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990

niACTICE
OF
AIlCHITEf'TURE. Be III.
fl(imf'oi/'i>it
TliL'ii
nnioniKint. so callod on account of tlic ^vcnl part tlio circle plays in
"it, aiui on
wliosL' radii its leading
forms are de])endent, was floiirislmirr tliroiigliout tlie
lull ce.itiiry in France.* The fnmhm/ant
or tertiary pointed style followed it. We liave
already
observed that the
Contnient
preceded us in each style as much as half a century.
Alter this comes the Florid style, in which the edifices seem to consist almost entirely of
windows, and those of the most hi'j,hly ornamented description. It is scarcely necessary to
do
m;ire thin exhibit the (igiires for a
compreliension of the nature of the change which
took i>lace ; in short the
introduction of the Tiidur
arch alone was sufficient
hint for a totally new sys-
tem. In theeXMmple
(^^.
1170.) of a window at
Cawston Church, Nor-
folk, we may observe the
commencement of the use
of transoms, which at
length were repeated
Fifi. 11:2. aiismam.
twice and even more in the height of the window, and indeed became necessary for
affording
stays to the lengthy mullions that came into use. Fif/. 1171. is an examiiK' of
the s(juare-headed window of the period, and
Jiff.
1172. of a Tudor-headed window at
Aylsham Church, Norfolk. Another example may be referred to in
jftf/.
200., and in the seve-
ral illustrations given under the section imiincifles of PROPoiiTmN, at the end of this chapter.
MuUinns appear t ) have been introduced about the end of the 12th century as sub-
stitutes for iron frames, and were at first built in courses that corresponded with the
other work of the wall in which they stood, or wore in small jtieces. But as early as
1235 they were face-liitliltd stones dowellcd with iron. As the oxidation of the metal
jiroved injurious, iron was superseded, after the end of the Hth cen-
tury, by dowels made from the bones of sheep or from the horns of
deer.
Fiff.
1173., from the west windows in the tomb-house at
Windsor, temp. Henry Vll, illustrates the arrangement usually
adopted in drawings to show the distance from centre to centre, as
at M, N and O, that is to be allowed in forming the length of
radius employed in striking the curves for the tracery. Other ex-
amples of such sections ;ire given from the clerestory of the nave of
Winchester Cathedral,
fff.
l;i03
;
Ronen Cathedral,
fff.
1290
;
King's College Chapel,_/i'/7. 1312. ; St. George's Chapel, Wii.dsor.
/?</
l.'ilfi.
;
and fiom Amiens Cathedral,
_/?(/.
1329.
Tf.e simplest mullion or moninl or tra enj I ar would be a plain
rectangular block (if stone. The next, with the edges chamfered,
varied hy substituting a hollow for a plain chamfer
;
by giving an
ogee form to the chamfer; and by cutting (nit a hollow in the
chamfer with receding angles instead of a receding eur\e: this last
is perhaps pecidiar to the larly decorated style. The hollowed
chamfer is the only moukling ordinarily made to carry the ball flower orna'iient of the
-Si-
Hth century, and the
four leaved Hower of the
15tb century. When the
tracery bicomes at all
elabrate, the subordi-
nation of the parts is
efTected by giving to the
jj^Tibs and mullions, or
perhaps to some of the
midlions only, and to
some of the tracery bars,
an .Tilditional onter
of
moitlilinys. Then the
fillet or boliel of the
outer mouhiing
(
N, in
fff.
1173.) describes the
greater lines ; tl at of the
inner niiiiddiiig (O) the
smaller lines e)f the tra-
cery and the whole of
the cusping. In like
manner a third order is
Eai'h e)f these e)rdeis
Fip. 1173. WINDSOR.
WC^
Fig. 1174.
Foi'XT.MN's Anr.KV. cruiii;
often added by the same means and (or the sair.c purpose (as IM
).