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THERMAL

PROCESS
INFORMATION
BOOK
SELECTED HEAT TREATING TERMS
HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS METALS
HEAT TREATING PROCESSES
SURFACE ENGINEERING
FURNACE ATMOSPHERES
INDUCTION HEAT TREATING OF STEEL
COMBUSTION
QUENCHING
CONTROLS/INSTRUMENTATION
FLOWMETERS
2008
36
37
38
39
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48
SELECTED HEAT TREATING TERMS
36 HEAT TREATING PROGRESS NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007
atmosphere controlled furnaces. In many heat treating operations,
the atmosphere must be controlled to prevent workpieces from
oxidizing and/or decarburizing. Steel becomes more active as
the temperature increases, and severe oxidation of carbon steel
begins at about 425C (795F). Above 1200C (2190F), the ox-
idation rate increases exponentially. At high temperatures the
carbon in steel also can react with the atmosphere to lower the
carbon content.
carbon potential. A measure of the ability of an environment con-
taining carbon to alter or maintain, under prescribed condi-
tions, the carbon level in steel. Control of carbon potential is
important in carburizing furnaces. Excessive carbon will per-
meate the grain structure of the alloy, causing embrittlement
and eventual component failure. Preheat or burn-off muffles
require good atmosphere control to flush out these contami-
nants.
products of combustion. These result when fuel mixed with air is
burned. If fuels such as methane and propane are burned in
optimized proportions with air, the by-products might be ideal
for certain heat treated products. If an excess of air exists (a lean
atmosphere), loose scale may form. When an excess of fuel is
used (a rich atmosphere), a tight, adherent oxide forms. Note
that water vapor is a by-product of combustion.
PROCESSES
bright annealing. A process usually carried out in a controlled fur-
nace atmosphere so that surface oxidation is reduced to a min-
imum and the surface remains relatively bright. To limit oxi-
dation, the water vapor concentration must be limited. Bright
annealing environments are typically purged with inert gases
such as nitrogen, argon, or dry air. Typically, the dew point
temperature must be less than 50C (60F).
carbonitriding. A process in which ammonia (NH
3
) added to a gas
carburizing environment dissociates to produce hydrogen (H
2
)
and nitrogen (N
2
). The addition of nitrogen has three impor-
tant effects: inhibits the diffusion of carbon, which favors pro-
duction of a shallow case; enhances hardenability, which fa-
vors production of a hard, wear-resistant case that is easily
polished; and forms nitrides, which further enhance wear re-
sistance.
carburizing. A process in which ferrous metal is brought into con-
tact with an environment of sufficient carbon potential to cause
absorption of carbon at the surface, and by diffusion to create
a carbon concentration gradient between the surface and the
interior of the metal. Carburizing is usually done at 850 to 950C
(1560 to 1740F) in an atmosphere consisting of any of several
carrier gases, principally nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and hy-
drogen, to which hydrocarbon gases (or vaporized hydrocarbon
liquid) have been added. Methane or natural gas (CH
4
) is the
most commonly used source of carbon. For carburizing in the
range of 0.8 to 1% C, the dew point temperature of the carrier
gas is optimized at 7 to 1C (19 to 30F). Dew points below
12C (10F) may lead to accelerated sooting of generator cata-
lyst. For low surface concentrations of carbon, the dew point
may be adjusted to 0C (30F) or higher.
ATMOSPHERES AND GASES
argon. Provides an excellent inert atmosphere. It is used for gas-
shielded arc welding and for heat treatment of special alloys.
Generally, argon must be delivered at a dew point of less than
60C (75F) and an oxygen content of less than 20 ppm.
commercial nitrogen atmospheres. Nitrogen is used in many heat
treating applications, sometimes replacing endothermic at-
mospheres. Nitrogen serves as a pure, dry, inert gas that can
provide efficient purging and blanketing. Typical specifications
require the nitrogen to be delivered at dew point temperatures
between 60 and 80C (75 and 110F). Nitrogen is also used
as a carrier gas for carbon control atmospheres in many com-
mercial heat treating applications. Nitrogen is mixed with hy-
drogen in a 90-10 blend, where the hydrogen serves as a re-
ducing gas.
dissociated ammonia. Dissociated ammonia (N
2
+ H
2
) is produced
from anhydrous ammonia (NH
3
) by raising the temperature
to 900980C (16501795F) in a catalyst filled retort. The gas is
then cooled for metering and transport. Dissociated ammonia at-
mospheres are about 75% H
2
and 25% N
2
,with less than 300
ppm residual ammonia at a dew point below 60C (75F).
The atmosphere provides a dry, carbon-free source of reducing
gas. Uses include bright copper and silver brazing, bright heat
treating of carbon steels and selected nickel and copper alloys,
and bright annealing of electrical components. Dissociated am-
monia is also used as a carrier gas in certain nitriding processes.
dry hydrogen atmospheres. Commercially available hydrogen is 98
to 99.9% pure. Cylinder hydrogen may contain trace amounts of
water vapor and oxygen. Dry hydrogen is used in furnaces for
annealing stainless and low-carbon steels, electrical steels, and
several nonferrous metals.
endothermic atmospheres. Endothermic atmospheres are produced
by generators that use air and a hydrocarbon gas as fuel. The
two gases are mixed, slightly compressed, and passed through
a chamber filled with nickel catalyst. The chamber is heated ex-
ternally,thus, the term endothermic. Endothermic gas mixtures
are used as carrier gases in carburizing and carbonitriding ap-
plications (they offer a wide range of possible carbon poten-
tials). Other applications include bright hardening of steel,
carbon restoration of steel forgings and bars, and sintering
powder that requires a reducing atmosphere.
exothermic atmospheres. Exothermic gas is produced by combus-
tion of a hydrocarbon fuel such as methane or propane to main-
tain a reaction temperature of 980C (1795F) for sufficient time
to reach equilibrium. Heat is obtained from the reaction, thus,
the term exothermic. The resultant gas is cooled and water vapor
is removed either by a refrigerated or desiccant dryer.
Exothermic atmospheres are used for clean and bright annealing
and clean hardening. Rich exothermic atmospheres are useful
for annealing, and for copper brazing of low-carbon steels, Cu-
Ni alloys, gold alloys, and some brasses. Applications for lean
exothermic atmospheres include annealing of aluminum and
copper and their alloys, bluing of steel parts, silver brazing of
nonferrous alloys, and nonflammable blanketing during var-
ious industrial processes.
natural atmospheres (air). Air consists of about 78% nitrogen, 21%
oxygen, 0.9% argon, and other trace gases. Air at room tem-
perature varies in moisture content from about 0.3 to 3%, nom-
inally. Although natural atmospheres are strongly oxidizing,
they may be acceptable when workpieces are to be machined
after heat treating.
steam atmospheres. Steam injection into furnaces is used for scale-free
tempering and stress relieving of ferrous metals in the temper-
ature range of 345 to 650C (655 to 1200F). The steam causes a
thin, hard, tenacious blue-black oxide to form on the surface of
the part. Prior to processing in a steam atmosphere, parts must
be clean and oxide-free. To prevent condensation and rusting,
furnace internal surfaces and the parts in the furnace must be
at a temperature above 100C (212F). And air must be purged
from the furnace to prevent formation of a brown coating in-
stead of the desired blue-black oxide.
vacuum atmospheres. Heating metal parts at pressures below at-
mospheric is used for many semiconductor components, com-
posites, and metals. Vacuum heat treating prevents surface re-
actions such as oxidation and decarburization, removes surface
contaminants such as oxide films and lubricant residue, de-
gasses metals, removes dissolved contaminants from metals,
and joins metals by brazing or diffusion bonding.
IRON-CARBON EQUILIBRIUM PHASE DIAGRAM
The basis for understanding the heat treatment of steels is the iron-carbon
(Fe-C) phase diagram. The Fe-C diagram is really two diagrams in one,
showing the equilibrium between cementite (iron carbide, or Fe
3
C) and the
several phases of iron, as well as the equilibrium between graphite and the
other phases. Steels are alloys of iron, carbon and other elements that con-
tain less than 2% carbon (usually less than 1%), therefore the portion of the
diagram below 2% C; that is, the iron-cementite (Fe-Fe
3
C) diagram, is more
pertinent to steel heat treatment. In cast irons, high carbon content (1.75-4.0%
C) and high silicon content promote graphite formation. Therefore, cast iron
technology is based more on the Fe-graphite diagram.
HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS METALS
INTRODUCTION
Steel can be processed to produce a large variety of mi-
crostructures and properties. The required results are
achieved by heating the material in temperature ranges
where a phase or combination of phases is stable (producing
microstructural changes or distribution of stable phases)
and / or heating or cooling between temperature ranges in
which different phases are stable (producing beneficial phase
transformations). The iron-carbon equilibrium phase dia-
gram is the foundation on which all steel heat treatment is
based. The diagram defines the temperature-composition
regions where the various phases in steel are stable, as well
as the equilibrium boundaries between phase fields.
Expanded iron-carbon phase diagram showing both the eutectoid and eutectic regions.
Source: Practical Heat Treating, Second Edition, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, 2006.
DEFINITIONS OF
TRANSFORMATION
TEMPERATURES IN
IRON AND STEELS
Transformation temperature. The
temperature at which a change in
phase occurs. The term is sometimes
used to denote the limiting tempera-
ture of a transformation range. The
following symbols are used for iron
and steels.
Ac
cm
. In hypereutectoid steel, the tem-
perature at which the solution of ce-
mentite in austenite is completed
during heating.
Ac
1
. The temperature at which
austenite begins to form during
heating, with the c being derived from
the French chauffant.
Ac
3
. The temperature at which trans-
formation of ferrite to austenite is com-
pleted during heating.
Ae
cm
, Ae
1
, Ae
3
. The temperatures of
phase changes at equilibrium.
Ar
cm
. In hypereutectoid steel, the tem-
perature at which precipitation of ce-
mentite starts during cooling, with the
r being derived from the French re-
froidissant.
Ar
1
. The temperature at which trans-
formation of austenite to ferrite or to
ferrite plus cementite is completed
during cooling.
Ar
3
. The temperature at which
austenite begins to transform to fer-
rite during cooling.
Ar
4
. The temperature at which delta
ferrite transforms to austenite during
cooling.
M
s
(or Ar). The temperature at
which transformation of austenite to
martensite starts during cooling.
M
f
. The temperature at which marten-
site formation finishes during cooling.
Note: All of these changes, except the formation of martensite,
occur at lower temperatures during cooling than during
heating and depend on the rate of change of temperature.
Source: ASM Handbook, Vol. 4, Heat Treating, ASM
International, Materials Park, Ohio, 1991, pp. 3-4.
HEAT TREATING PROGRESS NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007 37
NORMALIZING
Normalizing is a homogenizing or
grain refining treatment, with the aim
being uniformity in composition
throughout a part. It consists of an
austenitizing heating cycle followed
by cooling in still or slightly agitated
air. Typically, work is heated to a tem-
perature of approximately 55C
(100F) above the upper critical line of
the iron-carbide phase diagram, and
the heating portion of the process
must produce a homogeneous
austenitic phase. The actual tempera-
ture used depends upon the compo-
sition of the steel; but the usual tem-
perature is around 870C (1600F).
ANNEALING
Annealing is a generic term de-
noting a treatment consisting of
heating to and holding at a suitable
temperature, followed by cooling at a
suitable rate; used primarily to soften
metals and to simultaneously produce
desired changes in other properties or
in microstructures. Reasons for an-
nealing include improvement of
machinability, facilitation of cold
work, improvement in mechanical or
electrical properties, and to increase
dimensional stability. In ferrous alloys,
annealing usually is done above the
upper critical temperature.
In full annealing, steel is heated 90-
180C (160-325F) above the A
3
for
hypoeutectoid steels and above the
A
1
for hypereutectoid steels, and slow
cooled. In full annealing, the rate of
cooling must be very slow, to allow
the formation of coarse pearlite. In
process annealing, slow cooling is
not essential because any cooling
rate from temperatures below A
1
re-
sults in the same microstructure and
hardness.
STRESS RELIEVING
In the stress relief process, steel is
heated to around 595C (1105F), en-
suring that the entire part is heated
uniformly, then cooled slowly back to
room temperature. Care must be
taken to ensure uniform cooling, es-
pecially when a part has varying sec-
tion sizes. If the cooling rate is not con-
stant and uniform, new residual
stresses, equal to or greater than ex-
isting originally, can be the result.
SURFACE HARDENING
These treatments impart a hard,
wear resistant surface to parts, while
maintaining softer, tough interior.
Hardness is obtained through
quenching rapidly from above a steels
transformation temperature, and duc-
tility is obtained via tempering. The
hardened surface of the part is referred
to as the case, and its softer interior is
known as the core.
Gas carburizing is one of the most
widely used surface hardening
processes. Carbon is added to the sur-
face of low-carbon steels at tempera-
tures ranging from 850-950C (1560-
1740F). In quenching, austenite is
transformed to martensite. Other
methods of case hardening low-
carbon steels include cyaniding, fer-
ritic nitrocarburizing, and carboni-
triding.
QUENCHING
Steel parts are rapidly cooled from
the austenitizing or solution treating
temperature. Stainless and high-alloy
steels may be quenched to minimize
the presence of grain boundary car-
bides or to improve the ferrite distri-
bution, but most steels, including
carbon, low-alloy, and tool steels, are
quenched to produce controlled
amounts of martensite in the mi-
crostructure. The ability of a quen-
chant to harden steel depends upon
the cooling characteristics of the
quenching medium. Quenching ef-
fectiveness is dependent on steel com-
position, type of quenchant, or quen-
chant use conditions, as well as the
design and maintenance of a
quenching system.
QUENCHING MEDIA
Selection of a qunchant depends on
the hardenability of the steel, section
thickness and shape involved, and the
cooling rates needed to achieve the de-
sired microstructure. Typically, quen-
chants are liquids (water, oil that could
contain a variety of additives, aqueous
polymer solutions, and water that
could contain salt or caustic additives),
and gases (inert gases including he-
lium, argon, and nitrogen). Other
quenchants include fogs and fluidized
beds.
TEMPERING
In tempering, a previously hard-
ened or normalized steel is usually
heated to a temperature below the
lower critical temperature and cooled
at a suitable rate, primarily to increase
ductility and toughness, but also to in-
crease grain size of the matrix. Steels
are tempered by reheating after hard-
ening to obtain specific values of me-
chanical properties and to relieve
quenching stresses and ensure di-
mensional stability. Tempering usu-
ally follows quenching from above the
upper critical temperature. Most steels
are heated to a temperature of 205-
595C (400-1105F) and held at tem-
perature for an hour or more. Higher
temperatures increase toughness and
resistance to shock, but at the expense
of lower hardness and strength.
Martempering describes an inter-
rupted quench from the austenitizing
temperature to delay cooling just
above martensitic transformation for
a period of time to equalize the tem-
perature throughout the piece, which
minimizes distortion, cracking, and
residual stress.
Austempering isothermally trans-
forms a steel at a temperature below
that for pearlite formation and above
that of martensite formation. Steel is
heated to a temperature within the
austenitizing range; quenched in a
bath maintained at a constant tem-
perature, usually in the range of 260-
400C (500-750F); allowed to trans-
form isothermally to bainite in the
bath; then cooled to room tempera-
ture. Benefits of the process are in-
creased ductility, toughness, and
strength at a given hardness.
COLD AND CRYOGENIC
TREATMENT OF STEEL
Cold treatment can be used to en-
hance the transformation of austenite
to martensite in case hardening and
to improve the stress relief of castings
and machined parts. Practice identi-
fies -84C (-120F) as the optimum cold
treatment temperature. By compar-
ison, cryogenic treatment at a tempera-
ture of around -190C (-310F) im-
proves certain properties beyond the
capability of cold treatment.
HEAT TREATING PROCESSES
38 HEAT TREATING PROGRESS NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007
SURFACE ENGINEERING
CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFUSION TREATMENTS
Process Typical Case
temperature, case depth, hardness, Typical
Process Type of case C (F) Pm (mils) HRC base metals Process characteristics
Carburizing
Pack Diffused carbon 815-1090 125-1500 50-63(a) Low-carbon steels, Low equipment costs, difficult to
(1500-2000) (5-60) low-carbon alloy control case depth accurately
steel
Gas Diffused carbon 815-980 75-1500 50-63(a) Low-carbon steels, Good control of case depth,
(1500-1800 (3-60) low-carbon alloy suitable for continuous
steels operation, good gas controls
required, can be dangerous
Liquid Diffused carbon 815-980 50-1500 50-65(a) Low-carbon steels, Faster than pack and gas
and possibly (1500-1800) (2-60) low-carbon alloy processes, can pose salt disposal
nitrogen steels problem, salt baths require
frequent maintenance
Vacuum Diffused carbon 815-1090 75-1500 50-63(a) Low-carbon steels, Excellent process control, bright
(1500-2000) (3-60) low-carbon alloy parts, faster than gas carbur-
steels izing, high equipment costs
Nitriding
Gas Diffused nitrogen, 480-590 125-750 50-70 Alloy steels, Hardest cases from nitriding
nitrogen (900-1100) (5-30) nitriding steels, steels, quenching not required,
compounds stainless steels low distortion, process is slow, is
usually a batch process
Salt Diffused nitrogen, 510-565 2.5-750 50-70 Most ferrous Usually used for thin hard cases
nitrogen (950-1050) (0.1-30) metals including <25 mm (1 mil), no white layer,
compounds cast irons most are proprietary processes.
Ion Diffused nitrogen, 340-565 75-750 50-70 Alloy steels, Faster than gas nitriding, no
nitrogen (650-1050) (3-30) nitriding, white layer, high equipment
compounds stainless steels costs, close case control.
Carbonitriding
Gas Diffused carbon 760-870 75-0.75 50-65(a) Low-carbon steels, Lower temperature than carbur-
and nitrogen (1400-1600) (3-30) low-carbon alloy izing (less distortion), slightly
steels, stainless steel harder case than carburizing gas
control critical.
Liquid Diffused carbon 760-870 2.5-125 50-65(a) Low-carbon steels Good for thin cases on noncrit-
(cyaniding) and nitrogen (1400-1600) (0.1-5) cal parts, batch process, salt
disposal problems.
Ferritic Diffused carbon 565-675 2.5-25 40-60(a) Low-carbon steels Low-distortion process for thin
nitro- and nitrogen (1050-1250) (0.1-1) case on low-carbon steel, most
carburizing processes are proprietary
Other
Aluminizing Diffused 870-980 25-1000 <20 Low-carbon steels Diffused coating used for oxida-
(pack) aluminum (1600-1800) (1-40) tion resistance at elevated
temperatures.
Siliconizing by Diffused silicon 925-1040 25-1000 30-50 Low-carbon steels For corrosion and wear resis-
chemical vapor (1700-1900) (1-40) tance, atmosphere control is
deposition critical.
Chromizing by Diffused 980-1090 25-50 <30 Low-carbon steel, Chromized low-carbon steels
chemical vapor chromium (1800-2000) (1-2) high-carbon steel yield a low-cost stainless steel,
deposition 50-60 High- and low- high-carbon steels develop a
carbon steels hard corrosion-resistant case.
Titanium Diffused carbon 900-1010 2.5-12.5 >70(a) Alloy steels, Produces a thin carbide (TiC) case
carbide and titanium, (1650-1850) (0.1-0.5) tool steels for resistance to wear, high temp-
TiC compound erature may cause distortion.
Boriding Diffused boron, 400-1150 12.5-50 40->70 Alloy steels, Produces a hard compound
boron, compound (750-2100) (0.5-2) tool steels, cobalt layer, mostly applied over hard-
and nickel alloys ened tool steels. High process
temperature can cause distortion.
(a) Requires quench from austenitizing temperature.
HEAT TREATING PROGRESS NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007 39
Atmospheres serve a variety of func-
tions; acting as carriers for elements used
in some heat treating processes, clean-
ing surfaces of parts being treated in
other processes, and providing a pro-
tective environment to guard against
adverse effects of air when parts are ex-
posed to elevated temperatures. Prin-
cipal gases and vapors are air, oxygen,
nitrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon
monoxide, hydrogen, hydrocarbons (i.e.,
methane, propane, and butane), and
inert gases, such as argon and helium.
Air provides atmospheres in fur-
naces in which protective atmospheres
are not used. Air is also the major con-
stituent in many prepared atmos-
pheres. The composition of air is ap-
proximately 79% nitrogen and 21%
oxygen, with trace elements of carbon
dioxide. As an atmosphere, air behaves
like oxygen, the most reactive con-
stituent in air.
Oxygen reacts with most metals to
form oxides. It also reacts with carbon
dissolved in steel, lowering surface
carbon content.
Nitrogenin its molecular state is pas-
sive to ferrite and can be used as an at-
mosphere in annealing low-carbon
steels; as a protective atmosphere in
heat treating high-carbon steels, ni-
trogen must be completely dry small
amounts of water vapor in nitrogen
cause decarburization. Molecular ni-
trogen is reactive with many stainless
steels and cant be used to heat treat
them. Atomic nitrogen, which is cre-
ated at normal heat treating tempera-
tures, is not a protective gasit com-
bines with iron, forming finely divided
nitrides that reduce surface hardness.
Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide
are used in steel processing atmos-
pheres. At austenitizing temperatures,
carbon dioxide reacts with surface
carbon to produce carbon monoxide,
a reaction that continues until the
supply of carbon dioxide is exhausted
and the steel surface is free of carbon.
FURNACE ATMOSPHERES
CLASSIFICATION AND APPLICATION OF PRINCIPAL FURNACE ATMOSPHERES
Nominal composition, vol%
Class Description Common applications N
2
CO CO
2
H
2
CH
4
101 Lean exotherimc Oxide coating of steel 86.8 1.5 10.5 1.2
102 Rich exothermic Bright annealing; copper brazing; 71.5 10.5 5.0 12.5 0.5
sintering
201 Lean prepared nitrogen Neutral heating 97.1 1.7 1.2
202 Rich prepared nitrogen Annealing; brazing stainless steel 75.3 11.0 13.2 0.5
301 Lean endothermic Clean hardening 45.1 19.6 0.4 34.6 0.3
302 Rich endothermic Gas carburizing 39.8 20.7 38.7 0.8
402 Charcoal Carburizing 64.1 34.7 1.2
501 Lean exothermic- Clean hardening 63.0 17.0 20.0
endothermic
502 Rich exothermic- Gas carburizing 60.0 19.0 21.0
endothermic
601 Dissociated ammonia Brazing; sintering 25.0 75.0
621 Lean combusted Neutral heating 99.-0 1.0
ammonia
622 Rich combusted Sintering stainless powders 80.0 20.0
ammonia
Source: Heat Treaters Guide: Practices and Procedures for Irons and Steels, ASM International, 1995
ATMOSPHERE CLASSIFICATION
Protective
Reactive Neutral Inert
Application Case hardening Annealing, Hardening, Tempering, Vacuum operations
Decarb-Annealing Brazing, Sintering HIP
Components Active: CO, CO
2
, H
2
O, C
x
H
y
, H
2
, Active: CO, CO
2
, H
2
O, C
x
H
y
, H
2
, Ar/He, N
2
/He, N
2
/Ar/He
NH
3
, etc. Base: N
2
, Ar NH
3
, etc. Base: N
2
Ar, H
2
Surface changes Composition, time, temperature Composition, time, temperature NO
Other surface Not usual if controlled Not usual Possible
structural changes
Furnace type Batch, Vacuum, Continuous Vacuum, HIP Chamber, Autoclave Batch, Vacuum, Continuous
Source: The Theory and Economics of Atmosphere Selection, Meri Lazar and Rob Edwards, Heat Treating Progress, Jan. / Feb. 2005
CLASSIFICATION OF PREPARED
ATMOSPHERES
The American Gas Association is the source of the
following classifications:
Class 100, exothermic base: formed by the combustion
of a gas/air mixture; water vapor in the gas can be
removed to get the required dew point
Class 200, prepared nitrogen base: carbon dioxide and
water vapor have been removed
Class 300, endothermic base: formed by the reaction
of a fuel gas/air mixture in a heated, catalyst filler
chamber
Class 400, charcoal base: air is passed through a bed
of incandescent charcoal
Class 500, exothermic-endothermic base: formed by
the combustion of a mixture of fuel gas and air; water
vapor is removed and carbon dioxide is reformed to carbon
monoxide by reaction with fuel gas in a heated catalyst
filled chamber
Class 600, ammonia base: can consist of raw ammonia,
dissociated ammonia, or combusted dissociated ammonia
with a regulated dew point
40 HEAT TREATING PROGRESS NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007
Hydrogen reduces iron oxide to iron.
Under certain conditions, hydrogen can
decarburize steel, an effect that depends
on furnace temperature, moisture con-
tent (of gas and furnace), time at tem-
perature, and carbon content of the steel.
Water vapor is oxidizing to iron and
combines with carbon in steel to form
carbon monoxide and hydrogen. It is
reactive with steel surfaces at very low
temperatures and partial pressures. It
is also the principal cause of bluing
during cooling cycles.
Carbon hydrocarbons are methane
(CH
4
), ethane (C
2
H
6
), propane (C
3
H
8
),
and butane (C
4
H
10
). They impart a car-
burizing tendency to furnace atmos-
pheres.
Inert gases are especially useful as
protective atmospheres in the ther-
mal processing of metals and alloys
that cant tolerate the usual con-
stituents in protective reactive metals
and their alloys.
FURNACE ATMOSPHERES
Process Atmosphere Suitability
Gas
Process N
2
N
2
/NH
3
N
2
/C
x
H
y
N
2
/CH
3
OH N
2
/H
2
H
2
Ar Ar/H
2
He Endo(a) Exo(a)
Bright anneal
NonFe anneal
Decarb anneal
Alloy steel anneal
Stainless steel anneal
Neutral hard
Carburize
Nitride
Temper
Braze
Sinter
Galvanize
HIP
Vacuum
Cryo treat
(a)atmosphere generator gas (all others industrial gas). Source: The theory and Economics of Atmosphere Selection; Meri Lazar and Rob Edwards, HTP, Jan./Feb. 2005.
Reasons for Atmosphere Monitoring
Atmosphere
components Processes Common concerns/reasons for measurement
O
2
Ferrous Processes: Carburizing, carbonitriding, Control of oxidation, decarburization, and carburization
neutral hardening, normalizing, subcritical Optimizing atmosphere generator operation
annealing, stress relieving Optimizing synthetic, industrial gas-based atmospheres
Nonferrous processes: Annealing, solution Calculating dew point and carbon potential
annealing, stress relieving, vacuum annealing, Reducing discoloration
vacuum solution annealing, vacuum brazing Improve brazing properties
Dew point or H
2
O Ferrous Processes: Carburizing, carbonitriding, Control of oxidation, decarburization, and carburization
neutral hardening, normalizing, subcritical Optimizing atmosphere generator operation
annealing, stress relieving, vacuum quenching, Optimizing synthetic, industrial gas-based atmospheres
sinter hardening Calculating carbon potential indirectly
Nonferrous processes: Annealing, solution Reducing discoloration
annealing, stress relieving, vacuum annealing, Improve brazing properties
vacuum solution annealing, vacuum brazing Verify incoming inert-gas quality and integrity of gas
distribution system
CO, CO
2
, H
2
, CH
4
Ferrous Processes: Carburizing, carbonitriding, Control of oxidation, decarburization, and carburization
neutral hardening, normalizing, subcritical Optimizing atmosphere generator operation
annealing, stress relieving, vacuum quenching, Optimizing synthetic, industrial gas-based atmospheres
sinter hardening Calculating carbon potential indirectly
Nonferrous processes: Annealing, solution Indication of lubricant burn-off (in sintering and
annealing, stress relieving, vacuum annealing, aluminum annealing)
vacuum solution annealing, vacuum brazing Detect leaks in radiant tubes
Source: Atmosphere Monitoring and Control; Robert Oesterreich, Shahab Kazi, Richard Speaker, and John Buonassisi, HTP, April/May 2002.
HEAT TREATING PROGRESS NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007 41
Principles of
induction heating
The basic components of an induc-
tion heating system are an induction
coil, an alternating-current (ac) power
supply, and the workpiece itself. The
coil, which may take different shapes
depending on the required heating
pattern, is connected to the power
supply so a magnetic field is gener-
ated from the current flow. The mag-
nitude of the field depends on the
strength of the current and the
number of turns in the coil.
An induction heating system typi-
cally consists of a power supply, a
workstation, an inductor (heating) coil,
controls, and workpiece handling
units. When a steel or cast iron is being
hardened, the system may also in-
clude a quenching system, depending
on the hardenability of the particular
grade. It is common practice to include
other auxiliary equipment such as line
INDUCTION HEAT TREATING OF STEEL
42 HEAT TREATING PROGRESS NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007
Frequency Selection for Induction Hardening of Steel
Frequency, kHz
Case depth,mm (in.) Diameter,mm (in.) 1 3 10 50 450
0.38-1.27 (0.015-0.050) 6.35-25.4 (0.25-1) Good
1.29-2.54 (0.051-0.100) 11.11-15.88 (0.4375-0.625) Fair Good Good
15.88-25.4 Good Good Good
25.4-50.8 Fair Good Good Good
>50.8 Fair Good Good Good Poor
2.56-5.08 (0.101-0.200) 19.05-50.8 Fair Good Good Good
50.8-101.6 Fair Good Good Poor
>101.6 Good Good Fair Good Poor
5.08-10.0 (0.200-0.400) >8 Good
Through hardening 1.59-6.35 (0.0625-1.0) Good
6.35-12.7 (0.250-0.5) Fair Fair Good
2.7-25.4 (0.5-1.0) Fair Good Good Fair
25.4-50.8 (1.0-2.0) Fair Good Fair Poor
50.8-76.2 (2.0-3.0) Good Good Poor
76.2-152.4 (3.0-6.0) Good Poor Poor
>152.4 (>6.0) Poor Poor Poor
Good indicates most efficient frequency. Fair indicates the frequency is less efficient. Poor indicates not a good frequency for this depth. The coil power density must be kept within the recommended
ranges. Source: Richard E. Haimbaugh, Practical Induction Heat Treating, ASM International, 2001.
Power Density Required for Surface Hardening
Input
Depth of hardening(a),
W/mm
2
kW/in.
2
(e)
Frequency, kHz mm (in.) Low (b) Optimum (c) High (d) Low (b) Optimum (c) High (d)
500 0.38-1.14 (0.015-0.045) 10.9 15.5 18.6 7 10 12
1.14-2.29 (0.045-0.090) 4.7 7.8 12.4 3 5 8
10 1.52-2.29 (0.060-0.090) 12.4 15.5 24.8 8 10 16
2.29-3.05 (0.090-0.120) 7.8 15.5 23.3 5 10 15
3.05-4.06 (0.120-0.160) 7.8 15.5 21.7 5 10 14
3 2.29-3.05 (0.090-0.120) 15.5 23.3 26.35 10 15 17
3.05-4.06 (0.120-0.160) 7.8 21.7 24.8 5 14 16
4.06-5.08 (0.160-0.200) 7.8 15.5 21.7 5 10 14
1 5.08-7.11 (0.200-0.280) 7.8 15.5 18.6 5 10 12
7.11-9.14 (0.280-0.360) 7.8 15.5 18.6 5 10 12
Note: This table is based on use of proper frequency and over-all operating efficiency of equipment. Values may be used for static and progressive methods of heating. However, for some applications,
higher inputs can be used when hardening progressively. (a) For greater depth of hardening, o lower kW input is used. (b) Low kW input can be used when generator capacity is limited. The kW
values can be used to calculate ;argest part hardened (single-shot method) with a given generator. (c) For best metallurgical results. (d) for higher production when generator capacity is available.
9e) kW is read as maximum during heat cycle. Source: Richard E. Haimbaugh, Practical Induction Heat Treating, ASM International, 2001.
starters, electrical disconnects, and
equipment cooling systems as part of
the induction heating package.
The basic architecture of an induc-
tion heating system includes a work-
station (or heat station), which con-
tains load matching components such
as output transformers and capacitors,
plus high-frequency contactors, pro-
tective devices, cooling water mani-
folds, and quench valves. The prin-
cipal function of the workstation is to
provide proper electrical impedance
match between the output of the
power supply and the inductor (in-
duction heating coil) for optimum
power transfer into the heated load.
The coil is normally mounted on the
front of and close to the workstation.
Coil design is influenced by many
factors including the dimensions and
configuration of the workpiece, the
number of parts to be heated, the
temperature required, the pattern of
heat desired, and whether the work-
piece is to be heated at one time or
progressively. Applied frequency and
level of power also enter into coil de-
sign. Coil design is built on
a large store of empirical
data whose development
has sprung from theoret-
ical analyses of several
rather simple inductor
geometries. Consequently,
coil design generally is
based on experience.
Frequency is the first pa-
rameter considered for in-
duction heating. Primary
considerations in the selec-
tion of frequency are depth
of heating, efficiency, type
of heat treatment (such as
surface hardening versus
subcritical annealing), and
the size and geometry of
the part. Lower frequencies
are more suitable as the size of the part
and the case depth increase. However,
many variations are possible because
power density and heating time also
have an important influence on the
depth to which the part is heated.
Once the frequency has been se-
lected, a wide range of temperature
profiles can be produced by varying
the power density and heating time.
Selection of these two heating para-
meters depends on the inherent heat
losses of the workpiece (from either
radiation or convection losses) and the
desired heat conduction patterns of a
particular application.
INDUCTION HEAT TREATING OF STEEL
Interrelationship among heating time, surface power den-
sity, and hardened depth for various induction generator fre-
quencies.
HEAT TREATING PROGRESS NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007 43
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Phone: (800) 544 TRENT Fax: (215) 482-9389

Industrial heating and heat treating


furnaces are heated by gaseous or
liquid fuels, or by electric heating
elements.
Natural gas is the principal gaseous
fuel used in the United States. It has a
gross heating value of about 37 MJ/m
3
(1000 Btu/ft
3
). For combustion, natural
gas requires about 0.28 m
3
(10 ft
3
) of
air per cubic foot of gas.
Other fuels of this type include
liquefied petroleum gases such as
propane and butane.
COMBUSTION
44 HEAT TREATING PROGRESS NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007
Six steps to good
furnace fuel efficiency
Keeping heat treat furnace energy ef-
ficiency and productivity at peak levels
requires a comprehensive approach to
the factors affecting fuel consumption.
This approach can be summarized in
six steps:
1. Monitor burner air-gas ratios. Use
no more excess air than necessary and
no excess fuel.
2. Keep insulation and refractories in
good repair. Explore replacing old
dense refractories with lower density
insulation.
3. Dont overload the furnace.
4. Pay attention to scheduling, mini-
mize furnace idle time, and run fur-
naces as close to 100% of capacity as
possible.
5. Consider converting ambient air
combustion systems to preheated air.
6. Investigate the possibility of re-
ducing the weight of baskets, trays, and
fixtures.
Bottom
Top
Sides
Conditions:
80F Ambient temperature,
still air
100 200 300 400
Outer skin temperature, F
H
e
a
t

l
o
s
s
,

B
t
u
/
h
r

f
t
2
o
f

s
u
r
f
a
c
e
1200
900
600
200
10%
25%
50%
100%
150%
200%
300%
300%
400%
600%
1200%
1000%
800%
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
E
x
h
a
u
s
t

g
a
s

h
e
a
t

l
o
s
s
,
%

o
f

i
n
p
u
t
1000 2000 3000
Exhaust gas temperature, F
0
%
E
x
c
e
s
s
a
i
r
Fuel: Birmingham natural gas
(1002 Btu/ft
3
, 0.6 sp. gr.)
Chart for estimating furnace wall losses. Exhaust heat losses vs. exhaust gas temperatures and % excess air.
Furnace heat balance represented as a Sankey diagram.
Wall
(conduction
losses)
Opening
(radiation)
losses
Conveyor
loss
Heat storage
Exhaust
losses
Available
heat
Gross input
(purchased
energy)
Net
output
(heat to load)
Flue
gas
losses
Excess
or make up
air losses
Exhaust heat losses vs. exhaust gas temperatures, % excess air, and combustion air
temperature.
70F Air 400F Air
800F Air
600F Air
1000F Air
Fuel: Birmingham natural gas
(1002 Btu/ft
3
, 0.6 sp. gr.)
with 10% excess air
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
E
x
h
a
u
s
t

g
a
s

h
e
a
t

l
o
s
s
,
%

o
f

i
n
p
u
t

1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200
Furnace exhaust temperature, F
QUENCHING
TYPICAL COOLING RATE CURVES FOR SELECTED LIQUID MEDIA
HEAT TREATING PROGRESS NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007 45
Note: All agitated at 1,000 rpm and tested at
40C (100F) using Wolfson probe
Polymer quenching
In a number of applications, aqueous polymers provide a
quench rate (quench severity) that falls between those of water
and oil).Cooling rate can be tailored to requirements by changing
the concentration of polymer, the solution temperature, and the
degree of agitation of the bath.
Polymer quenchants are nontoxic, which makes them safer to
work with and easier to dispose of than traditional quenchants.
They also are nonflammable, improving working conditions be-
cause there is no chance of fire, smoke, and fume during
quenching. In practice, polymer quenchants are more cost effec-
tive to use. They cost less initially, have reduced drag-out, top
off mainly with water to compensate for evaporation losses, and
have low viscosity. Polymer quenchants also have a high spe-
cific heat, leading to reduced temperature rise during quenching,
higher production rates, and lower cooler-rating requirements.
Also, no cleaning is required before tempering, eliminating al-
kali or solvent degreasing. Polymer quenchants offer technical
advantages over mineral oils. Quenching speed is flexible, which
enables heat treaters to select a cooling rate that matches their
specific requirements. It also allows leaner alloy steels to be used
and results in better physical properties on some steels. Polymer
quenchants improve tolerance to water contamination, as
quenching speed is not influenced significantly compared with
quenching oils.
Organic polymers used as a basis for water-based quenching
fluids include: polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyalkylene glycol
(PAG), acrylate (ACR), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and poly-
ethyl oxazoline (PEO). Polyvinyl-alcohol-type quenchants have
been replaced by polyalkylene glycols due to their greater flexi-
bility and ease of control and maintenance. PAGs are widely used
in a variety of applications, including immersion quenching of
steel, induction hardening and spray quenching, and solution
treatment of aluminum alloys. ACR, PVP, and PEO provide more
oil-like quenching characteristics than PAGs, and are generally
used for higher hardenability steel applications.
Selection of the most appropriate quenchant depends on the hardenability of the steel, the section thickness
and shape of the part being quenched, and the cooling rates needed to produce the required microstructure.
Water quenching
Water is the quenchant of choice where a severe quench does
not result in excessive distortion and cracking. Use generally
is restricted to quenching simple, symmetrical parts made of
shallow-hardening grades of steel. Other applications: austenitic
stainless steels and other metals that have been solution treated at
high temperatures.
Cooling characteristics of water, PAG, ACR,
and oil
Oil quenching
Normal-speed oil is used where the hardenability of a steel is
high enough to provide specified mechanical properties with slow
cooling. Typical applications are highly alloyed steels and tool
steels. Medium-speed oils are typically used to quench medium-
to high-hardenability steels. High-speed oils are selected for low-
hardenability alloys, carburized and carbonitrided parts, and large-
cross-section, medium-hardenability steel parts that require very
high rates of cooling to produce maximum mechanical properties.
CONTROLS/INSTRUMENTATION
46 HEAT TREATING PROGRESS NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007
Standard thermocouples
Base metal elements: Main advantages are economy, good reliability, and reasonable accuracy. Used primarily for low to moderately
high temperatures (200 to 1250
o
C). More than 90% of all thermocouples used are in this group. Types J and K prevail.
ANSI Type and Recommended
common name
1
temperature range
2
Applications and conditions
Type E 200 to 900
o
C Can be applied in atmospheres ranging from vacuum to mildly oxidizing.
Chromel/constantan Excellent choice for cryogenic applications. Has the highest electromotive force
(emf) per degree of all the common elements. Positive thermoelement or leg:
Chromel.
Type J 0 to 760
o
C The standard selection for its recommended temperature range. Good reliability
Iron/constantan at lower temperatures. The positive leg (iron) will oxidize rapidly above 500
o
C.
Very economical. Used extensively in the plastics industry but applicable to most
processes within its operating range.
Type K 200 to 1250
o
C The industry standard for use up to the recommended maximum temperature.
Chromel/Alumel While stable in oxidizing atmospheres, it is prone to corrosion in reducing
environments. Protection tubes are always recommended. Positive leg:
Chromel.
Type N 200 to 1250
o
C Similar to Type K, but more resistant to oxidation and less subject to the large
Nicrosil/Nisil drop in emf found in the positive leg (Chromel) of Type K thermocouples
operating at approximately 500
o
C. Positive leg: Nicrosil.
Type T 200 to 350
o
C Widely used in the food processing industry. More stable than Types E or J for
Copper/constantan low-temperature applications. Has been used at a temperature as low as 269
o
C
(boiling helium). Positive leg: copper.
Ni-0.8Co/Ni-18Mo 200 to 1300
o
C Designed for operation in vacuum or hydrogen atmosphere, environments that
will degrade most other elements. Although its emf output is unique at higher
temperatures, it is nearly identical to Type K below 120
o
C. This permits the use
of Type K extension wire. Has not been assigned an ANSI Type code. Positive leg:
Ni-0.8Co.
Noble metal elements: Offer improved accuracy and stability over base metal elements. Most are manufactured from combinations
of platinum and rhodium. Commonly used in high-temperature applications up to 1700
o
C. Also applied as reference standards when
testing base metal elements. Highest cost of all thermocouples.
ANSI Type and Recommended
common name
1
temperature range
2
Applications and conditions
Type R 0 to 1450
o
C Industry standard noble metal thermocouple for high-temperature applications.
Pt/Pt-13Rh Platinum is prone to contamination if in contact with other metals. A ceramic
protection tube must be used. Very stable in an oxidizing atmosphere but will
degrade rapidly in vacuum or a reducing atmosphere. Positive leg: Pt-13Rh.
Type S 0 to 1450
o
C Applications and conditions similar to Type R. Type S was traditionally
Pt/Pt-10Rh considered the laboratory thermocouple, while Type R was considered the
industrial thermocouple. Type S is now used extensively as an industrial
sensor. Positive leg: Pt-10Rh.
Type B 870 to 1700
o
C Applications and conditions similar to Types R and S, but more stable than either
Pt-6Rh/Pt-30R at high temperatures. Very low output and high nonlinearity at low
temperatures. Generally not considered usable below 250
o
C. Positive leg:
Pt-30Rh.
Refractory metal elements: Combinations of tungsten and rhenium. Very brittle and prone to breakage. Used for very high-tempera-
ture applications up to 2315
o
C. Must be used in vacuum or a totally inert atmosphere.
ANSI Type and Recommended
common name
1
temperature range
2
Applications and conditions
Type C 0 to 2315
o
C These elements must be used in vacuum, hydrogen, or inert atmosphere.
W-5Re/W-26Re Tungsten has no oxidation resistance. Sometimes supplied with open-end
protection tubes for use with vacuum; otherwise made as a sealed assembly
purged with argon. Element must not be in contact with metal. Brittle and prone
to breakage. Generally considered a limited-life product. Positive leg: W-5Re.
1 ANSI is the American National Standards Institute. Chromel (~Ni-10Cr, UNS N06010) and Alumel (~Ni-2Mn-2Al, UNS N02016) are trade names of Hoskins Mfg. Co., Hamburg,
Mich. Nicrosil (84 Ni, 14.2 Cr, 1.4 Si) and Nisil (95 Ni, 4.4 Si, 0.15 Mg) are trade names of Driver-Harris Co., Harrison, N. J. Similar alloys having different trade names are available from other
manufacturers. Composition of constantan is ~46Ni-54Cu. 2. The recommended temperature range is that for which limits of error have been established.
Broad Base. Best Solutions. www.sglcarbon.com


r
e
g
i
s
t
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r
e
d

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r
a
d
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m
a
r
k
s

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f

S
G
L

G
r
o
u
p

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o
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n
i
e
s


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HOT SOLUTIONS
FLOWMETERS
COMMONLY USED FLOW MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS
Disassembly Sensitivity Robust
without to dirty spare
Industrial flowmeter type Style Manufacturer* unpiping fluids parts
Variable-area, including Metal tube Waukee Engineering Co. Inc. Yes Moderate Delicate
rotameters
Metal cylinder tube Meter Equipment Mfg. Inc. Yes Low Moderate
Glass or plastic tube Fisher-Porter, Brooks No Sensitive Moderate
Instrument, King Instrument
Co., Dwyer Instruments Inc.,
Key Instruments
Vane type Universal Flow Monitors Inc., No Moderate Moderate
Erdco Engineering Corp.,
Orange Research Inc.
Moving orifice Hedland, Div. Racine No Moderate Robust
Federated Inc.
Piston (with spring) Insite, by Universal Flow No Moderate Delicate
Monitors Inc.
Differential pressure/Orifice Orifice Lambda Square Inc., No Moderate Robust
Flowell Corp.
Venturi Flowell Corp., Fox Valve No Moderate Robust
Development Corp.
Turbine/Impeller Rotary impeller Roots (BNC Industrial Co. Ltd., No Sensitive Moderate
TokicoTechno Ltd., and others)
Turbine Hoffer Flow Controls Inc., No Sensitive Delicate
Sponsler Inc.,
Great Plains Industries Inc.
Thermal mass Thermal mass Sierra Instruments Inc., MKS No Sensitive Delicate
Instruments, Brooks Instrument
* Instruments also may be supplied by companies other than those listed.
Source: A Flowmeter Primer, Vytas Braziunas and Daniel Herring, Mar. / April Heat Treating Progress, 2004]
Variable-area flowmeters:
a) glass / plastic tapered tube rotameter;
(b) metal tapered-tube rotameter;
(c) slotted metal cylinder;
(d) vane type;
(e) piston meter with spring-loaded orifice
piston over a tapered plug; and
(f) tapered tube with spring.
Source: A Flowmeter Primer,
Vytas Braziunas and Daniel Herring,
Mar. / April Heat Treating Progress, 2004]
48 HEAT TREATING PROGRESS NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007
Flowmeters typically measure ei-
ther volumetric or mass flow. Volu-
metric flow measurement looks at the
flow of a given volume of the medium
over time (e.g., cubic feet per hour).
This technology uses primarily me-
chanical flow rate indication, with
electronic output normally available
as an option. Mass flow measurement
looks at the flow of a given mass over
time (e.g., pounds per hour).
General types of flowmeters are
variable area, differential pressure,
mechnical, electronic, and thermal
mass.
Variable area: Fluid flow rate is
measured as the flowing medium
passes through a tapered tube. The
position of a float, piston, or vane
placed in the flow path changes as
higher flows open a larger area to pass
the fluid, providing a direct visual
indication of flow rate.
Differential pressure: Fluid flow
rate is calculated from the pressure
loss across a pipe restriction. Pressure
drop through these devices is well un-
derstood, and a wide variety of con-
figurations areavailable. Variations of
differential pressure flow measure-
ment include the use of pitot tubes.
Mechanical: Flow is measured ei-
ther by passing isolated, known vol-
umes of a fluid (gas or liquid) through
a series of gears or chambers (positive-
displacement type), or via a spinning
turbine or rotor. Measurements using
a positive-displacement flowmeter are
obtained by counting the number of
passed isolated volumes.
Electronic: Magnetic, vortex, and
ultrasonic devices have either no
moving parts or vibrating elements
and are relatively nonintrusive.
Thermal mass: These flowmeters
are essentially immune to changes in
gas temperature and pressure. They
are used in critical flow measurement
applications because of their very ac-
curate and repeatable measurements.
Variable-area and thermal-mass
flowmeters are most often used in heat
treating and processing applications.
For most heat treating applications,
important flowmeter selection criteria
are reliability, accuracy, ruggedness,
ease of calibration, and ease of main-
tenance.
Typical
Mechanical Mechanical Electronic full-scale
flow flow reading/ flow accuracy, % Typical Pressure
Special installation requirements reading scale type reading of reading turndown drop
Vertical mounting Yes Easy/linear Available 3.5 3:1 Low
Vertical mounting Yes Easy/linear Available 12 25:1 Low
Vertical mounting Yes Easy/linear No 12 10:1 Low
No special requirements Yes Easy/linear No 25 5:1 High/average
Straight pipe upstream and Additional Complex/ Available 23 3:110:1 Low/average
downstream required instrumentation square
required root
No special requirements Yes Easy/linear No 15 5:1 Low/average
Straight pipe upstream and Additional Hard/ Available 0.52 3:110:1 High
downstream required instrumentation square
required root
Straight pipe upstream and Additional Hard/ Available 0.52 3:110:1 Average
downstream required instrumentation square
required root
No special requirements Additional Moderate/ Available 0.52 10:120:1 Average
instrumentation linear, total
required flow counter
Straight pipe upstream and Additional Moderate/ Yes 0.53 10:120:1 Average
downstream required instrumentation linear
required
Straight pipe upstream and No Not applicable Yes 12 10:1100:1 Average/high
downstream required
Flow
P2
DTube
DFloat
g
P1
Flow
(a)
Flow
P2
DTube
DFloat
g
P1
Flow
Indicator
(b)
Indicator
Slot
g
P2
Open
slot
length
Flow
P1
Flow
(c)
P1 Vane P2
Flow Flow
g
(d)
Moving orifice
P1
P2
Fspring
Flow
Flow
(e)
P1 P2
F
spring
Flow Flow
(f)
Metering cone
HEAT TREATING PROGRESS NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007 49