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AN-573

APPLICATION NOTE
One Technology Way P.O. Box 9106 Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. Tel: 781.329.4700 Fax: 781.461.3113 www.analog.com

OP07 Is Still Evolving
by Reza Moghimi

Rev. B | Page 1 of 8
INTRODUCTION
The OP07 has been tinkered with over the years, and versions of it
are still available in plastic packages.
This application note highlights some of the major features that
the OP7x7 brings into new designs. A number of applications
using these features are presented.
SINGLE-SUPPLY OPERATION
One of the biggest problems with the part in todays environment is
that the OP07 requires dual supplies. This family of amplifiers from
Analog Devices, Inc., addresses this problem while still giving a
close replica of the original specifications. The OP777 single,
OP727 dual, and OP747 quad operational amplifiers allow supplies
from 15 V down to 1.35 V with split rails and from +30 V down
to +2.7 V with single rail operation. The OP777/OP727/OP747
data sheet characterizes the parts with rails of +5 V and 15 V.
The OP7x7 familys true single-supply capability enables designers
to operate down to the negative supply or ground in both single-
and dual-supply applications.
Figure 1 shows that the gain of the instrumentation amplifier
(made up of U3 and U4) is set for 100. The AD589 establishes
1.235 V, while the U1 amplifier servos the bridge and maintains the
voltage across the parallel combination of 2.55 M and 6.19 k
to generate a 200 A current source. This current splits evenly,
flows into both halves of the bridge, eventually through RTD, and
establishes an output voltage based upon its value.



R4
26.7k
R12
1M
R14
10.1k
R15
1M
R9
6.19k
R8
2.55M
R7
100
R2
200
RTD
100
R4
10.1k
R5
26.7k
5V
AD589
D1 N
3
2
1
V
OUT
U3
V+
V
U4
U1
R3
37.4k
1/4
OP747
1/4
OP747
1/4
OP747
V1
V2 GAIN = 100 (V2 V1)
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
0
1

Figure 1. Low Power Single-Supply RTD Amplifier

AN-573 APPLICATION NOTE

Rev. B | Page 2 of 8
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ...................................................................................... 1
Single-Supply Operation .................................................................. 1
Revision History ............................................................................... 2
Much Lower Supply Currents ......................................................... 4
Absence of Clamping Diodes at the Inputs ................................... 5
Rail-to-Rail Output ...........................................................................6
Negative Rail Input ............................................................................6
3 V Over the Input ............................................................................7
Design Reminders for Achieving High Performances .................7


REVISION HISTORY
3/10Rev. A to Rev. B
Changes to Format ............................................................. Universal
Changes to Introduction Section and Single-Supply Operation
Section ................................................................................................ 1
Changes to Figure 2 and Figure 4 ................................................... 3
Changes to Much Lower Supply Currents Section ...................... 4
Changes to Absence of Clamping Diodes at the Inputs Section
and Figure 10 ..................................................................................... 5
Changes to Figure 14 and Figure 16 ............................................... 6
Changes to 3 V Over the Input Section ......................................... 7

6/03Rev. 0 to Rev. A

11/02Revision 0: Initial Version


APPLICATION NOTE AN-573

Rev. B | Page 3 of 8
R23
10k
3
2
1
R24
100k
R20
1.21M
R21
182k
R25
220
R26
100
R27
100k
C2
220pF
R22
1k
TRIM
Q1
2N1711
GND
V
OUT
V
IN
5
6
R28
100k
V
IN
0V TO 3V
OP777
HP5082-2800
3
1 2
D2
TWIST
PAIR
T1
12V TO
30V
4
REF-02A/D
V+
V
R29
100
2
4mA TO 20mA
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
0
2

Figure 2. Self-Powered 4 mA to 20 mA Current Loop Transmitter
3
2
C7
0.1F
GND
6
V+
V
1/4
OP747
R1 R1 (1 + )
+V
S
REF192
+V
S
+V
S
R91
10.1k
1
R82
10.1k
V
OUT
R85
10k
R83
1M
4
2
R84
1M
R1 (1 + ) R1
R2
1/4
OP747
1/4
OP747
AR1 V
REF
2R2
+ 2.5V V
OUT
=
A = 300
GND
OUTPUT
V
S
6
REF192
4
2
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
0
3
OUTPUT
V
S

Figure 3. Single-Supply Linear Response Bridge

As shown in Figure 2, the circuit floats up from the single-supply
(12 V to 30 V) return. It consumes only 1.5 mA, leaving 2.5 mA
available to the user for powering other signal conditioning
circuitry.
The OP7x7 is very useful in many bridge applications. Figure 3
shows a single-supply bridge circuit whose output is linearly
proportional to the fractional deviation () of the bridge.
Note that
R
R
=
To process ac signals in single-supply systems, it is often best
to use a false-ground biasing scheme. In Figure 4, this is done by
Amplifier A3. The user should replace the 2.67 k Twin-T
section with a 3.16 k resistor to reject 50 Hz. Sensitivity is due to
the relative matching of the capacitors and resistors in the Twin-T
section. Use Mylar (5%) and 1% resistors for satisfactory results.
3
2
V+
V
1/4
OP747
+3V
499
1
V
OUT
100k
1k
V
IN
100k
2.67k
2.67k
1F
2F 1.33k
2.67k
2.67k
0.01F
1F
A2
A1
A3
+3V
1M
1F
1F
1M
1k
1/4
OP747
1/4
OP747
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
0
4

Figure 4. 3 V Single-Supply 50 Hz/60 Hz Active Notch Filter with False Ground





AN-573 APPLICATION NOTE

Rev. B | Page 4 of 8
MUCH LOWER SUPPLY CURRENTS
The OP07 has a quiescent current that is higher than desired in
todays portable applications. The quiescent current of the OP777
in-amp is less than 350 A, while the OP07 requires 4 mA for
15 V operation. In terms of power consumption, the OP777
allows the part to be designed into many portable applications.
U3
3
2 U4
V+
V
1/2
OP727
R13
10.1k
1
R14
10.1k
V
OUT
R15
1M
R12
1M
V2
V1
5V
1/2
OP727
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
0
5

Figure 5. Single-Supply Micropower In-Amp
The OP727 can be used to build an in-amp with two op amps.
A single-supply in-amp using one OP727 amplifier is shown in
Figure 5. For true difference, R14/R12 = R15/R13. The formula
for the CMRR of the circuit at dc is
CMRR = 20 log(100/(1 (R15 R14)/(R13 R12))
It is common to specify the accuracy of the resistor network in
terms of resistor-to-resistor percentage mismatch. The CMRR
equation can be rewritten to reflect this.
CMRR = 20 log(10000/% mismatch)
The key to high CMRR is a network of resistors that is well matched
from the perspective of both resistive ratio and relative drift. The
absolute value of the resistors and their absolute drift are of no
consequence; matching is the key. CMRR is 100 dB with a 0.1%
mismatched resistor network. To maximize CMRR, one of the
resistors, such as R12, should be trimmed. Tighter matching of
two op amps in one package (OP727) offers a significant boost
in performance over the triple op amp configuration.
For this circuit, VO = 100(V2 V1) for 0.02 mV (V1 V2)
290 mV, 2 mV VOUT 29 V.
Due to its great dc accuracy and specification, the OP747 can be
used to create a multiple output tracking voltage reference from
a single source, as shown in Figure 6.
3
2
TEMP
GND
V
OUT
V
IN
3
6
V+
V
1/4
OP747
+V
S AD680AD
+15V
1
7.5V
4
2
R48
10k
R49
10k
1 F 10k
1/4
OP747
10k
1/4
OP747
10k
10k
1/4
OP747
C8
1F
10V
5V
2.5V
22k
IN4002
2F
R50
10k
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
0
6

Figure 6. Multiple Output Tracking Voltage Reference
Figure 7 shows an example of a 5 V single-supply current monitor
that can be incorporated into the design of a voltage regulator
with foldback current limiting or a high current power supply
with crowbar protection. The design capitalizes on the common-
mode range of the OP777 that extends to ground. Current is
monitored in the power supply return where a 0.1 shunt resistor,
RSENSE, creates a very small voltage drop. The voltage at the inverting
terminal becomes equal to the voltage at the noninverting terminal
through the feedback of Q1, which is a 2N2222A or equivalent
NPN transistor. This makes the voltage drop across R3 equal to
the voltage drop across RSENSE. Therefore, the current through Q1
becomes directly proportional to the current through RSENSE, and
the output voltage is given by
VOUT = 5 V (R2/R3) RSENSE IL)
The voltage drop across R2 increases when IL increases; therefore,
VOUT decreases when a higher supply current is sensed. For the
element values shown, VOUT is 2.5 V for a return current of 1 A.
3
2
U1
V
RETURN TO
GROUND
OP777
V
OUT
Q1
R3
100
R
SENSE
0.1 V+
5V
R2
2.49k
2N2222A/ZTX
1
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
0
7

Figure 7. Low-Side Current Sensing Circuit







APPLICATION NOTE AN-573

Rev. B | Page 5 of 8
Figure 8 shows the OP777 configured as a simple summing
amplifier. The output is the sum of V1 and V2.
3
2
V
10k
V
OUT
OP777
V1
V+
+15V
1
3.3k
10k
V2
15V
10k
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
0
8

Figure 8. Summing Amplifier
ABSENCE OF CLAMPING DIODES AT THE INPUTS
The large differential voltage capability allows for operation of
the parts in both rectifier circuits and precision comparator
applications. The need for external clamping diodes (on-board
in the OP07) is eliminated; such diodes are often needed on
precision op amps and are the bane of many comparator designs.
The simple oscillator shown in Figure 9 creates a square wave
output of VS at 1 kHz for the values shown. Other oscillation
frequencies can be derived by using
f = 1/(2R3 C10 ln ((R61 + R60)/R61)
3
2
V
V
OUT
OP777
V+
1
V
S
R61
100k
R3
68k
C10
0.01F
+V
S
R60
100k
V
OUT
= (V
S
) @ 1kHz
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
0
9

Figure 9. Free-Running Square Wave Amplifier
The programmable window comparator is capable of 12-bit
accuracy. DAC8222 is used in the voltage for setting the upper
and lower thresholds.
AGND
24
1
3
2
V+
1/2
OP727
1
V
1/2
OP727
DB0
21
17
DB1
16
DB2
15
DB3
14
DB4
13
DB5
12
DB6
11
DB7
10
DB8
9
DB9
8
DB10
7
DB11
6
LDAC
19
WR
20
V
REFA
4
V
REFB
22
DACA
18
DGND
5
I
OUTA
I
OUTB
R
FBA
R
FBB
2
23
TRIM
GND
V
OUT
V
IN
ADR01
4
V
DD
+15V
R67
10k
R68
10k
V
IN
10k
10k
TTL OUT
1N4148
1N4148
+5V
1k
2N2222A/ZTX
DAC8222
3
15V
DACB
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
1
0

Figure 10. Programmable High Resolution Window Comparator
An OP777 is used to build a precision threshold detector. In this
circuit, when VIN < VTH, the amplifier swings negative, reverse
biasing the diode. If RL = infinite, VOUT = VTH. When VIN VTH,
the feedback occurs and VOUT = VTH + (VIN VTH)(1 + RF/RS).
C is selected to make the loop respond in a smoother fashion.
V
OP777
V+
15V
R
F
100k
C
+15V
2k
R
S
1k
V
IN
V
TH
1N4148
1+
R
F
R
S
V
OUT
= V
TH
+ (V
IN
V
TH
)
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
1
1

Figure 11. Precision Threshold Detector/Amplifier
AN-573 APPLICATION NOTE

Rev. B | Page 6 of 8
For VIN > 0 V and <2 kHz, there is no current flow through the
feedback resistors, and the output voltage tracks the input. For
VIN < 0 V, the output of the first amplifier goes to 0 V (that is, VS),
which configures the second amplifier in inverting follower mode.
The output is then a full-wave rectified version of the input signal.
As can be seen from the schematic shown in Figure 12, a half-wave
rectified version of the signal is also available at the output of
the first amplifier.
3
2
1/2
OP727
1
2V p-p
V
1/2
OP727
V+
5V
100k 100k
V
OUT
(HALF-WAVE RECTIFIED)
V
OUT
(FULL-WAVE
RECTIFIED)
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
1
2

Figure 12. Single-Supply Half-Wave and Full-Wave Rectifier
RAIL-TO-RAIL OUTPUT
With light loads, the output can swing to within 1 mV of both
supply rails, and the parts are stable in a voltage follower
configuration. Short-circuit protection on the output protects
the devices up to 30 mA with split 15 V supplies (10 mA with
a single 5 V supply).
NEGATIVE RAIL INPUT
The amplifiers respond to signals as low as 1 mV above ground
in a single-supply arrangement. The true single-supply capability
of the OP7x7 family enables designers to operate down to the
negative supply or ground in both single- and dual-supply
applications.
The high gain and low TCVOS of the OP727 ensure accurate
operation with microvolt input signals (see Figure 13). In this
circuit, the input always appears as a common-mode signal to
the op amps. The CMRR of the OP727 exceeds 120 dB, yielding
an error of less than 2 ppm.
3
2
V
1/2
OP727
V+
1
V
IN
1/2
OP727
1k
+15V
30pF
D3
1N4148
2k
15V
0V < V
OUT
< 10V
D3
1N4148
1k
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
1
3

Figure 13. Precision Absolute Value Amplifier
A single-supply current source is shown in Figure 14. Large resistors
are used to maintain micropower operation. Output current can be
adjusted by changing the R10 resistor. Compliance voltage is
|VL| |VSAT| |VS|; IOUT = R2/(R8 R10) VS;
IOUT = 1 mA to 11 mA; R2 = R10 + R7
U3
V
OP777
V+
1
2.7V TO 30V
R9
100k
R6
100k
2
3
R
LOAD
R10
2.7k
R8
100k
C2
10pF
C1
10pF
R7
97.3k
I
OUT
= 1mA TO 11mA
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
1
4

Figure 14. Single-Supply Current Source
When in single-supply applications, driving motors or actuators
in two directions is often accomplished using an H-bridge (see
Figure 15). This driver is capable of driving loads from 0 V to 5 V
in both directions. To drive inductive loads in both directions, be
sure to add diode clamps to protect the bridge from inductive
kickback.
U3
V
1/2
OP727
V+
1
R38
10k
2
3
R39
5k
1.67V
5V
0V < V
IN
< 2.5V
U3
1/2
OP727
R40
10k
R37
10k
V
OUT
Q3
2N2222A/ZTX
Q4
2N2222A/ZTX
Q6
2N2907
Q5
2N2907
5V
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
1
5

Figure 15. H Bridge
The current source shown in Figure 16 supplies both positive
and negative current into grounded load. Note that
ZOUT = R2B ((R2A/R1) + 1)/((R2B + R2A)/R1) R2/R5
and, for ZOUT to be infinite, (R2A + R2B)/R1 = R2/R5.
U1
V
OP777
V+
V
IN
R1
2k
R2
2k
2
3
R2 = R2A+R2B
R2B
200
R5
2k
R2A
1.8k
V
CC
V
EE
6
R
LOAD
7
4
I
OUT
= V
IN
/200
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
1
6

Figure 16. Bilateral Current Source
APPLICATION NOTE AN-573

Rev. B | Page 7 of 8
3 V OVER THE INPUT
The PNP input stages are protected with 500 current-limiting
resistors, allowing input voltages up to 3 V higher than either rail
without causing damage or phase reversals. The phase reversal
protection operates for conditions where either one or both inputs
are forced beyond their input common-mode voltage range.
TIME (400s/DIV)
V
O
L
T
A
G
E

(
5
V
/
D
I
V
)
OUTPUT
INPUT
V
S
= 15V
A
V
= 1
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
1
7

Figure 17. No Phase Inversion
OP777/
OP727/
OP747
V p-p = 32V
30V
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
1
8

Figure 18. Unity-Gain Follower
V
O
L
T
A
G
E

(
5
V
/
D
I
V
)
V
IN
V
OUT
TIME (400s/DIV)
V
S
= 15V
A
V
= 1
0
2
3
8
0
-
0
1
9

Figure 19. Input Voltage Can Exceed the Supply Voltage Without Damage
The dynamic performance and noise characteristics of the devices
are similar whether they are being used with single or dual supplies.
The slew rate with a 2 k load is 200 mV/s, and the gain band-
width product is 700 kHz. Peak-to-peak voltage noise from 0.1 Hz
to 10 Hz is 0.4 V, and the voltage noise density at 1 kHz is
15 nVHz.
The gain characteristics, of course, are rather different at differing
rails. The inputs have a maximum, single temperature offset of
100 V with an input offset current of 2 nA and input bias
current of only 10 nA maximum. With a single 5 V rail, the
CMRR is typically 110 dB, and the large signal voltage gain is
typically 500 V/mV with a 10 k load. With 15 V rails, the
CMRR increases, not surprisingly, by 10 dB to 120 dB, and the
large signal voltage gain increases to 2500 V/mV.
For designs operating at 15 V, the OP777 is a low noise precision
amplifier available in a tiny, 8-lead MSOP package. The OP777 is
also available in an 8-lead SOIC surface-mount package.
This family is extremely useful in instrumentation, for remote
sensor acquisition, and in precision filters. The high voltage range
allows the use of the parts for single-supply current sourcing
and large range instrumentation amplifiers. Both single-supply
and dual-supply linear response bridges can also be built. The
parts are ideal for use in low-side current monitors in power
supply control circuits because the common-mode range extends
to ground in the single-supply configuration.
DESIGN REMINDERS FOR ACHIEVING HIGH
PERFORMANCES
As with any application, a good ground plane is essential to
achieve optimum performance. This can significantly reduce
the undesirable effects of ground loops and I R losses by
providing a low impedance reference point. Best results are
obtained with a multilayer board design with one layer
assigned to the ground plane.
To minimize high frequency interference and prevent low
frequency ground loops, shield grounding techniques are
required when sensors are used. The cable shielding system
should include the cable end connectors.
Switching power supplies with high output noise is normally used
in many systems. This noise generally extends over a broad band
of frequencies and occurs as both conducted and radiated noise,
and unwanted electric and magnetic fields. The voltage output
noise of switching supplies is short-duration voltage transients
or spikes that contain frequency components easily extending
to 100 MHz or more. Although specifying switching supplies in
terms of rms noise is a common vendor practice, users should
also specify the peak (or peak-to-peak) amplitudes of the switching
spikes with the output loading of the individual system. Capacitors,
inductors, ferrite beads, and resistors are used in filters for noise
reduction. Linear post regulation can also be done and separates
the power supply circuit from sensitive analog circuits. Analog
Devices manufactures many anyCAP low dropout linear
regulators. Examples of these devices are the ADP3300 to
ADP3310 and ADP3335 to ADP3339 for supply voltages less
than 12 V.



AN-573 APPLICATION NOTE

Rev. B | Page 8 of 8
Capacitors are probably the single most important filter component
for switchers. There are generally three classes of capacitors useful
in filters in the 10 kHz to 100 MHz frequency range suitable for
switchers. Capacitors are broadly distinguished by their generic
dielectric types: electrolytic, film, and ceramic. Background and
tutorial information on capacitors can be found in the Walter G.
Jung, Richard Marsh, Picking Capacitors, Part 1 and Part 2, AUDIO
(February, March 1980) article and many vendor catalogs.
Use short leads or leadless components to minimize lead
inductance. This minimizes the tendency to add excessive ESL
and/or ESR. Surface-mount packages are preferred. Use a large
area ground plane for minimum impedance. Note how components
behave over frequency, current, and temperature variations.
Make use of vendor component models for the simulation of proto-
type designs, and make sure that lab measurements correspond
reasonably with the simulation. SPICE modeling is a powerful
tool for predicting the performance of analog circuits. Analog
Devices provides macro models for most of its ICs. SPICE models
can be downloaded on the OP777 product page.
Chip capacitors should be used for supply bypassing, with one
end of the capacitor connected to the ground plane and the other
end connected within inch of each power pin. An additional
large tantalum electrolytic capacitor (4.7 F to 10 F) should be
connected in parallel. This capacitor does not need to be placed
as close to the supply pins because it provides current for fast
large signal changes at the output of the device.
Because models omit many real-life effects and no model can
simulate all of the parasitic effects of discrete components and
PCB traces, build/prove prototypes before they go into production.
To ensure successful prototyping, always use a ground plane for
precision or high frequency circuits. Minimize parasitic resistance,
capacitance, and inductance. If sockets are required, use pin sockets
(cage jacks). Pay equal attention to signal routing, component
placement, grounding, and decoupling in both the prototype and
the final design. Popular prototyping techniques include Freehand
dead-bug using point-to-point wiring and solder-mount, milled
PCB from CAD layout, multilayer boards that are double-sided
with additional point-to-point wiring.
Use short and wide PCB tracks to decrease voltage drops and
minimize inductance. Make track widths at least 200 mils for
every inch of track length for lowest DCR and use 1 ounce or
2 ounce copper PCB traces to further reduce IR drops and
inductance.
Be careful not to exceed the maximum junction temperature or
the maximum power dissipation rating of an amplifier. When a
capacitive load connects to the output of the amplifier, include
the power dissipation caused by the rms ac current delivered to
the load in the calculation.




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AN02380-0-3/10(B)