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DJS Notes

What is LIBERALISM?
An ECONOMIC argument for capitalism.
A political ideology emphasizing civil and political rights of individuals.
A progressive force liberating individual desires from constraints of the traditional social
order.

CORE VALUES:
The individual should be granted a substantial degree of personal autonomy.
The ability of the state to intrude upon the private realm should be sharply restricted.

HALLMARKS:
Separation of church and state
Freedom of speech/expression, association, occupation
Separation of democracy and property

CORE ASSUMPTIONS

Liberty and equality are incompatible
Substantive equality constrains the ability of individuals to accumulate property
Requires excessive government intervention in private lives
Society in opposition to the individual
Collective existence is inherently limiting to individual autonomy
Government is a necessary evil to be limited
Individuals are inherently rational entities
They seek pleasure and avoid pain, seeking profit with as little effort as possible

Negative freedom:
Freedom is understood in terms of constraint or restriction: Absence of interference or
coercion constitutes freedom.
Individuals are free to do whatever they wish as long as their actions do not interfere
with the rights of others or compromise social-political order that makes liberty possible.

Negating mensrea useful in criminal defense if someone does not willfully commit the act

Negative liberty - freedom from interference by other individuals or groups, including
government.
Berlin: "Liberty in the negative sense involves an answer to the question: "What is the
area within which the subject - a person to group of persons- is or should be left to do
what he is able to do or be, without interference by other persons."
Fromm: "This aspect of freedom is here used not in its positive sense of 'freedom to' but
in its negative sense of 'freedom from.'"

BRIEF HISTORY
Emerged in 16th century Europe after the Reformation during capitalism's consolidation
In response to religious plurality and as a solution to material inequality
Advocates: John Locke, Immanuel Kent, J.S. Mill, J.J. Rousseau, T.H. Green
Modern: Friedrich Hayek, Robert Nozinck, John Rawls, Ronald Dworkin, Isaiah
Berlin

Thomas Hobbes
Author of Leviathan (1651)
Argued that humans are equal under anarchy
War against all
Authoritarian rule
Fight to preserve freedom, need to dominate others
Justified authoritarianism because people do bad things without control

John Locke
Author of Two Treatises of Government (1690)
Virtuous anarchy
Labor theory of value
All humans born equal
Most everyone virtuous
Labor fruits have value because of personal effort and creative power
MODERN LIBERALISM
Neoclassical Liberal (Reagan, Hayek, Friedman)
AKA Business conservative and (wrong) libertarian.
Minimal interference by government on behalf of the poor and working class.
Incorporates social conservatism
Equality before the law
Welfare liberal (Roosevelt, Rawls, Keynes)
AKA Liberal egalitarian, new liberal
State intervention to ameliorate excesses of capitalism
Limited substantive equality, mostly in the form of access/opportunity
Equality is not natural, but an ethical goal
NEW LIBERALISM
Liberalism with a conscience
Wrote Citizenship and Social Class
Civil rights
Equality before the law
Property
Religious freedom
Privacy
Political rights
Freedom to participate
Speech/expression
The vote
Social rights
Freedom to thrive
Education
Housing
Medicine
Jobs
The extension of social rights neither entails the abolition of social class nor the end of
inequality

Each type of liberalism advocates 3 principles:
Private property
The state protects the freedom of individuals to accumulate and dispose of
property
Liberalism stands opposed to socialism i.e. worker ownership/control over
capital
Limited government
State and law exist to regulate interaction between private individuals in pursuit
of wealth
State and law are neutral and objective (rule of law)
Separation of private and public sphere
Boundaries between civil society and political society, although shifting, are in
principle maintained
HAYEK AND THE EQUALITY OF INEQUALITY
Formal equality
Equal treatment
Any law passed should apply equally to any person regardless of
individual characteristics or situation.
No person should enjoy preferential treatment.
The state should show no prejudice or bias.
Substantive equality
State plays a role in achieving equality of outcome
State must take account of individual difference
Hayek opposed it
Freedom and equality are incompatible
Inequality is the necessary result of liberty
Inequality is part of the justification of individual liberty
Humans different therefore unequal
Rejects assumption of inherent equality among humans
Individuals are not equal because we're all different
Social darwinism
Biological constitution plays primary role in determining position in social life
Superior biology leads to superior quality of life
Environmental factors impact individual development
Better manner of living, stable, prosperous families, educational institutions
makes for better people
Biology is destiny

THE SUBSTANTIVE RADICAL CONCEPTION OF FREEDOM
Immanuel Wallerstein
Argued in Peace, Stability and Legitimacy that democracy and liberalism are not
twins, but opposites.
Liberalism invented to counter democracy
Liberalism came about to help contain the dangerous classes
Also said that liberal solution was to grant limited political power and limited
sharing of surplus so it would not threaten capital and the system that sustains it
Conception of freedom based on:
A positive conception of freedom
Equality
Collective
Self-determination
Democracy: Government by the people
Social realism
Human beings whose thought and behavior, preferences, and ranges of
choices which are determined and shaped by social and historical
circumstances
Democracy
Popular government
C. Wright Mills
Democracy is power and freedom of those under control of law to change law,
also collective self-control of history.
Democracy implies that those vitally effected by decisions have effective voice in
decisions.
Exceptions to the three principles of liberalism
Liberty
Critique: Freedom to accumulate and dispose of property fancy way of
saying state laws protect ability of the few to exploit the many
Limited government
Critique: Prevents masses from using the state and law to level inequality.
In genuine democracy, government is the people
Separation of economy and democracy
Critique: Private and public spheres are intrinsically linked. Inequality in
one leads to inequality in the other.
G.W.F. Hegel
Freedom not judged by degree of separation from society, but participation in
society
Freedom not a characteristic of unhampered activity, but results from rational
control of activity in social contacts
Freedom is meaningful control over people's lives as political beings
Liberal conception of freedom is superficial, does not ask why individuals make
choices. Choices conditioned by external and internal forces
Ludwig Feuerbach
All religion appears as mythology to a given society except the particular religion
that prevails in that society
Religion is a construction that reflects the idealized features of the society in
which it appears
God is projections of the consciousness of the species in a given time and place.
Not a real thing
Belief in the supernatural alienates the individual from her true relations with
society and nature, as well as the origins of her creative energies: herself.
KARL MARX
Advocated substantive/material justice
Argued that democratic control over society's productive forces and the
direction of history lays the basis for freedom
Freedom closely linked not to popular and representative democracy but
to economic democracy
ALIENATION
Human being is a social product realized through society and labor process.
Humans objectify society through collective activity
Humans realize selves through social action
In class-divided societies, humans are alienated from
Essential activities
Objects we bring into existence
Self and others
Only when alienation from social being is ended can people be free
CAPITALISM AND ITS DISCONTENTS
Class struggle
History of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles
Marx:
Society is splitting into two hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing
each other
Engels:
Through the development of a world market, the capitalist class has become the
ruling political class
The executive of the modern state is but a committee for managing the common affairs
of the whole bourgeoisie

OVERPRODUCTION
Crises of overproduction
Capitalist firms strive to maximize surplus valur
Rationalize production: mechanization, automation, wage suppression
Workers are displaced, impoverished and marginalized
Rationalization undercuts ability to realize surplus as profit
How do we get over these crises?
War - enforced destruction of a mass productive force
Imperialism - conquest of new markets
Consumerism - exploitation of old markets
State - public is asked to prop up the markets with tax dollars
REVISITING MARX
M-C-M'
Capitalists use revenues through sales of commodities in 4 ways
Reproduce constant capital (means of production)
Reproduce labor power (wages)
Expand production and money capital in financial institutions
Lives of leisure in opulence
SCIENCE OF EXPLOITATION
We can calculate exploitation by using a measure that is surplus value relative to wages
The greater the ratio, the greater the rate of exploitation.
Working day can be divided into two parts
Worker produces value of his/her labor-power in wages (subsistence)
Worker produces value for capitalist (surplus value)
Calculating exploitation
value added - worker's wages divided by worker's wages, times 100
In 2006, workers in manufacturing earned 18.33 per hour and added 122.73 per hour in
value
in 1996, workers in manufacturing earned 12.40 per hour and added 65.14 in value.
SOUTH OF HEAVEN - WEBER, THE PROTESTANT ETHIC
Marx saw alienation
Separation of human beings from their creative powers and their social essence
Capitalism is systematic cause of alienation in the current period
Durkheim saw anomie
Erosion of normative certainty where norms are absent, conflicting, or weak
Rapid social change is the primary cause
Weber saw depersonalization and disenchantment
Depersonalization
impersonal bureaucratic relations extinguish spontaneity and creative
personality.
Link between reason and freedom is broken, individuality is lost
Disenchantment
The gods have deserted the world of modernity.
Science rules, everything is subject to rational control.
Why did capitalism develop in Europe recently and not in China or India?
Catholics, Hindus and Buddhists are not concerned with thrift and investment
Protestantism was different because of predestination
Salvation anxiety
Not knowing whether you were hell bound causes inner isolation
Individuals came to believe they had a duty to prove they were
god's elect and live as though they were predestined for Heaven
The Calling
Lead moral and ascetic lives
Do not waste time
Be frugal
Self-denial shows otherworldly concerns
To gain heavenly assurance, Calvinists engaged in disciplined economic activity
Protestant Ethic
The ethic and later spirit cause substantial economic growth in Protestant
nations, specifically those influenced by Calvinism and its derivatives
THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM
Over time, original attitudes were transformed
Religious ethic disappeared and was replaced by the secular capitalist spirit
The "spirit of capitalism" spreads out from the early centers with sweeping, general
effects
BUREAUCRACY
Defined as hierarchal, impersonal ordering of mass human action
Organized according to rational principles:
Efficiency
Calculability
Predictability
Control
Modern large-scale enterprises, political, administrative, and economic are bureaucratic
Bureaucratic co-ordination of actions is the dominant structural feature of modern forms
of organization
Bureaucracies are efficient at handling a large number of tasks
Quantifying operations
Are highly predictable
Emphasize control of people through organization and technology
EFFICIENCY REGIMES
Having the customer do what the worker is used to is efficient for business.
The business gets to eliminate workers and have you, the customer do work for free
Being quietly forced into a business's logic of efficiency reinforces attitudes of
submission to authority
CALCULABILITY
Calculability is where there is an emphasis on quantitative aspects of commodities such
as:
Size
Cost
Proportion
Service rendered
As well as time it takes to get the product
CORPORATE BUREAUCRATIC CONTROL
Frederick Taylor developed scientific management
Monitored workers' productivity
Was a dick
Antonio Gramsci
Argued that Taylorism had nothing to do with science and more to do with
Puritanism
Argued that Taylorism is neopuritanism that aims to counterbalance tendencies
to waste

THE IRRATIONALITY OF RATIONALITY

Part 1: Profit and Planned Obsolescence
Cesarean section
Dangerous - it's surgery
Disfigurement - scars
Childbirth is historically a social event, not a medical one
C-section reduces birth to surgery, denying women the historical experience of
childbirth
Planned Obsolescence
Artificially shortening the life of a product to influence consumption patterns in a
manner beneficial to manufacturers
Problems:
Inferior and dangerous products
Waste in resources and damage to the environment
False needs
Capitalism has a capacity to introject into the psyche of its subjects the needs it
requires them to have for the system to survive
Alien rationality bends to the logic of capitalist reproduction

Part 2: Authoritarianism and Destruction

Max Horkheimer (Eclipse of Reason) and Theodor Adorno (Theodor W. Adorno)
Dialectic of Enlightenment

IBM and the Judeocide
Corporations don't hesitate to take advantage of democracy's absence
IBM had an alliance with Nazi Germany starting in 1933 and continuing in the war
IBM developed the punch-card system for the death camp system
Fascism
Nazi Germany was totalitarian monopolistic capitalism
Authoritarianism capitalism is marked by continuous military adventures
Work of Art in Age of Mechanical Reproduction
Growing proletarianization of man and formation of masses are two aspects of the same
process
Fascism attempts to organize the newly created proletarian masses without affecting the
property and structure which the masses strive to eliminate
Efforts to render politics aesthetic culminate in one thing: War
RATIONALIZATION
Politics are rational manipulation of irrational symbols
Patriotism, Nationalism, Overdevelopment of mythology, Glorification of militarism and
war.
Distract people from their own immediate political and economic clas interests
ESCAPE FROM FREEDOM
Freed from traditional social relations by Enlightenment, individuals will experience:
Anxiety
Emptiness
Uncertainty, which will not be resolved until they act politically to secure positive
liberty in social democracy
Negative freedom has no creative or meaningful substance and can be frightening for
people who have limited access to experience positive freedom
In order to reducee their anxiety, individuals incorporate behaviors restricting their
freedom
Authoritarianism - the wish to control others to impose order on the world
Destructiveness - The desire to destroy that upon which order cannot be
imposed.
Conformity - Avoidance of creative acts by adopting rituals consistent with
traditional normative systems
ORWELL
George Orwell writes Nineteen Eighty-Four (1948)
Exhibits socialistic totalitarianism, lingo such as doublethink, crime think,
Classist society, contradictory ministries, peace is war, love is torture
State watches everyone
HUXLEY
Brave New World
Set in future London, with a worldwide economy based on class (caste)
production based around principles of Fordism: efficiency and uniformity.
Citizens are conditioned to accept and want to belong in their own, values
consumption and it is the bases of economic and social stability, citizens
encouraged to buy new things instead of reuse or repair
Alienation is treated by antidepressant, soma. Propaganda encourages use of
the drug.
Castes
Alpha: Highest, superior, attractive, muscular
Beta: Middle class
Gamma: The ordinary people, so to speak
Delta: Lower class, khaki wearing
Epsilon: Apelike, stupid, lowest caste, works in dregs of society.
MADNESS
Erving Goffman, sociologist that convinced a hospital in DC to let him act as an athletic
director, serving thousands of inmates
Wanted to show how in "total institutions," individuals and their rituals become
institutionalized
Publishes Asylums in 1961, groundbreaking and served as a major text in the
deinstitutionalization movement.
Institutionalization is process of turning humans into obedient patients,
which legitimizes psychiatric label
Published Stigma, where he analyzed case studies, describing how people
become stigmatized and victims of prejudice
Stigma is the process by which the reaction of others spoils normal
identity (spoiled identity)
Identifies 3 forms of stigma:
Abominations of the body (deformities, leprosy, etc)
Blemishes of the character (mental illness)
Tribal stigma (Jim Crow)
Stigmatization is the result of power and control in society
FREUDIAN ASSUMPTIONS
Human nature is inherently antisocial
Human being is an animal driven by selfish and destructive forces lurking in the
unconscious
Control of these forces requires effective socialization through proper parenting
Character of personality is primarily shaped in childhood
Civilization is society's method for controlling the destructive forces inherent in the
human psyche
Norms of values of the society act as wall around primitive animal instincts
Abnormal psyches (mental illnesses) reflect intra-psychic conflicts revealing failure of
socialization and individual adjustment to the demands of the external world
Therapeutic intervention is required to fix the problems of maladjustment
DAS ES UND DAS ICH
Das Es (the Id, It) is the antisocial disposition
Comprised of biological instinctive drives
Seeks immediate, indiscriminate satisfaction
Obeys pleasure principle
Source of all mental energy, especially libidinal forces
Humans born with it
Das Ich (the I, the ego)
Operates according to the reality principle
Rational, practical, reality oriented function
Ego mediates the environment and the id's drive that will benefit it in the long run
Develops around age 2
Das ber-Ich (Over-I, superego)
Conscience, shell of inhibition
Rigid, unreflective, repressive
Acquired through socialization through rewards and punishment
Forms around age 5
Overdeveloped superego is associated with neurotic behavior
Underdeveloped superego is associated with sociopathy
LEVELS OF MIND
Freud theorized that the mind can be divided into levels
The Conscious
All of the things of which we are aware
The Preconscious
Ordinary memory, i.e. items easily accessible to the conscious mine but
not always in awareness
The unconscious
Hidden cache of desires, feelings, memories, motives, thoughts and
urges that lie outside of conscious awareness
Much of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant items,
causing the subject psychic discomfort, such as anxiety
Despite the unconscious being beyond awareness, it influences behavior and
frames experiences
MASS MEDIA + PROPAGANDA

Propaganda Model
Focus
Inequality of wealth and power and its multilevel effects on mass-media interests
and choices
Task
Trace the routes by which money and power are able to filter out the news fit to
print, marginalize dissent, and allow the government and dominant private
interests to get their messages across to the public
Filters
Corporate bureaucracy
Size, concentrated ownership, owner wealth, and profit orientation of
dominant mass-media firms
Advertising
Primary income source of mass media
Usual suspects
Reliance of media on information provided by government, business,
"experts" funded/approved by primary sources of power
Flak
Means of disciplining media
Anti-communism
Counterterrorism
Manipulation comes through
Selection of topics
Distribution of concerns
Framing of issues
Filtering of information
Emphasis and tone
Bounding of debate
The media does
Determine
Select
Shape
Control
Restrict
Serve the interests of the dominant elite groups
What do corporations want?
Oligopoly (rule by small group) promotes laws increasing corporate domination
and abolishing and diminishing regulations
Fairness doctrine existed in the 80s, required news organizations to
present multiple opinions on any given issue, eliminated
Telecommunications Act, deregulated the communications market,
leading to rapid concentration of media ownership
Corporate power has diminished the role of individual citizens
Means of control
Capitalists control nearly every means of societal education, books, magazine,
journals, television, radio, music
Take their news from gov't and private power and shun important contrary
information because it is "too liberal"
Produce vulgar culture that celebrates demeaning characteristics in the human
psyche--greed, deceit and cheating as a legitimate way to win.
GENDER OPPRESSION
Rule of the Father
Patriarchy
Social organization distinguished by:
Cultural, political, economic supremacy of men (disproportionate
male power and control over social institutions)
Subordination and dependence of wives and children on men
Reckoning of descent and inheritance through the male line
Oppression and degradation of women and girls
Objectivization and Infantization of women
Women as Sex Symbols
Women as Incompetent
Women as Subordinate
Women as Homemakers
THE REFORMATORY
True Womanhood (1820-1860)
Restricts women's roles to physical and moral nurturing of husband and children
Remove women from economic sphere (but not slaves)
Based on notions of female virtue, or a virtuous female sphere
Were to be pure, altruistic, nurturing and tranquil
To Benjamin Rush, women were civilizers of the republic
Their passive and altruistic nature checked excessive antisocial individualism
Man and women became 2 sides of the human coin
Republican Motherhood
Columbia
Civilizer of the nation
Raises up patriotic and virtuous citizens
To tame the animal nature of man
The Cult of Domesticity
Catharine Beecher
Treatise on Domestic Economy for the Use of Young Ladies at Home and
at School
Describes the peculiar responsibilities of American women
Isaac Hopper Homes
Founded by Quaker who believed in inherent equality of the sexes
Women's Prison Association
Catherine Sedgwick, first director
Abby Hopper Gibbons, big figure
Lancaster Schools
Based on Beecher's philosophy, trained girls in domesticity
Mostly Irish Catholic girls sent to Lancaster for 'conduct disorders'
Running away, vagrancy, begging, stubbornness, lewd conduct
Believed to suffer from a poor home environment
Change in adolescence leads to new prosecution (status offense)
Prisons became industrial work camps
Prisoners produced commodities for the capitalist market
Modern Adult Women's Prison
By 1900, basic framework of modern justice system is in place
No new institutions of significance appeared after 1900.
Cult of Individualism
Catherine Beecher
Noted "a terrible decay of female health all over the land."
Jane Addams
A feminish who suffered from invalidism and escaped
Olive Schreiner
Observed that poor women did not suffer from invalidism
3 types of wife
Idle wife
Ornamental wife
Modern 'trophy wife'
DICTATORSHIP OF THE OVARIES
Why were women of the leisure (rich) class sick all the time?
Believed to be victims of their own problem sexual organs
J. Marion Sims, Father of Gynecology
Built a backyard hospital for experimental gynecological operations on slaves
without anesthesia or antiseptic
Hysteria derives from Greek word for uterus
Belief that wandering of the uterus caused mental disturbances
Who do Ehrenreich and English blame for female invalidism?
Medical community
Leisure built on wealth extracted from labor of the working class
Logic that set femininity as the opposite of masculinity
Development of media viewpoints that build a false image, causing young women to feel
negatively about their own bodies
Emergence of Photoshop
Development of Valium, largest-selling antidepressant
Prozac
Unnatural control of seratonin builds false circumstance, control
THE THERAPEUTIC STATE
Mental illness is a myth, arising from a category error, things of one kind are treated as if
they belong to another sort of thing
Szasz thinks the mind is not the kind of thing that can be ill and diseased
Illness of the body determined by objective analysis
When there is no disfunction of the body in a case of mental illness, the concept
can only be metaphorical
Psychiatry added criteria for establishing the existence of mental illness, a changed
function of the body
Structural and functional aberrations were categorized as disease
Diagnoses of a mental illness depends on judgement of a physician, since the presence
of an actual disease cannot be demonstrated and verified
No objective evidence of illness, mental illness is not discovered but invented
Ability of psychiatrist to impose a definition depends on his power
As profession grows, so does list of attitudes and behaviors that become defined
as mental illness
APA formed a task force in 1948 to create a standardized psychiatric classification
system.
First DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) published in 1952
Psychiatric terminology is meaningless
If no question of illness, no question of diagnosis and treatment
Psychiatric interventions are not medical treatment but social control and moral
regulation
Ivan Illich wrote Limits to Medicine, defining medicalization
Process by which social problems are defined and treated as medical conditions
to be diagnosed and treated as problems of individuals, not society.
Medicalization is social control in which the industry of medicine reaches into
areas of everyday life
Contractual psychiatry
Both sides retain autonomy
Besides financial motive, the wellbeing of the patient is the psychiatrist's focus
Institutional psychiatry
Relationship is not sought by patient, but is imposed on them
Employer threatening dismissal
Spouse threatening divorce
Court order
Psychiatrists assume double role as therapist to patient and defenders of other
party interests
Jargon oppresses patients, under guise of maintaining public order
Conflicts are concealed, interpreted and explained as patient illnesses
Patients are blamed but not held responsible because they are sick
Epitome of institutional psychiatry is involuntary commitment to a mental hospital.
Situation characterized by lack of freedom
Mental hospitals and therapies as involuntary drugging, electroshock, and
lobotomy and torture
Szasz says hysteria is part of this development
Phenomena of hysteria came to great prominence at the end of the 19th century
when major psychiatric figures made it a centerpiece of their work
Mind as Process
People use symbols to designate objects in the environment
People inhibit inappropriate lines of action and select a proper course of overt
action
What lines of conduct are proper?
Generally, selection of behaviors that facilitate cooperation
Mass Hysteria
Imagined or assumed threat that causes physical symptoms among a large
number of people
Stanley Cohen, Folk Devils and Moral Panics
Moral panic is a fear gripping a large number of people that some evil is
threatening them
Provides an avenue of groups of people to assess and redirect society's moral
values
Typically framed in terms of morality and expressed as outrage
PART 3: THE INQUISITION
Zsasz compares institutional psychiatry to the Inquisition
Patients and witches, heretics and Jews
Psychiatry to theology
Psychiatrists and inquisitors
Both are an expression of what Szasz sees as the fundamental human need to
confirm one's self as good, innocent, and normal by labeling nonconformists as
bad, sinful, or abnormal
During the middle ages, theologists believed antisocial behavior resulted from
deals cut with demons
Understanding why the majority of a people believe and act as they do at a given
point in time requires a study of
How their society is organized
The character of culture-ideology associated with organization
Religion comprises a central institutional and belief component in most cultures
Frederick II enacted a series of laws during 1220-39 requiring persecution of all
heretics
In 1245, Pope Innocent IV gave inquisitors and their families power to absolve
each other, speeding up inquisitorial machinery
In Spain between 1481-1808, 341,021 people were burned at the stake
Inquisition lasted until late 1800s in parts of Europe
Christians believed Jews were in league with the devil
Believed Jews fattened Christian boys and crucified them
Given a choice between extermination or martyrdom
Practically exterminated in peninsula of Europe during the Inquisition
Malleus Maleficarum was guidebook for Inquisition
Argued that women were danger to men, untrustworthy
Homosexuals seen as threat towards national order
Persecution focused on those who moved beyond private domain of men and
spiritual influence of the Church
Individuals who stood outside of the order of power, those who refused or who
were perceived to refuse Christianity, the commands of men, or the rules of a
heterosexual society where they were persecuted, stigmatized, and killed.
Resistance to the prevailing norms of Christian civilization was theorized as the
work of the devil
Scapegoat Theory
Community purifies itself, maintains its integrity and stability, seeking out
scapegoats, shaming them, and sacrificing them
The scapegoat is the symbolic personification of guilt and sin; sacrificing the
scapegoat absolves the others of sin
PART IV: SEXUAL DEVIANCE
Heinous Sin of Self-Pollution and all its Frightfull Consequences published by priest-
turned-physician in 1710. Reached 80th printing in 1765.
Masturbation causes
Retardation of growth in boys and girls
Ulcers
Gonorrhea
Fainting fits, epilepsy and consumption
Nightly and excessive seminal emissions
Loss of erection, as if they had been castrated
(get this from powerpoint)
In 1758, neurologist Samuel Tissot published L'Onanisme
Argued that semen was an "essential oil" (get from PPT)
In Sex By Prescription, Szasz writes about the transformation of masturbation from an
originally evil and heretical act, through a neutral transitory stage of harmlessness, to its
current status as a habit endorsed in sex ed
Masters and Johnson invented a new disease, "masturbatory orgasmic
inadequacy" and recommended as therapy for people with sexual problems
Drapetomania was a mental illness characterized by the desire of slaves to escape
captivity
Dysaesthesia Aethiopica (rascality)
A neurological disease causing laziness and sluggishness among black people,
more prevalent among free blacks, but slaves were always at risk of developing
the disease
Prescribed treatment was scrubbing with hot water and soap, covering the
patient with oil and slapping them with a rod, then heavy labor
MASS INCARCERATION
America has 4% of the world's population, but 25% of the world's prison population
5.8% of US population is black male
7.5% of the US population is Latino
61% of prison inmates are black or latino
40% of male inmates are black
21% of male inmates are latino
FOUR EXPLANATIONS FOR CRIME
Criminal Anthropology
Criminals are biologically different from non-criminals
Compared with normal individuals, criminals are
Less intelligent
More aggressive
Lacking in forethought and impulse control
Deficient in conscience and compassion
Conservative Behaviorism
Perspective implicates cultural traditions in the cration of criminogenic
environments.
Conservatives blame "black culture." Black thought and behavior perpetuate a
"culture of poverty."
Features of culture of poverty
Negative attitudes towards learning and achieving
Lack of sell-reliance
Poor labor force attachment
Inability to delay gratification
Promiscuity
Violent tendencies
Blame on black family structures
Black family differs from the white families
Black families tend to be headed by single women
Black women have many children out of wedlock
Single women cannot control their offspring
Blame on bleeding heart liberals
Liberal social welfare policies during the 50s to the 70s combined "dysfunctional
black traditions" and "broken families" with government induced "learned
helpless"
"Liberal permissiveness" in criminal justice policy combined with the culture of
poverty to drive up crime rates
Liberal structuralism
Liberal structuralism reflects social welfare liberal tradition
Depressed inner-city conditions are the root of crime and violence
White flight, residential segregation, and race prejudice created an underclass
Historic forces located blacks in criminogenic environments
Being situated in the underclass leads to overrepresentation in crime for two reasons
Blacks have become disproportionately involved in various forms of street crime
and the sex and drug trades
Ordinary policiing is concentrated in impoverished minority neighborhoods where
crime rates are higher
Left-Realist Criminology
Left-realists look at structural conditions to explain crime
They differ in their extent of critiques of capitalism, stance towards U.S.
institutions, and solutions to crime.
Believe street crimes are caused by
Material deprivation
Alienation
Nihilistic culture-ideology created by capitalism
70% of US inmates are illiterate
65% of inmates had not completed high school
32% had incomes under $5,000
33% were unemployed before entering jail
Although blacks constitute 13% of drug users, they represent
35% of those arrested for drug possession,
55% of those convicted for drug offenses
74% of those sentenced to prison for drugs
90% of those admitted to prison for drug offenses are black or latino
in 1998, respondents to the NCVS reported that approximately 22% of assailants in violent
victimizations were perceived to be black
The UCE indicated that 42% of these individuals were black
CORPORATE THEFT AND VIOLENCE
Street crime costs between $5 and $20 billion annually
Employee theft is between $30 billion and $200 billion annually
White collar crime (physician fraud) costs more than $200 billion annually
Corporate crime costs around $300 to $500 billion annually
Reiman estimates total cost of white-collar crime in 1997: $338 billion - more than 80
times the total amount stolen in all thefts reported by that year
The NSC estimates that
Over 10,000 workers are killed
Nearly 2 million workers are injured on the job every year, many because of
company safety violations
Work-related illnesses kill around 100,000 annually
Almost 400,000 persons contract work-caused diseases annually
PANOPTIC CONTROL
In 1800s, punishment was public, physical, and suffering was exquisite
The scaffold was a symbol of power
The sovereign was a central figure
The criminal subject's body is the object of reprisal
ENLIGHTENMENT AND RATIONAL REFORM
Cesare Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishment
Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation,
Panopticon, or the Inspection-House
Criminal and non-criminal behavior are motivated by the same principle:
Gratification of pleasure and avoidance of pain.
People need no unique motive or defect to be criminal. What criminals lack is a
sufficient fear of reprisal.
Goal: Effective program for controlling crime is a deterrence model