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Assessment of Axial and Flexural behaviour


of RC members at elevated temperature

A DISSERTATION
submitted in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the award of the degree
Of
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
in
CIVIL ENGINEERING
(with specialization in Structural Engineering)
By
MUSTESIN ALI KHAN
(13517009)

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE
ROORKEE 247 667, Uttarakhand, INDIA
AUGUST,2014
ii







- 0 -

Contents
List of figures .................................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
List of Tables .................................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... - 2 -
Objective:- Briefly explain the problem statement, its significance and .... - 2 -
1.1 Introduction: .................................................................................................................. - 0 -
1.2 Fire Resistance assessment: ........................................................................................... - 1 -
1.3 IS CODE PROVISIONS FOR FIRE RESISTANCE: ....................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 1.1:- List of various IS codes related to fire safety of buildings (General)Error! Bookmark not defined.
Objective:- Explain the variation of material .............................................. - 3 -
properties with temperature. .......................................................................... - 3 -
Different fire models were given by researchers to simulate the real fire scenario. .............. - 0 -
2.1 Concrete Compressive Strength:.................................................................................... - 2 -
Fire-induced strains: ................................................................................................................ - 4 -
Transient Strain: ....................................................................................................................... - 4 -
Concrete compressive stressstrain relationship: ................................................................... - 6 -
The model proposed by Youssef and Moftah [1] is adopted by most researchers. The
model includes simplified representation of transient creep strains. The relationship
between the compressive stress, f
cT
, and the corresponding compressive strain,
cT
, is
given by .................................................................................................................................... - 6 -
where Z is the slope of the descending branch of the concrete stressstrain relationship
and is given by .......................................................................................................................... - 6 -
Steel at Elevated Temperatures ............................................................................................... - 6 -
2.3.1 Youssef and Moftah (2007): ......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.3.2 Hertz model (2004) ...................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
HEAT TRANSFER ..................................................................................... - 0 -
Objective:- Explain the heat transfer Process and shows ............................ - 0 -
temperature profile across the depth of section. ............................................ - 0 -
Uncoupled Heat Transfer Analysis ........................................................................................... - 0 -
4.1 Thermal properties ......................................................................................................... - 0 -
Thermal analysis: ..................................................................................................................... - 1 -
STRESS ANALYSIS ................................................................................... - 6 -
Objective:- explain the problem statement, its significance and ................ - 6 -
- 1 -

References ......................................................................................................... 19


















- 2 -

1
INTRODUCTION


Objective:- Briefly explain the problem statement, its significance and
scope of the work carried out.
- 0 -


1.1 Introduction:
Reinforced concrete (RC) structural systems are quite frequently used in high-rise
buildings and other built infrastructures due to the number of advantages they provide
over other constituent materials. One of the advantages of concrete over other building
materials is its inherent fire-resistive properties. However, concrete structures must still
be designed for fire effects. When used in buildings, the provision of appropriate fire
safety measures for structural members is an important aspect of design since fire
represents one of the most severe environmental conditions to which structures may be
subjected in their Lifetime. The basis for this requirement can be attributed to the fact
that, when other measures for containing the fire fail, structural integrity is the last line of
defence.
Structural components still must be able to withstand dead and live loads without
collapse even though the rise in temperature causes a decrease in the strength and
modulus of elasticity for concrete and steel reinforcement. In addition, fully developed
fires cause expansion of structural components and the resulting stresses and strains must
be resisted. In the design of structures, building code requirements for fire resistance are
sometimes overlooked and this may lead to costly mistakes. For sound and safe design,
fire considerations must, be a part of the preliminary design stage.

Many experimental tests have been performed to improve the knowledge of fire actions
and the behaviour of structures under fire. These experiments are performed in special
furnaces in which the surrounding air temperature follows the fire temperature curve
described by the standards, such as the ISO 834 or ASTM Standard E119. In recent years,
many researchers have intended to develop a model also to predict fire resistance of
concrete structures.
Numerical modelling of behaviour of structures subjected to fire is currently one of
topical subjects of vital importance on the global level. The development of simple and
efficient numerical models, especially those that have been confirmed through
experimental study, is the basis for better understanding of fire as a stochastic process,
- 1 -

and for further development of construction standards with requirements for better and
safer structures.
First scientific studies on the effect of fire on man-made structures were conducted
already in 1960s. Since then, development of computers has spurred astonishing advances
in all fields of engineering, and hence also fast evolution of mathematical/numerical
models for the description of fire action on structures.
Nowadays, the mechanical behaviour of concrete structures in fire can also be simulated
by many finite element software tools such as ABAQUS and ANSYS considering the
effect of temperature.
1.2 Fire Resistance assessment:
Currently, the fire resistance of RC members is assessed mostly through standard fire
resistance tests. The standard fire resistance tests though serve as useful benchmark for
comparing fire resistance ratings of different structural elements but have a number of
drawbacks. These drawbacks, which arise from the use of standard fire exposure are
unrealistic support conditions, fire scenario and limited failure criteria, do not lead to a
realistic assessment of fire resistance of structural systems. Further, fire resistance tests
are very expensive and time consuming. In spite of these drawbacks, data from the
standard fire tests form the basis for current fire resistance provisions in most codes and
standards [1,2].
An alternative to standard fire resistance tests for evaluating the fire resistance of
structural members is the use of calculation methods. Limited numbers of calculation
methods are available for tracing the response of structural elements under fire
conditions. Such calculation methods can be found in codes and standards [2, 3]. The
available calculation methods are mostly based on sectional analysis approaches and are
validated against standard fire conditions. Detailed fire response of structural members
can be assessed through the use of microscopic finite element based computers models
such as ANSYS, ABAQUS and SAFIR. While ANSYS and ABAQUS are general
purpose commercially available microscopic finite element models which can be used for
predicting the fire response of RC members, SAFIR is a special purpose microscopic
finite element model specifically developed for tracing the fire response of structural
members [8]. A review of the literature also shows that there have been few numerical
studies on fire behavior of RC beams.
- 2 -

























2
- 3 -

Effect of elevated temperature
on material properties

Objective:- Explain the variation of material
properties with temperature.
- 0 -


Fire Models:
Different fire models were given by researchers to simulate the real fire scenario.
Fire Temperature:
The fire temperatures is calculated by assuming that four sides of the beam-column are
exposed to the heat of a fire, whose temperature follows that of the standard fire exposure
such as ASTM E119 [10] or any other design fire scenario [16]. The timetemperature
relationship for the ASTM E119 standard fire can be approximated by the following
equation :

t e T
t
f
41 . 170 ] 1 [ 750 20
) 79553 . 3 (




Fig. 3.7:- Time temperature curve for ASTM E119 fire scenario

Where t
h
, time (h); T
0
, initial temperature (C); and T
f
, fire temperature (C). For design
fires, the timetemperature relationship specified in the SFPE [16]. Also, to simulate
hydrocarbon fire scenarios, the timetemperature relationship specified in ASTM E1529
[17].

ISO 834 : It is the basis of most fire resistance tests and is defined according to
thefollowing equation:

0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
TIME (min)
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E

(
d
e
g

C
)
- 1 -


T
f
= 345 log10 (8t+1) + T
o

Where t is the time (minutes) and T
o
is the ambient temperature (C).

Hydrocarbon Fire Curve Where a structural member is engulfed in flames from a
large pool fire, the hydrocarbon fire curve according to EC1 (EC1-03) should be used.
The hydrocarbon fire curve is defined as follows:

T = 1080 (1 0.325 e
0.167

t
0.675

e2.5

t
) + 20
Where t is the time (minutes).

EFFECT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ON CONCRETE
At elevated temperatures due to thermal gradients, significant thermal stresses are
induced into concrete. These stresses may reduce the capacity of concrete. Experimental
results at steady state cannot be used to predict the behaviour during transient conditions.
Concrete is a heterogeneous material with variation in material types. The thermal
properties of concrete and the dimensions of concrete structural elements lead to the
development of high temperature gradients, which may or may not influence the ultimate
load bearing capacity, and it is necessary in many cases to carry out a stress analysis in
more or less detail. A realistic model of concrete in compression is also more complicated
due to the influence of the stress history on its behaviour, which must be taken into
account.

When an ordinary not-fireproof concrete is heated, free water evaporates, and above
approximately 150C, chemically bound water is released from the hydrated calcium
silicate. This process has a local peak at 270C. The dehydration of the matrix and the
thermal expansion of the aggregate give rise to internal stresses, and from 300C micro-
cracks will pierce through the material .The compressive and the tensile strength, the
thermal conductivity and the modulus of elasticity are reduced and an unloaded specimen
will be subject to an irreversible expansion. Concrete heated to less than 300C can
recover after a fire by absorbing moisture from the air, but when the micro-cracks are
- 2 -

formed the strength loss is permanent, concrete heated at more than 3008C should be
removed when repair work is done.

2.1 Concrete Compressive Strength:

A number of models exist in the literature that estimates the compressive strength of
concrete at elevated temperature, f
cT
. These models are based on the experimental results
of compressive strength tests done on concrete specimens heated to pre-specified
temperatures.
If the concrete is loaded in compression, the compressive stresses in the matrix should
first be unloaded before tensile stresses can be established and micro cracks formed when
the aggregates expand .Since because of compressive load the micro-cracking is reduced
and the drop of the compressive strength in a hot condition and after a fire is also
reduced. The concrete can be up to 25% stronger than an unloaded fire-exposed concrete
if compressive stresses of 25 to 30% of the original strength are applied.


Model proposed by Compressive strength at elevated temperatures
Hertz (2005)



Where : T
1
= 15,000, T
2
= 800, T
8
= 570, and T
64
= 100,000.
where T is the temperature in degrees Celsius and f'c is the concrete
compressive strength at ambient temperature.

Kodur et.al (2004)

[ ( )]

[ ]


}
- 3 -

Lie et al. (1986)

( )

( )


Euro code (2004)

( )

( )





0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

Temperature
Comparison of Compressive Strength predicted by various models
Lie
Lie an Lin
ASCE
Lie and Irwin
Eurocode
Li and Purkiss
Hertz (Siliceous)
Aslani and Bastami
- 4 -

Fire-induced strains:
The total concrete strain at elevated temperatures (
tot
) is composed of three terms:
instantaneous stress related strain (
fT
), unrestrained thermal strain (
th
), and transient
creep strain (
tr
). The value of
fT
at the peak stress (
oT
) defines the stress-strain
relationship during the heating stage and can be predicted using the model proposed
by Terro [ ]. For a load level (
L
) greater than 0.2, the effect of elevated temperatures
on
oT
can be neglected.
Transient Strain:

This transient strain is essentially due to thermally induced incompatibilities between the
aggregate and the cementmortar matrix. It should be noted that these transient strains are
only exhibited on the first heating cycle, but not the first cooling cycle. Any subsequent
heating and cooling cycle does not exhibit such strains. It should also be noted that these
transient strains can only be determined from measurements of the total strain, free
thermal strain and elastic strains. These transient strains were first identified by
Anderberg and Thelandersson (1976).

These strain components can be highlighted by comparing two experiments (see Figure
1). In the first one, called steady-state test, the concrete specimen is first heated uniformly
to a predefined temperature and then loaded while the temperature is kept constant. The
strain that appears at the end of the heating process is only composed of free thermal
strain, whereas the strain at the end of the experiment is the sum of free thermal strain and
instantaneous stress-related strain.
- 5 -


In the second experiment, called transient test, the specimen is first loaded up to a given
load and then heated while the load is kept constant. The strains at the end of the latter
and the former experiment are different even though the final stress and temperature
states are the same. The difference in final strain is denoted as the transient creep strain.

tr
is induced during the first heating cycle of loaded concrete and is considered the
largest component of the total strain. Due to the nature of experimental tests,
tr
accounts
for both the transient and creep components [1,18]. Its value can be estimated using
Terros model [16]:


where V
a
is the volume of aggregates,
0.3
is the transient creep strain for initial axial
stress of 0.3f'
c
, and is given by


- 6 -

Concrete compressive stressstrain relationship:
The model proposed by Youssef and Moftah [1] is adopted by most researchers. The
model includes simplified representation of transient creep strains. The relationship
between the compressive stress, f
cT
, and the corresponding compressive strain,
cT
, is
given by

Youssef and Moftah (2007)

[ (

) (

[ (

)]



where Z is the slope of the descending branch of the concrete stressstrain relationship
and is given by
Steel at Elevated Temperatures
Concrete is widely used material for construction, throughout the world, but it being
relatively very weak in tension with respect to its compressive strength it has to be
reinforced. Of all the materials, steel by its inherent properties is the most apt metal for
reinforcing concrete. Thus making the composite made up of concrete and steel a
regular choice for construction.
Since the strength and behaviour of reinforced concrete depends upon steel, it is
essential to get a good understanding of the behaviour of steel. The existing literature
on the behaviour of reinforcing steel at elevated temperatures is pretty much limited,
compared to that of available on structural steel.

- 7 -

Reinforcing steel tensile stressstrain relationship:
Lies model [5] is used to predict the reduced yield strength of reinforcing bars f
yT
(Eq. (9))and
the stressstrain (f
sT
-
sT
) relationship (Eq.(10)).The effect of creep of steel bars is found to
have a minor effect on the behaviour of RC sections during fire exposure [4]
- 0 -













3
HEAT TRANSFER


Objective:- Explain the heat transfer Process and shows
temperature profile across the depth of section.
- 0 -

Uncoupled Heat Transfer Analysis
Uncoupled heat transfer analysis i.e. the temperature propagation is independent of the
strains in the elements.
4.1 Thermal properties
The temperature dependent thermal properties of concrete and reinforcing steel are
crucial for estimating the fire response of RC structure.
These properties include:
a) Thermal conductivity;
b) Specific heat.
Thermal properties dictate the heat transfer distribution across the section. More over the
distribution is very sensitive to many physical factors like aggregate type, moisture
content, rate of heating and more. In case of analytical studies the temperature
distribution is quite sensitive to mesh-density

Analysis Steps of RC Beams under Fire Loading:
It can be concluded that thermal analysis of a reinforced concrete section can be divided
In to three main steps;
1. The heat transfer model is applied and the heat gradient through the cross section is
predicted. The average temperatures for each layer are then obtained.

2. The equivalent uniform thermal strain

is then calculated by equilibrating the forces


in the concrete and steel layers resulting from the actual thermal strain distribution. The
difference between the actual and uniform strain distributions represents the induced
strains
th
in concrete and steel layers to satisfy the section geometry. These strains are
considered as initial strains in the following step.

3. Thermal stress analysis with the help of Sectional analysis approach is conducted to
construct the axial load-axial strain and moment-curvature diagrams.

- 1 -

Thermal analysis:
The amount of the heat transferred through the concrete mass is governed by its thermal
conductivity (k
c
) and specific heat capacity (C
c
). For normal strength concrete, models
representing k
c
and C
c
are reported by Lie [5].




The studied concrete section is divided in to a number of 451 mesh elements as shown in
Fig. 1b. The temperature at the centre of each element represents the temperature of the
entire element. The location of any element inside the mesh can be determined from its
coordinates and the mesh width () (Fig. 1c).

- 2 -

The governing equation for transient heat conduction in an isotropic material is given as:


Where k, thermal conductivity; c, heat capacity; T, temperature; t, time; and Q, heat
source.
The boundary conditions for the heat transfer analysis can be expressed as:


Galerkin finite element formulation is applied to solve Eq. (2). The incremental
temperature increase at the surface of the column is determined at each time step based
on the relationship between the fire temperature and its duration. Part of the heat energy
conveyed to the boundary elements is used to increase their temperatures while the
remaining energy is transferred to the inner elements. The effect of the moisture content
is included based on the fact that water evaporates at a temperature of 100 C [5]. Fig. 2
shows a flowchart for the developed heat transfer model.

Average layer temperature:
The methodology proposed by El-Fitiany and Youssef is adopted. The square mesh
elements are grouped into horizontal fibers to simplify the use of sectional analysis.
Therefore, an equivalent temperature Ti has to be assigned for each fiber to allow
estimating the concrete compressive strength, its modulus of elasticity, transient creep
and thermal strains. To accurately predict the behaviour using sectional analysis, El-
Fitiany and Youssef suggested the use of two different Tis, one for estimating stresses
and the other for strain values. It is clear from Eq. (1) that the tangential modulus of
elasticity is the most important factor, thus it is proposed to estimate the first average
layer temperature such that it produces the average modulus of elasticity for the square
elements within the layer. At elevated temperatures, initial modulus of elasticity of loaded
concrete is proportional to its reduced compressive strength. Therefore, the first average
temperature distribution for each fiber is based on the average strength of the square mesh
elements, Fig. 2-2d, composing this layer. The second average temperature distribution is
used to estimate the thermal and transient creep strains. Eqs. (4) and (5) show that they
- 3 -

are proportional to the fire temperature and, this second temperature is equal to the
algebraic average of the square mesh elements composing this layer. Fig. 2-4 shows the
two distributions for the analyzed beam B1 after one hour of ASTM-E119 standard fire
exposure. The temperature of steel bars can be assumed to be the same as the temperature
of the square mesh element within which they are located1.




- 4 -


- 5 -

the relationship between the temperatures at points A, B, and C of the RC section and the
fire duration predicted using the developed code is in good agreement with the
experimental results provided by Lie et al. [8]. Fig. 4a shows the temperature contours for
the studied column after 1 h of ASTM-E119 fire exposure.






























- 6 -

4
STRESS ANALYSIS


Objective:- explain the problem statement, its significance and
scope of the work carried out.
7

General:
The analysis of thermal stress in concrete structures in general is done in three phases as explained
in previous chapters. After completing the first step, conducting a time dependent heat transfer
analysis, in which temperature distributions at various stages are calculated we move to the second
step i.e. carrying out stress analysis using the thermal gradients obtained in first step.


Sectional Analysis:
At ambient temperature, RC sections are analyzed using the well-known sectional analysis
approach. For cases of single curvature, i. e .bending about horizontal axis, the concrete
section is divided into horizontal discrete fibres as shown in Fig. 5. Utilizing the uniaxial
stressstrain relationship for each fibre and taking in to account equilibrium and kinematics,
the mechanical behaviour of the section is analyzed. To simplify the analysis, two variables
can be assumed; incremental centroidal axial strain, Dec, and incremental curvature, Dc.
Assuming a linear strain distribution, the incremental moment and axial force are obtained
using



where E
i
is the modulus of elasticity of layer i, Ai is the area of layer i, and y
i
is the distance
between the centre of area of layer i and centre of area of the cross-section.
Applying sectional analysis to RC sections during exposure to elevated temperatures involves
a number of challenges. The described sectional analysis is based on dividing the cross-
section into horizontal layers that have uniform properties. The temperature distribution
within the cross-section width results in non-uniform properties.
The second challenge results from the non-uniform thermal expansion within the cross-
section depth. If the cross-section is free to expand, the total strain must be linear to satisfy
the principle of plane sections which is still valid at elevated temperatures. The effective
strain is thus non-uniform and the previously assumed linear distribution (Eq. (1)), is no
8

longer valid. Dwaikat and Kodur [14] used a two-dimensional fibre model to analyze RC
beams during fire exposure.




Thermal and effective strain Calculation:

Fig. 7a shows the expected linear distribution of total strains (
tot
) due to an eccentric
compression load P. This linear shape is based on the fact that plane sections remain plane
after loading, which is still valid at elevated temperatures. Knowing the average temperature
for each layer, concrete and steel thermal strains (
th
) can be evaluated. The distribution
along the height of the average eth for a square cross-section exposed to fire from its four
sides is shown in Fig. 7a. For unrestrained concrete sections, the effective strain (
cT
) can be
calculated by subtracting concrete and steel thermal strains from the total strain. Then on
linear distribution of thermal strains results in a nonlinear effective strain distribution (Fig.
7a). As Eq.(1)is only applicable for linear strain distributions, the following sub-sections
present a methodology to conduct sectional analysis for the nonlinear varying effective strain
distribution.





9

Isolation of thermal strain component:
Nonlinear thermal strains can be approximated to an equivalent linear distribution. For the
case of a square cross-section exposed to fire at its four sides, the thermal strain is expected to
be symmetric as shown in Fig. 5. The value of (

) is evaluated such that the axial forces in


concrete and steel layers resulting from the difference between the actual thermal strain
distribution and (

) are in self-equilibrium. An iterative procedure is used to calculate the


value of (

) such that the compressive force in concrete, C


th
, is equal to the tensile force in
the reinforcing steel bars, T
th
. Concrete tensile strength is neglected.




10


11


Axial loadaxial strain relationship:
Fig. 11a shows the axial loadaxial strain curves for the studied column prior to being
exposed to fire and after 1 h of exposure to standard ASTM-E119 fire. It is clear that fire
temperature reduced the compressive strength of the column by about 20% and increased
strain values. Point A on the curve represents the expansion of the column under no external
loads. The strain corresponding to this point represents the equivalent linear thermal strain
(

). At point B, the stiffness of the section increases due to the elimination of the residual
tensile stresses affecting the middle part of the concrete section. The compressive load at
which the total strain is equal to zero is corresponding to point C. The axial capacity of the
column is defined by point D.









12



13

Momentcurvature diagrams:
Momentcurvature curves represent the flexural behaviour of RC section under specified
axial load level (=f
c
/f'
c
). Fig. 11b shows the effect of axial load level on the studied section
prior and after 1h standard ASTM-E119 fire exposure. At elevated temperatures, affects the
results in a similar manner to that observed at ambient temperature. Lowering from 1.0
(concentric load) to 0.4(balance point) results in higher ductility accompanied with increase
in the flexural capacity. Further reduction in the value of decreases the flexural capacity and
increases the ductility.











14


15




Validation:

The proposed results has been validated for RC columns by comparing predictions from the
model with measured data from fire tests.

Load capacity validation:
The described sectional analysis methodology is applied to the column studied in the
previous sections [12] and the axial loadaxial strain relationships are constructed at different
fire durations. The peak points of these curves represent the axial capacity of the studied
column during fire exposure. Fig. 12 shows good matching between the predictions of the
proposed model, the experimental work, and the analytical work by Lie et al. [8].

16





Axial deformations:

The column studied in the previous sections was fire tested while having an axial load of 800
and 1067 kN. The prescribed sectional analysis method is applied on the column cross-
section and axial loadaxial strain diagrams are constructed at specified fire durations. At any
time during fire exposure, the axial deformation of the column is calculated by multiplying
the axial strain corresponding to the applied axial load by the length of the column exposed to
the fire. Figs. 13a and b show the axial deformation (u*)time curves for the two columns.
The initial expansion is due to the expansion of the concrete and steel materials. The
subsequent gradual contraction happens when the material strength decreases significantly
and the load effect becomes more pronounced. The predicted values have acceptable
matching when compared with the experimental results by Lie et al. [12] and FEM analytical
studies [4].


17






Lateral Deflection:

Bratina et al. [4] analyzed a 4m column subjected to a load of 930 kN at an eccentricity of
40mm and exposed to Eurocode1 standard fire [21] using FEM. The same column is
analyzed using the proposed sectional analysis methodology. The moment curvature
diagrams are constructed at different fire durations. The lateral deflection w* at each time
step was estimated using the moment-area method for the estimated curvature distribution
along the column height. Failure criteria proposed by BS476 and adopted by Kodur and
18

Dwaikat [22] are used .These criteria are setting limits for the maximum allowable deflection
and maximum rate of deflection, respectively:


where L is the span between the supports (mm) and d is the effective depth of the
beam(mm).

Conclusions:

1. The mathematical studies are capable of predicting the fire resistance of rectangular
reinforced concrete columns with an accuracy that is adequate for practical purposes.

2. Using the models, the fire resistance of square and rectangular reinforced concrete
columns can be evaluated for any value of the significant parameters, such as load,
column section size, column length, concrete strength, and percentage of reinforcing
steel and concrete cover to the steel, without the necessity of testing.

3. A review of predicted temperatures in concrete at various depths indicated that the
model predictions follow the expected trend with lower temperatures at larger depths
from fire exposed surface.

4. The temperature at various depths of concrete, as well as in rebars, increases with fire
exposure time. As expected, the predicted temperature decreases with increasing
distance from the fire exposed side.

5. The figure clearly shows that the moment capacity of the beam decreases with
increasing time of fire exposure .This is due to the deterioration in the material
strength and stiffness as a result of increased temperatures in concrete and steel. The
figure also shows that ultimate curvature (curvature at collapse) increases with time of
fire exposure. This is also due to degradation of the material strength and stiffness.
19


References
[1] Anderberg, Y., and Thelandersson [2], S., 1976, Stress and Deformation
Characteristics of Concrete at High Temperatures: 2. Experimental Investigation and
Material Behavior Model, Bulletin 54, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 85
pp.
[2] Bastami, M. and Aslani, F. Preloaded high-temperature constitutive models and
relationships for concrete, Scientia Iranica, 17(1), pp. 1125 (2010).
[3] BS EN 1992-1-2, 2004, Eurocode 2. Design of Concrete Structures.Part 1.2: General
RulesStructural Fire Design, Commission of European Communities, Brussels,
Belgium, 100 pp.
[4] El-Fitiany, S.F. ; Youssef, M.A., 2009 , Fire Safety Journal, V.44, pp. 691703
[5] El-Fitiany, S.F., Simplified Tool For Performance-Based Design of reinforced
concrete frames exposed to fire,
[6] Gernay, T., 2012, Effect of Transient Creep Strain Model on the Behaviour of
Concrete Columns Subjected to Heating and Cooling, Fire Technology, V.48, pp.313329.
[1] Hertz, K. D., 2005, Concrete Strength for Fire Safety Design, Magazine of Concrete
Research, V. 57, No. 8, pp. 445-453.
[2] Kodur, V. K. R.; Dwaikat, M. M. S.; and Dwaikat, M. B., 2007, A numerical model
for predicting the fire resistance of reinforced concrete beams, Cement & Concrete
Composites, V.30, pp. 431443.
[3] Kodur, V. K. R.; Wang, T. C.; and Cheng, F. P., 2004, Predicting the Fire Resistance
Behavior of High Strength Concrete Columns, Cement and Concrete Composites, V. 26,
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model for tracing the fire response of reinforced concrete structures, Engineering
Structures, V. 31, pp. 2368-2379
[1] Li, L., and Purkiss, J. A., 2005, Stress-Strain Constitutive Equations of Concrete
Material at Elevated Temperatures, Fire Safety Journal, V. 40, pp. 669-686.
[2] Lie, T. T., 1992, Structural Fire Protection, American Society of Civil Engineers
(ASCE) Practice Manual, No. 78, New York, 241 pp.
20

[3] Lie, T. T., and Lin, T. D., 1985, Fire Performance of Reinforced Concrete Columns,
STP 882, Fire Safety: Science and Engineering, ASTM International, West Conshohocken,
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