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Inspection Practices for Piping System Components

1 Scope
This recommended practice (RP) supplements API 570 y pro!iding piping inspectors
"ith information that can
impro!e s#ill and increase asic #no"ledge and practices$ This RP descries inspection
practices for piping% tuing%
!al!es (other than control !al!es)% and &ttings used in petroleum re&neries and
chemical plants$ Common piping
components% !al!e types% pipe 'oining methods% inspection planning processes%
inspection inter!als and techni(ues%
and types of records are descried to aid the inspector in ful&lling their role
implementing API 570$ This pulication
does not co!er inspection of specialty items% including instrumentation and control
2 Normative References
The follo"ing referenced documents are indispensale for the application of this
document$ )or dated references%
only the edition cited applies$ )or undated references% the latest edition of the
referenced document (including any
amendments) applies$
API 570% Piping Inspection Code: Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Rerating of In-
service Piping Systems
API Recommended Practice 57*% Damage Mechanisms Afecting i!ed "#$ipment in the
Re%ning Ind$stry
API Recommended Practice 577% &elding Inspection and Metall$rgy
API Recommended Practice 57+% Material 'eri%cation Program for (e) and "!isting
Alloy Piping Systems
API 57,-*.AS/0 ))S-* *% itness-or-Service
API Recommended Practice 5+0% Ris*-+ased Inspection
API Recommended Practice 5+*% Ris*-+ased Inspection ,echnology
API Speci&cation 51% Speci%cation for -ine Pipe
API Standard 5,2% Chec* 'alves: langed, -$g, &afer and +$tt-)elding
API Standard 5,+% 'alve Inspection and ,esting
API Standard 5,,% Metal Pl$g 'alves.langed, ,hreaded and &elding "nds
API Standard 300% Steel /ate 'alves.langed and +$tt-)elding "nds, +olted +onnets
API Standard 304% Steel /ate, /lo0e and Chec* 'alves for Si1es D( 233 and Smaller for
the Petrole$m and (at$ral
/as Ind$stries
API Standard 305% Corrosion-resistant, +olted +onnet /ate 'alves.langed and +$tt-
)elding "nds
API Standard 30+% Metal +all 'alves6langed, ,hreaded and &elding "nds
API Standard 30,% +$tter4y 'alves: Do$0le langed, -$g- and &afer-,ype
API Recommended Practice 35*% Cathodic Protection of A0ovegro$nd Petrole$m
Storage ,an*s
API Recommended Practice 75*% Safe 5peration of 6ydro4$oric Acid Al*ylation 7nits
API Recommended Practice ,54-7% Design, Materials, a0rication, 5peration, and
Inspection /$idelines for
Corrosion Control in 6ydroprocessing Reactor "8$ent Air Cooler 9R"AC: Systems
API Recommended Practice ,53% Refractory Installation ;$ality Control /$idelines.
Inspection and ,esting
Monolithic Refractory -inings and Materials
API Recommended Practice ,2*% Steels for 6ydrogen Service at "levated ,emperat$res
and Press$res in Petrole$m
Re%neries and Petrochemical Plants
* AS/0 International% 5 Par# A!enue% 8e" 9or#% 8e" 9or# *00*3% """$asme$org$
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4 API R0C://08;0; PRACTIC0 572
API Recommended Practice ,25% Avoiding "nvironmental Crac*ing in Amine 7nits
API Pulication 44*7A% /$idelines for &or* in Inert Con%ned Spaces in the Petrole$m
and Petrochemical Ind$stry
AS/0 7*$40$* 4% Pipe ,hreads, /eneral P$rpose 9Inch:
AS/0 7*3$40% Metallic /as*ets for Pipe langes.Ring-<oint, Spiral-&o$nd, and
AS/0 7*3$45% +$tt)elding "nds
AS/0 7*3$52% 'alves.langed, ,hreaded, and &elding "nd
AS/0 7*3$27% -arge Diameter Steel langes
AS/0 7*3$5% Pipe langes and langed ittings (PS 2=> ,hro$gh (PS >? Metric=Inch
AS/0 75*$5% Process Piping
AS/0 75*<% Man$al for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines
AS/0 753$*0/% &elded and Seamless &ro$ght Steel Pipe
AS/0 753$*,/% Stainless Steel Pipe
AS/0 +oiler and Press$re 'essel Code 9+P'C)% Section ': (ondestr$ctive "!amination
AS/0 +oiler and Press$re 'essel Code 9+P'C)% Section ': (ondestr$ctive "!amination@
Article 22: Aco$stic
"mission "!amination of i0er Reinforced Plastic 'essels
AS/0 RTP-*% Reinforced ,hermoset Plastic Corrosion Resistant "#$ipment
AST/ A55 5% Standard Speci%cation for Pipe, Steel, +lac* and 6ot-Dipped, Ainc-Coated,
&elded and Seamless
AST/ A*03% Standard Speci%cation for Seamless Car0on Steel Pipe for 6igh-
,emperat$re Service
AST/ A550% Standard Speci%cation for /eneral Re#$irements for Speciali1ed Car0on
and Alloy Steel Pipe
AST/ 7++% Standard Speci%cation for Seamless Copper &ater ,$0e
AST/ ;45+5% Standard ,est Method for Indentation 6ardness of Rigid Plastics +y
Means of a +arcol Impressor
AST/ 0***+% Standard Practice for Aco$stic "mission "!amination of Reinforced
,hermosetting Resin Pipe 9R,RP:
AST/ <57% Standard ,est Method for ield Meas$rement of Soil Resistivity 7sing the
&enner o$r-"lectrode Method
/TI Pro'ect *4,-,, 2% Self-help /$ide for In-service Inspection of RP "#$ipment and
/TI Pro'ect *30-02% /$ide for Design, Man$fact$re, Installation B 5peration of RP
langes and /as*ets
8AC0 RP 0*3, 5% Control of "!ternal Corrosion on 7ndergro$nd or S$0merged Metallic
Piping Systems
8AC0 RP 0472% Standard Recommended Practice 6igh-'oltage "lectrical Inspection of
Pipeline Coatings
8AC0 Pulication 52*0*% Re%nery InCection and Process Mi!ing Points
:1) 3% Recommended /$idelines for (D, of /RP Pipe Systems and ,an*s
Title 4, Code of )ederal Regulatiosn (CR) Part *,*0$**, 7% Process Safety
Management of 6ighly 6a1ardo$s
4 AS/0 International% 5 Par# A!enue% 8e" 9or#% 8e" 9or# *00*3-5,,0% """$asme$org$
5 AST/ International% *00 7arr =aror ;ri!e% >est Conshohoc#en% Pennsyl!ania *,24+%
2 /aterials Technology Institute% *4*5 )ern Ridge Par#"ay% Suite 403% St$ 1ouis% /issouri 35*2*-
2205% """$mti-lin#$org$
5 8AC0 International (formerly the 8ational Association of Corrosion 0ngineers)% *220 South
Cree# ;ri!e% =ouston% Te?as
774*+-+520% """$nace$org$
3 8or"egian :il Industry Association% P$:$ 7o? +035% 203+ Sta!anger% 8or"ay% """$olf$no$
7 The Code of ederal Reg$lations is a!ailale from the @$S$ <o!ernment Printing :Ace%
>ashington% ;C 40204$
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3 Terms, Defnitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations
3.1 Terms and Defnitions
)or the purposes of this document% the follo"ing de&nitions apply$
A physical change in any component that has design implications aBecting the
pressure-containing capaility or
Ce?iility of a piping system eyond the scope of its design$
8:T0 The follo"ing are not considered alterationsD comparale or duplicate replacementE the
addition of any reinforced ranch
connection e(ual to or less than the siFe of e?isting reinforced ranch connectionsE and the
addition of ranch connections not
re(uiring reinforcement$
ASM !31.3
Are!iation for AS/0 75*$5% Process Piping% pulished y AS/0 International$
A metal plate onded onto a sustrate metal under high pressure and temperature
"hose properties are etter suited
to resist damage from the process than the sustrate metal$
condition monitorin" locations
;esignated areas on piping systems "here periodic e?aminations are conducted$
Pre!iously% they "ere normally
referred to as Gthic#ness monitoring locations (T/1s)$H
corrosion allo'ance
Additional material thic#ness added to allo" for material loss during the design life of
the component$
corrosion specialist
A person% acceptale to the o"ner.user% "ho has #no"ledge and e?perience in
corrosion damage mechanisms%
metallurgy% materials selection% and corrosion monitoring techni(ues$
corrosion *nder ins*lation
Corrosion under insulation% including SCC under insulation$
Components of a piping system that normally ha!e no signi&cant Co"$
8:T0 ;ead-leg locations includeD lan#ed ranches% lines "ith normally closed loc# !al!es% lines
"hich ha!e one end
lan#ed% pressuriFed dummy support legs% stagnant control !al!e ypass piping% spare pump
piping% le!el ridles% relief !al!e inlet
and outlet header piping% pump trim ypass lines% high point !ents% sample points% drains%
leeders% and instrument connections$
An imperfection of a type or magnitude e?ceeding the acceptale criteria$
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2 API R0C://08;0; PRACTIC0 572
desi"n temperat*re
The temperature at "hich% under the coincident pressure% the greatest thic#ness or
highest rating of a piping system
component is re(uired$
8:T0 ;esign temperature is e(ui!alent to the design temperature% as de&ned in AS/0 75*$5 and
other code sections% and is
su'ect to the same rules relating to allo"ances for !ariations of pressure or temperature or
oth$ ;iBerent components in the
same piping system or circuit can ha!e diBerent design temperatures$ In estalishing this
temperature% consideration should e
gi!en to process Cuid temperatures% amient temperatures% heating.cooling media temperatures%
and insulation$
e1amination point
An area de&ned y a circle ha!ing a diameter not greater than 4 in$ (50 mm) for a line
diameter not e?ceeding *0 in$
(450 mm)% or not greater than 5 in$ (75 mm) for larger lines$
)la"s or other discontinuities noted during inspection that may e su'ect to
acceptance criteria during an
engineering and inspection analysis$
in2ection points
1ocations "here relati!ely small (uantities of materials are in'ected into process
streams to control chemistry or other
process !ariales$
8:T0 In'ection points do not include the locations "here t"o process streams 'oin (mi?ing tees)$
in service
Piping systems that ha!e een placed in operation as opposed to ne" construction
prior to eing placed in ser!ice$
8:T0 A piping system not in operation due to an outage is still considered an in-ser!ice piping
inspection plan
A strategy de&ning ho" and "hen a piping system or piping circuit "ill e inspected%
repaired% and.or maintained$
AuthoriFed piping inspector$
inte"rity operatin" envelope
integrity operating "indo"
0stalished limits for process !ariales that can aBect the integrity of the piping
system if the process operation
de!iates from the estalished limits for a predetermined amount of time$
A legally constituted go!ernment administration that can adopt rules relating to piping
A nonmetallic or metallic material% installed on the interior of pipe% "hose properties
are etter suited to resist damage
from the process than the sustrate material$
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minim*m alert t3ic4ness
A thic#ness greater than the minimum re(uired thic#ness that pro!ides for early
"arning from "hich the future ser!ice
life of the piping is managed through further inspection and remaining life assessment$
minim*m re5*ired t3ic4ness
The minimum allo"ed thic#ness at a C/1$ It is the larger of the pressure design
thic#ness or the structural minimum
thic#ness at a C/1$ It does not include thic#ness for corrosion allo"ance or mill
mi1in" tees
A piping component that comines t"o process streams of diBering composition and.or
A condition "here piping contains any amount of process Cuid$
An o"ner or user of piping systems "ho e?ercises control o!er the operation%
engineering% inspection% repair%
alteration% testing% and rerating of those piping systems$
A pressure-tight cylinder used to con!ey a Cuid or to transmit a Cuid pressure%
ordinarily designated GpipeH in
applicale material speci&cations$
8:T0 /aterials designated GtueH or GtuingH in the speci&cations are treated as pipe "hen
intended for pressure ser!ice$
pipin" circ*it
A piping circuit is a section of piping of "hich all points are e?posed to an en!ironment
of similar corrosi!ity and "hich
is of similar design conditions and construction material$
pipin" en"ineer
:ne or more persons or organiFations acceptale to the o"ner.user "ho are
#no"ledgeale and e?perienced in the
engineering disciplines associated "ith e!aluating mechanical and material
characteristics "hich aBect the integrity
and reliaility of piping components and systems$
8:T0 The piping engineer% y consulting "ith appropriate specialists% should e regarded as a
composite of all entities
necessary to properly address a technical re(uirement$
pipin" system
An assemly of interconnected piping circuits% su'ect to the same set or sets of design
conditions% used to con!ey%
distriute% mi?% separate% discharge% meter% control% or snu Cuid Co"s$
8:T0 Piping system also includes pipe-supporting elements% ut does not include support
structures% such as uilding frames%
ents% and foundations$
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3 API R0C://08;0; PRACTIC0 572
press*re desi"n t3ic4ness
/inimum pipe "all thic#ness needed to hold design pressure at the design temperature
as determined using the
rating code formula$
8:T0 Pressure design thic#ness does not include thic#ness for structural loads% corrosion
allo"ance or mill tolerances$
A repair is the "or# necessary to restore a piping system to a condition suitale for safe
operation at the design
A change in either or oth the design temperature or the ma?imum allo"ale "or#ing
pressure of a piping system$
8:T0 A rerating may consist of an increase% decrease% or a comination$ ;erating elo" original
design conditions is a means
to pro!ide increased corrosion allo"ance$
ris4.based inspection
A ris# assessment and management process that is focused on inspection planning for
loss of containment of
pressuriFed e(uipment in processing facilities% due to material deterioration$
8:T0 These ris#s are managed primarily through inspection in order to inCuence the proaility
of failure$
small.bore pipin"
Pipe or pipe components that are less than or e(ual to 8PS 4$
3.1.3# interface
S6A interface
An area "here increased e?ternal corrosion can occur on partially uried pipe and
"here uried piping egins to
e?tend ao!e ground$
8:T0 The Fone of the corrosion "ill !ary depending on factors such as moisture% o?ygen content
of the soil and the operating
temperature$ The Fone generally is considered to e from *4 in$ (50 cm) elo" to 3 in$ (*5 cm)
ao!e the soil surface$ Pipe running
parallel "ith the soil surface that contacts the soil is included$
A section of piping encompassed y Canges or other connecting &ttings% such as
strip linin"
Strips of metal plates or sheets that are "elded to the inside of the pipe "all$
8:T0 8ormally% the strips are of a more corrosion-resistant or erosion-resistant alloy than the
pipe "all and pro!ide additional
corrosion.erosion resistance$
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str*ct*ral minim*m t3ic4ness
/inimum thic#ness "ithout corrosion allo"ance% ased on structural and other
8:T0 The thic#ness is either determined from a standard chart or engineering calculations$ It
does not include thic#ness for
corrosion allo"ance or mill tolerances$
tell.tale 3oles
Small pilot holes drilled in the pipe or component "all using speci&ed and controlled
patterns and depths to act as an
early detection and safeguard against ruptures resulting from internal corrosion%
erosion and erosion-corrosion$
temper embrittlement
The reduction in toughness due to a metallurgical change that can occur in some lo"-
alloy steels% e$g$ 4 *.2 Cr-*/o%
as a result of long term e?posure in the temperature range of aout 350 I) to **00 I)
(525 IC to 5,5 IC)$
Procedures used to determine material hardness% strength% and notch toughness$
0JA/P10 Pressure testing% "hether performed hydrostatically% pneumatically or a
comination hydrostatic.
pneumatic% or mechanical testing$
8:T0 Testing does not refer to 8;0 using techni(ues such as PT% /T% etc$
'eld overlay
A lining applied y "elding of a metal to the surface$
8:T0 The &ller metal typically has etter corrosion and.or erosion resistance to the en!ironment
than the underlying metal$
3.2 Acronyms and Abbreviations
)or the purposes of this document% the follo"ing acronyms and are!iations apply$
AC)/ alternating current &eld measurement
A0 acoustic emission e?amination techni(ue
A@T automated ultrasonic e?amination techni(ue
C/1 condition monitoring location
C@I corrosion under insulation
;8 nominal diameter (used in SI system to descrie pipe siFe)
0/AT electromagnetic acoustic transducer
0R> electric resistance "elded
0T eddy current e?amination techni(ue
)CC Cuid catalytic crac#ing
)RP &er reinforced plastic
=IC hydrogen induced crac#ing
I; inside diameter
IP initial pulse
1C; li(uid crystal displays
10; light emitting diodes
/T magnetic particle e?amination techni(ue
/> micro"a!e e?amination techni(ue