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Lecture5
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Integral Relation Integral Relation
for a Control for a Control
Volume (Part 1) Volume (Part 1)
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Integral Relation for CV : Integral Relation for CV :
Continuity Equation Continuity Equation
2
Lecture Summary
Introduction
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Introduction
FlowRatesandDischarge
ControlVolumeAnalysis:GeneralEquation
MassConservationEquation(MCE)
5.1Introduction
Fl id ti b 3 ti
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Fluidmotionsaregovernby3conservation
laws mass,momentumandenergy
conservation
Basicconceptsforanalyzingfluidmotionhave
beendescribedinlastlecture
Generalcontrolvolumeanalysis
Applicationtoconservationofmass
3
55..22. . Flow Rates and Discharge Flow Rates and Discharge
Volume Flow Rate :
[ ] s /
3
m

## Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
[ ]
udt
u
dA
A
f
Velocity profile
udt
y p f
Volume flow rate across dA :
Total Volume flow rate :
Note - Variation of u with A (equation of velocity profile) needed to
evaluate the volume flow rate.
A u
t
A t u
t
=

= =

f
f A
A
udA A u
Volume Flow Rate : Example 1 : -
Air flow between 2 parallel plates 80 mm apart. The following velocities
55..22. . Flow Rates and Discharge Flow Rates and Discharge
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
f p p p f g
were determined by direct measurement : -
Distance from one plate (mm) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Velocity (m/s) 0 23 28 31 32 29 22 14 0
Plot the velocity distribution and calculates the discharge
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Volume Flow Rate : (Practical Application)
55..22. . Flow Rates and Discharge Flow Rates and Discharge
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
HPP OBALT
3 Kaplan turbines,
rated power: 3 x 20,4 MW,
maximumdischarge 3 x 137 m
3
/s
Volume Flow Rate : (Practical Application)
55..22. . Flow Rates and Discharge Flow Rates and Discharge
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
5
Volume Flow Rate : (Practical Application)
55..22. . Flow Rates and Discharge Flow Rates and Discharge
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Average velocityfor every j-th sector
U
R
v r r dr d
R
=

1
2
0 0
2

( , )
[ ]
Q
n
R U
p j s j
j
n
*
( ) =
=

2
1
m / s
3
FlowRate in eight sectors of measurement
cross-section
Volume Flow Rate :
Special case of uniform velocity:
55..22. . Flow Rates and Discharge Flow Rates and Discharge
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Special case of uniform velocity: -
Mean velocity : -
f
_
A
_
A
_
A u dA u dA u
f f
= = =

=

f
A f f
_
udA
A A
u
1
The uniform value of velocity which
corresponds to the same volume flow rate
as in real flow
6
Mass Flow Rate :
[ ] s / g k m

## 55..22. . Flow Rates and Discharge Flow Rates and Discharge

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Definition : -
Incompressible flow : -
[ ] g
A
t t
m
m = =

=

u

= =

f
f A
A
udA A u m

dA A
Incompressible and uniform flow : -
= = =

f
f A
A
udA A u m
f
_ _ _
A u u u m = = =

f
f A
A
dA A
Flow Rate of any extensive property :
[ ] s / X X

## 55..22. . Flow Rates and Discharge Flow Rates and Discharge

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
f y p p y
Recall : Extensive property is property that varies directly
proportional to the mass of the system e.g. momentum, kinetic
energy, enthalpy etc.
Define x = X/m : the intensive / specific property of X.
m x X =
Thus the flow rate :
To evaluate requires to know variation of u, and x with A
f
udA x m x X = =

= =

f
f
A
A
udA x udA x X
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Flow Rate of any extensive property :
55..22. . Flow Rates and Discharge Flow Rates and Discharge
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
f y p p y
Mean value, x , of any extensive property X is defined as the
uniform value of X which would give the same flow rate as the
real flow .
Define as : -

=
f f
A
_
A
udA x udA x

m
X
udA
udA x
x
f
f
A
A
_
Cylindrical Coordinates :
55..22. . Flow Rates and Discharge Flow Rates and Discharge
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
y
Commonly used in engineering to describe axi-symmetric flow
eg. Flow in circular pipe. Problem becomes 2D.
r r 2 A =
Elemental area, dA
The flow rates for cylindrical axi-symmetric flow are : -

f
A
urdr 2

f
A
urdr 2 m

=

f
A
urdr x 2 X
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Example of extensive properties flow-rate :
55..22. . Flow Rates and Discharge Flow Rates and Discharge
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
p f p p f
Extensive
property, X
Value per unit
mass, x
General flow
rate equation
Equation for
axi-symmetric
flow
Kinetic Energy,
KE
Momentum in x
u
2
/2

=

f
A
2
dA
2
u
u KE

dA uu M

f
A
3
dr ru KE

2
dr ru 2 M
direction : Mx
Momentum in y
direction : My
Enthalpy, H
u
x
u
y
h

=
f
A
x x
dA uu M

f
A
y y
dA uu M

f
A
uhdA H

=
f
A
dr ru 2
x
M
0 M
y
=

f
A
ruhdr 2 H
Example 2 : -
55..22. . Flow Rates and Discharge Flow Rates and Discharge
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Example 2 : -
The velocity profile for a pipe flow is given by :
where u
o
is the maximum velocity, R the radius of the pipe. Determine :
2
o
R
r
1
u
u

=
Mass flow rate
x- momentum flow rate
Mean value of x-momentum
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Example 3 : -
55..22. . Flow Rates and Discharge Flow Rates and Discharge
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
p
Air enters a square duct at section 1 with the velocity distribution as shown.
The velocity varies in y direction only. Determine : -
the volume flow rate
the mean velocity
the mass flow rate if the density is 1.3 kg/m
3
55..33. . General Control Volume Equation General Control Volume Equation
General equation derivation : -
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Basic laws (e.g. Mass conservation, Newtons 2nd law and 1st
law of thermo) are applicable and formulated in term of
SYSTEM i.e using LAGRANGIAN View point
Thus for EULERIAN viewpoint (i.e. with CV fixed in space)
need to be reformulated.
Recall : Recall :
Control Volume (CV) : Any volume of constant shape, size,
position and orientation with respect to an observer. Can be
finite size or infinitesimal element
Control surface (CS) - The surface of CV. Mater as well as heat
and work can cross the control surface.
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General equation derivation : -
55..33. . General Control Volume Equation General Control Volume Equation
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
q
Consider a CV of with multiple inflows and outflows.
Consider what happen to the CS and the system boundary (S)
initially and after fluid has entered and leave the CV.
1 , i
X
CV boundary at
time t and t+dt
2 , i
X
1 , o
X
2 , o
X
CS boundary at
time t
CS boundary at
time t+dt
X
General equation derivation : -
55..33. . General Control Volume Equation General Control Volume Equation
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
q
Consider CS and S at time t (initially) and t+dt (final)
Time, t
X
c,t
X
s,t
Time,
t+dt
X
c,t+dt
X
S,t+dt
Control Volume, C System, S
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General equation derivation : -
55..33. . General Control Volume Equation General Control Volume Equation
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
At timet (initially) :
At time t+dt (final) :
Rate of change of X in CV :
General CV Eqn for multiple inflows and outflows (dt > 0) :
t , S t , C
X X =
1 , o 1 , o 2 , i 1 , i dt t , S dt t , C
X X X X X X + + =
+ +
t
X X
t
X
t , C dt t , C C

+
o i
S
X X
t
X

+

=
General CV Eqn for multiple inflows and outflows (dt -> 0) :
or for non-uniform flow :
o i
S C
X X
dt
dX
dt
dX

+ =

+ =
outflow _ All
A
o
low inf _ All
A
i
S
CV
o i
uxdA uxdA
dt
dX
xd
dt
d
Steady Flow CV equation : -
55..33. . General Control Volume Equation General Control Volume Equation
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
For steady flow - properties do not change with time at all
points in the CV
Thus :
Hence, for steady flow equation becomes : -
0
dt
dX
C
=
dX

dX
Note that dX
s
/dt is related to the system based physical law to
other quantities. Eg. When X = momentum, dX
s
/dt is related to
external force by the Newtons 2nd law
i o
S
X X
dt
dX

=

=
low inf _ All
A
i
outflow _ All
A
o
S
i o
uxdA uxdA
dt
dX
or
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55..44. . The Mass Conservation Equation (MCE) The Mass Conservation Equation (MCE)
Derivation of the MCE : -
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
f
Let : X = mass = m
General CV Equation becomes :
By the law of conservation of
mass applied to system :
Th th MCE li d t CV i
o i
S C
m m
dt
dm
dt
dm

+ =
0
dt
dm
S
=
C
m m
dm

=
Thus the MCE applied to CV is :
Or for general
non-uniform flow :
For constant density flow:
o i
m m
dt

=

=
outflow _ All
A
o
low inf _ All
A
i
CV
o i
udA udA d
dt
d
o i
C
dt
d

=

## Steady Flow MCE : -

5. 5.4. 4. The Mass Conservation Equation (MCE) The Mass Conservation Equation (MCE)
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
c
/dt = 0
Thus the equations become :
N A li bili
0 m m
o i
=

0 udA udA
outflow _ All
A
o
low inf _ All
A
i
o i
=

0 =

Notes on Applicability :
- Single fluid with or without change of phase
- Mixture of fluids with or without chemical reaction
- Mixture of fluids with solid particulates
- If without reaction - applicable to individual species as well
as total flow.
0
o i

13
Example 1 : -
Water flows in the pipe system as given in figure below. At C, the pipe
5. 5.4. 4. The Mass Conservation Equation (MCE) The Mass Conservation Equation (MCE)
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
branch into 2 parts. The flow rate divides between the branch such that the
discharge at D is twice that at E. Determine : -
The volume flow rate and mean velocity at A
The volume flow rate at B
The diameter of pipe CD
The men velocity in pipe CE.
Example 2 : -
A 3 f f 60 d k h A
5. 5.4. 4. The Mass Conservation Equation (MCE) The Mass Conservation Equation (MCE)
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
A 3 cm jet of water issues from a 60 cm diameter tank, as shown. Assume
that the velocity in the jet is (2gh) m/s. How long will it take for the water
surface in the tank to drop from h
o
=3m to h
f
=30cm ?
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Example 3 : -
Th k h h fl d h f 20
3
/ A 1
5. 5.4. 4. The Mass Conservation Equation (MCE) The Mass Conservation Equation (MCE)
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
The open tank shown has a constant inflow discharge of 20 m
3
/s. A 1-m
diameter drain provides a variable outflow V
out
= (2gh) m/s. What is the
equilibrium height h
eq
of the liquid in the tank ?
Example 4 : -
Water drain out of a trough as shown. The
5. 5.4. 4. The Mass Conservation Equation (MCE) The Mass Conservation Equation (MCE)
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
angle with the vertical of the sloping sides is
, and the distance between the parallel sides
is B. The width of the trough is W
o
+2htan,
where h is the distance from the trough
bottom. The velocity of the water issuing from
the opening in the bottom of the trough is
equal to Ve=(2gh). The area of the water q ( g ) f
stream at the bottom is A
e
. Derive an
expression for the time to drain to depth h in
terms of h/h
o
, W
o
/h
o
, tan and A
e
g
0.5
/(h
o
1.5
B),
where h
o
is the original depth. Find the time
to drain to one half the original depth for
W
o
/h
o
=0.2, =30
o
, A
e
g
0.5
/(h
o
1.5
B)=0.01s
-1
15
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 5: Integral Relations for CV (Part 1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
End of End of Lecture 5 Lecture 5