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CHEM 14.

1 Determination of the Molar Volume of the Gas,


the Universal Gas Constant and Charles Law
V. RESULTS
In the first experiment, hydrogen gas was
produced by the reaction of the magnesium ribbon
and hydrochloric acid upon inverting the graduated
cylinder and immersing it in the water. The
temperature, number of moles and pressure of the
gas, were also acquired. These values were used
to determine the molar volume of the gas and the
universal gas constant. The table below shows the
results obtained from the experiment.


Calculations:
Atmospheric pressure



C to K
T
1
30C+ 273.15 = 303.15 K
T
2
29C + 273.15 = 302.15 K
T
3
29C + 273.15 = 302.15 K

Corrected pressure of gas in cylinder
P
1
101.71 kPa - 4.15 kPa = 97.56 kPa
P
2
101.71 kPa 3.95 kPa = 97.76 kPa
P
3
101.71 kPa 3.95 kPa = 97.76 kPa

For the equation
Mg
(s)
+ 2HCl
(aq)
MgCl
2(aq)
+ H
2(g)
n
1



n
2



n
3



Molar Volume, V/n
Trial 1,


Trial 2,


Trial 3,


Molar volume
ave
=


Universal gas constant, R = (kPaV/nT)
R
1
= (

) (


)


R
2
= (

) (


)


R
3
= (

) (


)


R
ave
=



Atmospheric pressure 763.04 mmHg
Convert to kPa:
1 mmHg = 0.1333 kPa
101.71 kPa
Temperature of water in beaker 30C, 29C,
29C
Convert to Kelvin:
0C = 273.15 K
303.15 K,
302.15 K,
302.15 K
Vapor pressure of water measured at
indicated temperature
4.15 kPa, 3.95
kPa, 3.95 kPa
Corrected pressure of gas in cylinder
(atmospheric pressure minus vapor
pressure of water)
97.56 kPa,
97.76 kPa,
97.76 kPa
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Ave.
Volume of gas
(L)
0.0084 0.0095 0.0086 0.008
8
Mass of 20.0 cm
of Mg ribbon (g)
0.0108 0.0090 0.0095 0.009
8
Length of Mg
ribbon reacted
(cm)
1 1 1 1
Mass of Mg
ribbon reacted
(g)
0.0108 0.0090 0.0095 0.009
8
Moles of Mg
used (mol)
0.0004
4
0.0003
7
0.0003
9
0.000
4
Moles of H
2
produced (mol)
0.0004
4
0.0003
7
0.0003
9
0.000
4
Ratio of volume
of gas generated
to moles of gas
produced, V/n
19.09 25.68 22.05 22.27
Universal gas
constant
(kPaV/nT)
6.14 8.31 7.13 7.19
Table1. Results of Mg reaction with HCl
CHEM 14.1 Determination of the Molar Volume of the Gas,
the Universal Gas Constant and Charles Law
In the second experiment, the value of
absolute zero was obtained by observing the
changes in length of entrapped air column with
varying temperatures and using these observations
to graph a line extrapolated to a point where the
length of entrapped air column is zero. The table
below shows the results of the experiment.
Data
Set
Temperature Length of
air column
(arbitrary
units) C

K
1 0C 273.15 K 2.6 cm
2 19C 292.15 K 2.8 cm
3 29C 302.15 K 2.9 cm
4 40C 313.15 K 3.1 cm
5 60C 333.15 K 3.3 cm
6 80C 353.15 K 3.5 cm
Value of x-intercept when volume of gas
is zero
48.01 K
Experimental Value of Absolute Zero
(C)
-225.14 C
Actual Value of Absolute Zero -273.15 C

Fig2. Graph of length of air column (cm) vs temperature (K)

VI. DISCUSSION
The determination of the molar volume of
the gas and the universal gas constant in the first
experiment was accounted for by the formation of
hydrogen gas from the reaction of magnesium and
hydrochloric acid. It is important to remember that
safety goggles and laboratory gowns should be
worn at all time in the duration of both of the
experiments. Hydrochloric acid should be handled
with care since it is very corrosive.
For uniformity of width and thickness the
magnesium ribbons used for the three trials were
cut from the same longer magnesium ribbon. It was
necessary that the black oxide be removed from the
magnesium ribbon before determining the mass
because these may have caused an error in the
acquired value of number of moles of magnesium
used and hydrogen gas produced. Another thing
needed was to make sure that water passes
through the hole in the cork assembly to ensure that
no air is trapped inside the cylinder.
Upon inverting the cylinder and immediately
immersing it in the beaker with water, one mole of
magnesium is allowed to react with 2 moles of
hydrochloric acid, where the hydrochloric acid and
water solution is transformed to harmless
magnesium and chloride ions and hydrogen gas
given by the equation, Mg
(s)
+ 2HCl
(aq)
MgCl
2(aq)
+
H
2(g)
.
The volume of the gas produced is
assumed to be equal with the amount of solution
displaced in the graduated cylinder upon
completion of reaction or when there is no
remaining magnesium ribbon unreacted and all
bubbles are dislodged off the sides of the graduated
cylinder.
The temperature was taken near the mouth
of the cylinder where it was assumed to be the
same as the temperature of the gas. With the
temperature measured there is a corresponding
value of vapour pressure, however this did not
automatically become the pressure of the gas since
the sample is collected over water, making it
saturated with water vapour. The value of pressure
used for determining the universal gas constant
was the corrected pressure of the gas cylinder or
the atmospheric pressure subtracted by the partial
pressure of water vapour measured.
All these were done in three trials,
thoroughly rinsing the cylinder, beaker, paper clip
and cork stopper to set a uniform initial condition for
the trials. Note that when the reaction was
completed there is an excess of hydrochloric acid
which should be neutralized with sodium
bicarbonate before disposal.
The molar volume of the gas was
calculated by getting the ratio of volume of
hydrogen gas generated to the number of moles of
hydrogen gas that were produced. The results were
summarized in Table 1, showing that the calculated
average molar volume of the gas in the three trials
is 22.27

, having a 0.71 percent difference from


the theoretical molar volume of the gas at standard
temperature and pressure which is 22.43

. This
difference may have been caused by incomplete
removal of black oxide on the surface of the
y = 0.0115x - 0.5534
R = 0.9996
0
1
2
3
4
0 100 200 300 400
L
e
n
g
t
h

o
f

a
i
r

c
o
l
u
m
n

(
c
m
)

Temperature (K)
Table2. Effect of temperature on length of air column
CHEM 14.1 Determination of the Molar Volume of the Gas,
the Universal Gas Constant and Charles Law
magnesium ribbon; the stopper may have absorbed
some of the solution resulting to less production of
the gas and that the conditions during the
experiment werent that of the same conditions of
pressure and temperature to when the theoretical
value was determined.
For the derivation of the universal gas
constant, the formula for the Ideal Gas equation of
state was used. This formula was obtained from the
ratio of the quantity of pressure and volume of gas
produced to the quantity of the number of moles
and temperature of the gas. As seen in Table 1, the
average calculated value of the universal gas
constant is 7.19

or 0.07096

, with a 13.53
percent difference from the theoretical value of
0.08206

. The discrepancy may have been


caused by the inaccurate reading along the
markings of the ruler or of the same reasons
mentioned in the preceding paragraph.
Moving on to the second experiment, the
value of absolute zero was determined through the
application of Charles law.
The oil drop placed in the sealed capillary
tube served as the marker of as to where the length
of air column was measured. It was observed that
as the temperature increased the oil drop moved
farther from the sealed end of the tube that was
immersed in different temperature along with the
thermometer to which it was attached to. This
movement meant that the volume of the gas was
expanding along with the increase of temperature.
The length of air column entrapped was set as the
value of the volume of the gas at the indicated
temperatures
By extrapolating a point from the set of
values we were able to get the measurement of the
temperature at absolute zero. As stated in Charles
law, at constant pressure, volume is directly
proportional to the absolute temperature; this only
meant that we must extrapolate the point where the
volume of the air is zero to get the absolute zero.
The calculated absolute zero was 48.01 K or -
225.14C, having a 17.57 percent difference from
the theoretical value of 0K or -273.15K, a
discrepancy that may have been caused by existing
differences from ideal gases and real gases. This
difference being that ideal gases neglect the actual
volume of real gas molecules. The absolute zero
was taken at the condition that the volume of the
gas is zero but being that real gases can never
obtain zero volume the condition set for the
theoretical value was automatically from the start of
the experiment.
VII. GUIDE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Part 1
1. Which calculation in the preceding section
represents the molar volume of the gas?
Explain.
The ratio of volume of gas generated to the
moles of gas produced represents the molar
volume of the gas since by definition the molar
volume is the volume which one mole of a gas at a
certain temperature occupies.
2. Based on this experiment, and allowing for
variations in pressure and temperature from
one trial to the next, does molar volume appear
to be constant?
The molar volume in the trials didnt appear to
be constant. Molar volume of an ideal gas depends
on temperature and pressure, because of these
varying factors the calculated values for the molar
volume also varied.

3. Use your accepted value of R to determine the
volume that 1 mole of hydrogen gas would
occupy at 0C and 101.3 kPa. This is the molar
volume of hydrogen at STP.









4. The accepted value for the molar volume of
hydrogen at standard temperature and pressure
(STP) is 22.43 L/mol. Calculate the percentage
error to your answer to Question 3.

|

|
5. Cite possible sources of experimental error in
this experiment. Remember that incorrect
calculations, misuse of equipment and poor
technique are not experimental errors, hence
should not be included here. Among other
things consider the way by which you
determined the mass of magnesium.
The possible sources of error were that the
black oxides, on the surfaces of the magnesium
ribbons weighed, were not completely removed.
This could have compromised the ideal result
CHEM 14.1 Determination of the Molar Volume of the Gas,
the Universal Gas Constant and Charles Law
because of the considerable mass of the covering.
With regards to the measured value of hydrogen
gas produced there could also have been an error
with the condition that the cork stopper couldve
absorbed some of the acid and water solution

6. What happened to the product of the reaction?
A product of the reaction, the hydrogen gas,
remained in its gaseous state and behaved like a
normal gas. Opening the cork stopper enables the
gas to diffuse into the atmosphere.
Part 2
1. How is the length of entrapped air column
affected by temperature? How would you
explain your observations in terms of the
Kinetic Molecular Theory?
Through the experiment it was observed that
as the temperature increases the length of
entrapped air column increases. The absolute
temperature of a gas is the measure of the average
kinetic energy of molecules. This can only mean
that the rate of molecular motion is greater at higher
temperatures. At greater velocity, particles exert
greater force and experience greater collisions thus
making the volume expand, which in this case is
responsible for the change in the length of air
column entrapped.

2. What are the possible reasons for the
difference between the experimental value and
actual value of absolute zero?
The Charles law predicts how an ideal gas
behaves provided that the pressure on the gas
remains constant. The absolute zero value of an
ideal gas was taken in which the volume of the gas
was zero. In the experiment however, the
solidification and liquefaction of the real gas
occurred therefore causing it to be non-applicable
for Charles Law since it is no longer in its gaseous
state. Also a real gas can never have a volume of
zero contrary to the neglected volumes of ideal
gases.
VIII. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Hydrogen gas was a product of the reaction
of magnesium and hydrochloric acid in the first
experiment. This formation enabled us to point out
that at varying pressure and temperature, the molar
volume of the gas also varies, accounting for the
varied value of molar volume, 22.27

. Only when
it is at standard pressure (1 atm) and standard
temperature (273 K) will it have the theoretical
value of 22.43

. On the other hand, Charles law


states that at constant pressure, the volume of a
gas is directly proportional to the absolute
temperature. Therefore as temperature increases,
the volume of the gas increases. In the second
experiment, this relationship was observed but only
when the volume of the gas is actually zero, which
will never happen to real gases, will we be able to
get the theoretical value of absolute zero.
The setting and conditions for temperature
and pressure during the experiment should be
maintained close to the conditions set in getting the
theoretical values to be able to generate results that
have less percentages of difference. The
concentration of hydrochloric acid indicated should
also be made sure to be pure and the magnesium
ribbons should be thoroughly sanded.