

of

that

private

c l o s e t of h i s monastic Hfe a n d c o n s i d e r e d i t h i s p r i m a r y
a s a s p i r i t u a l M a s t e r to p r o m o t e

John

duty

p e o p l e of God i n

16
g e n e r a l t h e l i t u r g i c a l a n d p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s of t h e C h r i s t i a n
l i f e . I n a s m u c h a s h e d i d t h i s l a s t t a s k , h e e m e r g e s out of the
h i s t o r y of B y z a n t i u m a s o n e of i t s most v a l u a b l e p r o d u c t s . A s
A n g e l o p o u l o s o b s e r v e s , f o r C a b a s i l a s o n e d o e s not h a v e to
w i t h d r a w to t h e d e s e r t , o r to t h e c e l l of a h e s y c h a s t , o r to
t a k e u n u s u a l f o o d , o r to d r e s s t h e m o n a s t i c h a b i t , o r to
s u b j e c t h i m s e l f to h a r d s h i p s w h i c h m a y r u i n h i s h e a l t h , i n
o r d e r to a p p r o p r i a t e t h e L i f e i n C h r i s t . R a t h e r o n e m a y s t a y
a t h i s home a n d e n g a g e i n t h e s t u d y of C h r i s t w i t h h i s o w n
mind. P r a y e r , w h i c h is the highest means for appropriating
this
Life,
does
not
require
special
procedures
and
p r e p a r a t i o n s , o r s p e c i a l m e t h o d s , o r c r i e s of i n v o c a t i o n of
G o d . G o d f i l l s e v e r y p l a c e a n d i s b e s i d e t h o s e who c a l l u p o n
h i m , c l o s e r t o t h e m t h a n t h e i r o w n h e a r t . He v i s i t s h u m a n
b e i n g s , e v e n w h e n t h e y a r e e v i l , b e c a u s e h e i s Good. T h u s
t h e m y s t e r y o f u n i o n w i t h C h r i s t i s o p e r a t i v e i n t h e common
m a n , i . e . i n e v e r y m a n , i r r e s p e c t i v e l y of c l a s s , s i t u a t i o n ,
o c c u p a t i o n , or e v e n s t a t u s - w h e t h e r one is a dedicated
monk, a h e s y c h a s t , a hermit, e t c . ( l ^ )

According

to

the

late

Professor

of

Philosophy

at

the

U n i v e r s i t y of T h e s s a l o n i c a B . N. T a t a k i s , N i c h o l a s C a b a s i l a s i s
"the

last great

and

at

mystical,
optimism

the

m y s t i c of

same

whereas
of

the

time
its

Byzantium", whose work


deep,

style

apostolic

d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of

lyric

and

breathes

age".(19)

Cabasilas:

at
the

Tatakis

the

"is

simple

same

time

freshness

and

emphasises

two

17
T h e f i r s t f e a t u r e i s t h a t h e t a k e s t h e s p i r i t u a l l i f e out of
i t s t e c h n i c a l monastic context a n d p r e s e n t s
it a s a r e a l
p o s s i b i l i t y f o r e v e r y h u m a n b e i n g i r r e s p e c t i v e l y of p a r t i c u l a r
sociological c o n ^ t e s t s . T h u s "Piety i s e x c l u s i v e l y the work of
our own esoteric disposition, o u r own will. F o r this reason
t h e e x t e r n a l d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e w o r l d , a n a c h o r e t i s m , i s not a
n e c e s s a r y c o r o l l a r y to C h r i s t i a n m y s t i c i s m . , r a t h e r , r e m a i n i n g
w i t h i n e v e r y d a y Ufe, social hfe, a human being is able and
m u s t t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t e i t w i t h t h e s t u d y of t h e h i g h s p i r i t u a l
s u b j e c t s w h i c h p r o c u r e t h e c o n v e r s i o n of h i s will".(20)

The

second

feature

spirituality with the


while he exalts
l i f e off t h e
Science...
to

the

they

did

while

they

cannot

he i s

step

combine

Christian
it,

in this

have

imperfect.

towards

Saints

imperfect

it; a n d

whatever

I n other
the

Science

that

he

beings

full

it

words

every
has

of

came

because

world a particular human

obtained

operation

the

on t h i s a c c o u n t a n enemy

h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of

accept

is

to

of h u m a n i s m . A s T a t a k i s p u t s

not

caUing the

into

potentiality,
brave

of

could

turn

ability

t h e d e p t h a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e of m y s t e r y f o r

S u c h was

not

his

science

Christian,

point

is

being,

within

good,
which
as

Cabasilas makes

reconciliation

of

it

religious

m y s t i c i s m w i t h t h e w i s d o m of t h i s w o r l d . " ( ^ 1 )

1.2. O n C a b a s i l a s a s a n a u t h o r a n d o n h i s w o r k s

As

an

distinguished

author
as

"a

Nicholas

wise

teacher

Cabasilas
of

Chamaetos

spirituality

in

was

modern

18
times". S c h o l a r s who s t u d i e d h i s w r i t i n g s emphasize his deep
piety,
scienctific
outlook
and
literary
excellence.
These
w r i t i n g s c a n be
d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r c o n t e n t
and
l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r into e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s : (i) theological a n d
s p i r i t u a l , (ii) sociological, (iii) a n t i - L a t i n , (iv) exegetical, ( v )
liturgical,
(vi)
encomiastical,
(vii)
metrical
and
(viii)
e p i s t o l a r y . Most of t h e m a r e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e Codex
Parisinus
Graecus
1213A^^)
More a n a l y t i c a l l y t h e y i n c l u d e t h e w o r k s :

(i) T h e t h e o l o g i c a l a n d s p i r i t u a l w o r k s , a s f o l l o w s :

(a)

1.

the Theological Orations:

AdyoQ Elq

0EOT6KOU

Tiniv

Y^vvirncfiLV

of

our exceedingly

2.

AdSyoQ e J q

0EOT6KOU
of

i5nEpv5o^ov
{Oration on
holy L a d y

our

the
the

T O V ECia\/yE\La\Adv

KCHIL AemcepQivou
exceedingly

TfjQ

unEpayCac,

Aeanoivn<; i^lJUV

exceedingly

glorious

birth

Theotokos).(23)

unepayCaq

AeonoivTic; fipov

Mapi'ac; ( O r a t i o n o n

the Annunciation

holy

rfiq

and

ever-virgin

Mary

the

Theotokos).(24)

3.

Myoq

elq

li^v

raSvoEOTOv

iiini|paYfoi<; AEonoifviiic ifjpov


the

unEp^v5oov

glorious

holy a n d immaculate L a d y

Koi'puioiv Tfjc

OEordKou ( O r a t i o n o n

KOIIL n a v a y p d v T o u

all-sacred and exceedingly

exceedingly

KaC

F a l l i n g - A s l e e p of

the

Theotokos).(25)

our

19
4. AdvoQ E J C T d tHaxiipiLa ITMBini T O O Kupifou K a i 8 E O O Kai
ifjUjsiSv 'JTICTOO XptoToO ( O r a t i o n o n t h e s a v i n g S u f f e r i n g s
L o r d a n d Gtod a n d S a v i o u r J e s u s C h r i s t ) .

LoTr\poc,
of o u r

(26)

5.

Myoc

elc,

rd

mjTn^piov

ndQoq

(Oration

on

the

saving

Kai

ToTfipoq

P a s s i o n ) . (27)

6.

Adyoq

fliawv

eiq

xr^v

'AvdXrppiv T O U Kupi'ou

'flTiooO XpiLcrroO

(Oration

a n d God a n d S a v i o u r J e s u s

on

the

Kai

Ascention

8. E y d X i o v nepC T O U a u T e t o u o i o u

9.

KaTd

of

our

Lord

Christ).(28)

7. A6YO<; et<; r d Ei!iaYY^Xiov ( O r a t i o n o n t h e

free will and

GEOU

Gospel).(29)

dpapTiaq (Scholion

KQC Tfi<;

on

sin).(20)

Twv

TOU

TpnYopa

XnpnM^^Tuv

(Against

Gregoras'

bubblings).(31)

Kord T v

10.
goTi

oapd

concerning
cursed

Ulupptjvo^
the

TCU

criterion

nepi

TOO

KpiTntpiLOu

KcnrapdTou

of

the

(Against

truth

rnq

diKjiBeCac,

who

those

whether

it

is,

by

el
say
the

Pyrrhos).(32)

(b) t h e

1.

XEYOP^VOV

two c e l e b r a t e d

'Eppn^veCa Tfjc

t r e a t i s e s of E a s t e r n s p i r i t u a l i t y :

0Eifa<; AEiToupytai;

(A

Commentary

D i v i n e L i t u r g y ) w h i c h c o n s i s t s of f i f t y - o n e

on

chapters.(^3)

the

20

2.

nepL TnQ

3.

i v

XpLOT^

Co)fiq (On the Life in C h r i s t ) . ( 3 4 )

Adyoi TOV PouAop^vtJV dnoSEiKvuiEiv 6TI

oojpCa

put

pdToiiov,.

KQi XnioEiq

f o r w a r d by

which

is

those

constructed

on

wish

the

to

basis

T 6 V Xdyov
(Reasons

^ni^Eipjipdrov

TQV TOIOUTOV

who

fi nepi

prove
of

that

the

reason is

wisdom

vain.,

and

solutions to s u c h a r g u m e n t s ) ( 3 5 )

4.

"OTL

dSiSvoTOV fjv XdvoiQ

TEXEiLoQfivaiL, nifoTEtJi; m
man

VOUGETOUMEVOV

M<5VOV

T 6 V dvGpttnov

npooouoTic (That it was impossible for

to be p e r f e c t e d b y being admonished only by reason and

without the preceding work of faith)


(36)

(ii)

The

economic

sociological
issues

works

of

Cabasilas,

which

deal

(loan interest leading to u s u r y and

with

poverty

r e s u l t i n g from u n f a i r taxation) include:

1.

Adyitw; nEp TOV irrapav6pii; roiq

SpyoutJiv ^ni xoiq

lEpEiq

ToXpsap^vfinv ("Discourse on the unlawful deeds of the political


l e a d e r s c o n c e r n i n g s a c r e d a f f a i r s " ) , written c. 1 3 4 7 according
to Angelopoulos and not in 1 3 4 4 as Sevcenko s u p p o s e d . ( 3 ? )

2.

TQ

Queen

EiioEPEordTQ AuYOuoTQ HEpC


on

usury),

most

probably

TdKOu

( T o the

written

most

between

pious

1 3 5 1 and

1352.(38)

3.

Adyoc,

KQTd

TOKIC<5VTOV

(Oration against

u s u r e r s ) , written

21
d u r i n g t h e same i n t e r v a l a s t h e a b o v e .
(39)

4.

'ABnvaioiq

Athenians
during

(iii)

the

siltar

auTOCQ

of

The anti-Latin works

Western

1.

rou

^X^ou

mercy),

PCOMOU

written

(To

most

the

probably

1347.(40)

dogmatic

and

on

nepi

theological

of C a b a s i l a s , w h i c h

differences

C h u r c h e s and especially

i5v

fiptv

gvTauBa

with

the

between the Eeistern a n d the


concerning

the Epiclesis i n the Divine E u c h a r i s t ,

rtepi

deal

TIV^Q

AQTCVOL

lii\iiiiLv d n o X o Y i o ( O n t h e i s s u e s

on which

u s here a n d a n apology against

their

the

sacraments

include:

M^pcpovTai

some

KQC np6q

Latins

deride

deriding).
(41)

2.

" O T I K Q C T Q *EKKXTiaiQi AOTLVCOV f\ T E X E T I ^

TEAEirai

Tpdnov

(That

the

ceremony

is

KOTd T o v a u T d v

celebrated

C h u r c h of t h e L a t i n s i n t h e same w a y a s among

3.

riEpC

T O U MUOTTipiou

Tfjq

eEioc;

in

f\ijZv

the

us).(42)

EiiyapicrrCaq

On

the

Sacrament o f the Divine Eucharist).(43)

4. riEpi 6 v M^pcpcvTai i^Miv o f A O T I ' V O L


the

Latins

Cabasilas

deride
in

Constantinople]

Ms

u s ) . (44)
558

of

(On the i s s u e s

[Unpublished
the

work

Hagiotaphitic

of

o n which
Nicholas

Metochion

in

22
5. n p o B E o p i a ( I n t r o d u c t i o n ) o n N i l u s C a b a s i l a s ' w o r k riEpt Tflq
'AyCaq
Oi KOUMEviKfi<;
EuvdSou
(On
the
Holy
Ecumenical
Synod).(45)

(iv)

The three

exegetical

w o r k s o f C a b a s i l a s , a l l of w h i c h a r e

r e l a t e d to E z e k i e l ' s v i s i o n s , a r e a s

1. EirptHJiO! eiq
TEOodptjv

rfyf

CoSov

o p t H J i v TOO

follows:

E^pcipifiTou ' I E C E K I I ^ X , Iv

dMOLa>Ma Bpdvou

KQI

^ni

TOU

Q ^ n i TOV

6[ioi6iiaroc,

rou

Opovou dpoiLtjpa E Q Er5o<; dvQpanou ( T h e s e n s e o f t h e v i s i o n o f


the Prophet Ezekiel, in w h i c h t h e r e
on the

four

f o r m on the

a n i m a l s a n d a s i m i l i t u t e of
s i m i l i t u d e of t h e

2. Einptsoifa eiq
TO

TOV

sense

of

i s a s i m i l i t u t e of a

t h e v i s i o n of

r6

npoTEpov

t h e Prophet

b o n e s of men r e c e i v e t h e i r

in a

human

throne).(46)

xfiv opoOTiLV xoii ITpoijii/iiToy


dv8pnov

something

throne

' H E C E K I I ^ X , ^ V S TO d o r a

dnoXapPdvouaiv eiboq,
Ezekiel,

(The

i n w h i c h the

dry

previous
form).(47)

3.

E f q T i i v ToO I^Kjqpi^Tou 'lECcKinX Spmsiv

BEIUV

rpaqjav Syouaa

the

vision

the

divine S c r i p t u r e s themselves,

(v)

T h e L i t u r g i c a l w o r k s of

as

of

the

Tf|v yapTupiav,
Prophet

Ezekiel,

aijpaaia,

ot<; X ^ Y E I
which

is

a n j r o v TOV

(The Sense

witnessed

i n w h i c h it is

by

said).(48)

Cabasilas include three

treatises,

follows:

1. Elc. xfiv t E p d v OToXi^v ( O n t h e s a c r e d

to

of

vestments).(49)

23

2. riEpi

T(3v

T Q 9EIQ( AEiToupYLQ TEXoup^vcDV ( C o n c e r n i n g

a c t i o n s of t h e D i v i n e

the

Liturgy).
(50)

3. riEpi Tf)<; ^ n i KOivuvi^Qt T U V puoTTipCwv KOivfi<; Euxapicrrfac;, K O I


Tnq

TeJiEumCaq

Euyfiq (On the

common e u c h a r i s t for

communion

i n t h e s a c r a m e n t s , and o n t h e l a s t p r a y e r ) . ( ^ 1 )

(vi)

T h e encomiastical

three
the

Hierarchs, St
Holy

w o r k s of

Nicholas

Neo-Martyr

C a b a s i l a s w h i c h r e f e r to

of M y r h a ,

from

St

Jerusalem,

Demetrios,
St

Andrew

Theodora

T h e s s a l o n i c a , t h e Q u e e n M o t h e r Anna P a l a i o l o g i n a and
K a n t a k o u z e n o s son
his elevation

to

o f J o h n E a n t a k o u z e n o s on

the

throne

of

Constantinople

the

of

Matthew

the occasion

of

in

as

1354 are

follows:

1.

Adyoq

eic;

TOV

pupoPXifiiTiriiv Kflii
among

the

miraculous

2.

SaupoTOupYOV

Saints,

Mii,KdXaov

great

'EYiK<5piLOV E C xdv

glorious

FtoiT^pa

i^MOV

[iiyav

( O r a t i o n on

ffierarch,

lEpdpxnv
our

Father

perfume-bearing

and

Nicholas).(^2)

8au|jaToupY6v

fv5oov

KQC pupoPXr^Tiiv

Megalomartyr

perfume-bearing

3.

diyioic,

'EYKWMLOV

of

T O U XpLoroO filEYaXopdpTupci
AtiMilTpiov
Christ,

(Encomium

on

miraculous

Kai
the
and

Demetrios).(^3)

E<; T6V

dYLOv daiOMdpTupa 'Av5p^av

* lEpotJoAiiipoi.*; T V T O U PtopTupiou 5pdpov

T 6 V N^OV

SinvuKdTa

(Enconnium

24
o n the holy Neo-Msirtyr A n d r e w
the r o a d of M a r t y r d o m ) . ( ^ 4 )

4.

'EYK<5MIOV

Eic,

Ti^v

daCav

auponroupYifiv EO&apav, TITIV


holy M o t h e r

and

in

Jerusalem

iiryrifm

i^pov

who

traversed

pupoPXi^TiSa K O I

EacraAoviiKTii ( E n c o m i u m

perfume-bearer and

miraculous

on

our

Theodora

of

Thessalonica).
(55)

5. E q T o u q dYiou*; T P E I Q P E Y O X O U ^ 'JEpdp^cn;
AiSmjKdiAouqp BmiiLXEiLov T d v S ^ Y ^ V ,
' HodivvTiiv

Tdv

XpuodYXwTTov

(On

6.

Theologian

npoaqMSvnpa

AnipilTiTpiLov

Efq

E<; T6V

TOV

Megalomartyr

7.

a n d J o h n the

the

three

holy

B a s i l the

auad

Great,

Kai

great

Gregory

Golden-mouth).(^6)

ifv5oov

P^upoPXnTTjv

OfKoupEviKOUQ

TpiiYdpiov T 6 V 8EOX<$YOV

Hierarchs a n d Ecumenical Teachers,


the

Kai

T O U XpiOTOu

(Salutation

to

MEYoXopapTupa
the

glorious

of C h r i s t a n d p e r f u m e - b e a r e r D e m e t r i o s ) . ( 5 7 )

Tdv

AuTOKpdropa

*EYB3PIOV

(Encomium

on

the

Emperor)'(58)

8.

EOoEPEOTdTQ AuYOUOTQ KupQ "AvvQ T Q naXaioXoYivQ (To

most p i o u s Q u e e n L a d y A n n a

9.

'EYKopiov

Palaiologina).(^9)

<; T 6 V navdviov ATipi^Tpiov Kai

( E n c o m i u m o n the

the

all-holy Demetrios a n d his

T d a i l T o u BaupoTa
miracles).(^0)

25

10. EuY'^ EIC, T 6 V Kiupiov ifjipav ' I T I O O O V X p i o r o v , T O V PtovovEvfi


u 6 v T O U O E O O Kai Adyov ( P r a y e r to o u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t , t h e
O n l y - b e g o t t e n S o n o f God a n d L o g o s ) .
(61)

(vii)
as

T h e m e t r i c a l w o r k s of

Cabasilas include

thirteen

works

follows:

1.

Eiq

Tov

EaaakovCKW^

TOU ^auTou
(On the

GEIOU

Td(pov

'HpcoLKa

' loiSiSpou

(Heroic

lines

FtoiTpidpyou

on

the

^KEfvou

grave

of

P a t r i a r c h Isidore) which was probably written in

3.

E C Q T O ME L V O V

TOU

[leQ'

i^pfiv

saying. Stay with u s because

6ri
it i s

of

1363.(^2)

E Q T 6 V TOU doiSipou
Tdis)v

WEIXOU

g r a v e of h i s own u n c l e the late Nilus

Thessalonica), probably written in

2.

Kupou

npdc,

lanipay

Kupou

that

late

1350.(63)

iorC

(On

the

dask).(^4)
>

4. E i q T d OTpoi 6 T I
WO

5.

to me b e c a u s e

E<; T d ' I p d i T L O v

you

n a p o i K i a pou ^paKpuvOn (On t h e

my s t a y

Syeic.,

have a garment,

has been prolonged).(^5)

dpynvd*; fipwv y e v o u

7.

E<; Kavdva

(On t h e

saying,

do become o u r l e a d e r ) . ( 6 6 )

6. E i Q Ti^v d v a K o p i 5 f | v T O U X E I U K J V O U Tflq diyCac,


t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of t h e

saying.

9Eo5<5paq (On t h e

relic of Saint Theodora).(^7)

T O O PteYa>kOiLJ AnpiniTpiL'ou dsxpoorixfq

(Acrostic

on

26

the

C a n o n of t h e

Great

Demetrios).
(68)

8.

Eic,

the

9.

Kovdva

C a n o n of

Eiq

C a n o n of

10.

Eic.

Acrostic

E<;

'Avbpiou

dKpooriytc;

(An Acrostic

on

EiiSoKipou GiKpooTiLxi<; ( A n A c r o s t i c

on

Saint Andrew).(^9)

K o i v d v a T O U ayCou

the

11.

T O U ayCou

Saint

irepov

Eudokimos).(''0)

Kovdva

T O U dYi'ou

o n a n o t h e r C a n o n of

Kojvovoi

noXXtiv d y f o v

TtSv

(On

recently martyred

the
in

tv

Saint

AnpnTpiou,

of

those

popTupnodvTCJV
many

E J q K a v d v a T O O EOcraXovfKTiiq dYfoui

(On

a C a n o n of

13.

E I Q Td<;

Saint Gregory

c o m m a n d m e n t s of t h e

Saints

who

Palamas

T O Q EoxfipoQ

of

Thessalonica).(^3)

^VTOXCK;

(On

the

1. T o h i s

c.

1347,

Father, written

John

1348.(76)

divine

Saviour).(^4)

of C a b a s i l a s a r e a s f o l l o w s :

To

were

rprjYopiou T O O rCraXapa

(viii) T h e extant Epistles

2.

vEtwrrf

Jerusalem).(^2)

12.

OeiCaQ

(An

Demetrios).(^1)

' lEpotJoXupoiLq

Canon

AKpooriyCq

1338-1344.(75)

Kantakouzenos,

written

in

Constantinople

in

27
3. T o t h e P r i e s t D o s i t h e u s

Karantenos, written in

1364.(7?)

4. T o h i s f r i e n d B e m e t r i o s K y d o n e s , . w r i t t e n a t T h e s s a l o n i c a i n
1 3 6 3 - 1364.(78)

5.

To

the

Ostiarius

Constantinople in

6. T o t h e

To

an

Thessalonica

Synadenos,

written

at

1347-1348.(79)

G r e a t S a k e l l a r i u s of T h e s s a l o n i c a P a s e d o n e s ,

at Constantinople in

7.

of

written

1364.(80)

Anonynous

Hypomnematographer

w r i t t e n at Constantinople i n

of

Thessalonica,

1364.
(81)

8.

To

Tarcheianiotes,

written

at

Constantinople

in

1 3 6 4 - 1365.(82)

9.

T o Doukopoulos

the

Manikaites, written

at

Constantinople,

y e a r u n k n o w n . (83)

10. T o a n u n k n o w n

To

the

above

person.(84)

Epistles

we

should

add

others. T h e s e include the

following:

1.

uncle

An

Epistle

from

T h e s s a l o n i c a i n c.

his

1341. (85)

Nilus

those

sent

Cabasilas,

to

him

by

written

at

28
2.
Five
Epistles
from
Demetrios
Kydones,
written
Constantinople i n 1346-1347(lst),
1364(2nd), 1364(3rd), a n d 5 t h of u n k n o w n d a t e s a n d p l a c e s .

at
4th

(86)

3. F o u r E p i s t l e s f r o m t h e E m p e r o r M a n u e l

Palaiologos.(87)

4. A n E p i s t l e f r o m t h e Monk J o s e p h V r y e n n i o s . ( 8 8 )

In

concluding

Chamaetos we
other
as

this

ought

l i s t of

the

w o r k s of

point

out

that

to

Nicholas Cabasilas

there

a r e also

w o r k s w h i c h a r e to a l a r g e r o r l e s s e r

dubious.

uneven

These include: an extract

Circles,

Aristotle's

On

Syllogism,

little

treatise

natural

hearing,

Panegyric

on

and
Saint

extent

regarded

from a treatise
On

the

another

certain

On

two

beginning
three

Merkourios

of

works

and

An

On

Iambic

Cano/3.(89)

1.3. T h e t h r e e O r a t i o n s o n t h e

T h e r e a r e two
Orations.
known

The

one

Nelas,

one

Catholic

and

second

was

several

dissertation

of t h e o r i g i n a l G r e e k t e x t of
was

Greek
as

publications,
on

in

Nicholas

1925

Jugie,

Orthodox

Athens

in

Orthodox

specialist

and

in

Martin

Eastern

published

himself

produced

scholar

generally

contemporary

distinguished
with

first

Roman

Byzantine

editions

Theotokos

not

by

the

specialist

T h e o l o g y . (90)

1968

by

least

Cahasilas'

who

Nicholas
with

his

well
in
The

Panayiotes

theologian,
on

these

has

Cabasilas
fascinating

doctrine

of

29
JiJsfcificaioii.(91) J u g i e ' s edition was b a s e d e x c l u s i v e l y on the
t e x t of t h e Codex
Parisinus
Graecus
1213, t h e o l d e s t of i t s
k i n d ( e n d o f 1 4 t h c , o r b e g i n n i n g of t h e 15th c . ) a n d w r i t t e n
b y t h e m o n k l o a s a p h , w h o w a s a c o n t e m p o r a r y f r i e n d of
C a b a s i l a s . He d i d t h i s b e c a u s e h e d i d n o t f i n d , a s h e s a y s i n
t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s e d i t i o n , a n y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s
b e t w e e n t h e t e s t o f t h i s Codex
a n d t h a t of t h e
Codices
Vaticanus
Graecus
632 a n d Parisinus
Graecus
1248,
which
r e s p e c t i v e l y c o n t a i n e d t h e f i r s t t w o a n d t h e t h i r d of o u r
t h r e e O r a t i o n s . N e l l a s ' s e d i t i o n r e p r o d u c e d t h e t e s t of J u g i e
b u t w i t h s e v e r a l i m p r o v e m e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t of i t s p u n c t u a t i o n
and
its actual content,
b y u t i l i s i n g the
Codex
Vaticanus
Graecus
632 a n d t h e Codex
Patmiacus
390 w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e
Oration
on the
AnnunciationA^^^

Cabasilas'

Orations

p r o d u c t i o n s of f o u r t e e n t h
characterized
century
stands

of

by

the

Theotokos

NeUas a s

the

"most

in

this

exceptional
respect

Theophanes

Nikaeus.

established

on

of

the

to

NeEas

grounds

three

been

Theometoric
name

great leader and

Hesychastic

According

theological

typical

CabasMas'

t h o s e of G r e g o r y P a l a m a s , t h e

spokesman

are

c e n t u r y Byz-antium, w h i c h h a s

O r t h o d o x y " . (93)

beside

theological

on

movement,
these

three

mutually

and
men

related

points:

a)

the

eschatological

absolute

holiness

primacy,

of

immediately

T r i n i t y , o v e r t h e r e s t of c r e a t i o n ;

the

Virgin

after

Mary

that

of

and
the

her
Holy

30
b) the V i r g i n ' s C h r i s t o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d ,
c)

the

Economy
the

absolutely

of

S a l v a t i o n , i.e.

Incarnation, and

mystery

central

of

the

position

her

her

active

of
role

eternal place

Church.

Of t h e s e

the

Virgin

in the

at

three

the

in

mystery

centre

points

the

the

of

of

the

first

two

a r e r a t h e r I r a d i t i o m a l , w h e r e a s t h e t h i r d i s most o r i g i n a l , a n d
it

is

here

that

Cabasilas'

teaching

seems

to

be p a r t i c u l a r l y

s t r o n g . (^4)

Cabasilas'
as

belonging

three
to

Orations on

his

observation

that

put

forward

them

(especially

in

his

Theotokos,

early literary activity.

the

in

the

s e v e r a l of
do

On

the

occur

the

Life

theses

are

This

regarded

is

based

which are

in

Cabasilas'

later

in

Christ)

in

on

being

writings

much

more

b a l a n c e d a n d m a t u r e w a y . Most p r o b a b l y t h e y w e r e w r i t t e n to
be

read

r a t h e r t h a n to

w h i c h i s made b y

be

delivered

to t h e

presented

with

compromise

between

we

have

distinctive

already

highly
faith

and

observed,

features,

is

reason.
was

the

that they

are justly regarded as

which,

in

the

appears

sociological

words

to
of

in

This

Cabasilas'
in

writings

most

his,

account

profoundly original, as well

peculiar

Tatakis,

as

these

of

ones. I n d e e d , it is on this

the

to

thus

which,

exemplified

other

means

responsible

point,

of

point

w e r e meant

and

one

particularly

especially

relevant

i t i s b y no

is that they

intelligemt

though

distinctly

it

h u m a n i s t s of B y z a n t i u m w h o w e r e

Orations,

as

speeches

several scholars, though

c e r t a i n . What i s c e r t a i n , h o w e v e r ,
be a challenge

as

was

need
the

of

correct

their

time,

transition

31
f r o m t h e o l d e r t r a d i t i o n a l o u t l o o k to t h e m o d e r n p e r s p e c t i v e s
of a r e n a i s s a n c e that w a s m a r c h i n g i n . A s s u c h t h e y a c q u i r e d
a w i d e r v a l u e , w h i c h made t h e m i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e whole of
the modern e r a , i n c l u d i n g the present. T h i s is what the
modern s c h o l a r s who h a v e s t u d i e d them, both theologians a n d
p h i l o s o p h e r s , h a v e been s t r e s s i n g a n d t h i s i s what has led u s
to u n d e r t a k e t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

32
I I . T H E O R A T I O N ON T H E B I R T H O F T H E T H E O T O K O S
I I . 1 The Oration and its contents: an overview

The

full

exceedingly
already

title

of

glorious

reveals

the

become o b v i o u s

which

Oration -

"On t h e

and exceedingly

holy L a d y

central feature

of

through

will e m p h a s i z e t h e
Theotokos,

this

our

unique
exceeds

a n a l y s i s of

glory

and

those

of

this

Birth

holiness

As

it

will

of

the

Virgin
beings,

e v e n t h e m o s t f a m o u s a n d s a i n t l y of t h e m , a s c o n s t i t u t i n g
truest

and

such, as
divine

highest

the

of

the

human existence

of

salvation

accomplished

in

the

and,

d i v i n e l y - ordained human presupposition

Economy

C h r i s t . In

instance

and

of

through

o t h e r w o r d s C a b a s i l a s s e t s o u t to s h o w t h e

Incarnation. By

between the

doing

this

human a n d the

he

clarifies

the

as
the

"true"

a n d " s i n l e s s " h u m a n i t y of t h e T h e o t o k o s a s t h e h u m a n k e y
the

text, Cabasilas

human

aU other

our

Theotokos"

test.

this

of

to

relationship

d i v i n e f a c t o r s i n the

mystery

of

salvation.

Consisting
outlined
unique

as

of

her

T h e r e follows a

"purity"
holy

is

this

Oration can

the

Theotokos

parents,

St

by

looking

Joachim

and

be

the

and

Virgin

further

(ch.5).

exemplifies

it

is

foundations

and

from

the

St

Anna

(chs.

theological
namely,

explained

most

that she is a l l - p u r e and all-holy (chs.

6-7).

carried

to

in

how

the

clarified and

these

Then,

true

it

cruciEil c h a p t e r o u t l i n i n g t h e

"sinlessness"

broadly

at

on w h i c h "true humanity" is established,

c o m p l e t e w a y , i.e.
This

chapters

I t begins with establishing

h u m a n i t y of

foundations

the

18

follows:

perspective
1-4).

of

deeper

level

by

33
taking
recourse
to
the
category
of
freedom
and
its
s i g n i f i c a n c e , a s w e U a s i t s r e l a t i o n to g r a c e ( c h s . 8 - 9 ) . T h e n ,
the p u r i t y a n d s i n l e s s n e s s of the Theotokos a r e explained on
the b a s i s of BibMcal a n d L i t u r g i c a l d a t a ( c h s . 10-14). T h e r e
follows
a
chapter
expounding
the
necessity
of
the
m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a s i n l e s s h u m a n i t y ( c h . 1 5 ) , w h i c h l e a d s to
t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i t s f u l f i l m e n t i n t h e imanifestation o f t h e
s i n l e s s V i r g i n a n d to i t s c o r o l l a r y , t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h e
G o d - m a n ( c h . 1 6 ) . T h i s b r i n g s t h e e x p o s i t i o n to t h e " p r i n c i p l e
o f s y n e r g y " , w h i c h a p p l i e s to t h e c o o p e r a t i o n of t h e Holy
T r i n i t y w i t h t h e V i r g i n T h e o t o k o s i n t h e I n c a r n a t i o n ( c h . 17).
T h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r r e c a p i t u l a t e s the above points a s it
p r a i s e s t h e b i r t h of t h e V i r g i n T h e o t o k o s a n d i t s u n i q u e
s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r h u m a n i t y ' s r e l a t i o n w i t h God i n t h e l i g h t of
h e r a c t u a l p l a c e a n d r o l e i n t h e h i s t o r y of s a l v a t i o n . A more
detailed
analysis
of
these
points
will
clarify Cabasilas'
doctrine on the Theotokos a n d its wider doctrinal connections.
T h i s i s t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r of t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s .

II.2.

The

Virgin's

unique

humanity

and

the

role

of

her

parents

Cabasilas

begins

that he

may be able

because

he

explains

it,

standard
produce

his

to t r e a t t h e

reaMzes its

set

is

twofold.
by

something

Oration by

the

invoking

subject worthily,

unique magnitude.
He

wants,

theologians

which

will

God's

be

least,

of

the

to

past

maintain
and

spiritual

so

especially

His purpose, a s

at

of

help,

he
the

also

to

benefit

to

34
o t h e r s . T h i s l a s t p o i n t , w h i c h i s s e e n a s b e i n g i n Mne w i t h
t h e d e s i r e o f t h e T h e o t o k o s h e r s e l f , h a s b e e n t h e aim of
those who t r e a t e d the s u b j e c t i n the p a s t , who, a s he points
out, "did not mention the holy V i r g i n i n a c u r s o r y manner"
(oij nap^pYUQ MVTioe^vTa<;),(l) b u t o u t of a s e n s e of d e b t . Y e t ,
Cabasilas f u l l y acknowledges the d i f f i c u l t y i n p a y i n g a debt
to w h a t a m o u n t s to b e i n g "the b e s t a n d g r e a t e s t a c h i e v e m e n t
of a l l t h e a g e s , t h e most p a r a d o x i c a l of a l l a n d t h e most
b e n e f i c i a l of a l l " ( T O ndvTwv p^v T W V i i aluvoQ fipiOTOv K Q L
p^YH-onrov
^pyov,
rasvrov
5E
nctptiSotdTorrov,
rcdvxGJV
5^
KOivo)(pEX^aTaTov).(2) T h i s p h r a s e o l o g y , w h i c h i s u s e d to t h e
c r e d i t of J o a c h i m a n d A n n a , may a t f i r s t h e a r i n g s o u n d
e x c e s s i v e , b u t i t i s a n a b s o l u t e l y a c c u r a t e e x p r e s s i o n of
Cabasilas'
understanding
of
the
unique
person
of
the
T h e o t o k o s a m o n g h u m a n b e i n g s . A s he e x p l a i n s i t , i t i s
c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e f a c t " t h a t God s h o u l d p u t o n the h u m a n
f l e s h a n d be b o r n amongst u s human beings t h r o u g h the
T h e o - tokos a s his Mother."

Turning
as

"the

nobody's

to t h e

best

and

T h e o t o k o s ' p a r e n t s , h e c h a r a c t e r i s e s them
most

achievements

righteous

for

the

of

common

all

others",

benefit

of

because
humanity

c a n b e c o m p a r e d to t h e b l e s s i n g s w h i c h c a m e to men o n t h e i r
account.

Thus

it

is

explained

why

they

are

more

righteous

t h a n N o a h , M o s e s , J o s h u a s o n of N u n a n d e v e n A b r a h a m . T h e
heart

of

this

b e n e f a c t o r of
consonant

explanation

is

the

p r i n c i p l e , "that

there

is

h u m a n i t y w h o h a d not p r e v i o u s l y made h i s

and

co-symmetric

with

the

benefits

which

no
soul
he

35
c a u s e d t o come to o t h e r s " . ( 3 ) J o a c h i m a n d A n n a w e r e i n f a c t
t h e " s e r v a n t s " ( 5 i d K o v o i ) o r " c o - w o r k e r s " ( a u v e p Y o i ) whom
God u s e d a s i n s t r u - m e n t s of h i s l o v e f o r m a n k i n d a n d f o r
t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f h i s g r a c e , w h e n t h e time c a m e to r e d e e m t h e
ecumeme
from the
t y r a n n y of
the
demons,
to
introduce
i m m o r t a l i t y i n t o t h e l i f e of t h e m o r t a l s , to p l a n t the a n g e l i c
l i f e i n t o t h e s o u l s o f m e n a n d , g e n e r a l l y , to u n i t e h e a v e n a n d
earth."
F o r C a b a s i l a s t h e y a r e "most r i g h t e o u s a n d most
f a i t h f u l k e e p e r s o f t h e l a w s a n d most b e l o v e d
to G o d " ,
because
they
kept
the
L a w of G o d a b o v e
a l l men a n d
s u r p a s s e d t h e m a l l w i t h r e s p e c t of " v i r t u e " a n d , t h u s , " g a v e
b i r t h to t h e b l e s s e d V i r g i n a s t h e i r o w n f r u i t . " I n d e e d t h e
V i r g i n w a s n o t , a s C a b a s i l a s o b s e r v e s , " a s i m p l e o f f s p r i n g of
their
nature, but
the
achievement
of
their
prayer and
righteousness"
(piniSe npuoet*!; dmASi; ^ Y E V E T O TdKoq, dAXa Tfj<;
iflpET^poK; E8JKii<t; Kai biKaioauvrK,
epyov iinifipev).(5) V i r t u e came
f i r s t a n d , then, p r a y e r i n boldness and that, in t u r n , was
followed
by
the
c r o w n w h i c h i s g i v e n to t h e s p i r i t u a l
athletes.

It

is

important

to

underline

here

the

particular

significance of the Hnk w h i c h Cabasflas sees between


and

"prayer" -

latter

and

belongs
relation

to

the
his

between

the

former

latter

the

being
end

fundamental
the

the

of

creation and salvation.

the

scheme

divine and the

presupposition
former
of

"virtue"
to

because

understanding

human i n the

context

the
it
the
of

36
C o n s o n a n t w i t h t h e a b o v e t h e m e of " v i r t u e " a n d " p r a y e r "
a r e the next themes w h i c h Cabasilas introduces in chapter
t h r e e . T h e f i r s t o n e i s t h e theme of "law" a n d " g r a c e " . T h e
c a s e of t h e b i r t h of t h e T h e o t o k o s b y J o a c h i m a n d A n n a
p e r f e c t l y i l l u s t r a t e s the p r i n c i p l e that "grace" i s the ultimate
p u r p o s e a n d f u l f i l m e n t of t h e "law", t h e " p e r f e c t f r u i t " of a
" p e r f e c t t r e e " ! B u t t h i s c a s e i s not j u s t a mere i l l u s t r a t i o n ,
because the V i r g i n is a unique p e r s o n / i n s t a n c e in the h i s t o r y
of humanity. T h u s Cabasilas states, that Joachim and Anna, i n
g i v i n g b i r t h to t h e V i r g i n , t h e y g a v e to t h e w o r l d "the f r u i t
o f t h e l a w a n d t h e t r e a s u r e o f g r a c e " ( T O V T O U IMldiiou KopntSv,
T 6 V Tf\c, XdpiTOQ 9Tiaaup6v).(6) i n o t h e r w o r d s t h e r e i s a c l e a r
s e n s e i n w h i c h t h e T h e o t o k o s i s t h e e n d a n d f u l f i l m e n t of the
O . T . L a w , a n d J o a c h i m a n d A n n a aire i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b r i n g i n g
this about.

T h e next theme, w h i c h logically follows from a n d is


interrelated
witness"
Joachim
"tent

with

(oixirjvii^ T O O
and

of

the

Anna

witness"

previous

one,

is

that

of

the

p a p T u p i o u ) . T h e f u l f i l l i n g of
is

actually

which

led

seen

to

the

as

"true

the

veneration
tent

of

closely

"tent

of

law

by

of

the

G o d " (ni^v

dXriBivflv TOU 9eou O K r i v i i v ) , t h e

holy Virgin.

I t is clear from

the

develops

theme

way

thinks

in

which

Cabasilas

retrospectively.

from the Virgin, the

I n other

words,

this
his

not h a v e g i v e n

c a r e d for the

latter.

he

begins

" t r u e t e n t of G o d " a n d g o e s b a c k to

O . T . "tent of w i t n e s s " . T h i s i s w h y h e s t a t e s
A n n a would

reasoning

that

the

that Joachim and

b i r t h to t h e f o r m e r h a d t h e y

not

37

The

third

theme,

which

perfectly

blends

with

the

p r e c e d i n g o n e s , i s t h a t of t h e O . T . " t a b l e t s o f t h e l a w " w h i c h
"Moses

broke

because

of

the

guile

of

the

Hebrews."

Here

C a b a s i l a s s t a t e s t h a t J o a c h i m a n d A n n a , u n l i k e t h e H e b r e w s of
old,

must

natural
would

have

virtue"
not

created

The

"the

law

raised

living

f i n a l theme

law

which
and

the

book

Covenant"

is

in

through

Virgin,

(TO

was

to

nor

CV

their

pass".

to

would

Like

Moses
KQI

"they

they

PiPJvt'ov),

and

God

"eminent

otherwise

^KEIVO

"fasting

approach

have
which

himself".

prayer", which

and

reception

Joachim and

of

Anna

OEOKXuniiooivTEQ),

"the B l o o d w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d

but

the Kew

Koivriv ALaBTiKriv auoTnad|jevov a f p a ) , w h i c h

God took u p a n d e n t e r e d
eternal

of

{v^arreikfasvTec,

found

(TO THV

that

his

prayed"

u n l i k e him, t h e y

found

intact

not s i m p l y t h e law b u t t h e l a w - g i v e r

exemplifies

"fasted

the

(Tfi<; niniEpipuiouc dpexfji;), f o r

have

that

contained

Moses

kept

into the place beyond

redemption."

Though

not

the

explicitly

Veil a n d

mentioned,

t h e r e f e r e n c e to "the B l o o d o f t h e New C o v e n a n t " i s p r i m a r i l y


a

reference

Christ

on

to
the

presupposes

its

mother,

holy

the

the

holy

basis

of

Virgin.
the

implicit, but
Virgin

Its

explicit

statement

decisive,

Theotokos,

and

in

application
Hebrews

application
to

to

the

his ancestors,

to
9:12
his
St

Joachim and St Anna.

The
-

b i r t h of t h e V i r g i n r e c a p i t u l a t e s a n d l e a d s to i t s

end

to C h r i s t - t h e w h o l e s a c r e d h i s t o r y . B u t w i t h i n t h i s s a c r e d

38
h i s t o r y man d o e s not p l a y a m e r e l y p a s s i v e r o l e , b u t a n
a c t i v e one. T h e p r i n c i p l e of " s y n e r g y " does not a p p l y simply
to t h e m o r a l s p h e r e , b u t a b o v e a l l to t h e h i s t o r y of s a l v a t i o n .
B y d w e l l i n g o n t h e t h e m e of J o a c h i m a n d A n n a C a b a s i l a s h a s
p r o v i d e d u n s h a k a b l e proofs of the t r u t h that the V i r g i n was
f u E y a n d o n l y h u m a n , ffis e m p h a s i s o n t h e i r h o l i n e s s a g a i n
d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e p r o p e r h u m a n w a y of t h e p r o p a g a t i o n of t h e
h u m a n g e n u s w h i c h i s not
tied
to f l e s h l y l u s t
but
to
cooperation with God. B o r n i n holiness - s p i r i t u a l l y - the holy
V i r g i n p e r f e c t s t h r o u g h h e r o w n l i f e t h e h o l i n e s s of h e r
p a r e n t s - of t h e h u m a n g e n u s - a n d b e c o m e s w o r t h y of
giving
b i r t h to C h r i s t , w h o i s t h e
absolute
purity and
holiness.

Cabasilas'
Saviour,

tying

which is

exposition,
integrity

the

provides
of

the

closely
most
a

together

the

typical feature

firm

humanity

ba^is
of

for

Christ

Virgin
of

his

and

theological

acknowledging
and

F u r t h e r m o r e it confirms the i n n e r connection

the

its

the

sinlessness.

between creation

a n d r e d e m p t i o n a n d , more p a r t i c u l a r l y , the c o - o p e r a t i n g

roles

of t h e h u m a n a n d t h e d i v i n e f a c t o r s i n s a l v a t i o n .

All
which

the

above

sees in the

and A n n a the
and,

therefore,

coming
through

of

the
the

themes

are

b i r t h of

f u l f i h n e n t of
the

grace

the

of

Virgin

the

revelation

fulfilment

summed

of

up

in

chapter

Theotokos

O.T. law from the


of

the

Christ.

the
law
In

b y Joachim
human

presupposition
from
this

the

four,

for

divine

chapter

side
the
side

CabasUas

39
d e s c r i b e s the holy p a r e n t s of the b l e s s e d Theotokos a n d holy
a n c e s t o r s o f C h r i s t a s "the h o l i e r m o u t h s " w h o u t t e r e d "the
more p e r f e c t p r a y e r " , o r a s the
" s o u l s w h i c h a r e more
b e l o v e d to G o d " a n d w h i c h o f f e r e d "the more a c c e p t a b l e
s a c r i f i c e " , o r "the m o r e s a c r e d a l t a r s " . T h e y o u g h t to h a v e
b e e n a h u m a n "root" w h i c h w a s r e l a t e d to God more t h a n a l l
o t h e r s a n d t h e y o u g h t to h a v e e m p l o y e d a " m a n n e r " w h i c h
w a s a p o w e r of p r a y e r - f o r o t h e r w i s e t h e mother of God
would not h a v e r e c e i v e d the s p i r i t u a l body
( T O oapa T 6
nveupaTLKdv).

It

is

against

clear

that

"fleshly

" s p i r i t u a l body"

body"

and

refers

to

in

this

the

instance

fact

that

stands
Joachim

and

A n n a g a v e b i r t h to t h e V i r g i n a s a r e s u l t of t h e i r p r a y e r

and

God's action.

B u t C a b a s i l a s d o e s not

o n to e m p h a s i z e t h a t t h o u g h
others

were

(5fflpov

unique

character and

cause

(p6vov

Efllyfj^) -

which

retrospectively
of

salvation,

her,

and

that

up

aTia

Indeed,

b i r t h of

significance,

opened

aiiTt^ qraivEpQq

8riaaup6v).(9)

the

the

going
which

Cabasilas insists

i.e. a s a r e s u l t

the

Theotokos

because

she

t r e a s u r e of

T V T W V xopiTCJv

looking

at

the

passed
preceded

that

h e r e . He g o e s

h i s t o r y of s a l v a t i o n m a n y

b o r n i n a spiritual manner -

prayer

"the

i n the

rest

birth

beyond
and

"all other

that

graces

to a l l "

the

dvoi'taoa
Theotokos

the

which

have a

history
foEowed

reference

to h e r a n d l e a d to h e r . " ( l ^ ) He a c t u a l l y u s e s t h e m e t a p h o r
"the

body

refers

to

and

its

shadow"

to

the

corresponding

illustrate this
correlation

became

dnaoiv
of

of

alone

it into

cases

is

of

point

between

and
the

of
also

New

40
Testament a n d the Old a n d between the "Great S a c r i f i c i a l
Victim" (Christ) a n d the O.T. s a c r i f i c e s , a n d concludes with
t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t : "the V i r g i n w a s t h e common a d o r n m e n t of
a E b e f o r e s h e e v e n c a m e to Mfe, b e c a u s e a l l t h e
honours
w h i c h G o d c o n f e r r e d o n t h e h u m a n g e n u s w e r e a c t u a l l y made
to h i s m o t h e r . T h u s "the V i r g i n i s t h e o n l y t r u e a c h i e v e m e n t
of h o l y p r a y e r - w h i c h h a d h a d n o t h i n g u n d e s i r a b l e - a n d
t h e o n l y o n e t h a t w a s a g i f t of God w o r t h y f o r God to g i v e
a n d t h o s e w h o a s k e d f o r i t to r e c e i v e , b e c a u s e w h a t e v e r t h e
V i r g i n had had was fitting both for the hand that gave and
for the h a n d that r e c e i v e d " . ( H )

The

chapter

t h e m e of

concludes

the following

intervention

of

God i n the

says: "This is why


not

offer

accomplished

b i r t h of

the

first

decisive
the

b i r t h of t h e

anything,
by

but

the

the

one

most

whole

who

h o l y one

event

was

had

invited

nature
to

be

to a c t .

It

should create

the

o n e , i n a d i r e c t w a y , a s i t w e r e , a s i n t h e c a s e of

the

man.

proper

the

the

holy Virgin and

was n a t u r a l that God, leaving nature aside,


blessed

which opens

most p r o p e r s e n s e t h e f i r s t unan". He

i n the

entirely

statement

one a n d w h i c h emphasizes

f a c t t h a t s h e i s "in the

could

with a

Since

sense

the

the

Virgin

first

is

man, i.e.

certainly
the

one

and
who

in
alone

the

most

revealed

the human nature."(1^)

T h i s statement,
of

the

Virgin

obviously

from

elderly

r e f e r r i n g to t h e m i r a c u l o u s b i r t h
parents

by

God's

intervention

( a c c o r d i n g to t h e A p o c r y p h a l G o s p e l of S t J a m e s ) , r e g a r d s

the

41
V i r g i n a s "the f i r s t m a n " n o t i n t h e s e n s e t h a t s h e h a s a
d i f f e r e n t h u m a n i t y f r o m t h a t of A d a m a n d of a l l t h e o t h e r
h u m a n b e i n g s , b u t i n t h e s e n s e t h a t s h e i s t h e one w h o w a s
born by
holy
p a r e n t s a n d remained h e r s e l f holy.
This
becomes a p p a r e n t i n the following c h a p t e r (ch. 5), w h i c h , as
Nellas d e s c r i b e s it, "constitutes a wonderful abridgement and
a t t h e same time a d e c i s i v e s t e p t o w a r d s t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of
the orthodox t e a c h i n g about man, something w h i c h the e a r l i e r
Fathers,
who
had
been
occupied
with Triadological and
Christological problems, had done only implicitly, but which
had
to b e e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y w h e n
t h e m a r c h i n g p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e d e m a n d e d it."(13)
Indeed
Cabasilas
managed
to
work
out
a
Christian
a n t h r o p o l o g y a s a c h a l l e n g e to t h a t o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e b y
f o c u s i n g o n t h e V i r g i n T h e o t o k o s , i.e. t h e h u m a n i t y w h i c h w a s
w o r t h y of g i v i n g b i r t h to God w h o became Man a n d S a v i o u r
of t h e w o r l d .

II.3

T h e V i r g i n ' s s i n l e s s n e s s and its anthropological premise

In
to

c h a p t e r f i v e C a b a s i l a s t e l l s u s t h a t God's g r e a t e s t

man,

love

Kai
The

last

and

Him p u r e l y "

reason,
free

his

to

(0dv

dominate

from tasting

greatest

his

any

creature, was

Ka0apffl<;
passions

sin"

and

KPLXELV)

and

to

be

for

such

"to
able

ability
live
to

(oOv XdyQ Cnv K O C na86v

onuproSoi^j; diptipTiCosi; dyEuionrov E f v c u . ) , i.e


power

the

manner

of

Me,

to

says

be

gift
"to
with

remain
KporrEiv

sinless.

Cabasilas,

was

i n p l a n t e d b y G o d i n m a n a t t h e time o f t h e l a t t e r ' s c r e a t i o n .

42
I t m e a n t t h a t m a n h a d to f i g h t to r e m a i n s i n l e s s u n t i E h e
a r r i v e d a t the point of b e e n f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n s i n l e s s n e s s
without effort. T h e n he would achieve i n c o r r u p t i b i l i t y . Indeed
C a b a s i l a s a d d u c e s a t l e a s t f o u r r e a s o n s to p r o v e t h a t t h i s i s
p r e c i s e l y the c a s e , i.e. that s i n l e s s l e s s a n d i n c o r r u p t i b i l i t y
are
real
possibilities for the
h u m a n b e i n g . He s p e c i a l l y
s t r e s s e s m a n ' s c a p a c i t y f o r f r e e c h o i c e (vvnapfic a u r o v o p f a ) a n d
c o n c l u d e s t h a t : " I t i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c c e s a r y to b e l i e v e t h a t G o d
i n g r a f t e d i n t o o u r n a t u r e t h e c a p a c i t y ( p o w e r ) to c o n f r o n t
a n y s i n a n d t h u s g a v e u s t h e c o m m a n d m e n t to t r a n s f o r m t h i s
capacity
into
energy
(the
power
into
a c t i o n ) " . (15)
The
i n t e n t i o n i s t h a t , w h e n w e become g o o d t h r o u g h t h e p u r s u i t
of v i r t u e o n t h e b a s i s of o u r o w n c a p a c i t y , God s h a l l r e w a r d
u s b y s u p p l y i n g w h a t i s l a c k i n g to u s , s o t h a t w e m a y
b e c o m e i r r e v o c a b l y g o o d w i t h o u t h a v i n g to f i g h t f o r i t a n y
more.

The

fact

is,

God-given

and

power

fight

to

however,

innate

capability.

against

man

natural

and,

within

of
as

them

the

in

the

to

oblivion(!),
most

result,

did

not

the

( T O Kcnrd

were

numerous

inasmuch

evil devices

good

appear

failed

all. The result

hidden

there

them

men

his

(v6oo<;) t h a t f i r s t a p p e a r e d i n

of

all

utilize

so.

all

Though

not

do

spread

although

did

the

remiained

and

remained

made u s e
soul

then

beauty

^KpuiniTETo)
man

and

man

had

sin,

S i n n i n g became a s i c k n e s s
first

that

as

using
that

anywhere

all
the

had
as

to

was

that

the

qtuatv

KdXXoQ

human

bodies

human

beings

power of
been
no

their

implanted
one

Mved

43
a c c o r d i n g to i t . H o w e v e r , w h e r e o t h e r s
succeeded.

Chapter
as

six p r e s e n t s

something

something

which

the

was

failed, the holy

sinlessness

granted

to

Virgin

of t h e T h e o t o k o s ,

her

from

God,

not

but

as

w h i c h s p r a n g out of h e r a n d , especially, from that

c a p a c i t y of h e r ' s w h i c h God h a d implanted i n h e r , a s w e l l


in

all

other

hunman

beings.

She

achieved

sinlessness,

Cabasilasj "without h a v i n g h e a v e n a s h e r c i t y , without


been

born from h e a v e n l y

bodies,

but

from the

as

says

having

earth in

the

s a m e w a y a s a l l ( T 6 V Taov d n a o i v Tpdnov), i.e. f r o m t h i s f a l l e n


g e n u s w h i c h c a m e to b e i g n o r a n t of i t s o w n n a t u r e (auTou T O U
nea6vTo<; y ^ V O U < ; , T O U Tf|v aCiTou (piioiv fiYvonKOToq).

The

holy

humanity,
from

in

achieved,

by

her

victory

to

utilised
which

eros

and

overturn
which

analysis what the


the

man

who

was

she

also

revealed

amongst

opposed

Thus

she

all

he

for

all the

every

the

to

the

sin

else

weapons

of

and

can

her

to

be

created

God the

by

Creator

set

the

God

the

granted
all
us.

strength

of

her

to
the
She
of

choice

m i n d (tppoviipaTOQ
up

was the

God, and
his

evil

inside

compared.

with

of

and

straightness

holy Virgin achieved


truly

put

(fpWTi G E O U ) ,

largness

every

nothing

the

r e s t of

kind

returned

originally

God

(i^iSpi XoyiLopoO),

(YvajJTiQ EuOuTHTi)
to

who

one

( T O diKiftporTov KdXXoq) w h i c h h e

power

thought

pY^0ii.)

end.

having

or

the only

epoch,

to

beauty

nature,

capacity

her

every

beginning

immaculate
our

Virgin was

trophy
I n the

of
last

r e v e l a t i o n of
by

doing

ineffable

this

wisdom

44
and

love for mankind.

That

the

revelation
apparent

revelation

of
in

God

the

of

are

following

the

true

humanity

and

mutually

preconditioned

becomes

statement

which exposes

CabasUas'

d e e p e r t h e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e : " T h e O n e whom s h e p u t
the

sensible

e y e s of

with a body,
works upon
says,

this

Cabasilas,

was impossible
creation, the
because
Image

and

is

that

the

God,

people, h a v i n g f i r s t clothed
had previously

depicted

What i s r e m a r k a b l e i n t h i s
the

even

human

could

holy

the

Virgin

made

which

reveal

what
visible

possible,

God,

provided

the

to be p u r e l y a u t h e n t i c a n d to h a v e n o t h i n g

in

the

simlessness

that

she

alone

she

alone

the

remarkable w h e n one
nothing
KUI

the

free

precisely

Virgin.

this

of

was

escaped

OQCKS

instance,

it

that

aveptmoi;

her

that

u n i q u e l y the blessed

had

with

b r i n g s within it

w h i c h i s d u b i o u s , " (1^) a n d s u c h a b e i n g w a s

and

him

possible

holy Angels. I t was

being,

truly

Cabasilas concludes

man

before

L a w , the Phophetic tongues, the

heavens,

revealed itself
intself

One s h e

to t h e

"Only
of

all the

herself".(1^)

the

chapter
holy

Virgin

from every
common

by

stressing
-

the

once

fact,

again

that

" s t a i n " (pJno<;), o r

sickness

is

all the

that
more

s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r s t h a t s h e w a s a mere
more

TV KOIVSV

than

other

TOUTOV

human

beings

(pdvov

dwOptSnov pETooTfoOoa nAeov

ou5^v). T h o u g h i t i s a b s o l u t e l y c l e a r t h a t t h e m i r a c l e d o e s
consist

in

the

is,

Virgin

receiving

some

different

kind

not
of

h u m a n i t y t h a n t h a t o f o t h e r s , J u g i e a l t e r s t h e p u n c t u a t i o n of

45
t h i s t e x t so t h a t i t may be made to w i t n e s s to t h e a b o v e ! T h i s
i s e r r o n e o u s not o n l y grammatically - something w h i c h is
s t r e s s e d b y Nellas(l^) - but also conceptually, because it
r u n s c o u n t e r to t h e n u m e r o u s s t a t e m e n t s of C a b a s i l a s w h i c h
e s t a b l i s h t h e i n t e g r i t y of t h e h u m a n i t y of t h e h o l y V i r g i n a n d
i t s i d e n t i t y w i t h t h a t of o u r s .

II.4 T h e r e a s o n s for the V i r g i n ' s achievement

These
(ch.7)

last

points

which tries

succeeded
stresses
anybody's
though

to

where
the

she

explain

that

(pviSevdq

came

clarified in

into

else

"the

holy

TOU

the

height,

following

"why"

failed.
Virgin

existence

neither

chapter

the

Theotokos

Here

Cabasilas

did

not

need
even

bsnQEioav),

POTIOOOVTOC

s i c k n e s s o f n a t u r e { K o i v i i Appwrria.
common h e a l e r

the

"how" or

everybody

fact

help

are

before

the

common

TfjQ qujoec*?), n o r a f t e r

the

i a T p 6 v ) , b u t a t t h e m i d - d a y of e v i l s , at

(KOIVOV

w i t h i n the

l a n d of

condemnation,

within a

nature

w h i c h h a d l e a r n e d to s u r r e n d e r to e a c h c h a l - l e n g e , w i t h i n a
body
who

which is
could

help

s e r v a n t of
were

d e a t h , a t a time w h e n

completely

those who could f i g h t were

attached

to

all those

wrong-doing,

or

absent."(1^)

I t w a s b e c a u s e of h e r o w n " f r e e d e c i s i o n " (npoaipeoLQ) a n d


"eagerness

o f s o u l " (npJX'i^ npoOupi'a) t h a t t h e

holy V i r g i n did

w h a t s h e d i d . I t was "herself alone, u s i n g the weapons


G o d g a v e to

her, as

to a l l h u m a n b e i n g s ,

for the

which

p u r s u i t of

v i r t u e , that won that new a n d s u r p a s s i n g v i c t o r y " . T h u s

one

46

can u n d e r s t a n d why the holy Virgin is greater that Adam who


was horn without s i n but f e l l into it and the Christians who
r e c e i v e d the g r a c e of C h r i s t but remained i n need of
continuous cleansing through the Sacraments.

The notions of freedom and v i r t u e , which emerge at the


centre

of

the

previous

two

chapters

as

the

fundamental

reasons for the v i c t o r y of the holy V i r g i n , are taken up and


further discussed

i n the

eighth

chapter i n a more

general

anthropological context. Cabasilas attempts to c l a r i f y here the


relation of human freedom to divine grace. Divine grace does
not s u p p l y man with v i r t u e at the expense of h i s freedom. I t
r a t h e r r e w a r d s the
human freedom.

human v i r t u e which is achieved

through

Human freedom i s the presupposition to the

achievement of human v i r t u e , which, in t u r n , is a good work


expected

of

man a n d

rewarded b y

God. Freedom, together

with reason, has to do with man's "being" (TO e f v a i ) , whereas


v i r t u e has to do with man's "well being" (rd
latter

can

never

be

obtained

apart

E f v a i ) . The

from, or

against,

the

former.

T h e r e is much more that Cabasilas supplies here, but in


saying

all

freedom

of

this

his

God i s

deeper
"freely

message

is

that,

r e s t r i c t e d " , as

it

though

were,

by

the
the

freedom of rnnan, i n the last a n a l y s i s , it i s the love of God


that wins o v e r man's freedom without violating it, because it
takes the way of the C r o s s . I n this case too, as originally in
the

case

of

creation,

God offered

his

gift

equally

to

all

47

without a n y partiality. T h i s ultimately means that he gave


nothing more to h i s mother than he gave to all other human
beings.(20)

The
other

only difference, then, between the holy Virgin and the


human beings,

as

Cabasilas explains

i n . the

following

c h a p t e r (ch. 9), lies in what she contributed out of herself to


that w h i c h was commonly g i v e n b y God to both h e r and the
others, t h u s s u r p a s s i n g the others {or<; bi npoae'BnKEv OCKOBEV
OOTO TOII1<; dAXouQ iijiinEpPoiAo0cra).(21) Yet, this unique victory of
the V i r g i n , at the point where others failed, does not place
her

i n opposition to them, but makes h e r the

representative

of the others in winning a v i c t o r y for their common nature


(QonEp

Cabasilas

rriv

ndvTEQ

EL

concludes

preserved as

vi'Krjv

his

etpY<3iaavTo).

TQUTTIV

argument

in

f a r a s it was possible

this

the

Indeed,

chapter:

beauty

as

"She

which was

g i v e n to the human n a t u r e f r e e from a n y opposing

elements,

not only for h e r s e l f but also for all other human beings".(22)

With this concise and r i c h chapter (ch. 9), which p r e s e n t s


the V i r g i n a s the highest

r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the human r a c e ,

as the one who won a v i c t o r y for the sake of all and as the
one

within

particular

whom
human

not
beings

only

the

found

human

and

authenticity, Cabasilas r e a c h e s the

nature

continue

to

but
find

the
their

end of the f i r s t part of

h i s Oration. T h e following f o u r c h a p t e r s , being more analytical


and

descriptive,

sinlessmess

of

aim at

the

proving

the

exceeding

hoMness

holy V i r g i n . I t is a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of

or
his

48

work, that h a v i n g Christologically explained the t r u t h


the help g i v e n b y C h r i s t to his Mother - i.e., himself not a n y g r e a t e r or d i f f e r e n t than that which he gave to
Cabasilas does not hesitate to use the most excessive
absolute expressions i n order to qualify the magnitude of
s i n l e s s n e s s of the holy Virgin.

that
was
all,
and
the

I I . 5 . Arguments demonstrating the Virgin's sinlessness

I n chapter

ten Cabasilas produces

s e v e r a l arguments in

support of the s i n l e s s n e s s of the holy Virgin.

F i r s t of all he a r g u e s for her sinlessness


fact of

from the v e r y

the I n c a r n a t i o n . According to I s a i a h 59:2 God would

not have descended on h e r , had she not been sinless. To the


counter -

argument that God could have descended

on

her

e v e n if she had had the b a r r i e r of s i n within her,

because

h i s descent

barrier

itself would have s u f f i c e d to break this

down, Cabasilas r e p l i e s

that it was not the Incarnation but

the Blood a n d the Passion which broke down the b a r r i e r of


s i n which separated

man from God and that

both of

these

(the Blood and the Passion) presupposed the Incarnation and


the s i n l e s s n e s s of both C h r i s t and his Mother.

Another

argument

of

Cabasilas

in

support

of

the

s i n l e s s n e s s of the V i r g i n i s based on the Biblical r e c o r d a s to


God's attitude to E v e and to Mary. I t was a c u r s e that God
pronounced to E v e , but a "greeting", a "Maipe", that he sent

49

to the V i r g i n . The argument is that he would not have sent


s u c h a g r e e t i n g had the V i r g i n been i n s i n like E v e o r like
the r e s t of humanity. Besides, the Kaipe c o u l d not have been
a r b i t r a r y , because God "does not act with partiality"- (Luke
20:21).

Another
based

on

argument

the

for

the

discussion

sinlessness

which,

of

according

the
to

Virgin

the

is

Gospel

n a r r a t i v e , the holy V i r g i n had had with the Archangel at the


Annunciation
There is

concerning

no r e f e r e n c e

cleansing

on

argument

that

descent

of

"cleansing"
perhaps

the

the

the

paradoxical

in this

part

of

conversation

the

Theotokos.

c e r t a i n F a t h e r s o f the
Spirit

upon

the

(mpoKEKalBdpOoio.
reference

npoKa9ap8I'ariQ

to

birth
to

the

Christ.
need

as

nfiiv

of

counter-

had seen

Theotokos

Gregory

any

To the

Church

HTvEiupom

of

an

act

the
of

nap8^vov) -

Theologian's

phrase

nvEupari,
(23)

or to John Damascene's phrase


Koeaipov aLiTTiv,(24) or even to the p h r a s e dYVLaBeraa nvEUMom
of

the

eighth

Ode

of

the

Canon

to

the

Virgin

of

the

Octoechos, or other similar p h r a s e s from various Troparia i n


the

Orthodox L i t u r g i c a l Books -

"cleansing"

envisaged

addition

graces"

of

here
(rriv

by

Cabasilas replies that


the

Fathers

refers

"an

KdSopoiv npoa8nKTjv yopiTOv auToiq

POUXEOOQIIL

xpfi vopiCetv), r a t h e r than to cleansing

since

holy Angels

the

to

the

who are sinless

from s i n ,

are also said

"to

be

cleansed" i n the same way - p e r h a p s a r e f e r e n c e to Basil the


Great's p h r a s e 5 i d TTIQ K o i v o v i a q TOO nvugaTO<; xfiv TEXEICKJLV
in;dYiL,(25) r more probably h i s f r i e n d ' s Gregory Palamas's

50

view t h a t

the

coming of the

Spirit to the Theotokos was a


(26)

F i n a l l y Cabasilas a r g u e s for the

s i n l e s s n e s s of

the

holy

V i r g i n b y the statement of the L o r d himself recorded in L u k e


8:21, w h i c h identifies
the

doing

i t " with

recognized

the

the

"his

existence

"hearing of the

word of God and

Mother". B y s a y i n g
in

the

o u s n e s s which s u r p a s s e s e v e r y

Virgin

of

this, the
such

human measure

Lord

righte-

(SiKaioauvriv

raraniK divOpamfviiiq unpiiXoT^pav), inasmuch as he applied to h e r


the

reality

which

lies

beyond

mere

names.

And

Cabasilas

concludes: "Just as there was no better way of giving

birth

to C h r i s t than the one she gave, nor of becoming his Mother


than the one by which she became, but reached the
point

of

authenticity

in

her

relation

to

highest

him, similarly

could not have a r r i v e d at a n y higher measure of

she

perfection

t h a n that at which she a r r i v e d throughout all her life".(27)

I I . 6 . The holy V i r g i n and the holy Temple

The following three c h a p t e r s (chs. 1 1 - 1 4 ) develop, as we


have a l r e a d y pointed out at the beginning of this section in
our t h e s i s , a l i t u r g i c a l argument i n support of the
of the

holy Theotokos, which is d r a w n f r o m the

sinlessness
data of

the

F e a s t of the " E n t r y of the Theotokos into the Temple", which


are

obviously t a k e n , although without a n y explicit reference,

mainly

from

the

Apocryphal

Protev^angelium

of

JaE!ies,(28)

known in Greek as T O 1 0 6 6 1 0 , and celebrated i n the

Eastern

51
C h u r c h on 21 November.

The

whole of

chapter

eleven

argument f o r the s i n l e s s n e s s
that

she

Mved i n the

teens, without anyone

is

taken

up

by Cabasilas'

of the holy V i r g i n from the fact

Temple

from her e a r l y

r a i s i n g a n y objections

years

to

her

or questions on

the basis of the tradition which was quite definitive on this,


and

without

certainly
concern

undergoing

indicates
and

ceremonies

her

of

any

that

"she

purity

the

law"

purifications. (29)
was

far

above

exceeded

(KPEITTQV

t^v

This

every
the

airiac

cause

v i r t u e w h i c h shown

like a b r i g h t

of

purificatory
dndoTiq KOC

KaBapcSrepov Efyev f) 5Ca9ai TOV vopiKwv TEXET(5V).(30) s h e


f u l l of

fact

s u n and

was

dispelled

the d a r k n e s s of e v e r y evil.

In

chapter

twelve

Cabasilas draws f u r t h e r

conclusions

from the V i r g i n ' s dwelling at the Temple. I t was f i r s t of all


an acknowledgement

on the p a r t of other human beings of the

f a c t that what was f i t to be God's dweMing place was also fit


for the
fact

V i r g i n . But it was also a prefiguration of the

which

followed

afterwards,

namely,

of

God

other
himself

becoming the Temple i n w h i c h the V i r g i n came to dwell a s he


overshadowed
saw himself
because

her
as

the

with

his

only

power

fitting

(Luke

1:35). Indeed,

Temple for the

holy

God

Virgin,

he also saw that she became the only fitting Temple

f o r him! ("If^dvov Y<^P ^

QEOC,

^aunrdv d t i a v fyvM OKiivii^v TO pdvQ

YEvop^vQ diiCa Tou 0EOU aKrivii").(31)

52
Chapter thirteen develops an even profounder line of
thought. T h e e n t r y of the Theotokos into the Temple was not
an event that resulted in her glorification. I t was not, in
other words, the Temple that glorified her, but rather her
that glorified the Temple. T h i s was the case, s a y s Cabasilas,
because she was the true Temple of God, whereas the other
one was only her shadow! T h u s her e n t r y into the Temple
marked the mystery of the replacement of the shadow by the
reality. F o r Cabasilas the case of the Theotokos and the
Temple, being similar to that of the shadow and the reality, is
parallel to
s e v e r a l other
related
cases,
s u c h as,
the
S l a u g h t e r i n g of C h r i s t and the Old Passover, the Spiritual
Baptism (of C h r i s t ) and the Baptism of John, etc. But the
parallelism of the Temple and the V i r g i n has many more
profound meanings.

Cabasilas points out that the e n t r y of the High Priest into


the Temple once a year, following a certain purification, was
the symbol of the "ineffable conception"
into

the

womb of

the

V i r g i n of

"priestly action" (lEpoupVLa)

{6n6ppT\Toc, Kuotpopia)

Him, who, \n.th

one

single

in the midst of the ages, would

wipe out a l l s i n . He also points out that the hoMness of


Temple was

proleptically

related

to

the

entry

V i r g i n into it, inasmuch a s she constituted

of

the

the
holy

the hoMest e n t r y

into it - holier than the Manna, the Rod, the Tablets, and all
the r e s t of the
prefigurations

Temple-vessels,
(eiKOVEn;)

of

which were also symbols

her.

This

is

why

what

"impassable" (S5OTO<;) to others was "passable" (EiannriT6<;)

or
was
to

53
h e r . Her appearance, then, f u l f i E e d and put an end to the old
law!

Having thus
between the

clearly established

the

symbolic

parallelism

Temple and the holy V i r g i n Cabasilas

concludes

h i s thirteenth c h a p t e r b y a s k i n g a pertinent question


impHes

the

exceeding

holiness

and

sinlessness

Theotokos: I f the e a r t h l y Temple, he a s k s ,

which

of

the

which was but a

p a s s i n g symbol, was so holy that it stood apart from a E men


and the
case

whole ecumene,

with the

how much more should

V i r g i n who i s

the

permanent

this be

reaMty of

the
that

symbol?

Chapter fourteen,

which is

the last one

to treat of

Temple- V i r g i n parallelism, adds a few more insights,


explain

in

profounder

doctrine o f Mary and the

way

the

doctrine

connection

the

which

between

the

of man. T h e Temple

also

images the V i r g i n , albeit in an obscure and faint manner, in


that it was initially taken from the earth but was afterwards
separated from it and from the whole of the

Ecumene. I n a

similar but f a r s u p e r i o r way - a s superior a s a body i s to its


shadow

t h e holy V i r g i n was taken f r o m our side, but was

subsequently
untouched

by

separated
every

from u s

k i n d of

evil

in that

she

kept

her wOl

(dnp6atTov KEKTfjaSai ndog

inovuipiLQi n i v Yv<5piniv]). Inasmuch a s she did this, she

fulfilled

the rational and n a t u r a l condition of human existence,


was r e q u i r e d before God's grace was supplied.

which

54

I I . 7 . The V i r g i n as r e p r e s e n t i n g humanity in her achievement


and God's response to her in C h r i s t

Cabasilas explains what all the above really means by p r o d u c i n g one of the most profound anthropologiced principles of
his theological

position.

"It was n e c e s s a r y ,

he s a y s , that a

human being should appear who would be above e v e r y sin b y


virtue

of

its

diligence

before

receiving

the

of
gift

reasoning
of

and its own

becoming

the

strength,

mother

of

the

sinless One, i.e. before a c q u i r i n g a (natural) relation to him.


In

other

words, it was n e c e s s a r y

for the

human nature

to

appear a s it was created, in order to r e n d e r to its Creator


the honour a n d the glory which was fitting for him. S u c h a
necessity, he explains, could not be fulfilled by Adam, or his
descendants,

who

were

corrupted

by

s i n . Nor could

it

be

fulfilled b y the second Adam, who, being God and man, could
not p r e s e n t h i s second nature, i.e. that of of our own, on its
own, and since

he did not

have that relation to sin which

e v e r y man should have i n this life. The second Adam could


never

sin

needed
of

(ou5' otoc;

T ' fjv dpapTdiveLv).

"Thus

what

was the appearance of someone who, though

s i n n i n g , would

not

do so and, as

s u c h , would

was

capable
perfectly

r e v e a l how God wanted man to be i n this life."^^^) S u c h a


p e r s o n , who did actually vindicate

both

God's creation and

God's legislation, was the holy Virgin.

Chapter

fifteen

stresses

the

above

point

once

more,

namely, that the holy V i r g i n was the person that a l l humanity

55
and all h i s t o r y waited for, the only person who fulfilled all
God's commandments through her own f r e e decision, winning
over s i n i n the power which God implanted i n her as in all

humans.

But

here

it

for

another,

precondition

is

also

explained
a

that

second,

this

was

the

achievement,

an

achievement which God added as a j u s t reward to the former.


T h i s i s the gift of C h r i s t which r e n d e r s u s immovable b y s i n
and p u t s a n end to o u r struggle against it. The holy Virgin,
s a y s Cabasilas, f u l f i E e d both achievements i n her humanity,
the f i r s t one

through h e r s e l f a n d the

second, through him

who made her his mother.

These two above

mentioned achievements also r e v e a l the

d i f f e r e n c e between the s i n l e s s n e s s of the Theotokos and the


sinlessness

of

because

requires

it

Christ.
a

XoYiopdv),

(vfjtpovTa

"magnitude

of

The

first

constant

"straight

is

one

which

struggle
choice"

is

relative

"alert

reason"
yw6\jr\c,),

(EuSuTTiTa

mind" (peveBoQ uppovsiparot;)) -

, whereas

the

latter one i s absolute, because it i s a gift of God. C h r i s t a s


God-man p o s s e s s e d this absolute s i n l e s s n e s s which he granted
to h i s Mother a s a r e w a r d for her own relative sinlessness.
T h u s , one

should reaMze that it is God who adds what we

cannot do to that which we c a n do and do do. I n doing this


he

coordinates

relative

his

goodness

absolute

goodness

a n d freedom. T h i s

and
means

freedom

to

that the

our

latter

g i v e s b i r t h to the former, or as Cabasilas explains it, man's


becoming
down

sinless

God's

gift

through
of

his

own

acquiring

struggles

goodness

has

within

brought
him

as

56
something absolutely permanent and irremovable.

In

line

with

the

above

CabasUas speaks,

in Chapter

sixteen, of the two "purities" (Ka0tip<$Tiii|TE<;) which were given


to the human nature: that of the holy V i r g i n ind that of her
Bivine Son which i s the better one. I t is fitting, he s a y s , for
a mother to be s u r p a s s e d by h e r Son and to achieve greater
things t h r o u g h him a n d to be f u l l y glorified on his, r a t h e r
t h a n on h e r , account. I t i s also fitting that the revelation of
God

should come as the crown of the revelation of man, and

that

both

of

these

should

precede

the

revelation

of

the

God-man. J u s t a s man was revealed as a c r e a t u r e after the


revelation of

the

intelligent

and sensible

creations,

likewise

the God-man was revealed after God and man had both

been

revealed.

The

above principles point to the fact that the revelation

of the V i r g i n Mary was a presupposition to the revelation of


Christ.

This

is

the

theme

that

following c h a p t e r , c h . seventeen,

Cabasilas s t r e s s e s

in

the

a n d , i n doing this, he uses

an i n t e r e s t i n g parallelism between Adam and E v e on the


hand and C h r i s t and the Vingin on the

one

other. J u s t as E v e

was Adam's only helper amongst all the r e s t of the creatures,


so the V i r g i n was God's only helper for the revelation of his
goodness.

Furthermore, Cabasilas s t r e s s e s
was

to

God

not

mere

the point that the Virgin

instrument

but

an

assistant,

57
co-operator i<mvepy6c,),
f o r the revelation of himself. God
waited f o r h e r appearance i n o r d e r to appear himself. As
Cabasilas c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y puts it: "As soon as the Virgin
was manifested, he too manifested himself completely". ("^ni
i\ riapBEVOQ fiv K Q i auT6<; navTdnaoiv 5fiXo<; fiv"),(33) or, j u s t as
the s u n s h i n e s c l e a r l y only through a p u r e atmosphere, so
does the F i r s t L i g h t shine through the pure Virgin. T h i s
r e a l l y means that the f u l l n e s s of time came, not when God
decided i n h i s s o v e r e i g n independence, but when the tree of
human freedom, originally planted b y him at the creation,
p r o d u c e d the expected f r u i t . Man's role i n bringing about the
f u l l n e s s of time i s as essential as that of God, not because
man is on a p a r with God, but because God has made him to
be his f r e e p a r t n e r .

I I . 8 . Conclusion: The meaning and implications of the Virgin's


achievement for the whole of humanity

The
superb

last
hymn

recapitulates

chapter
to
the

is

the

rich

holy

and

Virgin

preceding

magnificent
the

teaching

eulogy,

Theotokos,

and

brings

which

out

the

j o y f u l meaning of the Feast of her Nativity, which r e s t s upon


the unique human p e r s o n and human achievement of the holy
V i r g i n Theotokos:

"Celebrating,
come

to

beginning.

this

therefore, with e v e r y

bright

I t is the

Day

on

B i r t h of

which

the

joy,

brightened

everything

we

has

its

Virgin, or rather, of

the

58

entire

Ecumene; the

f i r s t and only

Day that

saw

the

true

human being, from whom all other human beings came to learn
that it is possible to them to be true.

Now i s the moment when the earth i s r e n d e r i n g its pure


f r u i t (Ps.

66:7),

whereas for aU the r e s t of its time it

has

been b r i n g i n g up this corruption of sin through thorns and


tares.

Now is the moment


they

were

not

created

when the heavens


in v a i n ,

and

all

are learning that


this,

because

p e r s o n for whom they were made has appeared; this is


moment when the s u n i s seeing

the
the

that c r e a t u r e on account of

which it received the light.

Now i s the moment when the whole creation is perceiving


itself to be the best a n d the brightest, because the common
beauty has shined.

Now all the Angels of God are p r a i s i n g and singing


their Master with a great voice

to

(Job 38:7) - all the more so

now than when he adorned the heavens with the circle of the
s t a r s , inasmuch a s the One who i s now r i s i n g i s higher and
brighter

than any

star

and more

profitable for

the

whole

world.

Now the human nature is recei\'ing an active eye, having


come to this Day i n a state of blindness. F o r as it happened

59
later to that p e r s o n who was born blind, so it is now
happenning with that nature which had been wondering
a s t r a y a n d falling off, when God i s showing his mercy on it
and i n g r a f t i n g into it t h i s wondrous eye; and t h u s humanity
cam see what t h r o u g h many prophets a n d kings she desired
to see from a distance but was not able (Matth. 13:17). F o r
j u s t as there are many p a r t s and members within one body,
but none of them, except the eye, has been adapted to see
the s u n , so of all the human beings that have been made it is
only to the p u r e V i r g i n that the true Hght has been
e n t r u s t e d and through her to all of them.

There is, then, an unceasing praise which is being offered


to her by the two creations and e v e r y tongue is praising her
v i r t u e s with one voice, while a l l human beings join the choirs
of the Angels i n offering constant
God.

To a l l these

we

too

add

hymns to the Mother of

what

we

have

sung

here,

s h o r t e r t h a n what we ought to have s u n g and ought to have


been

r e a d y for, shorter also than what we were ready for

and were able to sing.

But there is so much that one ought to sing here! Yet, to


You, the Most-praiseworthy human being, and to your
anthropy

and

magnificence,

belongs

the

priviledge

phil-

not

to

measure the g r a c e b y a n y t h i n g that is o u r s . And j u s t as You,


being

exempted

from the

r e s t of

humanity and becoming

g i f t to God, have adorned aM human beings, so grant to u s ,


t h r o u g h these words which we have dedicated to you, that

60
the t r e a s u r y of words, our v e r y heart, may be sanctified and
the ground of our soul may be r e n d e r e d b a r r e n for e v e r y
evil;
through
the
grace
and
philanthropy
of
your
only-begotten Son, our L o r d and God and Saviour J e s u s
C h r i s t , to whom belongs all glory, honour and adoration,
together with his F a t h e r who is without beginning and the
all-holy and good and l i f e - g i v i n g Spirit, now and ever and in
the ages of the ages, AMEN".(34)

What c l e a r l y emerges from this Oration is that the

holy

V i r g i n occupies a unique place in the plan of salvation which


i s to be understood i n terms of her true relationship to God,
i.e.

her

p u r i t y and

sinlessness.

This

uniqueness

is

funda-

mentally connected with the human nature, as God created it,


and especially

with i t s God-given potentiality.

It

represents

the fulfihrnent of this potentiality. As s u c h it constitutes


summit of

human achievement,

which i s

distinguished

but also related to, those other achievements

the

from,

of humanity

those contained i n and constitutive of the sacred history, the


h i s t o r y of salvation.

Furthermore the uniqueness of the Virgin mother of Christ


is to be understood as the f u l n e s s of human time, which, far
from undermoining the uniqueness

of God a s God, does, as a

matter of fact, s e r v e the revelation of the divine

uniqueness.

T h i s includes God's taking the form of the s e r v a n t ,

because

the

it

servant

therefore,

has

his

freely

gracing

offered

herself

of

creaturely

the

to

him for
time,

which

and,
he

61
c r e a t e d , with h i s own eternity and his blessing of his
c r e a t u r e with h i s Godhead. T h i s mighty deed of God is
identical with the person and work of J e s u s C h r i s t , which, i n
Cabasilas' p e r s p e c t i v e , remains t r u l y human and t r u l y divine
because of the t r u l y human Theotokos. The more CabasUas
p r a i s e s the humanity of the Theotokos, the more he acknowledges the Divine-human reality of C h r i s t the Redeemer and
S a v i o u r . Here i s a theological perspective which does not
have a view of salvation which relies on God the Redeemer
apart from God the Creator and does not leave any room for
a n y a r b i t r a r y , u n f r e e , coordination of God with his creature
who has been made i n his own image and likeness, rational
and f r e e . I n t h i s perspective the exaltation of humanity is
f u l l y and u t t e r l y linked with the exaltation of God. It is the
perspective of theological, indeed C h r i s t i a n , humanism.

62.
I I I . T H E O R A T I O N ON T H E A N N U N C I A T I O N O F T H E T H E O T O K O S

I I I . l . T h e Oration and its contents: a n overview

It

i s not

s u r p r i s i n g that Cabasilas' second

Theotokos presents

O r a t i o n on

many similarities, as far as its

the

theological

content

goss, with that o f the p r e v i o u s Oration. Yet there

in

new

this

Oration

both

new

material and

c a t i o n , not least b e c a u s e o f the new context,

further

is

clarifi-

the F e a s t o f the

A n n u n c i a t i o n . T h e f a c t , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e P e r s o n of t h e T h e o tokos
of

occupies

the

the

previous

c e n t r e o f this context,

Oration,

ensures

as

it does i n

fundamental

that

continuity.

T h i s w O l become a p p a r e n t o n c e w e h a v e o u t l i n e d a n d a n a l y z e d
t h e c o n t e n t s of t h i s O r a t i o n .

A c a r e f u l r e a d i n g of t h e O r a t i o n

r e v e a l s the following broad outline:

It all opens with the


result

of

content.

the

F e a s t of

theme

the

of

"joy" a n d "rejoicing" a s a

Annunciation and

T h e "human joy" as

the

e s p e c i a l l y of

right and proper

its

response

to t h e F e a s t c o m e s f i r s t a n d t h e n t h e a u t h o r m o v e s on to

the

similar

the

themes

Virgin" before
chapter

of

the

"joy

of

God"

t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r comes

continues

along

the

same

and

three

one

enters

line

into

Oration, w h i c h is the exposition o f the


or o f the event

"joy

of

to a c l o s e . T h e s e c o n d

e x p l a i n s t h e w o r k , o r a c h i e v e m e n t , of t h e

With c h a p t e r

the

of

rejoicing

as

it

Theotokos.

the

substance

of

the

meaning of the F e a s t ,

w h i c h i s commemorated b y i t . H e r e t h e

theme

63
o f j o y g i v e s w a y to t h e theme o f t h e " V i r g i n ' s mediation" i n
t h e w o r k of s a l v a t i o n a n d e s p e c i a l l y to w h a t i s b a s i c to i t ,
her "sinlessness",
w i t h o u t w h i c h s a l v a t i o n w o u l d not
h&ve
b e e n r e a l i s e d . T h u s t h e h o l y V i r g i n ' s "role" a n d " c o n t r i b u t i o n " to t h e moment a n d to t h e a c t u a l e v e n t of G o d ' s
a p p r o a c h a n d u n i o n with humanity i s d u l y noted. C h a p t e r
f o u r n a t u r a l l y l e a d s o n f r o m t h i s to t h e more p r e c i s e c l a r i f i c a t i o n of t h e r o l e of t h e V i r g i n i n t h e E c o n o m y of G o d ' s
I n c a r n a t i o n , f o c u s i n g on h e r "faith" a n d h e r "ministry" w h i c h
a r e f u l l y exposed b y means of a c o n t r a s t between h e r a n d
E v e . T h a t b r i n g s t h e f l o w of t h e d i s c o u r s e to a n o t h e r c h a p t e r
( c h . 5) w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e t y p i c a l theme of C a b a s i l a s t y p i c a l i n t h e s e n s e t h a t we f o u n d i t a t c r u c i a l p o i n t s i n h i s
p r e v i o u s O r a t i o n - the theme o f the V i r g i n ' s conscious a n d
f r e e l y c h o s e n s y n e r g y w i t h the g r a c i o u s God. T h i s is expounded b y a close examination o f the biblical data on the
e v e n t of t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n a n d , e s p e c i a l l y , t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n
w h i c h the holy V i r g i n had had with God's A r c h a n g e l . Exactly
t h e same theme a n d p r o c e d u r e aire employed i n c h a p t e r s i s
a n d t h e n t h e d i s c o u r s e m o v e s a w a y f r o m t h e b i b l i c a l d a t a to
a n examination o f t h e i r deeper anthropological a n d theological
i m p l i c a t i o n s . C h a p t e r s e v e n t a k e s u p t h e theme of t h e p r e p a ration o f the
h o l y V i r g i n , w h i c h i s r e m i n i s c e n t of
what
C a b a s i l a s s a i d i n the f i r s t Oration c o n c e r n i n g the perfection
of t h e V i r g i n ' s s o u l t h r o u g h t h e c o n s i s t e n t p u r s u i t of v i r t u e .

Prom

chapter

plane.

eight

Here the

to

the

focus

end

is not

the

discourse

moves

the

Virgin as

such

to
but

64
the

wider

anthropological

and e n t r y into

the

are expounded
Chapter

nine

literally

the

Divine challenge

an

"justice" or

from the

view

of

the

point

holy

fitting

is

preparation for

o f t h e Inceurnation w h i c h

of

v i e w of

Virgin.

very

to

the

explain

of

to

this

heart

C r e a t o r a n d the

Oration

of t h e

of

the

economy.
logic

the Incarnation,

And finally chapter

conclusion

the

attempt

"righteness"

results, or the consequenses,


which

her

i n t e r m s of m a n ' s c r e a t i o n a n d G o d ' s
represents

both

most

i m p l i c a t i o n s of

ten

by

point

of

provides

praising

the

e v e n t of the I n c a r n a t i o n

the

Feast

envisaged

by

the

Oration.

Clearly,

t h e n , t h i s O r a t i o n c a n be d i v i d e d

into three

sections. T h e r e i s f i r s t the introduction w h i c h evolves


the

theme

of

memorated
which

joy

by

caused

by

Feast

(chs.

the

examines

various

role i n this event


the

event

in

and

Redemption

(chs.

8-10).

attention

on

1-2).

Then,

which is

there

aspects

Cabasilas

Oration.

is a

of

of

those

the

the

wider

the

We

contents

statements

perspective

which

have

now

turn

of

this

Oration

w h i c h seem

been

of

may

to

discovered

to

com-

section
Virgin's
section
Creation
a

more

focusing

have particular

significance in c l a r i f y i n g and even supplementing


of

around

(chs. 3-7). A n d f i n a l l y there is the

places

analysis

joyful event

fundamental

that

precise

the

main

in

the
the

insights
previous

65
III.2. The Virgin's joy and

After

an opening

achievement

p a r a g r a p h of

l y r i c c h a r a c t e r , extoHng the

superb

j o y of

literary style

and

the F e a s t , Cabasilis l i n k s

t h e t h e m e o f j o y f i r s t to t h e C r e a t o r a n d t h e n to C r e a t i o n i n
g e n e r a l a n d to t h e V i r g i n i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h e C r e a t o r , he

says,

w h o , s i n c e t h e f o u n d a t i o n of C r e a t i o n h a s b e e n a c c u s t o m e d
rejoicing
confers

at

all

upon

rejoicing at
may seem.
receive

the

his

gifts

which

creatures,

what

he

has

receives

and

rejoice

midst. Above all, however,

that

she

fact

in

it.

come

measure

(3rd);

that

given

all the

it

rejoicing
passive

two

and
in this

involved

up

this

explains

its

real

things
Creator

which
needed

that

she

as

she

worked

before

this

himself i n o r d e r
this

rejoicing
given

to

to

five

to

the

that

C2nd) a n d t h a t , to a

last

her

that

all

reason

and shaped
to

within
his

for

The

earth was

stretching

she

greater

this

was

she

actively

the

Virgin's

(5th).

content.

offered
out

reasons:

all (1st),

a n d , finally, that

picks

in

little

of

in her

through

(4th)

instance,

point

realizes his presence

her

C r e a t i o n , w h e n God took it u p
vely

however

doing

a n d p e r s o n a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d to a l l t h i s

Chapter

the

makes

what is

was

others

to

constantly

it i s the V i r g i n that r e j o i c e s at all

Cabasilas links

participates in

In

and

he

was given it all before all others

to

now

from them,

C r e a t i o n r e j o i c e w i t h him a s s h e

In

richly

He b e c o m e s l i t t l e a s h e e m p t i e s

little

this.

he

to

the
her

Virgin

at the

is

moment

man. S h e i s
all

and

which
hand.

of

acti-

Creator

creative

not

those
the

These

66
are:
an
"all-blameless
contact",
an
"all-pure
Hfe",
the
" r e j e c t i o n of a U e v i l " , t h e " c u l t i v a t i o n of e v e r y v i r t u e " , a
" s o u l p u r e r t h a n l i g h t " , a "body t h a t w a s u t t e r l y s p i r i t u a l " ,
" b r i g h t e r t h a n t h e s u n " , " p u r e r t h a n h e a v e n " , "more s a c r e d
t h a n t h e c h e r u b i c t h r o n e s " , a "mind t h a t c o u l d f l y to a n y
h i g h t without f e a r " , a n d "could s u r p a s s e v e n the h i g h t s o f
the Angels", a "divine eros which absorbed and assimilated
e v e r y o t h e r d e s i r e of t h e s o u l " , a " p r o p e r t y o f G o d " , a
"union
with
God
which
cannot
enter
into
any
human
t h o u g h t " . ( 1 ) AM t h e s e , s a y s C a b a s i l a s , a r e v i r t u e s r e l a t i n g to
t h e b o d y a n d t h e s o u l of t h e V i r g i n ' s h u m a n i t y a n d r e p r e s e n t
her personal achievement.
It was precisely this
personal
achievement
that
attracted
God's attention.
It was
this
personal beauty, which she achieved by her personal efforts,
t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e g o o d n e s s o f t h e common h u m a n n a t u r e
a n d made t h e i m p a s s i b l e One to d r a w n e a r to u s a n d become
a h u m a n b e i n g . I n d e e d G o d b e c a m e nman o n a c c o u n t o f t h e
V i r g i n , e v e n t h o u g h h e w a s h a t e d b y men o n a c c o u n t of t h e i r
sin.

T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e V i r g i n ' s h u m a n q u a l i t y i n t h e

event

o f t h e I n c a r n a t i o n o f God i s f u r t h e r extoled i n c h a p t e r

three.

Here

Cabasilas argues

o f enmity"

"there

was

no middle

wall

( peaoToixov Tfjc E x Q p a Q , E p h . 2:14), n o " p a r t i t i o n "

(npjjofYPOi;), b e c a u s e
tacle

that in her

between

in

her

humanity

everything

and

God h a d

t h e r e was peace i n h e r long before

that

stood

as

been

abolished.

an

obs-

Indeed

h e r c o n j u n c t i o n with God.

S h e n e v e r h a d to o f f e r a n y s a c r i f i c e s , b e c a u s e

s h e stood f r o m

67

the b e g i n n i n g a t the h e a d o f t h e c h o r u s o f the f r i e n d s o f


G o d . A n d a l l t h i s w a s a c h i e v e d f o r t h e s a k e of o t h e r s . I n d e e d ,
s h e w a s a s o r t of " P a r a c l e t e b e f o r e t h e P a r a c l e t e " (np6 T O U
rtapoKXifiiTou irCapd!xXTiTOQ)(2) not by r a i s i n g h e r h a n d s to God in
p r a y e r b u t r a t h e r b y o f f e r i n g to God h e r o w n l i f e . C o n t i n u i n g
on this theme C a b a s i l a s d e s c r i b e s the V i r g i n i n t e r m s o f
N o a h ' s A r k a n d o f t h e P a r a d i s e t h a t w a s not l o s t , a n d e l o q u e n t l y a r g u e s that n o n e o f the c o n s e q u e n c e s o f h u m a n s i n
a n d f a l l e v e r t o u c h e d t h e h o l y V i r g i n . T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y , he
s a y s , the positive
c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h e V i r g i n t o w a r d s
the
moment when God "bent the h e a v e n s a n d came to h u m a n i t y " .
S h e p r e p a r e d h e r s e l f f r o m t h e moment o f h e r b i r t h to t h e
moment of t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n a s a p a l a c e f o r t h e
heavenly
K i n g . S h e became a f i t t i n g r o y a l c i t y w h e r e the h e a v e n l y k i n g
established his kingdom.

III.3.

The Virgin's faith, free

consent

and

active

role

in

the

I n c a r n a t i o n of G o d ' s L o g o s

In

chapter

tribution
Here

of

again

four

the
her

Virgin
role

believed

in what

task

undertaking

of

(nioTEuaaaa
something
was

to

at

was

discusses

the
a

was

achieved

the

moment o f

positive

was announced

to

one,

particular

the

con-

Annunciation.

"inasmuch

as

her and consented

K O I Tf|v SLOKOvi'av

absolutely
(TOUTCOV

yap

necessary
f\v

if

dvdvKri

she

to

the m i n i s t r y which G o d a s k e d of

K Q L auv9e|jvTi,
which

be

Cabasilas

the
her"

dveXop^vn)
our
Koi

salvation
np6<;

Tf|v

(3)
CabasHlas

states

68
t h i s e v e n m o r e b o l d l y . "Had t h e V i r g i n n o t d o n e t h a t , i.e. to
h a v e b e l i e v e d a n d to h a v e c o n s e n t e d to t h e d i v i n e a n n o u n c e m e n t , t h e r e w o u l d h a v e b e e n no h o p e l e f t f o r h u m a n i t y . God
w o u l d not h a v e looked u p o n u s w i t h f a v o u r a n d would not
h a v e come t o o u r r e s c u e . H i s w i l l w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d h a d t h e V i r g i n n o t b e l i e v e d a n d n o t c o n s e n t e d to
t h e p r o p o s e d m i n i s t r y ( O C J T E p n n i O T E u a d o r i Q K O I ouv8eME'vr|<; r f i v
Onep f\iiav rod Qeou PouXi^v iXQeZv
E L Q f p y o v ofdv T E flv).(4) I t
w a s h e r c o n s e n t , t h e n , r a t h e r t h a n t h e a n n o u n c e m e n t of t h e
g r e e t i n g , t h e X a i p E KE^apiLTtajji^vini, o f t h e A n g e l t h a t b r o u g h t
a b o u t t h e s a v i n g e v e n t of t h e I n c a r n a t i o n .

C a b a s i l a s e l a b o r a t e s f u r t h e r t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e f a i t h i n
and

the

Virgin

consent

by

A d a m to

to t h e

comparing

event

her

the r o l e o f the

of

the

I n c a r n a t i o n o f the

in

the

c r e a t i o n of

role

the

Second

f i r s t A d a m i n t h e c r e a t i o n of

Eve. In

t h e c a s e o f E v e t h e f i r s t A d a m w a s p u t to s l e e p w h i c h
that

his

Adam

role

was

God h a d

purely

to

passive.

wait f o r the

V i r g i n . I n d e e d not

only the

Adam

totally

himself

however,
of

the

of

was

the

Virgin

5EUT^POU

in

ratified
fSapBivoc}.

calls
by

one

case
the

of

God's

decision

KOivovdv

was

the

Virgin"
the

of

course
(EERE

the

Second

consent

decision.

the

divine

of

means

of

the

of E v e b u t also the c a s e

Adam r e q u i r e d the

him,

"Thus

faith and

case

other words, as Cabasilas says,


Isaiah

I n the

Second

*A5dp, yvti>iir]c

holy

The

of

case,

free participation

(Tfic

T f j v riapOEvov

nspi

TOUTOU,

T O U

XapP<ivi).(5)

in

"that g r e a t C o u n s e l of G o d , a s
announced
M E V

Incarnation of

6
the

by

GEOC,

Logos

God

but

^KuptwjEv

was

not

was
5E

f\

only

69
t h e w o r k of t h e F a t h e r , w h o w a s w e l l - p l e a s e d , a n d of h i s
P o w e r , w h o o v e r s h a d o w e d , a n d of t h e S p i r i t w h o s o j o u r n e d ,
b u t a l s o of t h e w i l l ( r n c OEX^OEOC,)
a n d t h e f a i t h {Ti\c, n i O T E c x ; )
of t h e V i r g i n . F o r j u s t a s w i t h o u t t h e m (the T r i n i t y ) t h i s
d e c i s i o n (vvcSpTi) c o u l d n e i t h e r h a v e b e e n made, n o r be o f f e r e d
to m e n , s o w i t h o u t t h e o f f e r i n g of t h e w i l l a n d t h e f a i t h of
t h e a l l - p u r e V i r g i n (TTi<; navayvou
xifiiv Qihwsiv
Kai "riiiv n i L O T i v
ioevEYKOuoTni^) t h e d i v i n e C o u n s e l c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y h a v e
been accomplished".

(6)

Chapter five continues

the development

a s we h a v e a l r e a d y noted,

of t h e same

s t r e s s i n g the willful and

theme,

conscious

involvement of the Theotokos i n the I n c a r n a t i o n a n d generally


the

free

cooperation

Cabasilas
leaves
the

supplies

no

doubt

active

and

of

such

as

divine

explicit and

to

freely

the

his

bold

conviction

chosen

V i r g i n i n the I n c a r n a t i o n .

and

role

of

the

human.

statements

about

the

the

pure

Here

that

he

necessity

of

and

sinless

S u c h , h e s a y s , w a s t h e c a s e of

the

I n c a r n a t i o n , t h a t "God b o r r o w e d t h e f l e s h f r o m a h u m a n b e i n g
w h o b o t h w a n t e d to l e n d i t to him a n d k n e w w h y s h e d i d i t ,
so

that

as

he

was

freely

conceived

so

his

mother

might

e q u a l l y f r e e l y become s u c h " . I t i s c r u c i a l , t h e n , to s t r e s s
"she

freely

conceived,

and

she

freely

became

that

mother

e x e r c i s i n g of h e r o w n f r e e w H l . " O r , p u t t i n g i t o t h e r w i s e ,

"it

was

of

necessary

salvation

not

that
simply

she
by

should
being

accomplish
moved

from

the

economy

outside,

but

by

f r e e l y o f f e r i n g h e r s e l f f o r i t , b e c o m i n g a c o - w o r k e r (auvepYc5<;)
w i t h God c o n c e r n i n g h i s p r o v i d e n c e f o r t h e h u m a n r a c e . "

70

Particularly

interesting

here

is

Cabasilas'

argument

that,

since the

S a v i o u r w a s to t a k e u p , a n d d i d a c t u a l l y do so,

the

whole

of

the

the

soul,

the

human

n a t u r e , not

Virgin's involvement

bodily

but

also

(vouv)

and

will

human psychology
(psychological)
participation

fuM

the

c o r o l l a r y to

humanity

of

the

fact

trary

deeper

act,

in

soteriological

else

but

of

is,

act

mind
to

the

conscious

and

bodily)

Incarnation

is

i n t e r g r i t y of
at

perspective
the

only

her

belongs

insistence

Divine

not

T h u s the

the

merely

also

been

psychological

Cabasilas'

not

but

that

completeness or

salvation is

Divine

whatever

Virgin

the

Christ.

that

have

involving,

(both

holy

necessary

exposes the

to

body

and, generally, nature.

and
of

and

the

ought

psychological,
(S^XriaLv)

only

of

this
his

is

the
point

doctrine,

r e s u l t of

which

an

arbi-

coordinated

with that human act which was originally designed

b y Mm at

man's

aside

creation.

integrity
nature,
and

The

of

creation

does

in fact

revelation.

This

Incarnation, far
and

especially

constitute
is

insistence

"that God a c t e d

bring

the

out

virtue

of

of

the

especially

from
the

occasion
brought

setting

human c r e a t u r e l y
of

its

fulfilment

out

in

Cabasilas'

in this way because

the

Virgin"

(TOU QEOU

he wanted
deilai

the

story

deeper

the

details

questions

of

the

w h i c h the

Annunciation

p u t t o t h e A n g e l . T h e s e d e t a i l s p r o v e t h e v i r t u e of t h e

Virgin

b r i n g out

of

the

Virgin

God.

especially

of

this

holy

and

and

meaning

to

PouXo-

p^vou T^v d i p E x f i v TTiq n a p 9 ^ v o u ) . ( 8 ) A s he t r i e s to e x p l a i n ,


is

the

the freedom w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s both

her and

71

T h e r e i s a lot more m a t e r i a l to t h i s c h a p t e r w h i c h i s
repetitive

and

any length
it

there

h e r e . It

all amounts

and

the

free

to

is

no

need,

therefore,

to

beMef

an

overwhelming

decision

that

the

I n c a r n a t i o n a n d of
the

a n a l y z e it

w o u l d s u f f i c e , p e r h a p s , to p o i n t o u t

of

the

emphasis

Virgin

to

on

be

integrity

the

free

(divine

and

divine act

goes

the

in

that

freedom

involved

c h a l l e n g e of t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n . C a b a s i l a s l e a v e s
his

quite

in

the

no d o u b t a s
human)

of

p a r i passu

to
the

with

( h u m a n ) i n t e g r i t y of t h e V i r g i n a n d h e r f r e e h u m a n a c t .

T h i s i s e x a c t l y w h a t c h a p t e r s i x b r i n g s o u t a s it
Cabasilas'

reflection

on

the

t h e A n g e l , o n t h e w i t n e s s of

conversation

of

the

provides

Virgin

with

E l i z a b e t h a n d o n t h e r e l a t i o n of

E v e to A d a m a s h i s h e l p e r . T h e V i r g i n a s k e d t h e A n g e l a b o u t
the

"how" of h i s a n n o u n c e m e n t

d y to a c c e p t it,

not b e c a u s e

s h e w a s not

rea-

b u t i n o r d e r to s h o w t h a t it p r e s e n t e d a r e a l

c h a l l e n g e to h e r - a c h a l l e n g e w h i c h s h e met w i t h f a i t h w h e n
the

Angel presented

her with the

free

d e c i s i o n of G o d . I t

p r e c i s e l y t h i s f r e e r e s p o n s e of f a i t h of t h e h o l y V i r g i n to
divine

challenge

that

constitutes

Elizabeth's witness

for
-

Cabasilas

that

the

"Blessed

of

believed

t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be a f u l f i l m e n t of w h a t w a s

ofiLQ ToEq AeXaXiBJEvoic a u T ^ raipd Kupiou"


the

coordination of

similar

coordination

E v e with Adam a s h i s
between

the

Virgin

she

1:45).

T E A E I -

Finally

helper points

and

the

who

spoken

O T i Etrrtsi

(Luke

the

essential

meaning

to h e r f r o m t h e L o r d " , " p o K o p i L a ifj nioreuamm.

is

is

Logos

to

vis-

a - v i s t h e C r e a t i o n . J u s t a s a l l t h i n g s w e r e made f o r Adam a n d

72
yet

there

somewhat
and

yet

was

no

helper

to

him

before

Eve's

appearance,

s i m i l a r l y a l l t h i n g s w e r e made f o r t h e C r e a t o r
there

no

one

i n whom

he could f i n d r e s t

Logos

until

the

V i r g i n c a m e a n d made h e r s e l f h i s d w e l l i n g p l a c e .

III.4.

The

Virgin's

preparation

for

the

Inceirnation as

the

m e a n s of h u m a n i t y ' s p r e p a r a t i o n f o r God

Chapter
the

seven

of

preparation

Annunciation
repeats

cultivation
show

and

lot

concerning

is given,

the

of

the
of

the

soul

of

virtue.

He

seeing

he

for

a l r e a d y noted,

the

moment

Incarnation.

said

the

been

in

his

Virgin

compares

Here

to

m e t a p h o r of t h e

the

former as

the

Oration

especially
Job

in

her

order

the

to

future

Bridal chamber and


s y m b o l of

to

CabasOas

previous

and

her

of

a n d f i x i n g o f h e r v i s i o n to t h e

her consistency

Bridegroom

Virgin

ensuing

what

p r o m i s e . He u s e s t h e

a s it h a s

latter.

the
He

a l s o e x p l a i n s t h a t s h e w a s not f o r w a r n e d a b o u t t h e moment of
the

Annunciation,

because

h e r s e l f a t t h a t moment
arrival
fact

at

that

had

already

b y r e a c h i n g the

summit o f p e r f e c t i o n

that
she

she

was

chosen

eight

opens

by

the

is

arrived

within

summit of \ ' i r t u e . Her


demonstrated

Creator

out

of

by

the

the

entire

human nature.

Chapter
choice of the
sense

and

with

V i r g i n a s the

thus

pro-^^des

statement

best possible

the

logical

c h a p t e r . B u t then, it s u b j e c t s the

one

concerning
in an

Mnk w i t h

the

the

absolute
previous

t h e m e of t h e p e r f e c t i o n

of

73
t h e V i r g i n to t h e w i d e s t p o s s i b l e e x p a n s i o n b y l i n k i n g i t w i t h
the p e r f e c t i o n of h u m a n i t y i n g e n e r a l . T h e V i r g i n ' s perfection
i s i n f a c t t h e p e r f e c t i o n of h u m a n i t y , t h e p e r f e c t e x p r e s s i o n
of it, w h a t h u m a n i t y w a s w o r k i n g t o w a r d s since i t s c r e a t i o n , i n o r d e r to f u l f i l i t s d e s t i n y a n d become w o r t h y to
m i n i s t e r to t h e C r e a t o r ' s u l t i m a t e p u r p o s e . I t h a d to become
a n a p p r o v e d o r p e r f e c t i n s t r u m e n t (opyoivov) b e f o r e i t w a s
u s e d b y h i m , s a y s C a b a s i l a s , a n d p r o c e e d s to d r a w a d i s tinction between God's p r o p e r u s e of i n s t r u m e n t s in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r n a t u r e a n d m a n ' s m i s u s e of i n s t r u m e n t s i n
h i s c u l t i v a t i o n of t h e a r t s .

What

Cabasilas actually

stresses

here

is

the

fact

that

h u m a n n a t u r e w a s f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g made b y God i n s u c h a
way

that

which,
with

it

in

would

turn,

such

possible

that

creatures,

because

honours

human
gned
be

that

to

it

human

mother.

makes

It

humanity

it a n s w e r s

to

to

give

nature
is

this

the
the

him a

had

to

mother,
come

expectation,

best

possible

purpose

of

the

up
says

of

inasmuch as

God a s a r e a l

frastrated,

Creator

such

possibility

especially

if

one

an

expectation

which could
considered

was

not

desi-

ultimately

that

God

d i r e c t i n g i t to t h i s e n d b y h i s p r o v i d e n c e . B y t u r n i n g to
artists,

builders,

often

have

wants

to

all

him b y f u l f i l l i n g h i s a s p i r a t i o n . I t a l s o c o n f i r m s

optimism,
by

possible

means,

Cabasilas,

and

be

to

use

support

Creator's

tailors,
and
his

shoe-makers
adapt

optimism

and

awkward
for

such

the
who

materials, Cabasiias

humanity in

p r o v i d e n c e a n d economy for

like,

was

the

light

of

h i s c r e a t u r e s . God

74
h e s a y s h a s not l e f t t h e p r o v i d e n c e of h i s c r e a t i o n , i.e. t h e
c a r e w h i c h c a n l e a d i t to t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f i t s d e s t i n y , to
a n y b o d y e l s e , b u t t o o k i t to h i m s e l f to l e a d e v e r y t h i n g to i t s
p e r f e c t e n d . I t i s i n t h i s k i n d of l i g h t t h a t o n e
should
u n d e r s t a n d t h e a r r i v a l of t h e V i r g i n a t t h e moment of t h e
A n n u n c i a t i o n a n d t h e e v e n t of t h e I n c a r n a t i o n . T o s e e it i n
t h i s w a y i s to p e r c e i v e i t s p r o p e r l o g i c , i t s " r i g h t n e s s " . T h a t
is exactly what chapter nine is taken up with.

I I I . 5 . T h e D i v i n e - h u m a n j u s t i c e of t h e I n c a r n a t i o n

The
"the

moment o f t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n m a r k s t h e c o n c u r r e n c e of
most

just

SiKaioxaToc)

and

^niiKaE.p6Tonro<;)
of

the

all

and

event/work
Creation

the

(Epyov

divine.

universe"

appropriate
of

TWV

the
ti.

Thus

it

aiovoq

Just

maintenance

represented

"just"

for
by

dndvTOv

every

God
the

and
holy

the
just

Virgin.

j u s t f o r h e r to b r i n g f o r t h h e r d i v i n e S o n b y g i v i n g
humanity,
be

born

as

it

was

through

equally

her

by

just

taking

that
on

the
her

divine
human

Son

the j u s t a c t of the V i r g i n

TOU

Y i o u (puXdtai T d i v

T O
of

KdXthe
the

greatest
for

the

It

was

him h e r
should

nature.

o n l y d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e j u s t a c t of God i s t h e j u s t
for

Creator

l e v e l of

that

(5idKovo<;

w o r k s of the

the

is

(npuravnc;

servant"

concordance at

occur.

was

the

possible

absolute

should

which

most

makes

the

of

"most p e r f e c t

ages"

This

harmony and

"the

or

the

XiLioTOv)o(^)

human

governor

The

reward

( 5 E L MTJ Trjv d v T L p p o n o v dpoiPfiv

auTQ).(lO)

75
A s C a b a s i l a s a l s o e x p r e s s e s i t , "it w a s a g i f t , e n t i r e l y
f i t t i n g a n d p o s s i b l e to h a p p e n to t h e o n e w h o w a s b l e s s e d f o r
a l l " (ooTtoQ oiKEiov
f(v Kc&i outiPaivov
poiKapiQs Toiq
6X01C
TOUT TO 5 f f l p o v ) . ( l l ) T h u s ,
in this
Mght, o n e
can fully
a p p r e c i a t e , s a y s C a b a s i l a s , w h y to t h e A n g e l ' s a n n o u n c e m e n t
t h a t "He w i l l r e i g n o v e r t h e h o u s e o f J a c o b i n t h e a g e s a n d
t h a t H i s k i n g d o m w i l l h a v e n o e n d " ( L u k e 1:13) t h e most
f i t t i n g a n d potent a n s w e r could o n l y be the holy V i r g i n ' s
" B e h o l d t h e s e r v a n t o f t h e L o r d , l e t i t b e d o n e to me
a c c o r d i n g to T h y w o r d " ( L u k e 1:38).

III.6.

The

results

of

the

Divine-human

concurrence

at

the

Incarnation

The

final

eulogistic

chapter

1:14).

the

Logos

As

scon

immediately
flesh

that

as

was

created

by

the

"who

arose

so

from

and

describes

to

caEed
of

when

the

the
Her

(Ps,

the

in

every

man

with
that

reply

God,

voice

was

uttered
the

comes

words.

us

who

67:34).

the

amongst

Spirit

Thus
Just

Mght" a n d

Virgin

united

her

creature.

be

was

dwelt

offered

God.

it

w o r k followed

and

him

"Let there

and

enlightens

Virgin

voice

God s a i d
light",

flesh

joined

Bavid

Light

results

said and the

the

received

as

was

she

became

power,"

when

the

w a y s t h e p e r f e c t e v e n t of t h a t p e r f e c t c o n c u r r e n c e :

"These things
And

lists

to

(John

created
a

the
as

of

Creator

is

in

voice,

human
into

flesh

the

that

"voice

the

"immediately
her

she

case
there

the
and

world"

true
he
was

76
conceived

Oh

i n a womb.

sacred

voice!

deed! Oh blessed
ecumene

from

with

few

its

Because

heaven

and

so

to

close

tongue, which recalled all at once the

whole

exile!

which

Oh t r e a s u r e

distributed

these

emptied

be

to

great

words,

goods!

heaven

the

Oh w o r d s

words
Hell

inhabited

men t h e y

to

of

us

its

men a n d

combined

the

such

pure

such

soul

transformed

freeing

by

caused

multitude

the

captives.

by

which,

earth

into

They

made

bringing the

heavenly

and

of

Angels

the

human

b e i n g s i n t o a u n i f i e d c h o r u s s u r r o u n d i n g h i m w h o b e i n g God
also became man.

F o r t h e s e w o r d s of y o u r s w h a t k i n d of t h a n k s g i v i n g
b e w o r t h y to

be o f f e r e d

you

nothing

Because

o u r w o r d s a r e e a r t h y , w h e r e a s y o u s u r p a s s e d all the

summits

the

whom

y o u b y u s ? How c a n we p r o c l a i m
worthy?

of

of

to

could

among

world. If, then,

should

and

praised

allowed, are

as
you,

seeking

now

this,

far

as

our
to

t h a t w o r d s of

we

think,

were

salvation,

could

able

as

only

praise

we,

recounted

you,

is a need

w o r k of A n g e l s , of c h e r u b i c m i n d , of f i e r y t o n g u e s . T h u s ,

ments

to

be

the

have

offered

there

could

be

who

be

men

your

far as

find an angelic

achieve-

our

voice.

power

And

thus

c o n c l u d e o u r own Oration w i t h Gabriel's: "Rejoice Y o u who


full

of

grace,

the

Lord

is

with

V i r g i n , not o n l y to s p e a k a b o u t

You"! But
the

things

grant

to

us.

is
Oh

that b r i n g honour

a n d g l o r y to Him a n d to Y o u w h o b o r e Him, b u t a l s o to a p p l y
them

to

our

life.

Prepare

us

thus

to

become

his

dwelMng

77
places
because
A M E N . " (12)

in

the

I I I . 7 . A c o m p a r i s o n of t h i s O r a t i o n to t h e p r e v i o u s

one.

There
i n the

is

not

Him

certainly

by

assistance,
decree,

the

nor

but

connected

because

she

was

of
free

at the

is

moment

the

significance

of

her

holy

sinlessness
because

her

this

the

not

God's challenge
in fact

her

of

out,

because

with

glory

O r a t i o n w h i c h d o e s not

uniqueness
with

worked

the

ages,

appear

Y e t i t now s e e m s c l e a r e r w h a t C a b a s i l a s

connected

she

belongs

much in this

p r e v i o u s one.

understands

which

to

own

of

response

in

effort.
faith

It

is

sinlessness

any

predestined
free

Virgin.

supernatural
by
But

and

a
it

divine
is

also

consent

to

c r u c i a l moment of t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n . I t
that

her

restrospectively

birth.

It is

her

sheds

right

free

light
choice

into
at

t h e r i g h t moment o f G o d ' s a p p r o a c h t h a t r e v e a l s f o r C a b a s i l a s
the r i g h t e o u s n e s s

of h e r life, h e r p r e p a r a t i o n , h e r acquisition

of p e r f e c t v i r t u e .

Still

there

is

more

light

in

this

O r a t i o n on

Cabasilas'

u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i n l e s s n e s s a n d p e r f e c t i o n of t h e

Virgin.

T h e r e is the

against

humanity,

inasmuch

potentiality
the

clear point

Creator.

as

that it does not


it

potentiality

It is

the

represents
which

r e v e l a t i o n of

was

the

stand over
fulfilment

ingrafted

what was

into

of

its

it

by

hidden in,

i n h e r e n t , to h u m a n n a t u r e . T h u s , i f i t i s a summit t h a t

but

stands

a b o v e a l l o t h e r h u m a n summits, it i s i n f a c t t h e i r summit,

the

78
s u m m i t of t h e i r n a t u r e . T h i s i s w h y w h e n s h e o p e n s the g a t e s
of h e a v e n f o r h e r s e l f , s h e a c t u a l l y o p e n s them f o r a l l a n d ,
w h e n s h e b r i n g s the S a v i o u r into h e r s e l f she actually b r i n g s
him i n t o a l l .

Finally
not

only

this Oration clearly shows

Divine

but

also

that

human act.

r e v e a l e d b y the V i r g i n who consummates


tion,

who

s a i n t of

stands

the

at

the

s a i n t s of

summit

Israel.

of

the

salvation requires
This

human act

is

t h e h i s t o r y of s a l v a friends

of

God,

Without s u c h a n a c t the

the

divine

a c t i s not o n l y a r b i t r a r y but also meaningless a n d , ultimately,


c o n t r a d i c t o r y . G o d d o e s mot a c t a g a i n s t u s o r d e s p i t e u s ,
with us
This is

and for us, when


because

we

but

too a r e w i t h him a n d f o r h i m .

a s R e d e e m e r h e c a n n o t go

against

himself

as

Creator.

And

thus

we

come

to

the

most

crucial

point,

Cabasilas'

p e r c e p t i o n of C h r i s t . H i s v i e w of t h e V i r g i n not o n l y c o n f i r m s
the

integrity

true

and

person

of

Christ's

irrevocable

against

the

union

the

implies.

divine
Here

the

in

Christ

there

is

and

with

heretical

also r e n d e r s u n e c e s s a r y
and

true

sinless

his

insight

humanity and

divinity
of

in

his

which

obvious

the

heresy

scope

for

of

does

however,

commend

Cabasilas'

doctrine

further

a s one

a s c h a l l e n g i n g as it is profound a n d f a r - r e a c h i n g .

but

human

I^^estorianism

r e f l e c t i o n , b u t t h i s g o e s b e y o n d t h e b o u n d a r i e s of t h i s
It

eternal

ApolMnEiriamsm,

k i n d of s p l i t b e t w e e n t h e

its

fruitful
thesis.
that

is

I V . T H E O R A T I O N ON T H E F A L L I N G - A S L E E P

O F T H E THEOTOKOS

I V . 1. T h e O r a t i o n a n d i t s c o n t e n t s : a n o v e r v i e w
According
consequences
two

Orations.

which

naentality a n d
ological.

Nellas

this

Oration

It

has

given

vision -

distinct

Cabasilas'

must be

We s h a l l r e t u r n

to

understood

this

general

in

the

previous

two

cases.

But

as

the
in

the

cosmological

general

h a v e outlined a n d a n a l y z e d the c o n ^ n t s
did

expounds

of the c e n t r a l t h e s i s w h i c h w a s defended

preceding

dimension,

to

theological

being

ecclesi-

judgment

once

we

of t h i s O r a t i o n a s we

at

the

moment

we

may

note w i t h g r e a t i n t e r e s t a n d anticipation Nellas' perception.

The
the

Oration begins i n a similar way as the f i r s t , indicating

difficulty

subject
the

and

of

giving

main one

(ch.

1).

the
the

being

The

following

been

great

to

reasons

the

reason a n d attempts
has

author

deal

which

adequately
prompt

praiseworthiness
chapter

(ch.

2)

of

with

him to

the

picks

holy

up

beneficial

to

humanity

is

so,

Virgin

this

to e l a b o r a t e i t b y s h o w i n g how

and

do

the

main

whatever
ultimately

r e l a t e d to t h e h o l y V i r g i n . T h e t h i r d c h a p t e r c o n t i n u e s on

the

same

the

lines

elaborating

" f r u i t of t h e

theme

new creation", who

mental

change

human

and

theme

the

in

the

angelic.

order

of

the

of

Virgin

holy

Virgin

as

has brought about a f u n d a -

Chapter four

which identifies

the

things,

divine,

elaborates
with

the

creaturely,

another

"new

similar

heaven

and

the new e a r t h . "

With c h a p t e r

five

new

section

begins.

Here the

author

80
p r e s e n t s t h e u t t e r i n a d e q u a c y , o r e v e n t o t a l i n a b i l i t y , of
h u m a n i t y to a c h i e v e w h a t t h e V i r g i n a c h i e v e d , b e c a u s e of i t s
fall, a n d explains w h a t the j u s t r e q u i r e m e n t s from the human
s i d e w e r e , w h i c h w o u l d m a k e p o s s i b l e a j u s t i n t e r v e n t i o n of
G o d f o r t h e s a l v a t i o n of h u m a n i t y . C h a p t e r s i x s h o w s h o w
t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s w e r e a c t u a l l y met b y t h e
"wonderful
j u s t i c e " ( r i g h t e o u s n e s s ) o f t h e h o l y V i r g i n a n d how
she
c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e w o r k of t h e S a v i o u r almost i n e v e r y a s p e c t
of it. T h e same soteriological dimension i n the p e r s o n a n d
w o r k of the V i r g i n i s expounded i n c h a p t e r s e v e n , w h i c h
c o n c e n t r a t e s o n t h e n o t i o n of t h e "blood of t h e V i r g i n a s t h e
S a v i o u r ' s gsurment". S u c h a n i n t i m a t e a n d , i n d e e d , u n i q u e
a s s o c i a t i o n of t h e V i r g i n w i t h t h e S a v i o u r r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n
of h e r s t a t u s v i s - a - v i s t h e r e s t of h u m a n i t y . T h u s c h a p t e r
e i g h t d i s c u s s e s t h e h o l y V i r g i n ' s r e l a t i o n to a n d d i s t i n c t i o n
from other human beings.

Chapter
which

eight also

deals

with

begins with the

the

marks

Virgin's

theme

of

the

a n d i t s r e l a t i o n to t h a t of t h e
expounded
ness

of

i n the

Mary

is

following
compared

h o l y A n g e l s a n d of
of

the

involves
ling

main
her

virtue"

thrust

the
of

"spiritual
as

the

t r a n s i t i o n to a new

unique

singular holiness

body"

achievements

author

the

Virgin

of

and

(ch. 9), where


exalted

S a i n t s . T h u s we
the

The

S a v i o u r . T h i s theme i s f u r t h e r

chapter
to

hoMness.

section

Oration
and

in

her

already

above

the

holi-

t h a t of

the

r e a c h the f i r s t hint
chapter

ten,

which

"wondrous and u n f a i complete

a s s u m p t i o n w h i c h followed h e r f a l l i n g asleep.

before

her

81

With c h a p t e r e l e v e n

a n e w theme

emerges.

H e r e the

author

explains that the holy Virgin's perfection and blessedness


actually due

to

h e r unique participation i n the

was

sufferings

of

C h r i s t . A t t h e same time i t i s a l s o e x p l a i n e d t h a t , i n a s m u c h a s
she

had

to,

as

it were,

participate i n all the

h e r S o n , s h e w a s b o u n d to become
humiliation

and

glorification.
c l i m a x of
holy

suffering,

It is

the

Virgin

at

this

Oration,
into

the

experiences

p a r t i c i p a n t not o n l y of

but

also

of

his

point

(ch.

12)

that

w h i c h is

the

realm

her

of

of

bodily
Son's

his

exaltation
we

and

reach

assumption

the

of

the

resurrection.

The

c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r i s n a t u r a l l y a n o u t b u r s t of p r a i s e f o r a n d
wonder
whole

at the
scheme

magnificent
of

position

of

the

s a l v a t i o n . We may now

holy

turn

Virgin in

to a more

the
close

e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e s e d a t a .

IV.2. The greatness

As

in the

expressing

a n d p r a i s e w o r t h i n e s s of t h e

previous

his

difficulty

topic, mainly because


the

greatness

thought
by

the

debt

of

the

thought

on

the

that,
owes

in

try

to

meet,

Cabasilas begins

undertaking

holy

Virgin,

ffis

to

deal

even

if inadequate,

to o t h e r s ,

"common

good"

following

which

his

by

with

he

exceeds

diffidence, however,

says,

all
is

his

overcome

exposition

(TO

(3iYa06v) a n d h a s

others,

(dytov), t h e n ,
who

valiently

the

is

because

KOIV6V

of

human

especially

do w i t h s a l v a t i o n . I t i s a c h a l l e n g e
to

here

h e i s v e r y m u c h aweire, a s

a n d expectation,

w h i c h he

touches

O r a t i o n s , so

Virgin

matter
to

w h i c h he
fought

is

this

82
battle
before
him a n d
w h o , though
fully aware of
the
d i f f i c u l t y , d i d attempt to do what t h e y d i d , because
they
k n e w f u l l w e l l t h a t t h e h o l y V i r g i n i s p r a i s e w o r t h y , not o n l y
since
s h e was
b o r n , but also
before
s h e was given
to
humanity.

In

the

sages
holy

of

second
the

Virgin

chapter

ancient

and that

he

argues

Prophets

that

were

whatever

was

in

the

prophetic

fact

praises

venerable

mes-

to

(aepvdv)

the

among

the a n c i e n t H e b r e w s , s u c h as the T e n t , the A r k , the Camps of


Moses,

etc.,

actually

symbolized

(rfjc; n a p 9 ^ v o u T O G a u p a ) .
that whatever
beings,

"the

miracle of

But h e goes e v e n

the

Virgin"

further; he

argues

p r a i s e w a s e v e r a t t r i b u t e d to p a r t i c u l a r

human

o r to t h e h u m a n r a c e i n g e n e r a l , s h o u l d b e u l t i m a t e l y

counted

to

the

QoOnoav

in'

Virgin's

credit

dvOpiSnoiq Kcni

E T

( n d v r a q p e v oiiv
TL<;

T O

yivoq,

^naivouq

6aoi
Ka9'

gnQveoev

EKaoTQ T Q rtopB^vc^ X o Y L O T ^ o v flv erri)."(l) I n d e e d , f o r C a b a s i l a s


"there

is

no

good,

mother"

{A

did

introduce.

not

whether

KOLvri (jrlTrip) a n d t h e
This

p e r i o d w h i c h followed
preceded
we

do,

it. I t is

has

small o r great,

only

applies,

"new
of

birth"

course,

ultimate

aim: "that

we

(iva

0 E 6 V nXouTio(jpEv), w h i c h is the

end

us;

but

apart

graces

if

this

(gifts),

was

then

the

(6 KaLv6q
not

only

"new
TOKOC;)

to

the

h e r b i r t h , but also t o the period which

so, s a y s Cabasilas, because


one

which

not

possible

everything

should

be

everything
may

gain G o d "

o f all the
from

that

goods f o r

the

r e l a t e d to

Virgin's
her

s h o u l d b e the c a u s e o f all the p r a i s e s that a r e attributed

and
to

83
humans" ( a i r i a v e f v a i
Avatp^pEoSai ij6vriv).(2)

T Q

Ka naoav eucprmiav np6<; aiirnv

Y ^ V E I

That Cabasilas' argument is retrospective

becomes c l e a r i n

h i s u s e o f t h e m e t a p h o r of t h e t r e e a n d i t s f r u i t . J u s t a s
former

exists

magnificence
the
in

Virgin.
the

on
and

of

harmony

in

I n other

created

Virgin.

account

that

the

realm, should

it

was

said

"very

exist

because

virtue or praise

exclusively

to

the

good",

goodness,

credited

Creation which

he

was

of

exists
to

he

the
had

actually referring

Virgin.

c h a p t e r t h r e e C a b a s i l a s f u r t h e r explains w h y the

the

human

"fruit

of

creation".

side,

principally

creation and, especially,


of

universe

the

T h e V i r g i n : F r u i t of C r e a t i o n , New H e a v e n , New E a r t h

In
is

so

be

t h i s a s a n e n c o m i u m to t h e h o l y

IV.3.

latter

words, whatever

When God, t h e n ,

created,

the

the

human beings.

king

the

new

earth.

This

"new

flower

opposed

to

She

man,

would
of

It

for

the

the

King

have

f r u i t of

she

for

them
of

to

(veov
sin"

heaven

heaven,

is,

the

recreation and

happened,

righteousness"

" t h e old

because

responsible

brought

not

is

from

the

renewal

of

regeneration
through

inhabitant

had

Virgin

she

not

SLKOLoaLJvriQ

ma-

of

the

been

avSoc;),

a
as

( r d v n a X a i o v Tfi<; a p a p T i a ^

KOpnov).

(3)
The
process

of

corruption
only

e s s e n c e o f t h i s r e n e w a l i s t h e a b o l i t i o n of

growing
and

old

death.

humanity but

( T 6 yfipaq) a n d

It is

heaven

being

subjected

the
to

liberation which embraces

not

and earth, a liberation which

had

84
h a d t h e f i r s t b o r n f r o m t h e d e a d a s i t s r a n s o m , t h a n k s to
h o l y V i r g i n w h o i n t r o d u c e d him.

These

thoughts

are

expounded

by

Cabasilas on

of s e v e r a l Biblical C h r i s t o l o g i c a l texts,
Ps.

103:13

recall

the

subjected
change
the

Ps.

16:15

and

hopelessness
on

account

for which the

Creation

the

Matthew
into

of

the

the

only

e l s e to b e
that

he

desirable

our

lead

Creation

fall

and

recover

its

beyond

united

whom

had

the

to

been
radical
gave

happiness.

She

to

be

there

is

him w i t h u s s o

participant not only

him

"She

and deepest desire

One,

desired. And she

became

the

human

to

fuKflled humanity's greatest


with

They

holy Virgin was responsible.

possibility

basis

i n c l u d i n g Romans 8:22,

13:17.

which

the

the

i n the

united
nothing

intimately,

manner

and

So g r e a t

was

p l a c e of o u r life b u t a l s o i n o u r o w n n a t u r e " .
(4)

t h i s liberation that its e f f e c t s embraced e v e n the Angels,


thereby,
purer,

given

perceiving

before"
Kai

were

Tii|v dyaQ^TriiTa

OIUTOV

T O U 8EOU

nap^oye
K Q I

Cabasilas f i n d s the

Paul's teaching
cites

and especially

which

he

Virgin

constituted

together.
"the

through which everyone


guide

possibility

to

become

5i'

dtpBaXpwv

M6vTi ydp f\yE\iOiy

and

b a s i s of

linnp^E

fi npooOev

t h i s point

in

Apostle

i n h i s E p h . 3:10 a n d R o m . 11:33

Thus
eyes",

Tfjv o o i i J i a v S p e i v o v

than
yevioQai

KaQapuT^paic;

K O L

he
so

concludes
to

speak,

that
or

the

"the

holy
light"

s a w t h e t r u t h . " S h e a l o n e became

to e v e r y s o u l a n d m i n d l e a d i n g i t t o

(KoBdnep

"wiser

God's goodness a n d wisdom f a r better

(tJtMjjuT^paiLq

eI5vai.).(5)

the

who,

f] cpardq

THQ

ndcno qjuyq

the t r u t h of God"

poKopiac; ndvTCQ
KOL

the

V Q xfiq

nEpC

KaTEiSov.
9e6v

dtXn-

85
etaq).{6)

In

chapter four

change

and

Cabasilas continues

renewal

which

the

to

Virgin

stress

the

introduced

radical

into

the

w o r l d , u s i n g t h e t h e m e of "new h e a v e n a n d new e a r t h " , w h i c h


he

borrows

65:17.

ffis

from

the

opening

Scriptures and

statement

especially

from

Isaiah

a f f i r m s that, "She created a

new

h e a v e n a n d a new e a r t h , o r r a t h e r , she is the new e a r t h a n d


the
is

n e w h e a v e n " . S h e i s "new e a r t h " (Kaivti Yn) b e c a u s e


different

from those

the extent that s h e


a

leaven

"new

indeed
both

old
"a

because

and

sort

has
of

physically

above

the

constitutes

PEYE0EIL),

has
above

greater
what

the
in

torn

point

One whom t h e

the

that

heavens

greater in purity; that

alien

and

can

that she
heavens

she

she

became

and

"she

raised

heaven

appreciated,

says

cannot

contain -

intact

in

hence

revealing

(Cf.

Mark

1:10)

hence

the

means

f o r u s to

experienced

measure

greater

that

peace

which

St

r e g a r d e d a s s u r p a s s i n g e v e r y m i n d ( P h i l . 4:7) b e c a u s e o f
descent

in

KaSapdTTiTi

remained a n obstacle; and that

is

heaven"

to God w h e r e t h e h e a v e n s
to

of

She

was

KQC

is

had had as inhabitant

remained

asunder

process

surpassed

be

She

corruption.
earth

to

viov),

vevoq).

( T O V 5^ oiipav6v tjnepi^x]

last

magnitude;

every

her,

((piipopa

the

because

(Tn<; yf\q dv^oye)

This

escaped

and

spiritually,

C a b a s i l a s , w h e n one c o n s i d e r s
(SvoiKov)

preceded

a "new l e a v e n "

surpassing

and

earth

she

risen

p u r i t y and magnitude"
Kail

who

g a v e r i s e to a "new r a c e " {viov

that

heaven",

growing

human beings

she

rise
she
Paul
the

of t h e S p i r i t o n h e r ( L u k e 1:35) a n d t h e i n d w e l l i n g i n

86
h e r of t h e S a v i o u r w h o s u r p a s s e s e v e r y p l a c e . F u r t h e r m o r e
C a b a s i l a s r e t o r t s to P s . 113:24, J o b 15:15 S o n g of S . 4:7, 1:15
a n d 4:1 to e x p l a i n w h y t h e V i r g i n i s "the h e a v e n of t h e
h e a v e n s to t h e L o r d " (oupavoQ T O U oiipavou T Q KupL())) b e c a u s e
of h e r p u r i t y a n d b e a u t y ( r i g h t e o u s n e s s ) .

The

conclusion

to

given in the opening


to

make a

contrast

manity and thus

the

whole

argument

of

this

chapter

s e n t e n c e of c h a p t e r f i v e w h e r e i t
between

the

Virgin

to i n t r o d u c e t h e

and

the

is

serves

r e s t of

hu-

new theme: t h e r e a s o n s

for

t h e i n a d e q u a c y of h u m a n i t y a n d the method of overcoming


It

was

precisely

Virgin,

says

united

with

this

pure

Cabasilas,
God a n d

that
of

or

"heavenly"

made

humanity

sharing in his

quaMty
worthy

Mfe a n d

of
of

it.
the

being

turned

the

e a r t h into a place w h e r e the S a v i o u r could stay. That quality,


however,

was

lost

to

the

rest

of

humanity

because

of

their

fall.

I V . 4 . T h e p r o b l e m of h u m a n i t y a n d t h e V i r g i n ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n

Chapter

five

recounts

the

story

of

humanity's

universal

l a p s e i n t o s i n b e g i n n i n g w i t h P s . 13:3. I t w a s l i k e a " t o r r e n t "


d^eOjja) w h i c h c o u l d
efforts

of

priests,

who themselves
like

Cabasilas

to

be r e v e r s e d , i n s p i t e of the

prophets

and other

d i d not e s c a p e

everybody

willing,

not

help,

else.

The

because

describes

in

injury

men o f

too

of

magnitude

terms

the
of

Ps.

righteousness,

but ended

Angels

were

13:2.

repeated

up in Hades

unable,
of
It

sin,
was

though
which
like

87
s i c k n e s s w h i c h s p r e a d to t h e e n t i r e b o d y of

The

problem

lack

of

human

were

to

be

for

God, who

response,

granted

wanted

which

to

humanity.

intervene,

was

necessary

in a j u s t manner

('EPOUXETO

Tfiv o u T i i p i a v , (piXdvBpwnoQ 6v,

EfyE

OIJK

y a p t T o v 5iKai(iK;).(8) C a b a s i l a s e x p l a i n s

if

was

the

his

gifts

p^v yap figiv

5^ olq S v iircdpai
w h a t he means

T M V

by

this

" j u s t m a n n e r " (SixaiifiK;) b y d r a w i n g a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n


l a w s of
I's

divine

granting

justice
of

(vdpouQ BeCac, 5i.KOiioa6vi\q),

benefits

to

humzinity.

two

relating

There is

first

to

"the

of d i v i n e j u s t i c e , w h e r e b y God may s u p p l y b e n e f i t s w h i c h
improve

our

nature,

even

when

t h e m " . (9) B u t t h e r e i s a l s o "the


to

supply

benefits

disposition

(npoaipEOiv) -

and

we

receive

are

so

great

everyone
have

the

Tfiv

to

the

was

human

nivf^<; 5iKC)iLooiiJVTii<;), w h i c h

the

the

common

that

human vice

enemy,

the

is exactly

will

heavenly
every

human

by

Devil, and
what the

sin,

was

be

cancel

freely

and

not

power
out

t u r n to

that

the

the

as

God's

reverse

would

evil

God f o r

to

npoEi-

means,
for

to

T L v 6 q dvOpt.)-

{ibei
only

happened

required

us

which

hope

This

righteousness
would

and

{6aoLC, ii5nf{pE

ouvT^XEi.av).(10)
"what

peace

( d v T t ^ ^ o n o c ) , b u t a l s o of a f a r g r e a t e r

caused

receive

(9^XricJiv)

to t h o s e w h o
end"

oOv OaupaoT^ T Q npoo8iiKQ), a


shame

to

w h i c h G o d comes i n s i d e

surpass

YiYvop^vrjv

explains,

intervention

{Kdi

human

indiscriminately, but only

Cabasilas

the

to

through

they

ire u n w i l l i n g

l a w w h i c h d o e s n o t allow G o d

relate

p l e d g e of

that

contributed

ae^f&yKQi

which

we

work

of

power
destroy
of

the

h e l p " . ( l l ) T-hig

holy V i r g i n supplied, and this is what

the

88
following chapter

In

chapter

explains.

six C a b a s i l a s expounds

the

c o n t r i b u t i o n of

holy Virgin. She offered that "wondrous righteousness


sake

of

the

entire

world"

(Tf\v SaupaoTiiv

6ni,p ToO Kdopou n a v r d q ) , " t h u s


human

race

instead

of

herself

purificatory

cleansing
and

f i c e s " . ^-'^2) S h e t r a n s f e r r e d to t h e whole


own

TOiiTTiv

for

the

entire

expiatory

sacri-

b o d y of h u m a n i t y h e r
physical

s u n w h i c h i l l u m i n s a l l t h i n g s a n d b r i n g s out t h e i r t r u e
She

brought

out

the

SiKaioouvTiv

b l i l l i a n c y (auviri) l i k e a H g h t o r f i r e , o r l i k e t h e

dour.

the

that righteousness

of w h i c h

splen-

humanity

w a s c a p a b l e a n d w h i c h " j u s t i f i e d a l l men" a s S t P a u l p u t it i n
relation

to

substance,

the

Saviour".

the

This is why

S a n c t u a r y a n d to o f f e r

great

Victim offered

r a c e . J u s t as the

the

Virgin

entereing
the

into

Father.

absolutely
Cross.

"a

sort

the

was allowed

the

benefit

to r e m a i n
before

of t h e

whole

i n t o t h e Holy of Holies a s a

forerunner

inner

of

the

Sanctuary and
says

Saviour

offering

Cabasilas,

it

is

by

herself
Jesus

the

necessary

to

for
the

ambassador

blessed
the

extent

bringing
people,

who

would

Virgin
that

also

contributed

she

offered

down

the

Governor

making

him

their

stand

before

God

(TOV

brother
on

so
her
to
who

r e c o n c i l e d h u m a n i t y to t h e F a t h e r b y d y i n g o n

Yet,

of

holiness

h u m a n i t y a c c o r d i n g to H e b r . 6:20,

Undoubtedly,

reconciliation

amongst

was

a purificatory sacrifice

Saviour entered

become

she

himself for

f o r e r u n n e r of t h e w h o l e
did

the "Virgin

o r t r e a s u r e , o r s o u r c e , a s i t w e r e , of t h e

of a l l h u m a n b e i n g s " .
in the

Thus

the

to

this

what

was

dppocm^v)
and

their

the

behalf

89
claiming their salvation.

I V . 5 . T h e r o l e s of t h e V i r g i n a n d h e r S o n i n S a l v a t i o n

Cabasilas
distinctive
Virgin

offers

here

an

roles in and contributions

and

her

Divine

Son.

The

that she is only human, even


herself

extensive

to

the

greatest

with God, w h e r e a s

his v e r y

being.

She

is

though

he i s

alone

lies

in

further blessing

the

the

the
fact

which

in

that

virtue

both

Divine and human in

among

hence

the

s h e i s a b l e to e x h i b i t

human beings

n t i n g to G o d a h u m a n i t y w h i c h i s w o r t h y of h i s
and

of

to o u r s a l v a t i o n of

difference

degree

humanity

account

divine

unites

in

prese-

intervention

a c c l a m a t i o n of

the

A n g e l t h a t s h e i s " f u l l of g r a c e " . He i s a l o n e i n d e a l i n g j u s t l y
with

our

debts,

humanity before
of the

in

suffering for

the righteous

Virgin is a unique

humanity,

the

r o l e of

her

because

it i s u n d e r s t o o d

and

divine

his

Father.

one

our

sins

and

in justifying

a n d h o l y G o d . T h o u g h the
w h e n c o m p a r e d to t h e

Son is unique

role

rest

in an absolute

of

way,

i n r e l a t i o n to b o t h h i s h u m a n Mother
Yet these

unique

roles are

intimately

connected.

It is in chapter seven
intimate

connection

that Cabasilas expounds

between

the

roles

of

the

f u r t h e r the

Virgin

and

D i v i n e S o n i n t h e e c o n o m y of s a l v a t i o n . He d o e s t h i s b y
t h e m e t a p h o r s of t h e
the

" a l t a r " , t h e " s a c r i f i c e " , t h e "blood"

" g a r m e n t of s a l v a t i o n " . A l l t h e s e a r e a p p l i e d to t h e

her

using
and
Virgin

b u t i n a n e w w a y w h i c h i s c o n t r a s t e d to t h a t of t h e O l d T e s -

90
tament. B u t their application r e s t s
upon a Christological
f o u n d a t i o n , i.e. u p o n the intimate connection
between the
V i r g i n M o t h e r a n d t h e D i v i n e S a v i o u r . T h u s s h e i s a "new
a l t a r " , t y p i f i e d b y t h e a l t a r of t h e a n c i e n t T e m p l e , b u t f a r
g r e a t e r t h a n t h e l a t t e r i n t h a t s h e i s not o v e r s h a d o w e d b y
C h e r u b i m b u t b y t h e v e r y P o w e r of t h e Most H i g h . S h e i s a
"new s a c r i f i c e " , t y p i f i e d b y t h e o l d s a c r i f i c e s , b u t f a r g r e a t e r t h a n t h e m , b e c a u s e t h e n e w B l o o d w h i c h s h e o f f e r s i s not
simply s h e d upon the a l t a r and devoured b y the f i r e , but is
t a k e n u p b y G o d a s a g a r m e n t . T h i s Blood i s a " g a r m e n t of
s a l v a t i o n " w h i c h i s g i v e n b a c k to h u m a n i t y a s a w e a p o n
a g a i n s t e v e r y e v i l a n d e v e r y pain. T h i s transition from the
B l o o d o f f e r e d b y t h e V i r g i n to t h e " g a r m e n t of s a l v a t i o n "
w h i c h t h e L o r d g i v e s o c c u p i e s t h e g r e a t e s t p a r t of t h i s l o n g
c h a p t e r . T h e B l o o d of t h e V i r g i n i s o f f e r e d a s a "garment".
G o d t a k e s i t i n C h r i s t a n d t r a n s f o r m s i t i n t o a " g a r m e n t of
s a l v a t i o n " . B o t h a c t s a r e n e c e s s a r y a n d c e n t r a l to s a l v a t i o n
a n d b o t h of t h e m a r e d e s c r i b e d b y C a b a s i l a s i n t h e most
e x t r a o r d i n a r y w a y . T h u s h e s p e a k s of t h e V i r g i n a s " c l o t h i n g
God, who c a n n o t be clothed b y a n y t h i n g , not e v e n the e n t i r e
C r e a t i o n , b y h e r o w n b l o o d , w h i c h b e c o m e s t h e most f i t t i n g
robe for a true king".

T h e r e i s a r e a l i s m about t h i s "clothing" w h i c h goes


its

imagery,

an

external

because
union

but

it

implies
a real

the

and

beyond

Incarnation which is
intimate

not

One. As C a b a s i l a s

p u t s i t , "We a r e o n l y a l l o w e d to d e s c r i b e t h e I n c a r n a t i o n a s a
"clothing"

(nepiPoXii)

to

the

extent

that

it

becomes

an

91
e x p r e s s i o n of t h e t r u t h t h a t t h e r e i s no c o n f u s i o n of t h e two
n a t u r e s (the Divine a n d the human) in C h r i s t , but that each
of them r e t a i n s i t s i n t e g r i t y a n d p r e s e r v e s a l l its c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n a n y o t h e r r e s p e c t , h o w e v e r , t h i s image ( E I K O V ) i s
s o s u r p a s s e d b y t h e r e a l i t y to w h i c h i t r e f e r s a s a p e r f e c t
u n i o n s u r p a s s e s a p e r f e c t d i v i s i o n " {6aov T O d n X e q f\waaBaL rd
navTEX<; S n a p f j o B a i ) . I n d e e d " t h i s c o n j u n c t i o n ( a u v d c p e i a ) c a n
n o t b e a n e x a m p l e (rxopdSEiYMa) to a n y t h i n g e l s e , n o r c o u l d
t h e r e b e a n y o t h e r e x a m p l e w h i c h c o u l d be r e g a r d e d a s a d e q u a t e f o r e x p r e s s i n g it; it i s u n i q u e , the f i r s t a n d only one
o f i t s k i n d " . S t a t e m e n t s s u c h a s t h e s e l e a v e no d o u b t t h a t
h o w e v e r d a r i n g a n d e x c e s s i v e C a b a s i l a s ' p r a i s e s to the V i r g i n
b e c o m e , o r h o w e v e r c l o s e l y t h e y a p p r o x i m a t e t h e p r a i s e s of
her
D i v i n e S o n , t h e y n e v e r minimize t h e c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e
b e t w e e n the roles of the V i r g i n a n d the S a v i o u r i n the work
o f s a l v a t i o n , b u t a l w a y s t i e t h e f o r m e r to t h e l a t t e r i n a n
i n t i m a t e a n d n e c e s s a r y i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n . T h i s i s most f i t t i n g l y
e x p r e s s e d i n t h e l a s t s e n t e n c e of t h i s c h a p t e r w h i c h r e a d s a s
f o l l o w s : " A n d a l l t h i s , b e c a u s e t h e blood of t h e b l e s s e d V i r g i n
b e c a m e t h e b l o o d of G o d - h o w e l s e c a n I p u t i t ; - a n d t h u s ,
b y becoming so intimately c o n n e c t e d with e v e r y t h i n g that he
had,
w a s r e g a r d e d of t h e e q u a l h o n o u r (dpoTipo) a n d e q u a l
standing
(6|j68povo)
and equally divine
(6|J69EO) with
the
d i v i n e n a t u r e . T h i s i s t h e m e a s u r e of t h e h i g h t to w h i c h t h e
Virgin arrived, and this is her virtue which surpasses every
human mind".

I t i s f r o m h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e r e l a t i o n of God to man

92
i n C h r i s t a n d of S a l v a t i o n to C r e a t i o n t h a t C a b a s U a s w o r k s
out h i s t e a c h i n g o n the holy V i r g i n , the Theotokos. However
i m p o r t a n t a n d e x a l t e d h e r r o l e m a y be, it i s a h u m a n one,
w h e r e a s t h a t of C h r i s t i s d i v i n e a n d h u m a n . A s s u c h s h e i s
t h e h u m a n p r e s u p p o s i t i o n to G o d ' s D i v i n e - h u m a n a n s w e r . ( ^ 4 )

I V . 6 . T h e s u r p a s s i n g h o l i n e s s of t h e

That the
this

really

blessed
means

Virgin is
in

Cabasilas'

next

equivocal

statement:

humanity.

She

human
mind

But

evils.

Rather,

ruption
Thus

she

which

she

"She

reigned

became

succumb

against

herself

the

She

sprang

that

sin

us

to
and

and

same

habit

an

f i r s t - f r u i t s of

out

of

to

the
of

of

such

the

cor-

to

evil.

end

the

un-

turning

opposed

put

is

the

belongs

the

what

humanity
with

inherit the

against

of

begins

human.

not

she

stood

rest

everything

did

did

the

eight

was

of

she

((ppdvriMa), n o r

to

Chapter

partook

nature.

h u m a n , b u t t r u l y so, a n d

contrast

theme.

Virgin

way

which

l e a d s h u m a n i t y b a c k to G o d . "

T h e s e c r e t of t h e V i r g i n ' s h u m a n s u c c e s s l i e s , a c c o r d i n g

to

C a b a s i l a s , i n t h e p r e s e r v e t i o n of t h e p u r i t y of h e r w i l l . A s he
puts
she

it:

"She

alone

ouTcoQ eiye
being,
how
moon,

kept

was

the

present

choice

went

fixed

to G o d a l o n e "

T f | v YV(OMnv).(l^)

no o t h e r

she

her

"As i f

within a

{{i6vr] p6v<0 0 E ^

there

c r e a t u r e that had e v e r
beyond

s t a r s , the

the

world,

context

was
been

the

Angels, and stopped

no o t h e r

where
napouaa,
human

created. This

earth,
only

is

the

sun,

the

when

she

was

93
united with the p u r e God, being herself pure".(l^) "Thus she
p r e s e n t e d h e r s e l f to G o d a s b e i n g h o l i e r than t h e s a c r i f i c e s ,
more h o n o u r a b l e t h a n the a l t a r s , so much holier t h a n the
r i g h t e o u s a n d t h e p r o p h e t s a n d t h e p r i e s t s t h a n he i s w h o
m a k e s holy t h o s e who a r e becoming holy".

So

perfect

Cabasilas

that

standard

he c a n s a y

of

"that

holiness
no one

is

the

Virgin

for

was

holy

before

she

w a s born"; o r , t h a t "she w a s the f i r s t t r u l y holy p e r s o n , f r e e


from

every

sin, the

holy

of

holies,

who

opened

the

way

of

h o l i n e s s to o t h e r s " . B u t a s C a b a s i l a s i s c a r e f u l to e x p l a i n , s h e
was

such,

"because

she

welcoming

the

S a v i o u r , f r o m whom h o l i n e s s i s d e r i v e d f o r the p r o p h e t s ,

the

priests and everybody

prepared herself

else who becomes

for

w o r t h y of c o m m u n i -

c a t i n g i n t h e d i v i n e mysteries".(1"^) I n d e e d , it i s "the f r u i t of
the

Virgin

blessed

that f i r s t brought

Paul

appeared

puts

before

it

in

Christ

holiness

Hebr.
were

into

6:20)".
given

the

The

this

world, as

holy

people

appelation

who

because

t h e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p r e f i g u r a t i o n s of t h e m y s t e r i e s of
divine
Hebr.
for

economy.

This

is

clearly revealed

11:26 a c c o r d i n g to w h i c h M o s e s

Christ's

same

sake

applies

to

than

other

enjoy

the

examples

i n the

from

statement

p r e f e r r e d being

treasures
the

of

the

the
of

abused

Egypt.

The

Old Testament

in-

c l u d i n g t h o s e of B a p t i s m a n d s p i r i t u a l p a r t a k i n g of B r e a d a n d
Water.

"As

m e a n s of
Saviour
TiVL

Cabasilas

shadows
( T V

K a i oKiQ

puts

and

raXonQV

it.

The

symbols

^ K E I V Q V ,

ancients

before

puiiraa

became

holy

by

the a p p e a r a n c e of

the

T O U HCDTHPOQ

cpav^vToq, Tijn(i>

T o v d Y i a o p o v unoSEtop^vwv), j u s t a s P a u l

states

94
it
i n Hebr.
11:40".(18)
The
key
to
this
subject,
which
C a b a s i l a s c i t e s , i s to b e f o u n d i n t h e s t a t e m e n t o f J o h n 17:19,
w h i c h s p e a k s o f t h e s e l f - s a n c t i f i c a t i o n o f C h r i s t as t h e b a s i s
for the sanctification of all other human beings.

In

chapter

nine Cabasilas explains w h y the

holiness of

the

blessed V i r g i n exceeds t h a t of the Angels, the Archangels,

the

Cherubim and
be such
the

the

b y t h e measure o f hoHness,

proximity

npdq

S e r a p h i m . I t is because she

xdv

of one's

EOV

God,

receive

but

his

within

the

one

her,

the

intimate

in a

who is

Cherubim,
that

not

union

contained

by

the

The

that,
in

holiness
nearer

the

and
to

is

the

Cherubim

new

stand

though

contrary,
and

they

embra-

indescribable,
greater

with

that

of

God

than

principle

special

ApiKei

the

basic

sun

the

difference between

purity

the

on

G o d (TQ

dY.6TTiiTa)

him even

" A l l beings

with

than

anything. Thus

Virgin

theirs.
is

at

which

of

revealed

standing

Virgin,

is

wisdom

in

The

greater

here

Virgin

look

manner

of

{rfiv

Scriptures

dare

the

expresses
is

not

divine rays.

ced

and

do

connection

K Q I xauTTjv

p e T p e i v ) . ( 1 9 ) A c c o r d i n g to t h e
round

w h i c h is none other

relation to or

^VYUTHTI

is vindicated to

in

are

the

in

Cabasilas

whom

surpassed

same

surpass

holiness

which

through

way

her

way

the

the

that

God's
by

the

bodies

brightness

all

others".

Another

criterion

superiority of the
gave

through

her

for

Virgin's
exceeds

determining
holiness
all

or

is the

else

that

demonstrating
fact that
he

gave

the

w h a t God
through

95
others, men o r Angels. This is defended w i t h reference to
s u c h B i b l i c a l e v i d e n c e s a s H e b r . 2:2 a n d E p h . 3:10 - a l t h o u g h
i n t h i s l a s t v e r s e t h e name o f t h e C h u r c h i s r e p l a c e d b y t h e
name o f t h e V i r g i n ! I t i s , t h e n , h e r i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n to t h e
S a v i o u r t h a t s e r v e s as t h e s u p r e m e c r i t e r i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g
t h e V i r g i n ' s h o l i n e s s a s s u p e r s e d i n g t h a t o f aSl o t h e r s ( O U T E
ToiLvuv TOv ovrmr
ou5^v
nepC fjpa<; T O O EtJTfjpot; otKovoMiLQ! K Q I
TT\C. iioKcspCac,
TcHg ji^Tp<^ T d K T i o p a r a ^XdTT<is).(20) T h i s , s a y s
Cabasilas, is p e r f e c t l y demonstrated
i n the fact "that
the
V i r g i n i s t h e t h r o n e o f G o d " w h i c h he p r e s e n t s o n t h e basis
o f I s a i a h 6 : 1 {Tif|v ITtapOevov 9 e o i i Qpdvov 6 npcpiiTJi<; Eopa K a i
T o u T o v "uopiiiAov K a i ^ m i p p E v o v " ) ; ( 2 1 ) a n d
i n the fact
that
t h o u g h t h e f a i t h f u l r e c e i v e God's r a y mainly w h e n t h e y pass
to the next life, the V i r g i n had already attained to i t while on
earth. This last point, related to the Virgin's attainement to
bodily
perfection, is
f u r t h e r expounded
i n the
following
chapter.

Chapter
was

ten

begins

"spiritual"

probably

by

( o S p a nveuptsriiKdv) -

reminiscent

of I

explains, because of the


event

that

nature
meant
others

was

attainted
or

led

to

(xfic; cpdoEOw;
that

that

the
a

the

helper

had

highest
in

her

body of the

something

which

so,

as

Virgin
is

most

Cabasilas

presence of the Holy S p i r i t i n i t trsinsposition

navraq

to

the

C o r . 15:44. I t w a s

body which

to the
she

stating that

the

METOGEVTOC;
was

of

the

TOOQ

an obstacle

Virgin.

It

also

degree of v i r t u e
possession

in

boundaries
6pouc;).(22)

or

of
-phis

a limitation

means

while
this

an

that

still on

present

to

"she
earth,

life

the

96
f u t u r e goods a n d r e i g n e d w i t h the r e i g n w h i c h is k e p t f o r
t h e r i g h t e o u s , o r t h a t she l i v e d i n the midst of t h i s f l e e t i n g
l i f e t h e p e r m a n e n t o n e {Ti\v ^orwooiv
^eouaia) w h i c h i s

hiiden

in

Christ.

thing

i n her

Tiva

Tpdnov)

their

force

that

"He

Indeed

should

be

inasmuch
before

who

is

was

to

endowed
as

her.

even

That

mighty

h o l y i s h i s name"

it

(Luke

with
the

is

has

be
a

new

laws

of

why

done

expected

she

that

every-

manner

(Kaivdv

nature

said

great

in

things

withdew

her

hymn

f o r me

and

1:49).(23)

IV.7. The Virgin's participation i n Christ

For

Cabasilas,

experience
w h a t she
with

secret of the

d i d f o r him. This is what chapter

God

was

to

her

Divine

force

s h a r e as
Son

"She

Cabasilas

the

Virgin's

l i e s n o t o n l y i n w h a t God d i d f o r h e r ,

remarkable

nity.

however,

on

and

i n s i g h t . What

f u l l y as

she

behalf of and

forebore

to

take

( i p o K p o O u p e i Tfiv

his

could

side

^pfiv

b u t also i n

eleven brings
the

Virgin

i n the

f o r the

exalted

did

for

sufferings of

salvation of

huma-

f o r my salvation",

oTqpiav

out

says

Y C Q aupMCXou-

(24)
''She
the

arrows

against
of her

suffered pain with


of

the

h i m " . She

hatred

shared,

of

him and
others

other

human

{'Eyd

vopi'Co,

being
says

had

ever

Cabasilas,

Yev^o8ai).(25) The reason

which

says Cabasilas,

Son i n s u c h a w a y t h a t she

accepted
were

directed

i n aU t h e s u f f e r i n g s

experienced a pain that

experienced
Mn5^v

or

duoiow

f o r t h i s Mes i n h e r

especially, i n his sinlessness

i n herself

will
6Xyoc.

ever

do

as

so

dvGpQnoLq

sinlessness

which is absolute,

no

and,

w e l l as

in

97
her intimate connection with the Saviour, which surpasses
t h a t o f a n y o t h e r . "She was seized b y s u c h s u r p a s s i n g
and
f o r e i g n d i s t r e s s (linepipunq T i q K Q I C E V I I d v i a ) t h a t n o o t h e r
human
being ever
experienced,
b e c a u s e she
was
f u l l of
g r a t i t u d e , she saw t h e C r u c i f i x i o n as a mother a n d c o u l d
p e r f e c t l y see t h e i n j u s t i c e " .

(26)

Chapter
the

twelve continues

soteriological

ticipate i n her
everything

that

means t h a t

her!

Thus,

him.

Such

lead

the

point

of

Son

he

was

intimate

Virgin

from

the

after

Christ's

Resurrection,

the

blessed

account
to

crucified,

she

to

of

Virgin
his

She

the

her

of

was

pierced
as

as

it

it

in

the

were.

She

in

were,

could

Here

followed

not

is the
the

was

through

of
death

greater

benefit

like her

to

others.

Son, a death,

have had any ultimate power over

But

his

of

"supplied

however, that

her
with
but
high
Holy

glorious

midst

then

to

Cabasilas

was l a c k i n g i n the s u f f e r i n g s of C h r i s t " above e v e r y b o d y


and

in

happened

According to

remained

par-

salvation".

participation of

which

place,

our

h i m also

died,

Son.

to

to participate

resurrection.

apex:

Ascention,

taking

on

had

happened

death

exaltation

the

"She

underlining

Virgin

participation, however,

Oration, its

in

for

( L u k e 2:35).

an

the

same t h e m e ,

did

whatever

sword

Virgin

disciples,

her

when

with

the

Son's experiences.

This

heart

necessity

on

she

the
what
else
went

could

not

her.

" T h a t a l l - h o l y s o u l " ( n a v a v i a ijjuyti), s a y s C a b a s i l a s ,

"had

98
t o be s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h a t most immaculate b o d y (navaY^oraTov
aajja). I t was separated a n d u n i t e d t o t h e Son, t h e f i r s t l i g h t
w i t h the second. As f o r the body, t h o u g h i t remained f o r a
w h i l e i n s i d e t h e e a r t h , i t t o o w e n t a w a y (ouvannXBe). F o r i t
was necessary t h a t i t should pass t h r o u g h a l l the
ways
t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e S a v i o u r w e n t , to s h i n e b e f o r e t h e l i v i n g
and the dead, to s a n c t i f y t h r o u g h all the whole of the human
n a t u r e a n d to t a k e u p i m m e d i a t e l y i t s p r o p e r p l a c e . T h u s
t h o u g h t h e g r a v e r e c e i v e d i t f o r a while, i t was the heavens
t h a t r e c e i v e d i t o u t o f t h e r e , as a new e a r t h , a s p i r i t u a l
b o d y , t h e t r e a s u r e o f o u r o w n l i f e , more venerable t h a n the
A n g e l s , hoMer t h a n t h e A r c h a n g e l s . I n t h i s w a y t h e t h r o n e
w a s g i v e n b a c k to t h e K i n g , t h e p a r a d i s e to t h e w o o d o f H f e ,
the d i s k to the l i g h t , the tree to the f r u i t , the mother to the
Son, w o r t h y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of h u m a n i t y i n all respects".(27)

Here

we

have

reached

t h e m e s o f t h i s O r a t i o n , as
of

the

greatness

unfailing
her

the

in

aE

the

her

insistence
Virgin

her
and

life

rather

and

on the intimate and


to

her

through

her.

Here

creation

and,

especially,

with

other

most

of

of the

the

the

the

Virgin,

holiness,

holy

Divine

too

we
of

preceding

two preceding

of

perfect

all

ones,

of

raises

Angels, of her

parti-

experience.

Here

also

we

have

who
the

humanity,

p e r f e c t image

became

most

truly

perfect

standing

side

find

Cabasilas'

unique relationship of the


Son

her

which

"theo-logical", conclusion to

Mother

the

w e l l as

of

Saints

Son's

"logical", or

climax

praiseworthiness

contribution,

above

cipation

or

the

holy

human

image
by

of
side

of Divine-human mediation.

99
The one is the basis, the ultimate presupposition and
the
o t h e r t h e ultimate r e s u l t . The one, the body, the other, the
h e a d . T h e y a r e so i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c t e d t h a t t h e one c a n n o t
be seen w i t h o u t t h e o t h e r . B u t t h i s i n no w a y means t h a t
t h e y do not d i f f e r f r o m each other. The fundamental d i f f e r ence, w h i c h lies i n t h e f a c t t h a t the one r e v e a l s the miracle
o r m y s t e r y o f Creation, whereas the other the miracle or
m y s t e r y o f t h e B o n d o f C r e a t i o n w i t h God, is no obstacle to
the other miracle or mystery of their mutual interconnection
a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e r e is no d o u b t , t h e n , t h a t Nellas is
r i g h t i n c l a i m i n g t h a t t h i s O r a t i o n has a d i s t i n c t cosmological
and ecclesiological dimension. I n the person of the
blessed
V i r g i n M a r y w e see t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f t h e t r u e p u r p o s e o f
C r e a t i o n a n d also o f t h e t r u e f a c e o f t h e C h u r c h . She r e p r e sents, indeed.
Creation's
highest
"fruit" or
" f l o w e r " , as
C a b a s i l a s p u t i t , a n d as s u c h she p o i n t s t o t h e w i s d o m o f
God, as h e r c r o w n a n d g l o r y , i n c a r n a t e d i n a n d t h r o u g h h e r
and enthroned on her.

Such
surprise
of

being
that

praise.

It

the

he
is

import

concludes
fitting

t r a n s l a t i o n , g i v i n g , as
to his

which

Cabasilas'

it with
we

the

Oration,

most

should

it

is

exuberant

transfer

it

no

word

here

i t w e r e , Cabasilas himself the last

in

word

exposition!

"What w o r d can
One,

that

of

to praise the
you

granted

suffice to praise
graces which the
to

all humanity

your

v i r t u e , Oh

Saviour
in

Blessed

gave you,

common?

None

those
could

100
s u f f i c e t o d o so, n o t e v e n i f h e c o u l d
"speak w i t h
the
t o n g u e s o f b o t h m e n a n d a n g e l s " , as P a u l w o u l d s a y . A s f o r
me, i t s e e m s c l e a r t h a t t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d t o p r a i s e c o r r e c t l y
y o u r magnificence is no lesser p o r t i o n t h a n t h a t blessedness
w h i c h awaits t h e r i g h t e o u s . Because t h i s t o is amongst the
t h i n g s w h i c h " n o eye e v e r saw a n d h u m a n ear e v e r h e a r d " ,
o r of the t h i n g s "which the whole world cannot contain",
according to John the r e k n o w n . Your magnificence belongs
o n l y to t h a t s p h e r e w h e r e heaven is new and earth is new,
t h e sphere w h i c h is illumined b y the Sun of Righteousness,
the Sun which is neither preceded nor followed by darkness,
where the appraiser
of y o u r magnificence is the
Saviour
himself and the ones who applaud i t , the Angels. Indeed only
i n s u c h a s p h e r e c a n p r a i s e , p r o p e r a n d w o r t h y o f y o u , be
o f f e r d . We h u m a n s a r e n o t a b l e t o c o m p l e t e y o u r p r a i s e . We
c a n p r a i s e y o u as m u c h as i t i s n e e d e d f o r s a n c t i f y i n g o u r
t o n g u e a n d soul. For e v e n one w o r d a n d one
remembrance
r e f e r r i n g to y o u r magnificence suffices to raise the soul on
high and to transform us all f r o m being fleshly to being
s p i r i t u a l f r o m being s i n f u l to being holy.

But
we

come

Y o u , Oh V i r g i n ,
to

know

in

learn

thereafter

when

who,

beginning

with

sedness and

who are

this

life,

we

leave

yourself,

every
or
the
has

good, e v e r y t h i n g

everything

that

present

world,

led

all

others

we

that
shsdl

Oh Y o u ,
to

hoMness, Oh Y o u , s a l v a t i o n o f h u m a n i t y a n d

blesMght

of t h e w o r l d , w a y t h a t leads to the Saviour and door and

life,

You

with

who are

worthy

to

be

called

with

all those

names

101
w h i c h t h e S a v i o u r was p r o c l a i m e d f o r t h e s a l v a t i o n w h i c h he
g r a n n t e d u s . Because he is t h e cause (aiTioc;) a n d You are t h e
c o - c a u s e (auvaiTLo<;) o f m y o w n s a n c t i f i c a t i o n a n d o f t h a t o f
all the other benefits which I have been granted only f r o m
the Saviour t h r o u g h yourself. Yours is the
blood
which
cleanses t h e sins o f t h e w o r l d . Y o u r member is the
body
w i t h i n w h i c h I w a s made h o l y , w i t h i n w h i c h t h e New T e s t a ment and e v e r y hope of salvation is f o u n d . Your inward part
(onXdYyvov) i s t h e k i n g d o m o f God.

You,

Oh

Virgin,

who

are

e v e r y name t h a t c o u l d e v e r
hymn

of ours

understanding

and
that

do
we

not

higher

than

praise

and

b e a t t r i b u t e d t o Y'ou, r e c e i v e

this

overlook our

may

better

sing

every

eagerness.
Your

Grant

praises

now, i n t h i s l i f e a n d a f t e r i t , i n a l l e t e r n i t y , AMEN."(28)

us

both

101
CONCLUSIONS

Our
Birth,

analysis

the

of

the

Annunciation and

Virgin, have revealed


the

blessed

perhaps,
major

three

the

unecessary

theses

richness

summarize.

stand

out

of

Falling

Cabasilas

Asleep

of

of teaching

Theotokos,

to

which

the

a great

Virgin,

Orations

which
There

is

are,

throughout

on

the

the
Holy

concerning

difficult

and,

however,

some

these

Orations

and

w h i c h may serve to p r o v i d e a conclusion.

The

most

sinlessness and
meaning and
the

central

thesis

of

all

three

holiness

of the Virgin, including

extends

conception
heaven,

that

matter,

original

thoughout

all the

birth

her

and

rests

represents

of

these

qualities

the

which
There
of

with

the

with

God, b u t t h e

are

the

the

Virgin

her

achievement.

her

and

and

precise

in

general

in

implanted

by

texts

Virgin
sacred

her

free

in

these

with

her

I t is t h i s personal
God's

further

T h i s means t h a t a l l a t t e m p t s ,

life, from

own

accordance
the

such

as

It

Orations

her

the

into

the

which

link

parents

and

squarely
faith,

for

with

Creator

saintly

and

into

humanity and,

achievement

action

her

choice.

h i s t o r y o f h u m a n i t y , as

decision,

with

assumption

her

emphasis is c l e a r l y a n d

helself,

for

stages of her

fulfilment of her

was

saints of the

calls

their

the

V i r g i n M o t h e r o f God,

burial

with

humanity

design
nature.

to

primarily

primarily

human

which

is

their f a r - r e a c h i n g implications i n connection

Incarnation. This sinlessness of the

which

Orations

well

as

placed

on

her

virtue,

of the

Virgin

addition

of

grace.

t h o s e made b y J u g i e ,

to

103
establish
the
particular
Roman
dogma
of
the
immaculate
conception
o n the basis of Cabasilas' t e a c h i n g are o b v i o u s l y
futile, i f not u t t e r l y erroneous,
because the latter
dogma
r e s t s o n d i f f e r e n t t h e o l o g i c a l premises (Cf. his a r t i c l e s c i t e d
i n the B i b l i o g r a p h y below and especially the c r i t i q u e of his
v i e w s a d v a n c e d b y P r o f e s s o r Kalogerou and Dr Graef w h i c h
are also c i t e d b e l o w ) .

The
are

sinlessness

often presented

meaning
this

contrast

is

connect

designed

the

Virgin

race

in

to

the

God. I t is a
and

which
holy

aspects

as

by

God

with

is

at

the

which

as

well

humanity or

presented
of the

presupposition
by

as

which

him

is o n l y f u l f i l l e d i n the

with
the

was

As

et

the

such
with

Creator.

Son

and

as

they
the
This

presupLogos of

designed

by

history,

but

sinless

and

Cabasilas

the

human

nunc

God.

concrete

and

originally

throughout
hinc

the

necessary

eternal

their

human ideal

Creation.

as

out

one o f a k i n d . B u t

revelation, or

the

Theotokos

bring

Creation i n general

Incarnation

sustained

the

Virgin

distinctive qualities of the

particular,

connection

position

God

of the

i n opposition to either

t o be u n d e r s t o o d

originally

double

holiness

i n all the

not

embodiment, of the

human

the

i n e x c l u s i v e t e r m s , as i f t h e y a r e

They are

of the

Virgin.

It
ultimate
or

and

is

the

Incarnation

connection

crown,

established

or

between

reward,

b y the

that

of

the

constitutes

humanity
previous

and

for
God

connection

the

flower,

which

blessed V i r g i n . I t is t h i s new and

was

ultimate

104
connection that b r i n g s about the miracle of salvation, making
t h e f o r m e r c o n n e c t i o n (the one established b y t h e V i r g i n ) a
s a v i n g o n e as w e l l , b e c a u s e i t u n i t e s t h e D i v i n e s i n l e s s n e s s
a n d holiness, w h i c h is absolute, to the human sinlessness and
holiness, w h i c h is r e l a t i v e . T h i s is a n absolute connection,
because i t i n v o l v e s a u n i o n of the Divine nature w i t h the
h u m a n n a t u r e , w h i c h r e s t s u p o n no o t h e r g r o u n d t h a n the
p e r s o n o f t h e e t e r n a l S o n a n d W o r d o f God t h e C r e a t o r w h o
has also become t h e Son o f t h e s i n l e s s a n d h o l y V i r g i n , i.e.
the
Son of h u m a n i t y and,
for that
matter,
the
Son o f
Creation.

Thus

Cabasilas'

connected

with

be

be

the

holy

i t is

the

making a

new

previously

and

holiness

the

Incarnation

which

This view,

which

said,

of the

contribution

is

his

Virgin
had
was

to
only

implicit

of

especially,

and,

other

h i m . W h e r e he

seems

of

fulfilled

presentation

Incarnation

the

necessary
be

intimately

case w i t h

presentation
as

is

i n comparison

r e s u l t e d i n a more balanced
the

Virgin

Church who preceded

was

side.

on

C h r i s t o l o g y , as

theologians of the
to

teaching

with

the

sinlessness

presupposition
from

in the

the

the

to

human

tradition,

both, of the
of

what

has

doctrine

doctrine

of

Salvation.

The

question

could

assess

point

of view?

when

one

that

remains

Cabasilas'
This

realizes

teaching
is

that

by
one

no

to

be

asked

from a
means

needs

to

here

is

how

one

normative theological
easy

know

to

do,

more

especially

clearly

the

105
f u n d a m e n t a l hermeneutical p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h g o v e r n both his
t h o u g h t a n d h i s a r g u m e n t a t i o n . I t is o b v i o u s t h a t one c o u l d
question
Cabasilas'
views
on
particular
exegetical
and
d o c t r i n a l g r o u n d s , examining his sources and the types of his
a r g u m e n t s . T h i s w o u l d b e p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e t o w h a t he
a s s u m e s t o b e t r u e c o n c e r n i n g t h e l i f e ( w e m e a n t h e Pi'oQ, t h e
b i o g r a p h y ) o f the blessed V i r g i n , w h i c h is o b v i o u s l y based o n
A p o c r y p h a l religious l i t e r a t u r e and on L i t u r g i c a l data which
raise
many academic
questions,
not to mention theological
ones. B u t we w o u l d like to s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s p r o c e d u r e would
n o t t a k e o n e v e r y f a r . We b e l i e v e t h i s t o be so, m a i n l y
because of the f a c t that his teaching on the particular topic
of the holy V i r g i n presents an inner coherence which clearly
r e s t s on a p a r t i c u l a r way of doing and system of theology
w h i c h is t i e d u p w i t h h i s C h u r c h ' s
liturgical praxis
and
t r a d i t i o n . Is i t not the r e c o v e r y and assessment of this wider
ecclesiastical context of theology and practice of
Cabasilas'
teaching t h a t would p r o v i d e the f i r m basis f o r an adequate
t h e o l o g i c a l assessment o f his t e a c h i n g on the V i r g i n , w h i c h is
the particular subject-matter of the present research?
To do
this task will require the u n d e r t a k i n g of a much greater and
comprehensive research programme than the present,
somet h i n g , h o w e v e r , w h i c h w o u l d be v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r h i s t o rical theology and the theology of the contemporary
ecumenical rapproachment between Eastern and Western Christians.

106

FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I

(1)

Cf.

NiKoXdou

P.

Nellas,

KaPdoiXa",

"Etaaya\iKa
in

OTr\

npOKTiKd

(Cf. B i b l i o g r a p h y ) Thessalonica

ijeX^Tn

T O U dv^ou

QeoXoYLKOu

ZuveSpiou..

1984, p p .

70f.

(2)

C f . "MaKeSovLKd", v o L 17 (1977)

367-396.

(3)

C f . "MaKESovLKd", v o l . 19 (1979)

411-417.

(4)

Cf.

MviiMHV..

"nPAKTIKA
NiKoXdou

GEOAOriKOY
KaPdoiXa

lYNEAPlOY

etq

T O U K Q C XapaeTou",

Mr|Tp6noXi<; QeoaaXoviKriQ, QeooaXovi^Kri 1984, p p .

(5)

Ibid.,

pp.

32-34.

(6)

Ibid.,

pp.

34-35.

(7)

Ibid.,

pp.

35-37.

(8)

Ibid.,

pp.

37-38

(9)

Ibid.,

pp.

38ff

(10)

Ibid.,

p p . 39f

Tiui^v K Q L

30-57.

'lepd

107
(11)

Ibid.,

pp. 4 I f

(12)

Ibid.,

pp.

(13)

According

41-46

to

the

Codex

p u b l i s h e d i n December

Laurent.

Plut

ix, 9 it

1369

(14)

K a n t a k o u z e n o s , B o n n I V , 107, 1 8 - 1 9 , ibid.,

(15)

Ibid.,

pp.

(16)

Ibid.,

p p . 52f

(17)

MIKLOSICH -

nopolitani,

(IS)

was

p p . 48f

50-52

MiiLLER,

Acta

Patriarchatus

Constanti-

t o m i i , p . 27

Cf.

A.

Angelopoulos'

Thessalonica

1970, p p . 7 8 f f

(19)

Christian

Cf. his

dition,

translated

Review

International

o f 27 F e b r u a r y

(20)

Ibid.

(21)

Ibid.

as

Nicolas

Philosophy
a

series

Cabasilas

in
of

the

articles

Chamaetos,

Byzantine
in

the

( L o n d o n ) b y D r G. D . D r a g a s ,
1988, p p . 2 4 f

TraGreek
Issue

108
(22) C f . B i b l i o g r a p h y : S p . L a m p r o s ' e s s a y i n 1905. O n
other
Codices
Cf.
A.
Angelopoulos's
monograph
on
Nicholaos
Cabasilas
Chamaetos,
T h e s s a l o n i c a 1970, p . 7 5 f
ft. 2

(23)
Cf.

M.

Patrologia

Jugie,

"Homelies

Orientalia,

19 (1925)

(24)

Ibid.

pp.

484-495

(25)

Ibid.

pp.

495-510

(26)

Codex

exists

in

Parisinus
the

Mariales

Graecus

Athonite

Ms.

Byzantines",

in

465-484

1213,
Iveron

cp. 2 2 r -

36r. I t

388(4508),

also

cp. 905P

909a).

(27)

Ibid.

(28)

Ibid.

(29)

Ibid.

(30)

Cf.

Leipzig
logiae

(31)

W.

GASS,

1899,

pp.

Graecae

Codex

GARZYA,

Die

Mystik

210-216.

v o l . 150, e l s .

Parisinus
"Un

opuscule

1213,

des

Also

in

Nikolaus
J.

Kabasilas,

P.

MIGNE,

285r.

Patro-

637-648.

cp.

inedit

282r
de

Nicolas

Also

A.

Cabasilas",

109
Byzantion,

24

(32)

Parisinus

1213,

Empiriki

Pyrrhoniarum

Codex

in

Sexti

Secundus,

(1954)

Geneva

RADERMACHER,
ssimi

521-532.

1621. Also

Acalecta

Guilelmi

(p. 2 8 5 r -

published

Hypotyposium

reprinted

Graeca

I I , Bonn,

286r. F i r s t

Liber

i n A. ALTER

Natalicia

regis

L.

augusti-

1899]

(33)
Codex

Parisinus

MIGNE,

Patrologiae

critical

edition

GUILLARD
de

la

Les

translation

see,

Codex

J.

by

Commentary

on

vol.

S.

Nicolas

the

Parisinus

M.

Codex

Parisinus

Angelopoulos,
1970,

pp.

(36)

Codex

Cabasilas..
of

the

1967.

FRENCH,

Divine

Nicholas

R.

Graecae

Cabasilas

P.

For

a
J.

Explication
No

For

an

bis),

English

A. McNULTY, w i t h

(p.

157r

(p.286v -

Chamaetos,

an

Cabasilas,

1960.

245r.

v o l . 150, e l s .

1213,

J.

BORNET,

SPCK, L o n d o n

1213,

Graecus

368-492.

Nicholas

Liturgy,

Graecus

154r.

Cabasilas,

M . H U S S E Y & P.
R.

els.

Chretiennes

Paris

i n J . P. M I G N E , Patrologiae

(35)

150,

{Sources
Cerf,

cp. 1 0 9 r

SALAVILLE,

PERICHON,

du

Introduction

(34)

see

Liturgie,

Editions

1213

Graecae,

& P.

Divine

Graecus

Also

493-726.

287v. Cf.

A.

Thessalonica

11-113.

Iberon
op.

cit.,

372.
pp.

t e x t o f flEpC xfic;

Cf.

A.

Angelopoulos,

114-115. T h i s t e x t is i n f a c t
XpiorcJ

CoHQ, J . P.

Migne,

Nicholas
part
P.G.,

110

vol.

(37)

150, els. 557D-560AB.

Codex

edition

Parisinus

of

I.

Discourse",

1213, cp, 245r -

SEVCENKO,

Dumbarton

"Nicolas

Oaks

269r. Cf. also

Cabasilas

Papers

the

Anti-Zealot

(Cambridge, Mass.).

11 (1957) 81-171, and Angelopoulos' arguments about the


dating of this Oration in . his Nicholas
etos,

Chama-

Thessalonica 1970, pp. 90-91.

(38) Codex
the

Cabasilas

Parisinus

edition

usury

of

de

Graecus

1213 cp.277v - 280v. Cf. also

R. GUILLARD,

Nicolas

" L a traite inedite

Cabasilas",

Etc,

MvriiJTiv

L.

S u r 1'
AdMnpou,

Athens 1935, pp. 269-277. Reprinted by A. ZAKYNQHNOE, in


BuCavTLvd

Kei'iJEva

BaaiKfic; BipXioeiiKriQ

"'AET6<;",

'AOrlva,

1957, pp. 303-307.

(39)

Codex

first

edition

1695,

the

Parisinus
by

Graecus

1213, op.

D. HOESCHEL,

second

edition

cit.

Cf. also

in Augusta

by

S.

1604, and J . P. MIGNE, Patrologiae

vindelicorum

PHOENICIUS,
Graecae,

the

Samoscii

vol. 150, els.

728-749.

(40)

Codex

Parisinus

Graecus

also A. Angelopoulos, Nicholas

1213, cp. 280v Cabasilas

282v.

Chamaetos,

Cf.

Thes-

salonica 1970, pp. 116-118.

(41) T h i s
work

text is in fact the


Commentary

on

the

29th chapter of

Cabasilas'

Divine

Cf. J . P.

Liturgy.

Ill
MIGNE, Patrologiae

(42) This

Graecae,

vol. 150, els.

text is in fact the

work A Commentary

428-433.

30th chapter of Cabasilas'

on the Divine

Liturgy.

J . P. MIGNE,

P.G., vol. 150, els. 433-437.

("^3) A copy of this text contained in the Codex


Graecus

837

was

burned

at

the

order

Vaticanus

of

Cardinal

Hieronymus Sirleto, L i b r a r i a n of the Vatican L i b r a r y as


G. MERCATI in forms us i n Studi

e Testi

78 (1937)

p.215

ft. 2.

(^4) Unpublished work of Nicholas Cabasilas in Ms 558 of


the Hagiotaphitic Metochion in Constantinople.

(45) c f . the edition of L E O A L L A T I U S , De Nilis


scriptis

Diatriba,

CIUS,

Bibliotheca

AHMHTPAKOnOYAOE,

Roma 1668,
Graeca,

pp.

Hamburg

'OpQ6boioq

'EXXdq,

78-80 and J . P. MIGNE, P.G., vol.

(46)

Codex

50-51.
1712,

et

eorum

Also in F A B R I pp.

Leipzig

67-68,
1872,

A.
pp.

149, els. 678-679.

Parisinus

Craecus

1213, (p. 69r - 75 v, u n p u -

Parisinus

Graecus

1213, cp. 76r - 79v,

Parisinus

Graecus

1213, cp. 80r - 83r, u n p u -

blished.

(47)

Codex

unpu-

blished.

(48)
Codex

112
blished.

(49)

Cf. S.

SALAVILLE,

PERICHON,
Liturgie

Nicholas

R. BORNET,

Cabasilas

(Sources

J . GOUILLARD & P.

Explication

Chretiennes

4bis),

de

la

Paris

Divine

1967,

pp.

364-366.

(50) Ibid.,

(51)

pp. 368-380.

Codex

Iviron

372,

Codex

Parisinus

Cf. LAMBROS's Catalogue, voL

2,

p.lOO.

(52)

Graecus

1213,

cp. l l r

-16r,

unpu-

blished.

(53)

Op. cit.

MvriMELa 'AyioXoYLKci, BeveTi'a

(54)

Op.

I . 0ECXDIAOY,

cp. 46r - 76r. Cf. the Edition by

cit.

cp.

83 V -

riAnAAOnOYAOE-KEPAMEYE,

1884,

90r.

LuXXoyi)

pp.

Cf.

67-147.

the

Edition

naXaLcmvfiq

KQL

by

A.

EupLOKfic;

'AYLoXoYfac;, voL 1, P e t e r s b u r g 1907, pp. 173-185.

(55)

Op.

cit.,

Sanctorum

of

cp. 902' the

lOlr.

Month of

Also the

April,

r e p r i n t in J . P. MIGNE, P.G. 150, els.

(56)

Op.

cit.,

cp.

10 I r

-104 v.

Cf.

1675,

edition in
pp.

Acta

55-59

and

753-772.

the

edition

of

K.

113

AYOBOYNmTHI,

'EnernpLq

'ETaipei'ac;

BuCavTivfiv

Enou5ov,

vol. 14 (1938) 157-162.

(57)

Op. cit.,

"npoacpcSvriMOi
'EnETripfc;

cp. 104v-109r. Cf. the edition of B. AAOYPMZ,


KaC

'EniYpdMPara

'ExaipELac;

Etc;

dyLOV

AriMfjTpLov",

EnouSov, vol. 22

BUCOVTIVQV

(1952)

99-105.

(58)

Op. cit.,

cp. 301r - 303r. Cf. the edition of M. J U G I E ,

Panegyriques

inedits

de

Matthieu

Anne Paleologine", Bulletin


Russe

(59)
cit.,

de Constantinople,

Op, cit.,

Cantacouzene et

de I' Intitute

d'

ASrcheoIogique

vol. 15 (1911) 113-118.

cp. 301r -303r. Cf. M. J U G I E ' s edition,

op.

pp. 118-121. The Epilogue of the Encomium has been

published by V. LAURENT i n , "Le codex Meteor. Barlaam


202",

""EXXtivLKca", 9 (1936) 203-204.

(60)

Cf.

Codex

Meter.

Barlaam

202,

cp.

36r

41r,

unpublished.

(61)

Codex

Parisinus

Graecus

1213, cp. 154r -156v. Cf. the

edition of S. S A L A V I L L E , Echos

d' Orient,

vol. 35 (1936)

pp 43-50.

(62)

Op.

Bibliotheca

cit.,

cp. 287V.

Graeca,

AHMHTPAKOnOYAOE,

Also the

Hamburg

Op9c55o?.oc;

edition

1712,
*EXXaq,

vol.

of
5,

Leipzig

FABRICIUS,
p.
1872,

77. A.
p.76.

114
Also A. ANGELOPOULOS, Nicholas
ft 3.

(63) Codex.,
'EnexripLc;

op. cit.,

Cabasilas..

op. cit. p. 99

cp. 288r . Also edition

of B . AAOYAPAE,

'ExaipEL'ac;

BUCOVTLVCOV

Enou5<3v, vol. 22

pp.lOSf. Also A. ANGELOPOULOS, op. cit.,

(64) Codex..
op.

cit.,

(66)

cit.,

p. 100, ft 1.

1213, op. cit., cp. 288r. Cf. A. ANGELOPOULOS,

p. 100, ft 2.

(65) Codex..
op.

(1952),

1213, op. cit., cp. 288r. Cf. A. ANGELOPOULOS,

p. 100 ft. 3.

Codex..

1213,

ibid.

Also A. ANGELOPOULOS, op.

cit.,

p. 100, ft 4.

(67)

Codex..

1213,

POULOS, op. cit.,

(68)

Codex..

Codex..

1213, op.

1213,

cit.,

cp. 288r.

Also,

A. ANGELO-

p. 101, ft 5.

LOPOULOS, op. cit.,

(69)

op.

cit.,

cp. 2 8 8 / - V . Also in A. ANGE-

p. 101 ft 1.

op.

cit.,

cp. 288v.

Also, A. ANGELO-

cp. 288v.

Also, A. ANGELO-

POULOS, op. cit. p. 101. ft 2.

(70)

Codex..

1213,

op.

cit.,

POULOS, op. cit. p. 101. ft 3.

115

(71) Codex..
1213, op. cit.,
cp. 288v.
POULOS, op. cit. p. 101. f t 4.

Also, A. ANGELO-

(72)

cp. 288v.

Also, A. ANGELO-

cp. 288v.

Also, A. ANGELO-

cp. 288v.

Also, A. ANGELO-

cp.293r -

295v.

Codex..

1213,

POULOS, op. cit.

(73)

Codex..

op.

cit.,

p. 101. ft 5.

1213,

op.

cit.,

POULOS, op. cit. p. 101. ft 6.

(74)

Codex..

1213,

POULOS, op. cit.

(75)

Codex...

op.

cit.,

p. 102. f t 1.

1213,

op.

KIDES's

edition

in

Nikolaos

Kabasilas",

cit.,

"Der

Briefweschel

Byzantinische

Cf.

des

Zeitschrift,

ENEPE-

Mystikers
vol.

46

Also

in

(1953) 29-34.

(76)

Codex..

1213,

op.

E N E P E K I D E S , op. cit.,

(77)
op.

(78)

Codex..
cit.,

1213,

cp.

416r

417v.

pp. 43-44.

op.

cit.,

cp. 298r. Also in

ENEPEKIDES,

pp. 37-38.

Codex..

1213,

E N E P E K I D E S , op. cit.,

(79)

cit.,

Codex..

1213,

E N E P E K I D E S , op. cit.,

op.

cit.,

cp.

299r

300r.

Also

in

296r

297 v.

Also

in

pp. 41-42.

op.

cit.,

cp.

pp. 34-36.

116

(80)

Codex..

1213,

op.

E N E P E K I D E S , op. cit.,

(81)

Codex..

1213,

op.

1213,

op.

E N E P E K I D E S , op. cit.,

(84) Codex..
op.

cit.,

(85)

cit.,

1213, op. cit.,

Codex..

298r.

Also

in

cp. 298v

299r.

Also

in

pp. 39-39.

in E N E P E K I D E S , op. cit.,

(83)

cp. 297r

pp. 37.

E N E P E K I D E S , op. cit.,

(82) Codex..

cit.,

cp. 296 v - 297r & 298/--v. Also

pp. 39-41.

cit.,

cp. 295 v

296r.

in

pp. 43].

1213, op. cit., cp. ZOOr-v.

Also in ENEPEKIDES,

pp. 44-45.

Codex..

1213,

op.

cit.,

cp. 68v^. Also

edition in N^oq 'EXXrivoMvilMcov, voL 2 (1905)

(86)

Also

Cf.

pondance,

R.

J.

LOENERTZ,

Vatican

1960,

Demetrius

voL

1,

in LAMPROS's
305-306.

Cydones

pp.

Corres-

120-121 (1st),

161-

162(2nd), 162(3rd), 183(4th) and voL2, p. 92(5th).

(87)
1387,

por the f i r s t one


cf.

LOENERTZ,

which was written at Lesvos in


"Manuel

Palaiologue,

Cabasilas", MaKESoviKd, voL 4 (1955)


Codex
and

Parisinus
the

third,

Graecus
which

Epitre

38-46 based on

a
the

3041, cp. 60 v - 65 v). For the 2nd


were

written

1389,

ef.

E.

117

LEGRAND, L e t t r e de 1' Empereur Manuel Plaiologue,


Amsterdam 1962, pp. 8-11 (based on the Codex
Parisinus
3041;).
F o r the f o u r t h , which was written in 1391, cf.
also LEGRAND, op. cit., pp. 20-21.

(88) Cf. the edition of N, T m w > K H E i n "'lcoaf|cp Bpuevvi'ou


NiKoXcSct) T(5 KapdaiXc?
'ETOipeCaq

(89)

KovaTavTivoundXEi,

BuCavTivOv

in

'EnETHpCq

EnouSOv, voL 29 (1959) 31-32.

Cf. A. ANGELOPOULOS,

Nicolas

Cabasilas...op.

cit.,

Thessalonica 1970, p. 104].

(90)

C f . his "Nicholas Cabasilas (+1371?), Homelies s u r la

Nativite,

1'

Annociation

Vierge", i n Patrologia

(91)

Cf.

TpELc;

'AOfivai

la

Dormition

Orientalis,

"npoXEYc5MEva

KapdaiXa",

et

OEOiJriTopLKgc;

la

Saint

vol. xix (1925) 456-510

ELC; T r j v

1968.

de

MEX^TTIV

"NiKoXdou
'OpiXiEq"

vEOEXXnvLKfi dndSoan KaC a y d X i a ) ,

NiKoXdou TOU

KaPdaiXa,

i^ QEO^HTOP,

(KEL'MEVO,
'AQflvaL

eLoaycoY'l,

1968. " E s s a i s u r

la Mere de Dieu et 1' humanisme theocentrique", in


n'

echoue

pas,

Orthodoxe,
NiKoXdou

"At
Koi:

(1969)

55-75,

or

in

Messager

51 (1970) 4-14. " ' H nEpC SiKaLCDOEOx; S i S a o K a X i a


ToO K a P d o i X a ,

rnpLoXoY^av
'AOnvov),

7-8

Dieu

(AiaxpiPi^

EupPoXn
^ni

ECC; TI^V 'OpedSo^ov c j o -

AiSaKTopLa,

'EKSdoELQ E T . KapajjnEpdnouXoq,

OeoXoYtKaC

nriYoiL

^^apTt^oELQ",

NiKoXdou

KAHPONOMIA,

navEnicrrT^MiGv
riELpaiEiiq

1975.

TOU K a P d a i X a ,

'Avacpopai

(1975)

327-344.

7:B'

118

"EtaaycoYLKa OTT^ p e X ^ T r i TOU Ayiou


NiKoXdou xou K a P d o i X a " ,
in nPAKTIKA QEOAOriKOY EYNEAPlOY eic, TLMr|v KQC MVIIPHV..
NLKOXCSOU K a P d o i X a TOU KQL XaMaexou, QeaoaXoviKn 1 9 8 4 , pp.
68-86.

(92)

Both

Codices

Jugie

which

and Nellas

contain

these

mention

the

Orations,

other

extant

but which

were

not utilized by either of them in the production of their


editions. These are: Codex
theologicus

Graecus

Codex

Parisinus

Codex

Theologicus

Coinslianus

(93)

Parisinus

Vindobonensis

Graecus

1248,

Codex

210 fol. 118-137v

and

970 (they contain the f i r s t 2 Orations),


Graecus

Vindobonensis

262 and

315 (they contain all three Orations).

Cf. N E L L A S ,

NiKoXdou K a P d o i X a ,

0EOMHTQP,

p. 2 9 .

(94)

Codex

Ibid.

***

FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I I

(1)

J u g i e , p. 4 6 5 : 2 5 and Nellas p. 4 0 .

(2)

Jugie, p. 4 6 6 : 1 2 - 1 4

and Nellas p. 4 2 .

op.

cit.

119

(3)

Jugie, p. 466:42 - 467:3, Nellas, p. 44.

(4)

Jugie, p. 467:3ff and Nellas p. 44.

(5)

Jugie, p. 467:30-1 and Nellas p. 46.

(6)

Jugie, p. 468:5f and Nellas p. 50.

(7)

Jugie, p. 468:12 and Nellas p. 50.

(8)

Jugie, p. 468:33-35 and Nellas p. 52.

(9)

Jugie, p. 469:14-16 and Nellas p. 54.

(10)

"dXX' ou TG3V P E T ' ai5Tf|v pdvov aCiTf) cpavEpuq QCTLQ T d v

Tcov

yapLTQV

npoT^pcDV

dnaaiv

Ei'q auTfiv

dvot^aaa

Oriaaupdv, dXXd

dvacp^pEi",

Jugie,

p.

KQC T d TOV

469:14-17

and

Nellas p. 54.

(11)

"pdvn

M^v

EOync;

tepaq

ipyov

c5<; dXnOCc;,

oi!i5^v dnESKTdv, pdvn 5^ GEOU 5c3pov d i o v

TOLC; Kai

f) MHS^V E I / E V

Souanc; KOL SE^QM^VTIC; y E i p d c ; " ,

469:31-35 and Nellas p. 56.

npoanv

KOL SOOVOL TOLC;

Eii^aM^voic; K a i napd TOV SE^ap^vcov X a ^ E L V ,


dngiSov

Jugie

p.

120
(12) "Aid x a u x a x f | v [liw (pijaiv x ^ Y E v v i i o e i xfjq navdYvou
5i5vaaBaL
pn5^v
EfaeveYKELv
(5K<5XOU9OV
fjv, auxov 5^
K a X o t j p E V O v x6 ndv ^pYcSoaoQai xov 0e6v KQL x r \ v cpuoiv
napcoadiJEvov cip^ooc;, cSc; E L H E I V , SriMioupYnaai x i ^ v p a K a p i a v ,
KaOdnEp
x6v
np<5xov
dvGpconov
^ n e i KOL MdXiaxa KQL
KupLcSxaxa npcoxoc; dvBpconoc;
riapB^voq, f) npc^xr) KQL |jc5vn
x f i v cpuoLv SbeilEV."
Jugie, p. 469:36-43 and Nellas p. 56.

(13) Nellas, p. 56 f t 23.

(14) J u g i e , p. 470:4-5 and Nellas p. 58.

(15) J u g i e , p. 470:43 - p. 471:2 and Nellas p. 60, 62.

(16)

"Kai

npoOBriKEV

6v

^HELxa,

6cpBaX|JOL<;,

awpa

xoOxov

nEptBELoa,
npdxEpov

5ic3i

xoic;

cincSvxov

xcov fe'pYCOV ^cp'

^auxfic; gYPOtipE", Jugie, p. 472:3-5 and Nellas p. 66.

(17)

"|vi(5vo(; Y<^P dvBpconoq xou eEOU xf^v E f K d v a Kopi'Ccov, dv

aCixdQ
vdBov

KoBapdq,

6nEp

iorC,

oCIS^v, dXriBSc; SEL^QL

cpavq,

npoaYEYPc^MP^vov

5ijvaix' dv auxov

Jugie p. 472:13-16 and Nellas p. 68.

(18) p. 68f f t 40.

(19) Jugie, p. 473:27-36 and Nellas p. 72.

rdw

^ycov
QE6V",

121

(20)

"OijKOUv

KaTEXEtnETO

f)v dv

^PoiiBnoE

TQ MHTpC

PoTiSEiav, OUSEMCQ

MEL'CCDV T f j c ; dnaoQV ( j E Y i c r r T i q K O I V ^

npoTESEianq

dv9pconoiq dnaaiv", Jugie p. 475:10-13 and Nellas p. 78.

(21) Jugie, p. 475:16f and Nellas p. 80.

(22) Jugie, p. 475:34f and Nellas p. 80.

(23) p.G. 36: 633.

(24) p.G. 94: 985.

(25) p,G. 32: 137.

(26) p.G. 151: 176.

(27) Jugie, p. 477:23-29 and Nellas p. 88.

(28) Cf. The Apocryphal

New Testament,

t r a n s l . by M. R.

JAMES, Clarendon P r e s s , Oxford 1924ff, pp. 38-49, or E .


HENNECKE

(Ed.) New

Testament

Apocrypha,

London 1963, vol. 1, pp. 370-388.

(29) Cf. HENNECKE, op. cit. chs. 7 & 8, p. 378.

(30) Jugie, p. 478:10-13 and Nellas p. 90.

(31) Jugie, p. 479:8-10 and Nellas, p. 94.

SCM P r e s s ,

122

(32) "6Bev 5EL cpavfjvai x6v 5uvd|JEVov p^v diJapxdvEiv,


flpapxnKd- x a 5^ oCiS^v paXXov, dnoiov
XQ5E X Q
T6V
dvBpconov 6 0d<; ^PoiiXEXo s f v a i " , Jugie, p. 480: 31-34 and
Nellas p. 100.

(33) Jugie, p. 483:6f and Nellas p. 110.

(34) Jugie, pp. 483:13 - 484:22 and Nellas pp.

111-115.

***

FOOTNOTES OF CHAPTER I I I .

(1)

Jugie, pp. 485:44 - p. 486:3 and Nellas p. 122, 124.

(2)

Jugie, p. 486:22 and Nellas 126.

(3)

Jugie, p. 487:25-28 and Nellas p. 130.

(4)

Jugie, p. 487:33-35 and Nellas p. 132.

(5)

Jugie, p.488:10-ll and Nellas p. 132, 134.

(6)

Jugie, p. 488:13-21 and Nellas 134.

123

(7)

Jugie, p. 488:34-41 and Nellas p. 136.

(8)

Jugie, pp. 488:44 - 489:1 and Nellas p. 136.

(9)

Jugie, p. 493:30-32 and Nellas p. 154.

(10) Jugie, p. 494:9-11 and Nellas p. 156.

(11) Jugie, p. 494:14f and Nellas p. 156.

(12) Jugie, p. 494:25 - 495:20 and Nellas p. 158,160.

***

FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER IV

(1)

Jugie, p. 496:22-25 and Nellas p. 166.

(2)

Jugie, p. 496:37f and Nellas p. 168.

(3)

Jugie, p. 497:19-21 and Nellas p. 172.

(4)

Jugie, p. 498:6-11 and Nellas p. 174.

(5)

oocpoT^paic; ^auTov napdoyE KQC KoOapoT^paiq YEv^oGai

Kail

Trlv

dYaOdTTiTa

npdaOEV elbivai,

TOU GEOU

KOL TI^V aocpiav

dMEivov

Jugie, p. 498:17-20 and Nellas

p. 174.

fl

124

(6)

"...KaBdnEp 5 L ' dcpBaXpov fl cpoxdq xflq MOKapiaq ndvxEQ

KoxEiSov.

Mdvri YC^P ^IYEMC^V Onfip,E ndoia cpuyQ KOC

n E p i 0E6V diXnGeCaq,

(7)

Jugie,

xf)q

J u g i e , p. 498:23-26 a n d Nellas p. 176.

pp. 498:27 - 499:37

a n d Nellas pp. 176, 178

a n d 180.

(8)

J u g i e , p. 500:17-19 a n d N e l l a s p. 182.

(9)

Jugie, p. 500:19-22 and Nellas pp. 182-184.

(10) Jugie p. 500:22-27 and Nellas p. 184.

(11) Jugie, p. 500:29-36 and Nellas p. 184.

(12) Jugie, p. 500:37-41 and Nellas p. 184.

(13) F o r what i s supplied here see, Jugie, pp. 500:37


502:12 and Nellas pp. 184, 186, 188 and 190.

(14) Jugie, pp. 502:13 - 503:30 and Nellas pp. 190-194.

(15) Jugie, p. 503:41-42 and Nellas p. 196.

(16) Jugie, p. 503:41 - 504:6 and Nellas p. 196.

(17) Jugie, p. 504:6-16 and Nellas p. 196.

125

(18) Jugie, p. 504:37f and Nellas p. 200.

(19) Jugie, p. 505:5f and Nellas p. 200.

(20) Jugie, p. 506:3-5 and Nellas p. 202.

(21) Jugie, p. 506:11-13 and Nellas p. 204.

(22) Jugie, p. 506:28-33 and Nellas p. 204, 206.

(23) Jugie, p. 507:1-11 and Nellas p. 208.

(24) Jugie, p. 507:20-21 and Nellas p. 208.

(25) Jugie, p. 508:5f and Nellas p. 210.

(26) Jugie, p. 508:15-18 and Nellas p. 212.

(27) Jugie, p. 509:1-15 and Nellas pp. 214, 216.

(28) Jugie, pp. 509:17 and 220.

510:14 and Nellas pp. 216, 218

15

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npopxripara",

29-61.

ArrEAOnOYAOE, A.,
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('AvdXeKxa

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Usenje

Nikole

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[Cf.

on

Kabasile
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B.,

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chez

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et

(Paris),

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Also

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la

mystique

Sciences

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et

de

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Theologiques,

24

Revue
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664-675.

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des

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des

Sciences

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26 (1937)

et

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Theologiques,

25

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BORODINE-LOT, M . ,
"La

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de

Nicolas

1' a u t e l

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de

Philologie

( B r u x e l l e s ) , 9 (1949)

dans

1' A p o c a l y p s e

Melanges
et

Henri

d'

Histoire

divin

dans

d a n s 1'

Ecriture

Gregoire,
Orientales

Annuaire
et

Slaves

421-434.

BORODINE-LOT, M . ,
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doctrine

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1'

amour

26 (1953)

376-389.

1'

oeuvre

de

Nicolas

128

BORODINE-LOT, M . ,
"Le

Eucharist

c h e z N i c h o l a s C a b a s i l a s " , Dieu

Vivant,

24

(1953)

d'

apres

125-134.

BORODINE-LOT, M . ,
"Le

martyre

comme

temoignage

N i c o l a s C a b a s i l a s " , Irenikon,

de

1' a m o u r

de

27 (1954)

157-168.

byzantine

aux

Dieu

BORODINE-LOT, M . ,
Un Maitre

de

Cabasilas,

Paris

BRANISTE,
"The

la spiritualite

siecle.

Nicolas

1958.

E.,

disputes

Nicholas

XlVe

on

the

Cabasilas",

necessity of the
Studii

Theologice,

Epiclesis
7

according

(1939)

197-208

to
(in

Rumanian).

B R O U S S A L E U X , S.,

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La

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Chevetogne

vie

en

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1932,

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19602.

C R A I G , R.,
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Studia

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Patristica

ENEPEKIDES,
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An

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*OYNTOYAHE,

IfiANNHE,

"NLKdXaoq

Ka3dai.Xa<;,

nPAKTIKA..(See

MuaTayoydQ",

riANTEAEHMQN..), 1994, a a . 1 3 3 - 1 5 4 .

DOYNTOYAHE,

IfiANNHE,

"'EppnveCa

i,nrdt

AELTOupYi^aQ

SuoKdXuv

dnd

riAIMTEAEHMQN..),

rdv

OTIMEIUV

NiKdXao

TOU KEIM^VOU

KaPdoiXa",

xfiq

0eia<;

nPAKTIKA..

(See

1984, a a . 1 5 5 - 1 7 2 .

G A S S , W.,

Die

Mystik

des

Greifswald

GRAEF,
Mary,
Ward,

Nikolaus

Cabasilas

1849 ( r e p r i n t e d

von

Leben

b y HEINZE, M , L e i p z i g

in

Christo,

1899).

Hilda,
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London

of

Doctrine

and

Devotion,

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& N e w Y o r k , 1 9 6 3 . (see e s p e c i a l l y p p . 3 3 9 - 3 4 2 ) .

HORN, G . ,
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Vie

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le

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JUGIE, M . ,
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d e N i c o l a s C a b a s i l a s " , Echos

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18

130

JUGIE, M . ,
L'

Immaculee

tradition

Orientale,

KAAOrHPOY
"'H

conception
Rome

1' Ecriture

1952, ( C f . p p .

sainte

et

dans

la

246-263).

IQANNHE,

vEUT^pa

NiK^Xaov

dans

KaC f\

auvypovoq

O L K O U | j e v i K f | MopTupia S i d T 6 V

KaPdaiXa",

nPAKTIKA..

(See

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1984,

oa.

223-329.

KAAOrHPOY
Mapfa

f\

lOANNHE,
'AELndpBEvo^

GEaoaXovfKn,

1957

0EOT(5KO<; K a r d

(especially pp.

Tf\v

'OpOdSo^ov

riicrriv,

85-93).

AAOYPAAE, B . ,
"Td

Sue

KapdaiXa",

npoociKovTiMaTa

zic,

ayiov

EAAHNIKA, xdp. 13 (1954)

AriMilTpiov

T O O NiKoXdou

337-338.

L O E N E R T Z , R.,
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Christiana

1345-1354, Miscellanea

Periodica,

Georg

2 1 (1955) 2 0 5 - 2 3 1 .

MAGGINI, L . ,
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Cabasilas, Glabras),

MAiMTZAPiAHZ
"'H

3 (1950)

441-445.

rEfipnoz:,

pETapdpcixoaK;

nPAKTIKA..

Sapienza,

t e o l o g i b i z a n t i n i (Palamas,

(See

xoO

ypdvou

riANTEAEHI^N...),

Koxd

rdv

1984, aa.

NiKdXao

103-115.

KaPdoiXa",

131

MATEOYKAE NIKOE,
"'H

SiSaaKaXi'a

T O U NiKoXdou

Ka^daiXa

ytd

T O (juaTiipia Tn<;

'EKKXnaCaq", HPAKTIKA.. (See nANTEAEHMON..), 1984, a a . 1 1 7 - 1 3 1 .

NEAAAE, n.,
"EtaavcoYLKd

orrl

peX^rri

T O U dy^ou

NiKoXdou

KoPdaiXa",

nPAKTIKA.. (See RANTEAEHMDN..), 1984, a a . 6 7 - 8 6 .


NEAAAE, n. ( N E L L A S P . ) ,
"Essai s u r la Mere de Dieu
Messager

orthodoxe,

e t 1' h u m a n i s m e t h e o c e n t r i q u e " ,

Le

n . 5 1 (1970) 4 - 1 4 .

NEAAAE, n.,
NiKoXdou
KELMEVO,

KaPdaiXa,

'H EOMnTcop.

ECaaywYil, V E O E X X n v i K t i

TpEiq

dn65oari,

OEopnTOpLK^q 6PLXI'E<;.
aydXia,

un6 fl. NEAAA,

'AOfivaL, 1968.

NEAAAE, n.,
npoXEYdpEva
1968

E C Q Tfiv

('AvdTunov

Cabasilas,

Michael,

Theotokos,

92-93).

Michael

T O U KaPdoiXa,

'ABflvai,

830-857).

Maria,

La Vita

O'CARROLL,

Mary,

NiKoXdou

Tpq QHE, 12 (1968)

NERl, U . , - GALLO,

Nicolas

MEX^TTIV

in Cristo,

T o r i n o 1971.

C.S.Sp.,

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Inc., Wilmington

of

the

Blessed

Delaware,

1982,

Virgin
(Cf.pp.

132

riANTEAEHMQN B ' (HavaY. MriTponoXLTnq SeaoaXovCKTiQ),


nPAKTIKA

OEOAOriKOY

aoqxoTdTOu

KQL

TYNEAPIOY,

XoYtUTdTou

riATPOE HMQN NiKoXdou

KOI

E L Q TL|jf|v
dXciq

TOIC,

Ka3daLXa T O U Kai

K Q L pvilMnv
dvicoTdTOU

Tou
dai'ou

XanaETOU, 9 E o a a X o v L K n

1984.

riANTEAEHMflN B ' (navay. MtiTponoXi'TriQ 0EaaaXovCKnq),


"'AXXriXoYpacpfa S i d
elc,

dvoYpacpfiv NiKoXdou

T d ' A Y L o X d Y i o v " , HPAKTIKA.. ibid.

riANTEAEHI^N B '
"ECoriYTlTLKf)

TOU

rr\v

dY^ou

1984,

oa.

KaPdotXa

XapaEToO

11-21.

(ITavaY. MriTponoX CTHQ eEOoaXovCKriQ),

'OMLXIO

NiKoXdou

ini

T Q ^vdp,EL

KaPdaiXa

TOU EuvESpiou

XapaETOu",

flPAKTIKA..

npd<;

Tipi^v

ibid.

oo.

22-23.

riAnAAOnOYAOE, ANTQNIOE,
"NLKdXaoQ
(See

KaPdaiXaq:

(piXo|jdvayo<;

nENTEAEHMQN..), 1984,

oo.

K Q L (piXopdpTuq",

RPAKTIKA..

173-187.

RUBINI, M.,
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195-201.

SALAVILLE,

S.,

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129-167.

N i c o l a s C a b a s i l a s " , Echos

d'

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35

133

SALAVILLE,

S.,

"Brevis

notitia

spirituali

doctrina",

SALAVILLE,
Nicolas

de

Nicolao

Cabasila

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eiusque

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384-401.

S.,

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Explication

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SALAVILLE,

de

la

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1943.

S.,

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Byzantines,

liturgico

1 (1943)

d'

Etudes

5-57.

SEVCENKO, I . ,
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Cabasilas

Dumbarton

Oaks

Antizealot

Papers,

Discourse:

11 (1957)

Reinterpretation",

79-171.

ETOriANNOE, B A E I A E I O E ,
"'H

iXeuQepCa

KaTd

riANTEAEHh^N..),

STROTTMAN,
"La

1984,

D.,

Theotokos,

T 6 V NiKdXaov
aa.

KaPdaiXa",

HPAKTIKA..

(See

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T.,
Premices

des

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Irenikon,

27

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131ff.

EftTHPOnOYAOE, XAPAAAMTOE,
EOyapioTi'a
KQL

Koi

Q^OKJIQ

T 6 V NiKdXaov

nEpioSiKOU

KOTd T 6 V d y i o v

KaPdaiXov,

EKKAHEIA).

'ABfjvai,

Md^ipov
1974

TOV

'OpoXoYnTr\v

(dvdTunov

TOU

134

TONIOLO,

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Mariologia

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Vicenza 1955.

TEAMHE, A.,
Aa3i5

AiaundTou,

NLKdXoov

Kara

Adyoc;

KaPdaiXav

BapXadp

(BuCavTivd

KaC

*AKIV5UVOU

KEinEva

KOI

Cabasilas.

L'

MEX^TQI,

npoq
10),

QEOoaXovCKn, 1 9 7 3 .
VAFIADES,

J.,

L'

humanisme

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de

la personne

de

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Nicolas

dans

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Strasbourg 1963.

XPHETOY, n . ,
'0

rpHYdpioq

naXapdq

KaC

f[

BEoXoyi-'a

KOTd T d v l A ' a t a v o , e E a a a X o v i K n ,

E L Q Tf|v

0EaoaXoviKnv

1959.

lUEYTOrKAE, B A E I A E I O E ,
"'0

NLKdXaoQ

nPAKTIKA..

(See

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flTov

i^auyaoTt^q,

nANTEAEHI^N...), 1 9 8 4 , aa.

fi

dvTi-TiauYaaTii<;;",

203-221.

WENGER, A . ,
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Cabasilas",
d'

Etudes

Etudes

Mariales,

Mariales,

Paris,

Bulletin
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de
49-52.

la

Societe